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  1. Pap and HPV Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... HPV test that detects the group of high-risk HPV types, the doctor will usually have her return in a year for repeat screening to see ... may recommend colposcopy or might have the woman return in a year for repeat ... test that detects any high-risk HPV type, the doctor will usually have the ...

  2. Pap Tests and Foreign-Born Women

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2007-11-26

    Foreign-born women living in the U.S. are less likely to have Pap tests to detect cervical cancer than women born in this country. The problem is worse for women from certain countries or regions. Find out why this is a disturbing trend, who these women are and why they are less likely to get a Pap test, and what CDC is doing about it.  Created: 11/26/2007 by National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program.   Date Released: 12/7/2007.

  3. Access to Adequate Healthcare for Hmong Women: A Patient Navigation Program to Increase Pap Test Screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moon S. Chen, Jr

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the development and implementation of a Hmong Cervical Cancer Intervention Program utilizing a patient navigation model to raise cervical cancer awareness for Hmong women through educational workshops and to assist Hmong women in obtaining a Pap test. Out of 402 women who participated in a baseline survey, the Patient Navigation Program was able to enroll 109 participants who had not had a Pap test in the past 3 years and had never had a Pap test. Through utilization of outreach, an awareness campaign and patient navigation support, at least 38 percent of 109 participants obtained a Pap test. Overall, 21 workshops and 43 outreach activities were conducted by the Hmong Women’s Heritage Association, leading to 63 percent of those enrolled in the Patient Navigation Program who could be contacted to obtain a Pap test.

  4. Does knowledge influence pap test screening among young African-American women?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bynum, Shalanda A; Guillaume, Daphnee A; Brandt, Heather M; Fletcher, Faith E

    2014-09-01

    Pap test screening among African-American women has substantially increased. However, African-American women continue to bear the burden of cervical cancer as compared to White women. The objective of this study was to assess the influence of Pap test knowledge on cervical screening history among young African-American women. Between January and April 2009, 320 women from historically black colleges and universities located in the southeastern United States who met study inclusion criteria completed an anonymous self-report questionnaire to assess their awareness, knowledge, and behaviors related to human papillomavirus and cervical cancer prevention and control. Seventy-six percent of women reported ever having a Pap test, 54 % reported having a Pap test less than 1 year ago, and 25 % reported ever having an abnormal Pap test result. The overall mean score on the six-point Pap test knowledge scale was 4.46?±?1.02. Women who reported having an abnormal Pap test (4.96?±?0.82) had significantly higher Pap test knowledge compared to those never having an abnormal result (4.49?±?1.04), p?Pap test knowledge among all women, including those with no prior abnormal Pap test history, are critical to cervical cancer prevention and control over the life course. Such efforts should include creating information that is relevant to the population and enables informed decision making about cervical health. PMID:24488589

  5. How Often to Get a Pap Test (A Cup of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-01-10

    Cervical cancer has declined in the U.S., and the decline is largely due to Pap testing and follow-up. Screening recommendations have changed. In this podcast, Meg Watson discusses Pap testing.  Created: 1/10/2013 by MMWR.   Date Released: 1/10/2013.

  6. A Shandon PapSpin liquid-based gynecological test: A split-sample and direct-to-vial test with histology follow-up study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rimiene J

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Studies for liquid-based Papanicolaou (Pap tests reveal that liquid-based cytology (LBC is a safe and effective alternative to the conventional Pap smear. Although there is research on ThinPrep and SurePath systems, information is lacking to evaluate the efficiency and effectiveness of systems based on cytocentrifugation. This study is designed to determine the sensitivity and specificity of the Shandon PapSpin (ThermoShandon, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA liquid-based gynecological system. We used split-sample and direct-to-vial study design. Materials and Methods: 2,945 women referred to prophylactic check-up were enrolled in this study. Split sample design was used in 1,500 women and residual cervical cytology specimen from all these cases was placed in fluid for PapSpin preparation after performing conventional smear. The direct-to-vial study was carried out in another cohort of 1,445 women in whom the entire cervical material was investigated using only the PapSpin technique. Follow up histological diagnoses for 141 women were obtained from both study arms following 189 abnormal cytology cases. 80 LBC cases from the split sample group and 61 LBC cases in the direct-to-vial group were correlated with the histology results. The sensitivity and secificity of the conventional smear and PapSpin tests in both study arms were compared. Results: In the split sample group, conventional smears showed a higher proportion of ASC-US (atypical cells undetermined significance: 31 (2.1% vs 10 (0.7% in PapSpin (P = 0.001. A higher proportion of unsatisfactory samples was found in the conventional smear group: 25 (1.7% vs 6 (0.4% cases (P = 0.001. In the split sample group, the sensitivity of the conventional and PapSpin tests was 68.7% vs 78.1%, and the specificity 93.8% vs 91.8%, respectively. In the direct to vial group PapSpin sensitivity was 75.9% and specificity 96.5%. The differences in sensitivity and specificity were not significant. The positive predictive values for the conventional and PapSpin methods were not different in the split sample group: 88.0% vs 86.2% and 95.7% in the direct-to-vial group. Also, no differences were found for negative predictive value (82.1, 86.8% and 80.0% respectively. Conclusions: PapSpin showed good qualitative results in both study arms, even after the material splitting in the first study arm, and is a good alternative to the conventional Pap smear. Additionally, the PapSpin method offers several advantages such as the opportunity to prepare duplicate slides, option for HPV DNA testing and cell block preparations from residual material. Microscopic evaluation of thinner cell preparations is less time consuming than the conventional Pap smears.

  7. Developing a hand-held Pap test card to improve cervical cancer screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prendergast, Mary B; Hunter, Lauren P

    2014-01-01

    We identified an educational deficit among clients at a community health clinic regarding the latest cervical cancer screening recommendations. A literature search on Pap testing and problems with compliance or screening indicated multiple barriers to cervical cancer screening. Education, health promotion and the use of a hand-held health card/record were identified as methods to educate women regarding cervical cancer prevention. We developed a hand-held Pap test card to be similar to an immunization card. The card was designed to fulfill the needs of both clients and practitioners. PMID:24939198

  8. Performance characteristics of Pap test, VIA, VILI, HR-HPV testing, cervicography, and colposcopy in diagnosis of significant cervical pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longatto-Filho, Adhemar; Naud, Paulo; Derchain, Sophie Fm; Roteli-Martins, Cecília; Tatti, Sílvio; Hammes, Luciano Serpa; Sarian, Luis Otavio; Eržen, Mojca; Branca, Margherita; de Matos, Jean Carlos; Gontijo, Renata; Maeda, Marina Y S; Lima, Temístocles; Costa, Silvano; Syrjänen, Stina; Syrjänen, Kari

    2012-06-01

    We sought to evaluate the performance of diagnostic tools to establish an affordable setting for early detection of cervical cancer in developing countries. We compared the performance of different screening tests and their feasibility in a cohort of over 12,000 women: conventional Pap smear, liquid-based cytology, visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA), visual inspection with Iodine solution (VILI), cervicography, screening colposcopy, and high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) testing (HR-HPV) collected by physician and by self-sampling. HR-HPV assay collected by the physician has the highest sensitivity (80 %), but high unnecessary referrals to colposcopy (15.1 %). HR-HPV test in self-sampling had a markedly lower (57.1 %) sensitivity. VIA, VILI, and cervicography had a poor sensitivity (47.4, 55, and 28.6 %, respectively). Colposcopy presented with sensitivity of 100 % in detecting CIN2+, but the lowest specificity (66.9 %). Co-testing with VIA and VILI Pap test increased the sensitivity of stand-alone Pap test from 71.6 to 87.1 % and 71.6 to 95 %, respectively, but with high number of unnecessary colposcopies. Co-testing with HR-HPV importantly increased the sensitivity of Pap test (to 86 %), but with high number of unnecessary colposcopies (17.5 %). Molecular tests adjunct to Pap test seems a realistic option to improve the detection of high-grade lesions in population-based screening programs. PMID:22562132

  9. How Often to Get a Pap Test (A Minute of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-01-10

    Cervical cancer has declined in the U.S., however every year over 12,000 women are diagnosed and 4,000 die. This podcast discusses the importance of Pap testing.  Created: 1/10/2013 by MMWR.   Date Released: 1/10/2013.

  10. Current approach of health employees in Turkey to pap smear test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan Yetimalar

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Our primary aim was to detect how much importance is given to pap smear test by the health staff.Material and Methods: In this study inquiries including questions about age, marital status, occupation, attitude for applying to gynecology polyclinics as well as questions regarding their knowledge about and attitude to pap smear test and HPV vaccination were delivered to health staff as well as to a control group which was formed from patients applying to our polyclinics.Results: Neither of the groups applied for gynecologic control without having complaints.There was no significant difference between the groups when the rates of having smear test at least once were taken into consideration. In this study we detected that the smear test was not offered routinely to nearly half of the patients.Those patients who were offered the smear test had the test by significantly higher rates. 91,17% of the women in the study group had heard about HPV vaccination.Discussion: The awareness of health staff as well as the non-health staff population about pap smear test is far from adequate in Turkey. Furthermore, gynecologists do not offer smear tests to their patients efficiently.This situation may prevent the reduction of cervical malignancies in the near future.

  11. Pap testing, awareness, and acceptability of a human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine among Chinese American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Giang T; Chen, Bei; Chan, Melvin

    2012-10-01

    Little is known about the knowledge and opinions of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine among Chinese immigrants, nor the impact of framing HPV as a sexually transmitted infection in this population. A cross-sectional survey was conducted focusing on knowledge and experience with HPV, HPV vaccine, cervical cancer and Pap testing, and attitudes toward HPV vaccine in response to different message frames. Chinese American women were recruited in a community setting (n = 162). Only 19 % had heard of HPV and 38 % had had a Pap test in the last 3 years. Multivariate logistic regression showed that English proficiency was associated with vaccination acceptance and insurance status was associated with HPV awareness; there was no observed correlation with message framing. Chinese American women with limited English proficiency have low HPV awareness. Community-based, culturally appropriate education about cervical cancer and HPV vaccine should be directed toward limited-English proficient Chinese American women. PMID:22447177

  12. Making Sense of Your Pap and HPV Test Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... prevent cervical cancer? Keep your next doctorâ??s appointment. Mark your calendar or post a note on your ... for men. The approved HPV tests on the market are not useful for screening for HPV-related ...

  13. Pap Smear

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... before an initial exposure to the virus, so girls and women should get them before becoming sexually active. ^ Back to top 3. Does an abnormal Pap smear always mean cancer? A single "abnormal" Pap smear does not ...

  14. Cervical Cancer Prevention Knowledge and Abnormal Pap Test Experiences Among Women Living with HIV/AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wigfall, Lisa T; Bynum, Shalanda A; Brandt, Heather M; Friedman, Daniela B; Bond, Sharon M; Lazenby, Gweneth B; Richter, Donna L; Glover, Saundra H; Hébert, James R

    2015-06-01

    Cervical cancer prevention knowledge deficits persist among women living with HIV/AIDS (WLHA) despite increased risk of developing cervical dysplasia/cancer. We examined associations between WLHA's cervical cancer prevention knowledge and abnormal Pap test history. We recruited 145 urban and rural WLHA from Ryan White-funded clinics and AIDS service organizations located in the southeastern USA between March 2011 and April 2012. For this analysis, women who reported a history of cervical cancer (n?=?3) or had a complete hysterectomy (n?=?14) and observations with missing data (n?=?22) were excluded. Stata/IC 13 was used to perform cross-tabulations and chi-squared tests. Our sample included 106 predominantly non-Hispanic Black (92 %) WLHA. Mean age was 46.3?±?10.9 years. Half (50 %) had???high school education. One third (37 %) had low health literacy. The majority (83 %) had a Pap test prevention knowledge beyond screening recommendations seems warranted given their increased risk of developing cervical dysplasia/neoplasia. PMID:24928481

  15. Walking the journey of womanhood: Yakama Indian women and Papanicolaou (Pap) test screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strickland, C J; Chrisman, N J; Yallup, M; Powell, K; Squeoch, M D

    1996-04-01

    Cervical cancer is the second leading cancer among Alaska Native, American Indian women, who have a high incidence of cervical cancer and low survival rates (Boss, 1991; Michalek & Mahoney, 1990; Page & Asire, 1985). The purpose of this Grounded Theory study was to gain a greater understanding of the meaning of the papanicolaou (Pap) test to the Yakama Indian women of eastern Washington to support the Tribe in the design of effective screening interventions. Data from 15 interviews, focus groups, and participant observation were included in the data analysis. The major theme was: Walking the Journey of Womanhood. Four phases of the journey were identified: (a) Starting the Journey, (b) Blooming, (c) Heading the Household, and (d) Becoming an Elder. In this study we found that interventions to influence Pap test screening among the Yakama women must address structures of care, provider-patient communications, and education for the women. Women heading the households and elders were identified as priority populations for education because they have negative attitudes from previous experiences and have a great influence on the younger women. Messages need to be wellness oriented and traditional methods of education, such as the talking circle, role model, and storytelling, need to be used. PMID:8936248

  16. The message framing of health communications : how to elicit higher intention to get an annual pap test ?

    OpenAIRE

    Balbo, L.

    2010-01-01

    In an online experiment, women (N=209) were randomly exposed to a pamphlet promoting Pap test. The pamphlet was either gain- or loss-framed and emphasized either the prevention or detection function of the Pap. We hypothesized that the fit between framing and function (i.e. gain-prevention and loss-detection) will result in higher intention to follow the recommendation. Moreover, we predicted that under the non-fit condition (i.e. gain-detection and loss-prevention); people higher in perceive...

  17. Mammography and Pap test screening among low-income foreign-born Hispanic women in the USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernandez Maria E.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about the factors influencing screening among low-income Hispanic women particularly among recent immigrants. A sample of 148 low-income, low-literate, foreign-born Hispanic women residing in the Washington DC metropolitan area participated in the study. The mean age of the sample was 46.2 (SD = 11.5, 84% reported annual household incomes<=$15,000. All women were Spanish speakers and had low acculturation levels. Ninety six percent had reported having a Pap smear, but 24% were not in compliance with recommended screening (Pap test within the last 3 years. Among women 40 and older, 62% had received a mammogram, but only 33% were compliant with age appropriate recommended mammography screening guidelines. Women in this study had more misconceptions about cancer than Hispanics in other studies. Multivariate logistic models for correlates of Pap test and mammography screening behavior indicate that factors such as fear of the screening test, embarrassment, and lack of knowledge influenced screening behavior. In conclusion, women in this study had lower rates of mammography screening than non-Hispanic women and lower rates of compliance with recommended Mammography and Pap test screening guidelines.

  18. ¿Cómo afecta el tipo de seguro de salud a la realización del Papanicolaou en Perú? / How does type of health insurance affect receipt of Pap testing in Peru?

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Leslie, Barrionuevo-Rosas; Laia, Palència; Carme, Borrell.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Describir la asociación entre la realización de la citología del cuello uterino y el tipo de seguro de salud en las mujeres peruanas, y determinar el papel de las variables sociodemográficas y de salud sexual en esta relación. MÉTODOS: Se realizó un estudio transversal que utiliza la infor [...] mación de la Encuesta Demográfica y de Salud Familiar (ENDES), Perú, 2005-2008, correspondiente a una selección de 12 272 mujeres de 30 a 49 años de edad. La variable dependiente fue la realización de alguna prueba de Papanicolaou (PAP) en los últimos 5 años. Las variables independientes principales fueron el tipo de seguro de salud, el nivel educativo, el nivel socioeconómico del hogar, la etnia y el área de residencia. La asociación multivariada fue estimada a través de la razón de prevalencias, utilizando la regresión Poisson con varianza robusta. RESULTADOS: Se encontró que 62,7% de las mujeres sexualmente activas se habían realizado algún PAP en los últimos 5 años. Este porcentaje de participación variaba según el tipo de seguro de salud, donde las mujeres con seguro público tenían 1,27 (intervalo de confianza de 95% [IC95%]: 1,24-1,31) y las que tenían seguro privado 1,52 (IC95%:1,46-1,58) veces mayor probabilidad de haberse realizado un PAP que aquellas sin seguro. Esta asociación era explicada predominantemente por las variables de posición socioeconómica. Asimismo las mujeres que tenían la participación más baja eran las analfabetas o con educación primaria, de nivel socioeconómico bajo, con antecedente de lengua indígena y que vivían en la zonas rurales-siendo esta brecha aún mayor cuando además carecían de seguro de salud, llegando a ser hasta la tercera parte en relación con los grupos sociales más favorecidos. CONCLUSIONES: Se hallaron desigualdades según el tipo de seguro de salud en la realización del PAP, siendo las mujeres sin seguro las que menos lo utilizaron, lo cual supone una barrera para el acceso al cribado de cáncer de cérvix en Perú. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: Describe the association between receipt of cervical cytology and type of health insurance in Peruvian women, and determine the role of sociodemographic and sexual health variables in this relationship. METHODS: A cross-sectional study using information on a sample of 12 272 women aged 30 [...] to 49 years from the Demographic and Family Health Survey (ENDES), Peru, 2005-2008. The dependent variable was receipt of at least one Pap smear in the last five years. The primary independent variables were type of health insurance, educational level, household socioeconomic level, ethnicity, and place of residence. Prevalence ratio, obtained from Poisson regression with robust variance, was used to measure multivariate association. RESULTS: Among sexually active women, 62.7% had received at least one Pap test in the last five years. Percentage of women tested varied by type of health insurance. Women with public or private insurance had a greater probability of having received a Pap smear-1.27 (95% CI, 1.24-1.31) and 1.52 (95% CI, 1.46-1.58) times greater, respectively-than uninsured women. This association was primarily explained by socioeconomic status variables. In addition, women who participated the least in screening were characterized by illiteracy or only a primary education, low socioeconomic level, speaking an indigenous language, and living in a rural area. When they also lacked health insurance, the gap widened, rising to as much as one third compared to more advantaged social groups. CONCLUSIONS: Inequalities were found in receipt of Pap testing according to type of health insurance; women without insurance were least likely to be screened, implying existence of a barrier to cervical cancer screening in Peru.

  19. Estimation of Pap-test coverage in an area with an organised screening program: challenges for survey methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raggi Patrizio

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The cytological screening programme of Viterbo has completed the second round of invitations to the entire target population (age 25–64. From a public health perspective, it is important to know the Pap-test coverage rate and the use of opportunistic screening. The most commonly used study design is the survey, but the validity of self-reports and the assumptions made about non respondents are often questioned. Methods From the target population, 940 women were sampled, and responded to a telephone interview about Pap-test utilisation. The answers were compared with the screening program registry; comparing the dates of Pap-tests reported by both sources. Sensitivity analyses were performed for coverage over a 36-month period, according to various assumptions regarding non respondents. Results The response rate was 68%. The coverage over 36 months was 86.4% if we assume that non respondents had the same coverage as respondents, 66% if we assume they were not covered at all, and 74.6% if we adjust for screening compliance in the non respondents. The sensitivity and specificity of the question, "have you ever had a Pap test with the screening programme" were 84.5% and 82.2% respectively. The test dates reported in the interview tended to be more recent than those reported in the registry, but 68% were within 12 months of each other. Conclusion Surveys are useful tools to understand the effectiveness of a screening programme and women's self-report was sufficiently reliable in our setting, but the coverage estimates were strongly influenced by the assumptions we made regarding non respondents.

  20. Progression and regression of cervical pap test lesions in an urban AIDS clinic in the combined antiretroviral therapy era: a longitudinal, retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lofgren, Sarah M; Tadros, Talaat; Herring-Bailey, Gina; Birdsong, George; Mosunjac, Marina; Flowers, Lisa; Nguyen, Minh Ly

    2015-05-01

    Our objective was to evaluate the progression and regression of cervical dysplasia in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive women during the late antiretroviral era. Risk factors as well as outcomes after treatment of cancerous or precancerous lesions were examined. This is a longitudinal retrospective review of cervical Pap tests performed on HIV-infected women with an intact cervix between 2004 and 2011. Subjects needed over two Pap tests for at least 2 years of follow-up. Progression was defined as those who developed a squamous intraepithelial lesion (SIL), atypical glandular cells (AGC), had low-grade SIL (LSIL) followed by atypical squamous cells-cannot exclude high-grade SIL (ASC-H) or high-grade SIL (HSIL), or cancer. Regression was defined as an initial SIL with two or more subsequent normal Pap tests. Persistence was defined as having an SIL without progression or regression. High-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) testing started in 2006 on atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) Pap tests. AGC at enrollment were excluded from progression analysis. Of 1,445 screened, 383 patients had over two Pap tests for a 2-year period. Of those, 309 had an intact cervix. The median age was 40 years and CD4+ cell count was 277 cells/mL. Four had AGC at enrollment. A quarter had persistently normal Pap tests, 64 (31%) regressed, and 50 (24%) progressed. Four developed cancer. The only risk factor associated with progression was CD4 count. In those with treated lesions, 24 (59%) had negative Pap tests at the end of follow-up. More studies are needed to evaluate follow-up strategies of LSIL patients, potentially combined with HPV testing. Guidelines for HIV-seropositive women who are in care, have improved CD4, and have persistently negative Pap tests could likely lengthen the follow-up interval. PMID:25693769

  1. HPV DNA and Pap smear test results in cases with and without cervical pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabit Sinan Özalp

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of the study was to determine the HPV prevalance and its relation to Pap smear, colposcopy and colposcopy directed biopsy in our region of Eskisehir, Turkey.Material and Methods: A total of 615 women who applied to the outpatient clinic between December 2009 and December 2010 constituted our study population. All patients underwent pelvic examination and Pap smear sampling. Patients who had pathological cervical appearance or Pap smear results of ASCUS, AGUS, LSIL or HSIL were referred to colposcopy. Cervical samples for HPV DNA were taken from the patients before Pap smear sampling during the routine examination or before the colposcopic evaluation. Results: Twenty six of 615 patients (4% were HPV positive. Of these 26 patients, 12 were positive for HPV type 16, 3 for type 18, 3 for type 51, 2 for type 6, 1 for type 52, 1 for type 33, 1 for type 16 and type 31, 1 for type 6 and 52, 1 for type 56 and 90, 1 for type 39 and 66. In 4 patients with cervical cancer, and in 3 of 4 CIN III cases both HPV DNA and Pap smear were positive. In the Pap smear examination of 615 patients, cytology revealed 35 ASCUS (5.6% 4 AGUS (0.6%, 2 CIN I (0.3% results who were negative for HPV DNA. These patients with abnormal cytology (n=41 underwent colposcopy directed biopsy, there were 3 CIN I and 1 CIN III and all the other cervical biopsy results of these patients were benign (inflammation, chronic cervicitis. Conclusion: HPV positivity in our hospital setting is low which is compatible with other studies in Turkey. In positive HPV cases there is a good correlation between HPV type and positive cervical biopsy results.

  2. The frequency of having pap-smear tests among women between 15-64 years old and the evaluation of the level of their knowledge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To determine the frequency of Pap smear testing among women and to evaluate their level of knowledge about the test and other relevant factors. Methods: The study comprised women who presented to the Gynaecology and Obstetrics Polyclinic of Sakarya Training and Research Hospital, Turkey, between April 1 and 30, 2012. The questionnaire was developed in line with the objectives of the study. They were filled by the participants who were supervised during the process. Women who had had at least one Pap smear test in life were considered to have taken a Pap smear test, and those who had heard of the test were accepted as women who knew of the Pap smear test. Data was analysed using SPSS 15.0. Chi-square test was used for analyses, and statistical significance was set at p<0.05. Results: The age of 601 subjects ranged between 15 and 64 years, with a mean of 31.09+-10.49 years. Of the total, 115 (19.1%) had taken a Pap smear test before and 293 (48.8%) knew of the test. The proportion of the women who had had a Pap smear test was higher among those who were over 30 years of age (n=73; 63.47%), had post-high school educational degrees (n=68; 59.13%), had moderate familial income status (n=74; 64.34%), were married (n=109; 94.78%), had first sexual experience after 25 years of age(n=42; 36.52%), and were not using a contraceptive method (n=97; 84.34%) (p<0.05 for each). Besides, more women with previous knowledge of the test had takith previous knowledge of the test had taken the test (p<0.05). Conclusion: The subjects did not have sufficient information on Pap smear and the frequency of having a test was low. Raising awareness would prove beneficial. (author)

  3. The significance of augmentedhigh-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion detection on pap test examination : partial results from the RODEO study team

    OpenAIRE

    Scapulatempo, Cristovam; Fregnani, Jos Humberto T. G.; Campacci, Nat Lia; Resende, J. Lio Cesar Possati; Longatto Filho, Adhemar

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study sought to ascertain the significance of augmented high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) detection by Pap test using both conventional smear and liquid-based cytology (LBC) in a high-risk population. STUDY DESIGN: We conducted a direct-to-vial study to compare the diagnostic performance of Pap smear versus LBC in a high-risk population of women referred for colposcopy at a gynecologic ambulatory clinic at the Barretos Cancer Hospital in Brazil during ...

  4. Does total manual rescreening of negative pap tests screened by the ThinPrep imaging system add any value?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Erica L; Michael, Claire W; Bomeisl, Philip E; Shyu, Susan; Wasman, Jay K

    2014-10-01

    We compared the performance of utilizing the ThinPrep® Imaging System (TIS) according to the manufacturer's directions to screening with the TIS plus total manual rescreening in Pap tests that were initially diagnosed as NIL to determine whether manual rescreening decreases the false-negative rate for epithelial lesions. Three thousand three hundred forty cases were diagnosed as NIL on the 22 fields of view selected by the TIS and subsequently manually rescreened by the same cytotechnologist. Six hundred seventy-four cases were sent to a cytopathologist for final diagnosis based on review criteria. Biopsy follow-up and Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) test results were noted if available for cases with a diagnosis of ASCUS or above. Three thousand one hundred fifty-nine (94.6%) were confirmed NIL and 181 cases were diagnosed as abnormal on manual rescreen. There were 147 ASCUS, 6 ASCH, 9 AGC, 19 LSIL, and 0 HSIL cases. The overall false-negative rate of screening for atypia/SIL with the TIS was 5.4%. Of the 147 cases with HPV results, 43 (29%) were positive. Only 1 cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 2 was found on biopsy follow-up, in a case of ASCUS with a positive HPV. Based on our data, the TIS for screening of Pap tests is reliable in NIL cases as compared to total manual rescreening. The majority of the false-negative cases were diagnosed as ASCUS on subsequent review, with 0 HSIL cases. Our results confirm that the TIS is highly accurate in excluding HSIL, negating the need for total manual rescreening of NIL Pap tests. PMID:24554347

  5. The influence of the professional’s gender in the periodicity of Pap Test - doi:10.5020/18061230.2010.p181

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Rafael Leite Sampaio

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Methods: A descriptive study, with a qualitative approach, held in the period of September to November, 2008 with 83 users of the Family Health Strategy of Caio Prado, Itapiúna-Ceará, who had Pap test in delay. The data were collected through a semi-structured interview and organized according to the Content Analysis: (1 Professional gender and the periodicity of Pap test and (2 Test that causes pain and fear. Results: It was observed that 67 (80.72% were between 25 and 59 years, 52 (62.62% were married, 65 (78.31% had primary education, 45 (54.22% were farmers and 49 (59.04% earned less than minimum wage. Most users reported feelings of shame by male examiners as a reason for irregularity in the frequency of Pap test. On a smaller scale, the reason pointed out was to consider this a test that causes pain and fear. Final Considerations: The users reported that the presence of a male professional was a strong influence to irregularity in the frequency of Pap test in this health unit. Albeit to a lesser extent, prior negative experience with this exam and not the professional’s gender issue has been implicated as a reason not to perform periodic cytology.

  6. Tecnologia e campos disciplinares: os citotécnicos e a implementação do teste de Papanicolaou no Brasil / Technology and disciplinary fields: cytotechnicians and implementation of the Pap test in Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Luiz Antonio, Teixeira; Leticia, Pumar.

    Full Text Available A apropriação e utilização do teste de Papanicolaou como tecnologia fundamental para o controle do câncer de colo do útero no Brasil foi fruto de escolhas, acordos e embates entre determinados grupos profissionais (médicos de diferentes especialidades, farmacêuticos, biólogos, biomédicos e citotécni [...] cos). Na primeira parte do trabalho apresentamos o processo de formulação das primeiras campanhas de rastreamento populacional com uso do teste Papanicolaou no país e, consequentemente, o surgimento da profissão de citotécnicos (profissionais dedicados a leitura das lâminas de Papanicolaou). Num segundo momento, partimos de algumas questões levantadas pela historiografia internacional no campo da história das ciências e das técnicas para discutimos as peculiaridades do processo de apropriação do teste Papanicolaou no contexto brasileiro. Priorizamos as questões relativas aos debates entre diferentes grupos profissionais envolvidos com a lógica desse exame e às relações entre os setores públicos e privados de saúde. Demonstramos que as visões distintas sobre essa tecnologia no campo de diferentes disciplinas e a relação destas com a dinâmica do mercado de trabalho moldam a trajetória da profissão de citotécnico e a forma como o teste de Papanicolaou foi (e está sendo) apropriado como tecnologia central para o rastreio do câncer de colo do útero no Brasil. Abstract in english The implementation of the Pap test as a primary technology in the control of cervical cancer in Brazil was the result of choices, agreements and disputes among certain professional groups, including physicians from various specialisations, pharmacists, biologists, biomedical scientists and cytotechn [...] ologists. The first part of the paper describes the process of formulating Brazil’s first screening campaigns using the Pap smear, and the subsequent emergence of the profession of cytotechnology, whose practitioners interpret this test. Second, based on questions raised by international historiography in the field of science and technology, we explore in detail how the adoption of the Pap smear transpired within the Brazilian context, focussing on the debates among the various professional groups with an interest in the suitability of the test and on the relationships between the public and private healthcare sectors. We show that the professional career of cytotechnologists and the way in which the Pap smear has been implemented as a central technology for cervical cancer screening in Brazil have been shaped by the conflicting views of this technology held by different disciplines as well as by the relationship between these disciplines and labour market dynamics.

  7. Knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding the Pap test among women in northeastern Brazil / Conhecimentos, atitudes e praticas sobre o exame de Papanicolaou em mulheres do nordeste brasileiro

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Carla Lorenna Ferreira de, Albuquerque; Marla da Paschoa, Costa; Felipe Moreira, Nunes; Roberto Wagner Junior Freire de, Freitas; Paulo Roberto Medeiros de, Azevedo; Jose Verissimo, Fernandes; Juciane Vaz, Rego; Humberto Medeiros, Barreto.

    Full Text Available CONTEXTO E OBJETIVO: O exame de Papanicolaou já mostrou efetividade na prevenção de câncer do colo do útero. A literatura nacional e internacional tem mostrado que o exame de Papanicolaou não tem alcançado o índice de cobertura desejado. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar os conhecimentos, atitud [...] es e práticas entre mulheres em relação ao exame de Papanicolaou e verificar se existe associação entre esses comportamentos e as características sociodemográficas. TIPO DE ESTUDO E LOCAL: Estudo descritivo e transversal realizado em Floriano, Piauí. MÉTODOS: O estudo foi conduzido com 493 mulheres no período de novembro de 2009 a dezembro de 2010. Utilizou-se m questionário com perguntas precodificadas, cujas respostas foram analisadas quanto à adequação dos comportamentos em relação ao exame. RESULTADOS: Os graus de adequação dos conhecimentos, atitudes e práticas em relação ao exame foram de 36,7%, 67,2% e 69,6%, respectivamente. Dentre as principais barreiras para a sua realização, destacaram-se a ausência de sintomas e a vergonha. CONCLUSÃO: As mulheres que realizam consultas periodicamente apresentam prática mais adequada, porém com baixa adequação de conhecimentos frente ao procedimento, sugerindo que não estejam recebendo as informações adequadas sobre os benefícios da realização periódica do exame de Papanicolaou. Abstract in english CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: The Papanicolaou (Pap) test has been shown to be effective in preventing cervical cancer. However, both the national and international literature shows that Pap testing has not reached the level of coverage desired. The objective of this study was to assess women's knowledge [...] , attitudes and practices regarding the Pap test and to investigate whether there are any associations between these three factors and the women's sociodemographic characteristics. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional descriptive study conducted in Floriano, Piauí. METHODS : The study was conducted among 493 women between November 2009 and December 2010. A questionnaire with precoded questions was sed, and the responses were analyzed in terms of appropriateness in relation to the Pap test. RESULTS : The degrees of adequacy of knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding the Pap test were 36.7%, 67.2% and 69.6%, respectively. Among the main barriers against testing, absence of symptoms and a sense of embarrassment were the most notable. CONCLUSIONS: Women who visit doctors periodically had the most appropriate practices regarding the Pap test, but their knowledge of the procedure was poor. This suggests that these women were not receiving adequate information about the benefits of periodic testing.

  8. Congress: 50 years of the Papanicolaou test. Istituto Superiore di Sanita`. Rome, March 30, 1995; Convegno: 50 anni di Pap test. Istituto Superiore di Sanita`. Roma, 30 marzo 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Branca, Margherita; Cedri, Sabina; Migliore, Giovanna [Istituto Superiore di Sanita`, Rome (Italy). Lab. di Epidemiologia e Biostatistica

    1997-12-01

    The Conference was organized to celebrate the 50th anniversary of the cervical smear test, commonly referred to as the `Pap test` after its creator, George Nicholas Papanicolaou. The reports present the development of the test, its worldwide application, and its performance as the screening test for the detection of cervical cancer. Pap smear screening for precursors of carcinoma of the cervix has led to dramatic decrease in the incidence and deaths from this cancer. The test represents one of the greatest achievements in preventive medicine.

  9. Promoting health by empowering women, strengthening partnerships, and enhancing health care systems: one Pap test at a time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenslade, M Victoria; Fitzgerald, Kathy; Barry, Irene Doyle; Power-Kean, Kelly

    2013-01-01

    Invasive cervical cancer, a highly preventable disease, is the thirteenth most common form of cancer among Canadian women and third amongst those women 20 to 40 years of age (Public Health Agency of Canada [PHAC], 2009). Health care providers (HCP)s know that adherence to the Canadian recommendations for regular screening, using the Pap test, reduces incidence and mortality rates (Marcus & Crane, 1998). Yet, only 30% of women in Newfoundland and Labrador consistently participate in cervical screening (Newfoundland and Labrador CHI, 2006) and mortality rates are alarming. The most recent data reveal that the incidence in 1998 was 1.5 times the national average (Health Canada, 1998) while mortality was estimated at 2.5 times the national average (NLCHI, 2006). A two-phased study conducted in Newfoundland and Labrador sought an in-depth understanding of women's perceptions, beliefs and attitudes associated with cervical cancer screening, reasons for non-participation, and personal insights to improve the screening experience. Seven main themes are identified: physical factors, emotional factors, life gets in the way, lack of education, health care providers, cultural impact, and birth control/pregnancy. Implications for nursing practice and future research are discussed. PMID:23847841

  10. Automated detection of dual p16/Ki67 nuclear immunoreactivity in liquid-based Pap tests for improved cervical cancer risk stratification

    OpenAIRE

    Gertych, Arkadiusz; Joseph, Anika O.; Walts, Ann E; Bose, Shikha

    2012-01-01

    The Papanicolau (Pap) test is a routine cytological procedure for early detection of dysplastic lesions in cervical epithelium. A reliable screening method is crucial for triage of women at risk; however manual screening and interpretation are associated with relatively low sensitivity and substantial interobserver diagnostic variability. P16 and Ki67 biomarkers have been recently proposed as adjunctive tools in the diagnosis of high-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV) associated dysplasias to ...

  11. Effectiveness of VIA, Pap, and HPV DNA Testing in a Cervical Cancer Screening Program in a Peri-Urban Community in Andhra Pradesh, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravitt, Patti E.; Paul, Proma; Katki, Hormuzd A.; Vendantham, Haripriya; Ramakrishna, Gayatri; Sudula, Mrudula; Kalpana, Basany; Ronnett, Brigitte M.; Vijayaraghavan, K.; Shah, Keerti V.

    2010-01-01

    Background While many studies have compared the efficacy of Pap cytology, visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA) and human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA assays for the detection cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and cancer, few have evaluated the program effectiveness. Methods and Findings A population-based sample of 5603 women from Medchal Mandal in Andhra Pradesh, India were invited to participate in a study comparing Pap cytology, VIA, and HPV DNA screening for the detection of CIN3+. Participation in primary screening and all subsequent follow-up visits was rigorously tracked. A 20% random sample of all women screened, in addition to all women with a positive screening test result underwent colposcopy with directed biopsy for final diagnosis. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values were adjusted for verification bias. HPV testing had a higher sensitivity (100%) and specificity (90.6%) compared to Pap cytology (sensitivity ?=? 78.2%; specificity?=?86.0%) and VIA (sensitivity?=?31.6%; specificity?=?87.5%). Since 58% of the sample refused involvement and another 28% refused colposcopy or biopsy, we estimated that potentially 87.6% of the total underlying cases of CIN3 and cancer may have been missed due to program failures. Conclusions We conclude that despite our use of available resources, infrastructure, and guidelines for cervical cancer screening implementation in resource limited areas, community participation and non-compliance remain the major obstacles to successful reduction in cervical cancer mortality in this Indian population. HPV DNA testing was both more sensitive and specific than Pap cytology and VIA. The use of a less invasive and more user-friendly primary screening strategy (such as self-collected swabs for HPV DNA testing) may be required to achieve the coverage necessary for effective reduction in cervical cancer mortality. PMID:21060889

  12. How to Interpret Abnormal Pap Smear Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... HPV testing. ASC-H means ASC with possible HSIL: Some of your cells are not normal and ... HPV testing or recommend a repeat Pap smear. HSIL HSIL stands for high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion. ...

  13. ASC-H in Pap test- definitive categorization of cytomorphological spectrum

    OpenAIRE

    Chivukula Mamatha; Shidham Vinod B

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Objective The American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology (ASCCP) guidelines for management of ASC-H is colposcopic examination followed by biopsy. HPV testing (HPVT) is recommended after a negative biopsy result. More definitive interpretation of ASC-H could prevent discomfort and minimize the cost. The purpose of this study was to evaluate association of various cytomorphological patterns of ASC-H with various clinical scenarios. Methods We reviewed SurePath™ (TriP...

  14. ASC-H in Pap test- definitive categorization of cytomorphological spectrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shidham Vinod

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective The American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology (ASCCP guidelines for management of ASC-H is colposcopic examination followed by biopsy. HPV testing (HPVT is recommended after a negative biopsy result. More definitive interpretation of ASC-H could prevent discomfort and minimize the cost. The purpose of this study was to evaluate association of various cytomorphological patterns of ASC-H with various clinical scenarios. Methods We reviewed SurePath™ (TriPath Imaging, Inc. Burlington, NC, USA cervical smears interpreted as ASC-H in 161 women (mean age, 37 {15 to 78} years, over 24 months (2002 to 2003. HPVT (Digene, Hybrid Capture® II HPV test, Digene Corporation, Gaithersburg, MD, USA was performed in 20% of cases (33/161 and biopsy results were available in 54 cases (19 with and 35 without HPVT. Results HPVT was positive in 64% (21/33 cases, and negative in 36% (12/33 cases. In the follow-up biopsies of 71% (15/21 of cases with positive HPVT, 27% showed HPV changes or CIN1, 27% showed CIN2-3, and 46% were negative for epithelial abnormality. Follow-up biopsies from cases with negative HPVT (33%, 4/12 cases, 8% showed CIN1 and 25% were negative for any epithelial abnormality. Six cytomorphological patterns of ASC-H correlated with different clinical categories in relation to HPVT and biopsy results. 35% (19 out of 54 ASC-H cases in which biopsy results were available could be interpreted definitively as HSIL by cytopathology, 11% (6/54 cases as LSIL with cyanophilic atypical parakeratotic pattern, and 31% (17/54 cases as reactive, with HPV status. The interpretation had to be continued as ASC-H in 22% (12/54 cases. Conclusion ASC-H demonstrated a spectrum of cytomorphological patterns. Some of these patterns in liquid-based cervical smears may be more specifically interpreted as LSIL, HSIL, or benign if HPV status is known.

  15. Non-Economic and Economic Factors in the Decision to Obtain a Pap Smear: The Case of Women Residents in the State of Florida

    OpenAIRE

    Alexander, Gigi; Cebula, Richard

    2010-01-01

    In this first-time-ever such study of the adult female population in the state of Florida, the percentage of the women 18 to 44 years of age within each county in the state of Florida in 2007 who had received a Pap smear during the past year was a decreasing function of the percentage of women 18 years of age and older who were current smokers (AS), while being an increasing function of the percentage of women 18 years of age and older with an annual income of $25,000 or more (AIN25PLUS), t...

  16. p16INK4a Immunohistochemical and Histopathologic Study of Pap Test Cases Interpreted as HSIL Without CIN2-3 Identification in Subsequent Cervical Specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solano, Felipe J; Rush, Demaretta S; Wilkinson, Edward J

    2015-05-01

    Tissue biopsy following a pap test diagnosis of high grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) sometimes fails to confirm the presence of a corresponding high grade cervical intraepithelial lesion (CIN 2-3), leading to confusion as to how best to manage the patient. It has been shown that these patients are still at higher risk for future detection of CIN 2-3 even if the initial biopsy fails to detect it. It has also been shown that immunohistochemical staining for p16INK4a can be reliably used as a surrogate marker for infection with high risk human papillomavirus in cervical samples, and that it can be used to enhance detection of CIN2-3 in cases where suspicion is high. To evaluate the use of p16INK4a staining in cases of HSIL which were not confirmed on initial biopsy, two pathologists rereviewed Pap and hematoxylin and eosin preparations from all such cases seen within the preceding 3 years. Immunohistochemical study for p16INK4a was performed and graded on representative sections. The results were tabulated and analyzed. Of the identified 596 HSIL Pap cases, 82% had HSIL on initial cervical specimens. Table 1 shows the 56 cases included in the study with graded and stratified p16INK4a results. On review of the p16INK4a slides, only 2 cases could be upgraded to HSIL/CIN2-3 from the original diagnosis. p16INK4a 2-3+ was expressed more frequently in cases initially interpreted on Pap as low-grade cervical lesion as compared with benign (24 of 35 cases). In the younger than 24-yr-old group p16 2-3+ reactivity was more frequent in benign and low-grade cervical lesion/CIN1 groups (benign: 3 of 5 cases, and CIN1: 6 of 8), and p16 negative reactivity was not seen. p16INK4a was graded 0-1+ more frequently in specimens interpreted as benign in the older than 25 yr olds (10 of 16 cases). The study suggests some diagnostic benefit from the use of p16INK4a immunohistochemical study on cervical specimens from women with a HSIL Pap test without HSIL/CIN2-3 on original hematoxylin and eosin review. PMID:25844545

  17. Obtaining reliable quality data from fragility tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The parameters discussed in this paper are the same as those present in normal seismic qualification testing. These parameters behave differently in high level acceleration tests and their contribution in providing unreliable data is of major concern since there is a significant difference. These parameters need to be considered in developing methodology guidelines for future fragility standards. In seismic qualification testing, a predefined series of tests are performed and measured against a set of acceptance criteria. The response spectra generally has a peak acceleration of between 3-10 g's at a 2% damping value for the Design Basis Event (Safe Shutdown Earthquake). Fragility level testing has minimum starting point of 10 g's at 2% damping and is generally 20 g's at 2% damping. The dynamic characteristics of the simulated earthquake and the corresponding simulator hardware interfaces are the parameters discussed. There are two major parameter contributions in obtaining unreliable data. The first parameter is test specimen system hardware nonlinearities. The second major variable is electronic signal saturations

  18. Cobertura do exame citopatológico na cidade de Pelotas, Brasil / Pap smear test coverage in the city of Pelotas (Rio Grande do Sul), Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Juvenal Soares Dias da, Costa; Paula Berenhauser, D' Elia; Patrícia, Manzolli; Mônica Regina, Moreira.

    1998-05-01

    Full Text Available Em 1995, o câncer de colo de útero foi a quarta causa de morte mais prevalente para o sexo feminino no estado do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. Tendo em vista que não existem estudos disponíveis sobre a cobertura do exame citopatológico na cidade de Pelotas -- a principal cidade da região sul do estado [...] do Rio Grande do Sul -- , em 1992 realizou-se uma pesquisa transversal, de base populacional, entre mulheres de 20 a 69 anos residentes na zona urbana da cidade de Pelotas. O objetivo do estudo foi verificar a realização do exame citopatológico nos 3 anos anteriores à pesquisa; determinar o índice de cobertura deste exame na cidade de Pelotas; e identificar fatores associados à realização do exame. A classe social foi definida como variável sobredeterminante. Na operacionalização de classe social duas classificações foram utilizadas: a classificação de Bronfman e a classificação preconizada pela Associação Brasileira de Institutos de Pesquisa de Mercado. Das 934 mulheres entrevistadas, 606 (65%) haviam feito o exame citopatológico nos 3 anos que antecederam a pesquisa. A análise multivariada revelou diferenças quanto à realização do exame citopatológico em relação à classe social, idade e freqüência anual de consultas. Não foram encontradas diferenças em relação à escolaridade, tipo de serviço de saúde utilizado e hospitalizações no ano anterior à pesquisa. O estudo conclui que a cobertura do exame citopatológico para mulheres entre 20 e 69 anos em Pelotas é superior à cobertura encontrada em outras partes do país e do mundo. No entanto, nas classes mais baixas, o índice de cobertura ficou entre 52 e 56%. Estes dados podem contribuir para a elaboração de medidas que visem ao aumento da cobertura para setores específicos. Abstract in english In 1995, cervical cancer was the fourth most important cause of death among women in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. There are no available studies on Pap smear examination coverage in Pelotas, which is the largest city in the southern part of Rio Grande do Sul. Accordingly, in 1992 a popula [...] tion-based, cross-sectional study was carried out among 20 to 69 year-old women residing in urban areas of the city. The objectives of the study were to ascertain any Pap smear testing in the 3 years prior to the study, to determine the coverage of cervical cancer screening, and to identify any factors associated with the performance of Pap tests in Pelotas. Social class was chosen as the determining variable. To categorize social class, two classifications were used: Bronfman's classification and the classification used by the Brazilian Association of Market Research Institutes. Among the 934 women interviewed, 606 (65%) had had a Pap smear test in the 3 years before the study. The multivariate analysis revealed significant differences regarding performance of such tests in terms of social class, age, and frequency of medical consultations per year. No significant differences were found in terms of education, type of health service used, or hospitalizations during the year prior to the study. This study reveals that coverage of cervical cancer screening for women between 20 and 69 years of age in Pelotas is higher than the coverage found in other parts of the country or even of the world. However, for women in lower social classes, coverage was found to be between 52 and 56%. These data can contribute to the development of measures aimed at increasing cervical cancer screening among specific sectors of the population.

  19. Additional collection devices used in conjunction with the SurePath Liquid-Based Pap Test broom device do not enhance diagnostic utility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O'Connor Jason C

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We have previously shown that use of an EC brush device in combination with the Rovers Cervex-Brush (SurePath broom offered no significant improvement in EC recovery. Here we determine if use of additional collection devices enhance the diagnostic utility of the SurePath Pap for gynecologic cytology. Methods After informed consent, 37 women ages 18–56 receiving their routine cervical examinations were randomized into four experimental groups. Each group was first sampled with the SurePath broom then immediately re-sampled with an additional collection device or devices. Group 1: Rover endocervix brush (n = 8. Group 2: Medscand CytoBrush Plus GT (n = 7. Group 3: Rover spatula + endocervix brush (n = 11. Group 4: Medscand spatula + CytoBrush Plus GT (n = 11. Results Examination of SurePath broom-collected cytology yielded the following abnormal diagnoses: atypia (n = 2, LSIL (n = 5 and HSIL (n = 3. Comparison of these diagnoses to those obtained from paired samples using the additional collection devices showed that use of a second and or third device yielded no additional abnormal diagnoses. Importantly, use of additional devices did not improve upon the abnormal cell recovery of the SurePath broom and in 4/10 cases under-predicted or did not detect the SurePath broom-collected lesion as confirmed by cervical biopsy. Finally, in 36/37 cases, the SurePath broom successfully recovered ECs. Use of additional devices, in Group 3, augmented EC recovery to 37/37. Conclusions Use of additional collection devices in conjunction with the SurePath broom did not enhance diagnostic utility of the SurePath Pap. A potential but not significant improvement in EC recovery might be seen with the use of three devices.

  20. Cobertura do exame citopatológico do colo do útero na cidade de São Leopoldo, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil Coverage of Pap smear tests in the city of São Leopoldo, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deise Karine Muller

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo transversal teve por objetivos verificar a cobertura de realização do exame preventivo de câncer do colo do útero e os fatores associados na população de mulheres de 20 a 60 anos residentes na zona urbana de São Leopoldo, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil, durante o ano de 2003. A amostra foi por conglomerados. Foram analisados dois desfechos, a realização de exame preventivo do câncer do colo do útero nos últimos três anos e exame preventivo de Papanicolaou nunca realizado. Entre as 867 mulheres entrevistadas, 741 (85,5%; IC95%: 83,1-87,8 tinham realizado o exame citopatológico do colo uterino nos últimos três anos, 60 (6,9%; IC95%: 5,2-8,6 estavam com o procedimento atrasado e 66 (7,6%; IC95%: 5,8-9,4 nunca o haviam realizado. Na regressão de Poisson foi observada significância para as variáveis: classe econômica, idade, cor da pele, estado civil. Observou-se que apesar da cobertura elevada, os fatores de risco para o câncer de colo uterino não motivaram a realização do exame.This cross-sectional study aimed to verify the coverage of Pap smear tests and associated factors in a cluster sample of women 20 to 60 years of age in the city of São Leopoldo, Rio Grande Sul State, Brazil, in 2003. Two outcomes were analyzed: Pap smear in the previous three years and Pap smear never performed. Among 867 women, 741 (85.5%; 95%CI: 83.1-87.8 had a Pap smear in the previous three years, 60 (6.9%; 95%CI: 5.2-8.6 were late with the test, and 66 (7.6%; 95%CI: 5.8-9.4 had never done a Pap smear. Poisson regression showed significant association with: income, age, skin color, and marital status. Although coverage was high, risk factors for uterine cervical cancer were not associated with performing the test.

  1. Factores asociados a las Alteraciones del test de Papanicolaou Costa Rica, 2009 / Factors associated with changes in PAP Smears in a health center Costa Rica, 2009

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Leandra, Abarca Gómez; Maricela, Salas Estrada; Deyanira, Calvo León; Julia, Freer Vargas; Paula, Cordero.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available El cáncer cervicouterino es en el mundo y en Costa Rica una de las 3 primeras causas de cáncer en las mujeres. La detección temprana de lesiones premalignas o malignas mejora el pronóstico de las usuarias. Objetivo: Encontrar si hay factores asociados a las alteraciones de la citología vaginal en un [...] área de salud urbana de Costa Rica durante 2009. Metodología: Estudio de casos y controles en usuarias de una área de salud urbana de Costa Rica durante 2009. Se definió caso como toda mujer residente de esa área que presentara una citología vaginal alterada, displasia leve, moderada, severa o carcinoma durante 2009. Los controles se seleccionaron de forma aleatoria simple, tomando como marco muestral el registro de mujeres que se habían realizado citologías vaginales durante el 2009 en esa área. La recolección de la información se hizo a través de un cuestionario. Se calcularon medidas de frecuencia, de tendencia central y dispersión, OR, IC 95 %. Resultados: Se incluyeron 62 casos y 137 controles. La edad promedio de los casos fue 43 años (DE±17). El ASCUS fue la lesión más frecuente 39 % (IC 95 %=22,43-51,93). Los factores asociados a la aparición de lesiones fueron tabaco (OR=2.35; IC 95 %=1,26-4,31), inicio de actividad sexual antes de 18 años (OR=2;I C 95 %=1,06-3,64) y haber tenido 3 o más compañeros sexuales (OR=2, 10;IC 95 % 1,11-3,97). Discusión: Se encontró similitud entre lo descrito en la literatura y lo hallado en este estudio. Se recomendó dar a conocer este estudio a las mujeres de esa área de salud, ya que los factores encontrados son modificables y además se planteó a la dirección del área realizar campañas de promoción y prevención que fomenten conductas sexuales sanas. Abstract in english Cervical cancer is among the leading causes of cancer in women globally; in Costa Rica it is among the top three causes. Although the PAP smears is part of the guidelines of care for women, the coverage in some areas of health is low. Objective: Identify demographic and clinical factors associated w [...] ith abnormal Pap test results Methods: We conducted a health center-based case-control study. A case was defined as any woman seeking care in a health center during 2009, having a Pap test positive for either cells of undetermined significance (Atypical Squamous Cells of Undetermined Significance) mild, moderate or severe dysplasia. Controls were selected by simple random sampling using records of women seen at the same health centers in 2009 and having normal PAP smears. Odds ratios and 95 % confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated for associations between potential risk factors and abnormal PAP smears. Results: We identified 62 cases and 137 controls. The average age of cases was 43 was not significantly different from that of controls (Student t p = 0,90). ASCUS was the most frequent cause of abnormal cytology (39 %). Factors found to be significantly associated with abnormal cytology were: tobacco use (OR=2,35; 95 % CI=1,26-4,31), onset of sexual activity before age 18 (OR=2,0; 95 % CI=1,06-3,64) and having a history of > 3 sexual partners (OR=2,0; 95 % CI=1,11-3,97). Conclusions: There was similarity between risk factors we identified as described in the literature, like onset of sexual activity before age 18 and have history of 3 or more sexual parthers. These are common risk factors associated with HPV infection. Our study was limited by the failure to follow-up colposcopy results for definitive diagnoses and no HPV test. Considering these risk factors represent modifiable health behaviors, we recommended dissemination of our findings to local health authorities in order to generate intervention strategies to promote responsible, healthy sexual behaviors as how to reduce tobacco consumption and develop healthy sexual habits.

  2. Frequência da colpocitologia oncótica em jovens com antecedentes obstétricos em Teresina, Piauí, Brasil Frequency of Pap smear testing in young women with an obstetric history in Teresina, Piauí, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelina F. Barroso

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar a frequência da colpocitologia oncótica em jovens com pelo menos uma gravidez completa em Teresina, capital do Estado do Piauí, Brasil. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal realizado de maio a dezembro de 2008. Foram coletados dados de 464 jovens, selecionadas por amostragem acidental, que finalizaram uma gravidez no primeiro quadrimestre de 2006 em seis maternidades da Cidade de Teresina. Investigou-se a frequência da coleta de colpocitologia oncótica. A frequência inadequada foi definida como coleta em intervalos maiores do que 1 ano. RESULTADOS: A média de idade das participantes foi de 20 anos. A frequência da colpocitologia foi semestral em 180 jovens (39,0% e anual em 160 (34,5%. Quinze jovens (3,2% nunca haviam feito a colpocitologia. A regressão logística simples mostrou que o não uso de contraceptivo na primeira relação sexual e não poder optar por atendimento ginecológico por homem ou mulher aumentou o risco em 48,0% (P = 0,049 e 49,0% (P = 0,044, respectivamente, para frequência inadequada de coleta do exame. A regressão logística múltipla mostrou que ter tido mais de uma gravidez elevou em 71,4% a chance de inadequação da frequência de coleta em comparação com ter somente uma gestação (P = 0,011. CONCLUSÕES: O fato de muitas jovens realizarem o exame de colpocitologia oncótica em intervalos menores do que 1 ano não melhora o rastreamento do câncer de colo uterino e pode onerar o serviço público de saúde. A multiparidade foi fator de risco para a frequência inadequada de coleta do exame, devendo esse aspecto ser considerado na assistência à saúde ginecológica de jovens.OBJECTIVE: To analyze the frequency of Pap smear testing in young women with at least one pregnancy in Teresina, capital of the state of Piauí, Brazil. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was undertaken from May to December 2008. A convenience sample of 464 young women was selected, and data were collected using a pre-tested questionnaire. Women giving birth in the first four months of 2006, in six hospitals in Teresina, were included. Inadequate Pap smear frequency was defined as an interval of more than 1 year between tests. RESULTS: Mean age was 20 years. The frequency of Pap smear testing was every 6 months in 180 women (39.0% and yearly in 160 (34.5%. Fifteen women (3.2% had never had a Pap smear test. Simple logistic regression showed an increase of 48.0% in the risk of inadequate Pap smear frequency (P = 0.049 in women who did not use any contraceptive method at their first sexual intercourse, and 49.0% (P = 0.044 in those who were not able to choose between a male or female gynecologist when seeking health care services. On multivariate logistic regression, having more than one pregnancy increased the risk of inadequate Pap smear frequency by 71.4% in comparison to having only one pregnancy (P = 0.011. CONCLUSIONS: The fact that many young women had Pap smear testing at intervals shorter than 1 year does not improve cervical cancer screening and may burden the health care system. Multiparity was a risk factor for inadequate Pap smear frequency, an aspect that must be taken into account when providing gynecological care to young women.

  3. Frequência da colpocitologia oncótica em jovens com antecedentes obstétricos em Teresina, Piauí, Brasil / Frequency of Pap smear testing in young women with an obstetric history in Teresina, Piauí, Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Michelina F., Barroso; Keila R. O., Gomes; Jesusmar Ximenes, Andrade.

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar a frequência da colpocitologia oncótica em jovens com pelo menos uma gravidez completa em Teresina, capital do Estado do Piauí, Brasil. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal realizado de maio a dezembro de 2008. Foram coletados dados de 464 jovens, selecionadas por amostragem acidental, que [...] finalizaram uma gravidez no primeiro quadrimestre de 2006 em seis maternidades da Cidade de Teresina. Investigou-se a frequência da coleta de colpocitologia oncótica. A frequência inadequada foi definida como coleta em intervalos maiores do que 1 ano. RESULTADOS: A média de idade das participantes foi de 20 anos. A frequência da colpocitologia foi semestral em 180 jovens (39,0%) e anual em 160 (34,5%). Quinze jovens (3,2%) nunca haviam feito a colpocitologia. A regressão logística simples mostrou que o não uso de contraceptivo na primeira relação sexual e não poder optar por atendimento ginecológico por homem ou mulher aumentou o risco em 48,0% (P = 0,049) e 49,0% (P = 0,044), respectivamente, para frequência inadequada de coleta do exame. A regressão logística múltipla mostrou que ter tido mais de uma gravidez elevou em 71,4% a chance de inadequação da frequência de coleta em comparação com ter somente uma gestação (P = 0,011). CONCLUSÕES: O fato de muitas jovens realizarem o exame de colpocitologia oncótica em intervalos menores do que 1 ano não melhora o rastreamento do câncer de colo uterino e pode onerar o serviço público de saúde. A multiparidade foi fator de risco para a frequência inadequada de coleta do exame, devendo esse aspecto ser considerado na assistência à saúde ginecológica de jovens. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To analyze the frequency of Pap smear testing in young women with at least one pregnancy in Teresina, capital of the state of Piauí, Brazil. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was undertaken from May to December 2008. A convenience sample of 464 young women was selected, and data were colle [...] cted using a pre-tested questionnaire. Women giving birth in the first four months of 2006, in six hospitals in Teresina, were included. Inadequate Pap smear frequency was defined as an interval of more than 1 year between tests. RESULTS: Mean age was 20 years. The frequency of Pap smear testing was every 6 months in 180 women (39.0%) and yearly in 160 (34.5%). Fifteen women (3.2%) had never had a Pap smear test. Simple logistic regression showed an increase of 48.0% in the risk of inadequate Pap smear frequency (P = 0.049) in women who did not use any contraceptive method at their first sexual intercourse, and 49.0% (P = 0.044) in those who were not able to choose between a male or female gynecologist when seeking health care services. On multivariate logistic regression, having more than one pregnancy increased the risk of inadequate Pap smear frequency by 71.4% in comparison to having only one pregnancy (P = 0.011). CONCLUSIONS: The fact that many young women had Pap smear testing at intervals shorter than 1 year does not improve cervical cancer screening and may burden the health care system. Multiparity was a risk factor for inadequate Pap smear frequency, an aspect that must be taken into account when providing gynecological care to young women.

  4. Value stream mapping of the Pap test processing procedure: a lean approach to improve quality and efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, Claire W; Naik, Kalyani; McVicker, Michael

    2013-05-01

    We developed a value stream map (VSM) of the Papanicolaou test procedure to identify opportunities to reduce waste and errors, created a new VSM, and implemented a new process emphasizing Lean tools. Preimplementation data revealed the following: (1) processing time (PT) for 1,140 samples averaged 54 hours; (2) 27 accessioning errors were detected on review of 357 random requisitions (7.6%); (3) 5 of the 20,060 tests had labeling errors that had gone undetected in the processing stage. Four were detected later during specimen processing but 1 reached the reporting stage. Postimplementation data were as follows: (1) PT for 1,355 samples averaged 31 hours; (2) 17 accessioning errors were detected on review of 385 random requisitions (4.4%); and (3) no labeling errors were undetected. Our results demonstrate that implementation of Lean methods, such as first-in first-out processes and minimizing batch size by staff actively participating in the improvement process, allows for higher quality, greater patient safety, and improved efficiency. PMID:23596108

  5. Cobertura e fatores associados à não realização do exame preventivo de Papanicolaou em São Luís, Maranhão Coverage and factors associated with not performing Pap smear screening tests in São Luís, Maranhão, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Maria Hiluy Nicolau de Oliveira

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de estimar a cobertura, a periodicidade, e identificar fatores associados à não realização do exame preventivo de Papanicolau, 465 mulheres de 25 a 49 anos residentes no município de São Luís foram entrevistadas em 1998. Foi realizado inquérito domiciliar pelo método de amostragem por conglomerados em três estágios. Na análise estatística foram calculados intervalos de confiança de 95% corrigidos pelo desenho do estudo, e os "odds ratio" brutos e ajustados por regressão logística. A cobertura do Papanicolaou pelo menos uma vez na vida foi de 82,4% (Intervalo de Confiança 95%, 76,6 - 87,0%, praticamente atingindo a cobertura mínima necessária de 85% para causar impacto epidemiológico na incidência e mortalidade por câncer cérvico-uterino. O intervalo entre a realização dos exames foi curto, pois 65,8% das mulheres repetiram o exame com até um ano. Após o ajuste para fatores de confundimento foram associados à não realização do Papanicolaou: não ter companheiro, ter cinco a oito anos de escolaridade, não ter realizado consulta médica nos três últimos meses e morar em domicílio cujo chefe de família tem ocupação manual não especializada. Ter tido de dois a quatro parceiros sexuais nos três últimos meses foi associado a menor risco de não realização do preventivo. Em capital do Nordeste, a cobertura do exame preventivo de Papanicolaou foi semelhante à relatada em outros estudos nacionais. Entretanto, algumas mulheres realizaram citologias desnecessárias a intervalos curtos, implicando em desperdício de recursos e dificultando o acesso aos grupos mais vulneráveis que apresentaram maiores riscos de não testagem.In 1998, 465 women from 25 to 49 years of age, inhabitants of the municipality of São Luís, Maranhão, Brazil were interviewed to estimate Pap smear coverage, interval between tests and to identify factors associated with not performing Pap smears. A three-stage household cluster survey was performed; 95% confidence intervals corrected by design effect, and crude and adjusted odds ratio estimates were calculated by logistic regression. Pap smear coverage at least once in a lifetime was 82.4% (95% CI 76.6% - 87.0% and nearly reached the minimum value of the 85% needed to impact the incidence and mortality of cervical cancer. The interval between tests was low, given that 65.8% of women repeated the test within one year. After adjustment for confounding factors, the risks of not having performed a Pap smear test at least once in a lifetime were higher for women who did not live with a companion, who had five to eight years of schooling, who had not been to a medical appointment in the past three months and who lived in households whose head of family was engaged in a manual and non-qualified occupation. Women who had two to four sexual partners in the past three months were at a lower risk of not having a cervical smear. In this Northeastern state capital, Pap smear coverage was similar to other national studies. However, some women were unnecessarily tested at short intervals, wasting resources and contributing to reduce the access of more vulnerable groups who presented higher risks for not having had a Pap smear test.

  6. Therapeutic effect of pilose antler polypeptides (PAP) on experimental fracture and its mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To test the therapeutic effect of PAP on experimental fracture and its mechanism. Methods: Effect of PAP on the incorporation of [3H]-TdR into DNA syntheses in the cells of rabbits costal cartilage and human embryonic joint as well as osteoblast precursor cells of embryonic chick calvaria in vitro and effect of PAP on the experimental radius fracture in rats in vivo were observed. Results: PAP of 10?50 ?g·ml-1 showed mitogenic activities and significant promotion of DNA syntheses for various cartilage cells in vitro. In vivo experimental results revealed that PAP 10 and 20 mg·kg-1 could promote healing of radius fracture, accelerate osteotylus formation and increase contents of calcium and oxyproline. Conclusion: PAP accelerates fracture healing through promoting multiplications of cartilage and osteoblast precursor cells, collagen accumulation and calcium precipitation in osteotylus

  7. TsPAP1 encodes a novel plant prolyl aminopeptidase whose expression is induced in response to suboptimal growth conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ? A cDNA encoding a novel plant prolyl aminopeptidase, TsPAP1, was obtained from triticale. ? The cloned TsPAP1 cDNA is 1387 bp long and encodes a protein of 390 amino acids. ? The deduced TsPAP1 protein revealed characteristics of the monomeric bacterial PAPs. ? The TsPAP1 mRNA level increased under drought, salinity and in the presence of metal ions. -- Abstract: A triticale cDNA encoding a prolyl aminopeptidase (PAP) was obtained by RT-PCR and has been designated as TsPAP1. The cloned cDNA is 1387 bp long and encodes a protein of 390 amino acids with a calculated molecular mass of 43.9 kDa. The deduced TsPAP1 protein exhibits a considerable sequence identity with the biochemically characterized bacterial and fungal PAP proteins of small molecular masses (?35 kDa). Moreover, the presence of conserved regions that are characteristic for bacterial monomeric PAP enzymes (the GGSWG motif, the localization of the catalytic triad residues and the segment involved in substrate binding) has also been noted. Primary structure analysis and phylogenetic analysis revealed that TsPAP1 encodes a novel plant PAP protein that is distinct from the multimeric proteins that have thus far been characterized in plants and whose counterparts have been recognized only in bacteria and fungi. A significant increase in the TsPAP1 transcript level in the shoots of triticale plants was observed under drought and saline conditions as well as in the presence of cadmium and aluminium ions in the nutrient medium. This paper is the first report describing changes in the transcript levels of any plant PAP in response to suboptimal growth conditions.

  8. Test Beam Results Obtained with the Q4 Prototype

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguilar-Benitez, M.; Alberdi, J.; Cerrada, M.; Colino, N.; Daniel, M.; Fouz, M. c.; Marin, J.; Mocholi, J.; Oller, J. C.; Puerta, J.; Romero, L.; Salicio, J. M.

    2000-07-01

    A prototype of the CMS Barrel Muon Detector incorporating all the features of the final chambers was built at CIEMAT using the mass production assembly procedures and tools. The performance of this prototype was studied in a muon test beam at CERN and the results obtained are presented here. (Author)

  9. Test beam results obtained with the Q4 prototype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A prototype of the CMS Barrel Muon Detector incorporating all the features of the final chambers was built at CIEMAT using the mass production assembly procedures and tools. The performance of this prototype was studied in a muon test beam at CERN and the results obtained are presented here. (Author)

  10. Modified PAP method to detect heteroresistance to vancomycin among methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates at a tertiary care hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iyer R

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was an attempt at developing, establishing, validating and comparing the modified PAP method for detection of hetero-vancomycin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (h-VRSA with the routine antimicrobial susceptibility testing (using the BSAC standardized disc diffusion method, minimum inhibitory concentrations of vancomycin using standard E-test methodology and the Hiramatsu?s screening method. A total of 50 methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus obtained from various clinical specimens, along with the Mu 3 and Mu 50 strains as controls, were studied. No VRSA isolates were obtained. However, four of the test strains were positive by the Hiramatsu?s screening method, of which only one isolate could be confirmed by the modified PAP analysis method. This isolate was a coloniser from the drain fluid of a liver transplant recipient. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and the overall efficiency of the Hiramatsu?s screening method with the modified PAP analysis as the gold standard were found to be 100, 93.8, 25 and 94%, respectively. It is very essential for clinical laboratories to screen for h-VRSA, given the increasing use of glycopeptide antibiotics in therapy and the potential for failed therapy in patients infected with these strains.

  11. Fractal analysis of weld defect patterns obtained by radiographic tests

    CERN Document Server

    Tesser, J A; Vieira, A P; Gonçalves, L L; Rebello, J M A

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a fractal analysis of radiographic patterns obtained from specimens with three types of inserted welding defects: lack of fusion, lack of penetration, and porosity. The study focused on patterns of carbon steel beads from radiographs of the International Institute of Welding (IIW). The radiographs were scanned using a greyscale with 256 levels, and the fractal features of the surfaces constructed from the radiographic images were characterized by means of Hurst, detrended-fluctuation, and minimal-cover analyses. A Karhunen-Loeve transformation was then used to classify the curves obtained from the fractal analyses of the various images, and a study of the classification errors was performed. The obtained results indicate that fractal analyses can be an effective additional tool for pattern recognition of weld defects in radiographic tests.

  12. Exame citopatológico de colo uterino em mulheres com idade entre 20 e 59 anos em Pelotas, RS: prevalência, foco e fatores associados à sua não realização Pap smears of 20 - 59 year-old women in Pelotas, Southern Brazil: prevalence, approach and factors associated with not undergoing the test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnildo A. Hackenhaar

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar a prevalência e o foco de realização do exame citopatológico do colo uterino e também fatores associados à sua não realização em mulheres com idade entre 20 e 59 anos residentes na cidade de Pelotas, RS. MÉTODOS: Entre outubro e dezembro de 2003 foi realizado um estudo transversal de base populacional. Através de amostragem por conglomerados foram sorteados 144 setores censitários em múltiplos estágios. Foram investigadas variáveis sociodemográficas e a realização de exame citopatológico do colo uterino. RESULTADOS: Dentre as 1404 mulheres que constituem a população-alvo dos programas de prevenção do câncer do colo uterino, 83,0% realizaram o exame citopatológico do colo uterino nos três anos antecedentes a este estudo. Mostraram-se significativamente associadas (POBJECTIVE: This study aims to determine the prevalence of and approach of Pap smear tests, as well as associated factors in women living in Pelotas, RS, Southern Brazil, within the 20 - 59 age range, who did not undergo a Pap smear. METHODS: A cross-sectional population-based study was carried out from October to December 2003. 144 census tracts were sampled through a multiple-stage clustered method. Socio-demographic variables were investigated, as well as women's Pap smear tests. RESULTS: Among the 1,404 women who were the target population included in the early detection program of uterine cervix cancer, 83% had had Pap smears in the three years before the study. Variables statistically associated (p<0.05 with women not undergoing the test in the previous three years were: ages ranging from 20-29 to 50-59 years compared with 40-49 year-old women, lower schooling level, lower social level, mixed and black skin color, not having seen a gynecologist in the previous 12 months. CONCLUSIONS: Although this study presents a high coverage of women undergoing Pap smears, women that present higher risk factors for this type of cancer had fewer tests.

  13. Exame citopatológico de colo uterino em mulheres com idade entre 20 e 59 anos em Pelotas, RS: prevalência, foco e fatores associados à sua não realização / Pap smears of 20 - 59 year-old women in Pelotas, Southern Brazil: prevalence, approach and factors associated with not undergoing the test

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Arnildo A., Hackenhaar; Juraci A., Cesar; Marlos R., Domingues.

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar a prevalência e o foco de realização do exame citopatológico do colo uterino e também fatores associados à sua não realização em mulheres com idade entre 20 e 59 anos residentes na cidade de Pelotas, RS. MÉTODOS: Entre outubro e dezembro de 2003 foi realizado um estudo transvers [...] al de base populacional. Através de amostragem por conglomerados foram sorteados 144 setores censitários em múltiplos estágios. Foram investigadas variáveis sociodemográficas e a realização de exame citopatológico do colo uterino. RESULTADOS: Dentre as 1404 mulheres que constituem a população-alvo dos programas de prevenção do câncer do colo uterino, 83,0% realizaram o exame citopatológico do colo uterino nos três anos antecedentes a este estudo. Mostraram-se significativamente associadas (P Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: This study aims to determine the prevalence of and approach of Pap smear tests, as well as associated factors in women living in Pelotas, RS, Southern Brazil, within the 20 - 59 age range, who did not undergo a Pap smear. METHODS: A cross-sectional population-based study was carried out f [...] rom October to December 2003. 144 census tracts were sampled through a multiple-stage clustered method. Socio-demographic variables were investigated, as well as women's Pap smear tests. RESULTS: Among the 1,404 women who were the target population included in the early detection program of uterine cervix cancer, 83% had had Pap smears in the three years before the study. Variables statistically associated (p

  14. Factors related to failure to attend the consultation to receive the results of the Pap smear test / Fatores relacionados ao não comparecimento à consulta para receber o resultado do exame colpocitológico

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Camila Teixeira Moreira, Vasconcelos; Denise de Fátima Fernandes, Cunha; Cássia Fernandes, Coelho; Ana Karina Bezerra, Pinheiro; Namie Okino, Sawada.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: identificar os fatores relacionados ao não comparecimento das mulheres à consulta de retorno para receber o resultado do exame colpocitológico. MÉTODO: estudo transversal, realizado com 775 pacientes que se submeteram ao exame colpocitológico no Centro de Saúde da Família de Fortalez [...] a, Ceará, entre setembro de 2010 e fevereiro de 2011. RESULTADOS: a maioria das pesquisadas era jovem (?35 anos), de baixa escolaridade (?7 anos de estudo), com início da vida sexual precoce (?20 anos) e 17,0% delas não retornaram para receber o resultado do exame. Resultados estatisticamente significantes para o não comparecimento ao retorno estiveram relacionados a: mulheres jovens (p=0,001), início precoce da atividade sexual (p=0,047) e conhecimento inadequado sobre o exame colpocitológico (p=0,029). CONCLUSÃO: o fato de a mulher não retornar para receber o resultado é um problema para o controle do câncer cervicouterino e deve ser combatido por meio de estratégias educativas que reforcem a importância do retorno para a detecção precoce desse câncer. Abstract in spanish OBJETIVO: identificar los factores relacionados a la no asistencia de las mujeres a la consulta de retorno para recibir el resultado de la prueba de Papanicolaou. MÉTODO: se trata de un estudio transversal, realizado con 775 pacientes que se sometieron a la prueba de Papanicolaou en el Centro [...] de Salud de la Familia de Fortaleza-CE, entre septiembre de 2010 y febrero de 2011. RESULTADOS: la mayoría de las encuestadas eran jóvenes (?35 años), de baja escolaridad (?7 años de estudio), iniciaron la vida sexual muy temprano (?20 años) y 17,0% de ellas no retornaron para recibir el resultado del examen. Los resultados estadísticamente significativos por no retornar estuvieron relacionados a: mujeres jóvenes (p=0,001); inicio precoz de la actividad sexual (p=0,047); y conocimiento inadecuado sobre la prueba de Papanicolaou (p=0,029). CONCLUSIÓN: el hecho de la mujer no retornar para recibir el resultado es un problema para el control del cáncer de cuello uterino y debe ser combatido por medio de estrategias educativas que refuercen la importancia del retorno para la detección precoz de ese cáncer. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: to identify the factors related to the failure of women to attend the follow-up consultation to receive the results of the Pap smear test. METHOD: a cross-sectional study, carried out with 775 patients who underwent the Pap smear test in the Centro de Saúde da Família of Fortaleza, [...] between September 2010 and February 2011. RESULTS: the majority of the women studied were young (?35 years), had low levels of education (?7 years of study), and commenced sexual activity early (?20 years), with 17.0% of them failing to return to receive the test results. Statistically significant results for the failure to return were related to: young women (p=0.001); early onset of sexual activity (p=0.047); and inadequate knowledge about the Pap smear test (p=0.029). Conclusion the fact that the women failed to return for the result is a problem for the control of cervical cancer and must be addressed through educational strategies that reinforce the importance of the return for the early detection of this cancer.

  15. Modified PAP method to detect heteroresistance to vancomycin among methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates at a tertiary care hospital

    OpenAIRE

    Iyer R; Hittinahalli V

    2008-01-01

    This study was an attempt at developing, establishing, validating and comparing the modified PAP method for detection of hetero-vancomycin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (h-VRSA) with the routine antimicrobial susceptibility testing (using the BSAC standardized disc diffusion method), minimum inhibitory concentrations of vancomycin using standard E-test methodology and the Hiramatsu?s screening method. A total of 50 methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus obtained from various...

  16. A Comparison of Three Pap Smear Collection Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Mesdaghinia

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Pap smear test is considered the best screening method for cervical disease, especially for malignant lesions. The crucial factor here is obtaining high-quality samples, as poorly-prepared ones cause a great deal of confusion for patients and physicians alike. Attempts to define an ideal sampling technique have been going on for many years, and in this study we compare three different sampling methods to determine which one provides the best quality. Materials and Methods: This interventional study was performed in a private obstetrics-gynecology clinic and involved 600 women who met the criteria for cervical screening. The Pap test was done by three different methods: "Swab spatula", "Cytobrush – spatula" and "Spatula only". Results: Each method was performed on 200 randomly-selected patients. Cytopathologic examination was done by a single pathologist and in a blind fashion. For each specimen, a quality rating was reported as "satisfactory" or "unsatisfactory". Among the 200 samples obtained by the "Swabspatula” method, 150 (75% were of satisfactory quality and the remaining 50 cases (25% were rated as unsatisfactory. As for the cytobrush–spatula group, 88 samples (94% were satisfactory and 12 (6% were unsatisfactory. Finally, 179 samples (88% in “Spatula-only” group were satisfactory and 24 (12% were unsatisfactory. The difference in the proportion of good-quality samples was significant in pairwise comparisons between the three methods: swab-spatula versus spatula-only (P = 0.0013, swab-spatula versus cytobrush-spatula (P = 0.0001 and cytobrush-spatula versus spatula-only (P = 0.036. Conclusion: The study revealed that the cytobrush-spatula sampling method yielded the highest proportion of high-quality samples. Hence, it would be desirable to familiarize physicians, midwives and other health care workers in this country with the technique of cytobrush cervical sampling and its potential advantages. However, financial and cultural aspects must be taken into account before adopting the procedure for routine cervical screening in Iran.

  17. Comparison Between Pap Smear and Via As Screening For Cervical Lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harshini V 1, Amritha Bhandary 2, Suchithra Thunga 3

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: An important reason for higher cervical cancer incidence in developing countries is lack of effectivescreening programs like pap smear, aimed at detecting precancerous conditions before they progress to invasivecancer. The potential difficulties in implementing cervical cytology based screening in low-resource settings haveprompted the investigation of accuracy of alternative low technology tests such as Visual inspection with acetic acidapplication [VIA], Visual inspection with acetic acid application with magnification [VIAM], visual inspection onLugol’s Iodine application [VILI] in early detection of cervical neoplasia .In our study we compared pap smear withVIA to study the accurarcy of VIA as it is simpler and easier technique to be used as screening in low resourcesettings. Aim: This is a hospital based descriptive, prospective study to evaluate validity of pap smear and VIAtechniques as screening tests in identifying cervical lesions. Materials And Methods: After general and systemicexamination as a routine,visual local pelvic examination including visualisation of cervix and vagina per speculumand the findings are documented in the proforma .Then VIA and pap smear are done in that order, if any of thesetests are positive then cervical biopsy will be taken and further advise to the subject is given. Results: A total of 313women were involved in the study. The sensitivity of pap smear is 54.5% specificity is 98.9% while that of VIA95.4% and 97.9%respectively. We found that VIA accuracy was comparatively more than that of pap smear.Conclusion: In low resource settings, usefulness of VIA is more than that of pap smear. We suggest to perform VIAin all the women inspite of having pap smear facility to improve detection rate of cervical lesions and provide betterpatient councelling and treatment.

  18. Analytical method for obtaining calibration dependences while testing gear wear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On the basis of the analysis of geometry of activation of device gears and teeth geometry an analytical method for obtaining calibration dependences being necessary for the teeth wear assesment using the method of surface activation. The calibration dependences obtained take into account the curve of involute surface of teeth in contrast to initial calibration curves for plane surfaces

  19. Evaluation of a Worksite Cervical Screening Initiative to Increase Pap Smear Uptake in Malaysia: A Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Fauziah Abdullah; Michael O’Rorke; Liam Murray; Tin Tin Su

    2013-01-01

    Background. Despite the significant burden of cervical cancer, Malaysia like many middle-income countries relies on opportunistic cervical screening as opposed to a more organized population-based program. The aim of this study was to ascertain the effectiveness of a worksite screening initiative upon Papanicolaou smear test (Pap test) uptake among educated working women in Malaysia. Methods. 403 female teachers who never or infrequently attended for a Pap test from 40 public secondary school...

  20. Obtaining reliable Likelihood Ratio tests from simulated likelihood functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Laura MØrch

    2013-01-01

    It is standard practice by researchers and the default option in many statistical programs to base test statistics for mixed models on simulations using asymmetric draws (e.g. Halton draws). This paper shows that when the estimated likelihood functions depend on standard deviations of mixed parameters this practice is very likely to cause misleading test results for the number of draws usually used today. The paper shows that increasing the number of draws is a very inefficient solution strategy requiring very large numbers of draws to ensure against misleading test statistics. The paper shows that using one dimensionally antithetic draws does not solve the problem but that the problem can be solved completely by using fully antithetic draws. The paper also shows that even when fully antithetic draws are used, models testing away mixing dimensions must replicate the relevant dimensions of the quasirandom draws in the simulation of the restricted likelihood. Again this is not standard in research or statistical programs. The paper therefore recommends using fully antithetic draws replicating the relevant dimensions of the quasi-random draws in the simulation of the restricted likelihood and that this should become the default option in statistical programs.

  1. Obtaining reliable likelihood ratio tests from simulated likelihood functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Laura MØrch

    2014-01-01

    Mixed models: Models allowing for continuous heterogeneity by assuming that value of one or more parameters follow a specified distribution have become increasingly popular. This is known as ‘mixing’ parameters, and it is standard practice by researchers - and the default option in many statistical programs - to base test statistics for mixed models on simulations using asymmetric draws (e.g. Halton draws). Problem 1: Inconsistent LR tests due to asymmetric draws: This paper shows that when the estimated likelihood functions depend on standard deviations of mixed parameters this practice is very likely to cause misleading test results for the number of draws usually used today. The paper illustrates that increasing the number of draws is a very inefficient solution strategy requiring very large numbers of draws to ensure against misleading test statistics. The main conclusion of this paper is that the problem can be solved completely by using fully antithetic draws, and that using one dimensionally antithetic draws is not enough to solve the problem. Problem 2: Maintaining the correct dimensions when reducing the mixing distribution: A second point of the paper is that even when fully antithetic draws are used, models reducing the dimension of the mixing distribution must replicate the relevant dimensions of the quasi-random draws in the simulation of the restricted likelihood. Again this is not standard in research or statistical programs. The paper therefore recommends using fully antithetic draws replicating the relevant dimensions of the quasi-random draws in the simulation of the restricted likelihood and that this should become the default option in statistical programs.

  2. XMLComparison of Molecular (PCR and Pap Smear Methods in Diagnosis of Human Papiloma Virus (HPV in Women with Genital Warts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bashi zadeh Fakhar, H. (MSc

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Much research has shown that Human Papiloma Virus (HPV plays an important role in cervix cancer and it is the cause of 99% of cervix cancer worldwide. Lots of research has been done to find a proper method for HPV diagnosis and screening in patients with genital warts. This study aimed at comparing PCR method with Pap smear test in HPV screening. Material and Methods: Considering the presence of DNA of HPV, 45 vaginal and cervix swap samples of women with genital warts were tested by means of specific PCR and Pap smear from September 2010 to April 2011. Results: Out of 45 vaginal and cervix swap samples of women suffering genital warts, 37 samples (82.2% are positive. Of 45 Pap smear samples, 13 (29% are neoplasia and 32 (71% normal. Conclusion: The difference between the results of PCR and Pap smear is due to low specification and sensitivity of Pap smear. Thus it is recommended using diagnostic PCR method in addition to Pap smear in order to promote the quality of screening in individuals with genital warts. Keywords: Human Papiloma Virus (HPV; Genital Warts; Molecular (PCR; Pap Smear

  3. Associations of demographic variables and the Health Belief Model constructs with Pap smear screening among urban women in Botswana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McFarl

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Ditsapelo M McFarland College of Nursing and Public Health, Adelphi University, Garden City, NY, USA Purpose: Papanicolaou (Pap smear services are available in most urban areas in Botswana. Yet most women in such areas do not screen regularly for cancer of the cervix. The purpose of this article is to present findings on the associations of demographic variables and Health Belief Model constructs with Pap smear screening among urban women in Botswana. Sample and methods: The study included a convenience sample of 353 asymptomatic women aged 30 years and older who were living in Gaborone, Botswana. Data were collected using a demographic questionnaire and items of the Health Belief Model. Data analysis included descriptive statistics for demographic variables and bivariate and ordinal (logit regression to determine the associations of demographic variables. Results: Having health insurance and having a regular health care provider were significant predictors of whether or not women had a Pap smear. Women with health insurance were more likely to have had a Pap smear test than women without health insurance (91% vs 36%. Similarly, women who had a regular health care provider were more likely to have had a Pap smear test than women without a regular health care provider (94% vs 42%. Major barriers to screening included what was described as "laziness" for women who had ever had a Pap smear (57% and limited information about Pap smear screening for women who had never had a Pap smear (44%. Conclusion: There is a need for more information about the importance of the Pap smear test and for increased access to screening services in Botswana. Keywords: cervical, screening, barriers, access, beliefs

  4. Presencia de algunos factores de riesgo de cáncer de cérvix en mujeres con citologías normales / Presence of some risk factors for cervix uteri cancer in women with normal Pap's smear test results

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Yoimy, Díaz Brito; María Margarita, Báez Pupo; Jorge Luis, Pérez Rivero; Migdalia, García Placeres.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: el cáncer del cuello del útero es un problema de salud que afecta a las mujeres, son múltiples los factores que lo predisponen. Objetivo: identificar la presencia de algunos factores de riesgo de Cáncer de cervix en mujeres de un Grupo Básico de Trabajo con citologías normales. Método: [...] se realizó un estudio observacional descriptivo, en mujeres pertenecientes al Grupo Básico de Trabajo 1 del Policlínico Docente "Tula Aguilera", del municipio Camagüey, desde septiembre a diciembre del año 2011. De las 997 mujeres registradas en las Historias Clínicas de Salud Familiar, se seleccionaron 191 utilizando el Programa EPIDAT, por muestreo aleatorio simple. Se les aplicó una encuesta y los datos recogidos fueron presentados en tablas de frecuencias. Resultados: se encontró que predominó el grupo de edades entre 35-39 años con un 24,0 %, el 90,0 % comenzaron a tener relaciones antes de los 20 años, el 64,3 % tuvieron tres y más compañeros sexuales, 70,7 % padecieron de infección vaginal. Conclusiones : al concluir el estudio, se aprecia la presencia elevada de factores de riesgo de cáncer del cérvix en las féminas estudiadas. Abstract in english Introduction: the cervix uteri cancer is a health problem affecting women and the number of predisposing factors is large. Objective: to identify some risk factors for cervix uteri cancer in females cared for by a basic work team with normal results in their Pap's smear tests. Methods: an observatio [...] nal and descriptive study was conducted in women, who were cared for by the basic work team no. 1 of "Tula Aguilera" teaching polyclinics in Camaguey municipality from September to December, 2011. The medical records of family health registered 997 from whom 191 were selected through the simple random sampling based on EPIDAT software. They were surveyed and their data presented in frequency tables. Results: it was found that 35-39 y age group predominated with 24%; 90% of them began their sexual relationships prior to being 20 years-old; 64.3% had three or more sexual partners and 70.7% suffered from vaginal infection. Conclusions: at the end of the study, we noticed the significant presence of risk factors for cervix uteri cancer in the studied women.

  5. Intraoperative BiPAP in OSA Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Bhavna P; Ns, Kodandaram

    2015-04-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSA) is characterized by recurrent episodes of partial or complete upper airway obstructions during sleep. Severe OSA presents with a number of challenges to the anesthesiologist, the most life threatening being loss of the airway. We are reporting a case where we successfully used intraoperative bi level positive pressure ventilation (BiPAP) with moderate sedation and a regional technique in a patient with severe OSA posted for total knee replacement (TKR). A 55-year-old lady with osteoarthritis of right knee joint was posted for total knee replacement. She had severe OSA with an apnea-hypopnea index of 35. She also had moderate pulmonary hypertension due to her long standing OSA. We successfully used in her a combined spinal epidural technique with intraoperative BiPAP and sedation. She had no complications intraoperatively or post operatively and was discharged on day 5. Patients with OSA are vulnerable to sedatives, anaesthesia and analgesia which even in small doses can cause complete airway collapse. The problem, with regional techniques is that it requires excellent patient cooperation. We decided to put our patient on intraoperative BiPAP hoping that this would allow us to sedate her adequately for the surgery. As it happened we were able to successfully sedate her with slightly lesser doses of the commonly used sedatives without any episodes of desaturation, snoring or exacerbation of pulmonary hypertension. Many more trials are required before we can conclusively say that intraoperative BiPAP allows us to safely sedate OSA patients but we hope that our case report draws light on this possibility. Planning ahead and having a BiPAP machine available inside the operating may allow us to use sedatives in these patients to keep them comfortable under regional anaesthesia. PMID:26023625

  6. Competency-based Learning: The Impact of Targeted Resident Education and Feedback on Pap Smear Adequacy Rates

    OpenAIRE

    Watkins, Raquel S.; Moran, William P.

    2004-01-01

    Little is known about assessing or improving competency in Papanicolau (Pap) smear sampling among internal medicine residents. We hypothesized that a 3-part targeted resident physician educational program (educational presentation by a knowledgeable instructor, skills workshop, and peer comparison feedback) would be effective in increasing the quality of Pap smears obtained by internal medicine residents. We conducted a randomized, pre-post comparison study over a 16-month period to assess th...

  7. Isolation and cloning of the Phytolacca americana anti-viral protein PAP-I gene

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Heba A, Mahfouze; Khalid A, El-Dougdoug; Badawi A, Othman; Mostafa A, Gomaa.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available La proteína antiviral del ginseng (PAP), aislada de plantas de Phytolacca americana y Phytolacca acinosa, inhibe la traducción proteica mediante la remoción catalítica de un residuo de adenina específico, en la cadena mayor de la subunidad 60S del ARN ribosomal eucariótico. En este estudio se aisló [...] y secuenció el gen PAP-I de P. americana, y posteriormente se comparó con los genes de otras proteínas inactivadoras de ribosomas (RIP), reportadas en GenBank(r). Se extrajo el ADN total de las hojas tardías del verano de las plantas de P. americana y el fragmento de 868 pb correspondiente al ADN del gen se amplificó con el uso de cebadores específicos, mediante reacción en cadena de la polimerasa (PCR). El producto de la PCR eluido se purificó, se clonó en el vector pTZ57R/T, y se movilizó en células de Escherichia coli cepa DH5a. Tras la secuenciación del producto de la PCR del gen PAP-I, la secuencia mostró una homología nucleotídica de 98 a 82 % y aminoacídica de 94 a 26 %, con las RIP reportadas. El análisis filogenético confirmó que el gen amplificado corresponde a la RIP tipo I de simple cadena (PAP-I). Abstract in english The pokeweed antiviral protein (PAP) isolated from Phytolacca americana and Phytolacca acinosa plants, inhibits protein translation by catalytically removing a specific adenine residue from the large rRNA of the 60S subunit of eukaryotic ribosomes. In this study, the P. americana PAP-I gene was isol [...] ated and sequenced, and further compared to other ribosome-inactivating proteins (RIPs) genes previously reported in GenBank(r). Total DNA was extracted from the late summer leaves of P. americana. A polymerase chain reaction (PCR) 868 bp-long DNA product was obtained, using gene specific primers, based on the expected gene size. The eluted product was purified and cloned into the pTZ57R/T vector, and mobilized into the Escherichia coli strain DH5a. After sequencing, the analysis of the PAP-I PCR product showed 98 to 82 % nucleotide and amino acid 94 to 26 % homologies, respectively, compared to previously reported RIPs. A phylogenetic analysis confirmed that the amplified PAP-I gene corresponds to the single chain Type-I RIP (PAP-I).

  8. Conhecimentos, atitudes e prática do exame de Papanicolaou por mulheres, Nordeste do Brasil Conocimientos, actitudes y práctica del examen de Papanicolaou en Noreste Knowledge, attitudes, and practices related to Pap test by women, Northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Veríssimo Fernandes

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar conhecimentos, atitudes e práticas das mulheres em relação ao exame citológico de Papanicolaou e a associação entre esses comportamentos e características sociodemográficas MÉTODOS: Inquérito domiciliar com abordagem quantitativa. Foram entrevistadas 267 mulheres com idade de 15 a 69 anos, selecionadas de forma estratificada aleatória, residentes no município de São José do Mipibu, RN, em 2007. Utilizou-se questionário com perguntas pré-codificadas e abertas, cujas respostas foram descritas e analisadas quanto à adequação dos conhecimentos, atitudes e prática das mulheres em relação ao exame preventivo de Papanicolaou. Foram realizados testes de associação entre as características sociodemográficas e os comportamentos estudados, com nível de significância de 5%. RESULTADOS: Apesar de 46,1% das mulheres entrevistadas terem mostrado conhecimento adequado, proporções de adequação significativamente maiores foram observadas em relação às atitudes e prática quanto ao exame: 63,3% e 64,4%, respectivamente. O maior grau de escolaridade apresentou associação com adequação dos conhecimentos, atitudes e prática, enquanto as principais barreiras para a realização do exame relatadas foram descuido, falta de solicitação do exame pelo médico e vergonha. CONCLUSÕES: O médico é a principal fonte de informação sobre o exame de Papanicolau. Entretanto, mulheres que vão a consultas com maior freqüência, embora apresentem prática mais adequada do exame, possuem baixa adequação de conhecimento e atitude frente ao procedimento, sugerindo que não estejam recebendo as informações adequadas sobre o objetivo do exame, suas vantagens e benefícios para sua saúde.OBJETIVO: Analizar conocimientos, actitudes y prácticas de las mujeres con relación al examen citológico de Papanicolaou y su asociación entre comportamientos y características sociodemográficas. MÉTODOS: Pesquisa domiciliar con abordaje cuantitativo. Fueron entrevistadas 267 mujeres con edad de 15 a 69 años, seleccionadas de forma estratificada aleatoria, residentes en el municipio de São José do Mipibu, Noreste de Brasil, en 2007. Se utilizó cuestionario con preguntas pre-codificadas y abiertas, cuyas respuestas fueron descritas y analizadas con relación a la adecuación de los conocimientos, actitudes y práctica de las mujeres con relación al examen preventivo de Papanicolaou. Fueron realizadas exámenes de asociación entre las características sociodemográficas y los comportamientos estudiados, con nivel de significancia de 5%. RESULTADOS: A pesar de 46,1% de las mujeres entrevistadas haber mostrado conocimiento adecuado, proporciones de adecuación significativamente mayores fueron observadas con relación a las actitudes y práctica con respecto al examen: 63,3% y 64,4%, respectivamente. El mayor grado de escolaridad presentó asociación con adecuación de los conocimientos, actitudes y práctica, con relación a las principales barreras para la realización del examen relatadas fueron descuido, falta de solicitud del examen por el médico y vergüenza. CONCLUSIONES: El médico es la principal fuente de información sobre el examen de Papanicolaou. Mientras tanto, mujeres que van a consultas con mayor frecuencia, a pesar de presentar práctica más adecuada del examen, poseen baja adecuación del conocimiento y actitud frente al procedimiento, sugiriendo que no están recibiendo las informaciones adecuadas sobre el objetivo del examen, sus ventajas y beneficios para su salud.OBJECTIVE: To assess the knowledge, attitudes and practices of women related to the Pap test and the association between these behaviors and sociodemographic characteristics. METHODS: A household survey with quantitative approach was conducted. A total of 267 women aged 15 to 69 years, randomly selected in a stratified manner, living in the city of São José de Mipibu, Northeastern Brazil, were interviewed in 2007. A questionnaire consisting of pre-coded open questions was administered and answers

  9. Comparison of PWR fuel assembly CHF tests obtained at three different test facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text of publication follows: Critical Heat Flux (CHF) is a key phenomenon in the heat transfer process in the nuclear core of pressurized water reactors (PWR). CHF limits the power capability of the nuclear plant and also the core design fuel management. Framatome Cogema Fuels (formerly Babcock and Wilcox), Siemens Power Corporation (SPC) in the US, Kraftwerk Union (KWU/Siemens) in Germany and Framatome in France have all been carrying out CHF tests for qualifying the thermal-hydraulic performance of their fuel assemblies in several test loops. With the merging of these companies within Framatome-ANP and the AREVA group, it was decided to utilize the same test facility for all regions. The Karlstein Thermal Hydraulic facility (KATHY) loop located at Karlstein, Germany has been selected to be the reference loop of Framatome ANP. The other loops previously used were the OMEGA loop of the French CEA and the Heat Transfer Research Facility (HTRF) loop of Columbia University. In order to be able to use results from tests obtained at any of the facilities interchangeably, a comparison of experimental measurements was necessary to demonstrate the equivalence of these loops. These experiments have been performed both using an axially uniform flux shape and using an axially nonuniform flux shape. In this paper a short description of the test facilities is presented after which the results of this comparison between KATHY, OMEGA and the HTRF are described. The method used d the HTRF are described. The method used in the comparison is presented in detail. The results obtained using only experimental conditions do not account for small differences in the rod bundle radial peaking and axial flux shape. Theses differences can be modeled using a subchannel thermal-hydraulic analysis code and a CHF correlation. Such a technique permits a much more precise comparison of the results. This comparison demonstrates an excellent consistency of the results between the different loops. This conclusion is valid over a large range of thermal hydraulic parameters (pressure, mass flow rate and local quality).. Therefore the continuity of the CHF test results used in within the AREVA group for product performance demonstrations is completely ensured. (authors)

  10. A Daytime, Abbreviated Cardio-Respiratory Sleep Study (CPT 95807–52) To Acclimate Insomnia Patients with Sleep Disordered Breathing to Positive Airway Pressure (PAP-NAP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krakow, Barry; Ulibarri, Victor; Melendrez, Dominic; Kikta, Shara; Togami, Laura; Haynes, Patricia

    2008-01-01

    Study Objectives: To assess the impact of a daytime sleep medical procedure—the PAP-NAP—on adherence to positive airway pressure (PAP) therapy among insomnia patients with sleep disordered breathing (SDB) Methods: The PAP-NAP is based on Current Procedural Terminology (CPT) codes and combines psychological and physiological treatments into one procedure, which increases contact time between SDB patients and polysomnography technologists to enhance PAP therapy adherence. Using a Sleep Dynamic Therapy framework, explicating SDB as a mind-body disorder, the PAP-NAP includes mask and pressure desensitization, emotion-focused therapy to overcome aversive emotional reactions, mental imagery to divert patient attention from mask or pressure sensations, and physiological exposure to PAP therapy during a 100-minute nap period. Patients treated with the PAP-NAP test (n=39) were compared to an historical control group (n=60) of insomnia patients with SDB who did not receive the test. Results: All 99 insomnia patients were diagnosed with SDB (mean AHI 26.5 ± 26.3, mean RDI 49.0 ± 24.9), and all reported a history of psychiatric disorders or symptoms as well as resistance to PAP therapy. Among 39 patients completing the PAP-NAP, 90% completed overnight titrations, compared with 63% in the historical control group; 85% of the nap-tested group filled PAP therapy prescriptions for home use compared with 35% of controls; and 67% of the nap-tested group maintained regular use of PAP therapy compared with 23% of the control group. Using standards from the field of sleep medicine, the nap-tested group demonstrated objective adherence of 49% to 56% compared to 12% to 17% among controls. All studies were reimbursed using CPT 95807–52. Conclusion: In this pilot study, the PAP-NAP functioned as a brief, useful, reimbursable procedure to encourage adherence in insomnia patients with SDB in comparison to an historical control group that did not undergo the procedure. Citation: Krakow B; Ulibarri V; Melendrez D; Kikta S; Togami L; Haynes P. A daytime, abbreviated cardio-respiratory sleep study (CPT 95807–52) to acclimate insomnia patients with sleep disordered breathing to positive airway pressure (PAP-NAP). J Clin Sleep Med 2008;4(3):212-222. PMID:18595433

  11. High Element Interactivity Information during Problem Solving May Lead to Failure to Obtain the Testing Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leahy, Wayne; Hanham, José; Sweller, John

    2015-01-01

    The testing effect occurs when learners who are tested rather than relearning material perform better on a final test than those who relearn. Based on cognitive load theory, it was predicted that the testing effect may not be obtained when the material being learned is high in element interactivity. Three experiments investigated conditions of the…

  12. Evaluating inhibition of angiogenesis by GST-PAP fusion protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadeghi-Zadeh M

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: Tumor cells need food and oxygen supply for growth and division. Therefore one of the most promising areas of cancer therapy focuses on using agents that inhibit tumor angiogenesis. Inhibition of angiogenesis prevents cell growth, division and metastasis. Previous studies showed that plasminogen related Protein-B has an anti-tumor activity in mice. This protein has a high level of homology with preactivation Peptide (PAP of human plasminogen. According to this high homology, antiangiogeneic activity of PAP was investigated in an in vitro angiogenesis model. "nMethods: PAP encoding region of human plasminogen gene was isolated by Polymerase Chain Reaction and ?cloned in pGEX-2T vector. This plasmid was expressed in Escherichia coli as a fusion protein (GST-PAP. ?GST-PAP was expressed as inclusion body and purified by affinity chromatography on GSH-sepharose ?resin after refolding. antiangiogenic effects of purified protein were surveyed with Matrigel assay?.?? ? "nResults: The GST-PAP was expressed and purified and its accuracy was confirmed by SDS-PAGE analysis ?and immunoblotting. Microscopic studies showed that GST-PAP inhibited angiogenesis in Matrigel system ?which is shown by shrinking the length of capillary like structures and a decrease in the number of tubule. ?While applying concentarations of 25?g/ml of GST-PAP and concentrations above that, antiangiogenic ?activity of GST-PAP was significant comparing to the controls. ? "nConclusion: Finding shows that GST-PAP can inhibit network formation in Matrigel system. This findings ?support the theory that PAP is a potent angiogenesis inhibitor.?

  13. CIEMAT interlaboratories comparison of the results obtained in the proficiency test run by IAEA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains the results obtained by two different laboratories from CIEMAT after participating in the Proficiency Test organised by IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency) in 1999. This test involves the analysis of fly ashes containing natural radionuclides and different amounts of added transuranics. The extraction techniques, counting methods and results obtained are detailed. This type of test are used for the labs to achieve their accreditation and check the reliability of the procedures routinely employed. (Author) 4 refs

  14. A STUDY ON CERVICAL PAP SMEAR EXAMINATION IN PATIENT LIVING WITH HIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B M Jha

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Decline in morbidity & mortality due to cervical cancer in developed countries can be mainly attributed to early detection of precancerous & cancerous lesions due to extensive screening programmeof cervical Pap smear examination. HPV infection is a known etiological agent for cervical cancer. HIV infected women are at higher risk of contracting HPV infection due to immune compromised status. Objective: Present study has been undertaken mainly to detect precancerous & cancerous lesions as well as inflammatory lesions in female patients living with HIV & to emphasize the fact that Pap smear examination should be established as a part of routine protocol for examination in these women. Methods: The study was carried out on 407 HIV infected females attending Integrated Counseling &Testing Centre of government institute. As controls, 200 females (not falling under high risk category, attending the Obstetrics& Gynecology OPD with various gynecological complaints were taken & results were compared. Results: Squamous cell abnormalities were found about four times high as compared to control group(Pvalue <0.05. High incidences of squamous cell abnormalities were noted in patients with high parity (parity three or more. Conlcusion: Regular gynecological examination including Pap smear examinations is highly recommended for HIV infected females.Pap smear examination is a simple, cheap, safe & practical diagnostic tool for early detection of cervical cancer in high risk population. [National J of Med Res 2012; 2(1.000: 81-84

  15. Who is getting Pap smears in urban Peru?

    OpenAIRE

    Paz Soldan, Valerie A.; Lee, Frank H.; Carcamo, Cesar; Holmes, King K.; Garnett, Geoff P.; Garcia, Patricia

    2008-01-01

    Background Cervical cancer, although usually preventable by Pap smear screening, remains the leading cause of cancer-related deaths among women in Peru. The percentages and characteristics of women in Peru who have or have not had a Pap smear have not been defined.

  16. Comparison of Molecular (PCR and Pap Smear Methods in Diagnosis of Human Papiloma Virus (HPV in Women with Genit al Warts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bashi zadeh Fakhar, H . (M S c

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Much research has shown that Human Papiloma Virus (HPV plays an important role in cervix cancer and it is the cause of 99% of cervix cancer worldwide. Lots of research has been done to find a proper method for HPV diagnosis and screening in patients with genital warts. This study aimed at comparing PCR method with Pap smear test in HPV screening. Material and Methods: Considering the presence of DNA of HPV, 45 vaginal and cervix swap samples of women with genital warts were tested by means of specific PCR and Pap smear from September 2010 to April 2011. Results: Out of 45 vaginal and cervix swap samples of women suffering genital warts, 37 samples (82.2% are positive. Of 45 Pap smear samples, 13 (29% are neoplasia and 32 (71% normal. Conclusion: The difference between the results of PCR and Pap smear is due to low specification and sensitivity of Pap smear. Thus it is recommended using diagnostic PCR method in addition to Pap smear in order to promote the quality of screening in individuals with genital warts. Keywords: Human Papiloma Virus (HPV; Genital Warts; Molecular (PCR; Pap Smear

  17. The probability for a Pap test to be abnormal is directly proportional to HPV viral load: results from a Swiss study comparing HPV testing and liquid-based cytology to detect cervical cancer precursors in 13?842 women

    OpenAIRE

    Bigras, G.; Marval, F.

    2005-01-01

    In a study involving 13?842 women and 113 gynaecologists, liquid-based cytology and HPV testing for detecting cervical cancer were compared. A total of 1334 women were found to be positive for one or both tests and were invited for colposcopy with biopsy. A total of 1031 satisfactory biopsies on 1031 women were thereafter collected using a systematic biopsy protocol, which was random in the colposcopically normal-appearing cervix or directed in the abnormal one. In all, 502 women with negat...

  18. Preoperative serum PSA and PAP levels and survival in curative prostatic cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aim: It has been established that PSA and PAP are useful tumor markers in diagnosis and therapy follow-up of prostatic cancer. In this work we retrospectively evaluated whether there exists a relationship between preoperative PSA and PAP values and survival of patients following the transurethral resection of prostate. Material and Methods: It has been done a mainly simultaneous radioimmunoassay of PSA and PAP in 52 and 49 patients with carcinoma of prostate, respectively. Survival curves were computed by Kaplan-Meier method. Difference between 2 groups of patients were estimated by log rank test. Results: The values of PSA and PAP ranged 0,3-325,2 ng/ml (median 52,3) and 0,1-204,0 ng/ml (median 6,1), respectively. The mean survival time was 33,9±4,2 months (median 26,4±2,6). Based on optimal decision level in differentiation BPH and prostatic cancer, the patients were divided into 2 groups: PSA36,0ng/ml, PAP4,5ng/ml. No significant difference between survival curves was found concerning of PSA and PAP levels. However, in age groups70 years (age ratio 1,03) the mean survival was 45,05±6,23 (median 29,60±2,26) and 22,09±2,98(median 22,80±3,21 months, respectively. The difference is significant (p=0,002). The geometric mean values of PSA in 70 years group are 45,1 ng/ml and 24,1 ng/ml, respectively. The difference is significant (p70 years group are 7,8 ng/ml and 6,7 ng/ml, reroup are 7,8 ng/ml and 6,7 ng/ml, respectively. No significant difference. Conclusion: It couldn't be proved that preoperative PSA and PAP levels are prognostic indicators. Examination of age ranges reveals significant survival difference between age groups 70 years indicating age effect on survival

  19. Comparison of Visual Inspection with acetic acid and Pap smear in cervical cancer screening at a tertiary care hospital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To determine the accuracy of visual inspection with acetic acid in comparison with Pap smear against colposcopic directed biopsy, for detection of pre-cancerous lesion. Methods: The comparative cross-sectional study was conducted at the Maternal and Child Health Centre (MCHC), Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences (PIMS), Islamabad, from January to December 2010. Every married women with age range 19 to 51 years underwent conventional cytology and visual inspection with 5% acetic acid. Distinct acetowhite areas were taken as positive, while cervical intra-epithelial neoplasia on cytology was labelled as Pap smear positive. Colposcopic directed biopsy was taken as the gold standard. SPSS 13 was used for statistical analysis. Results: Of 519 subjects, 70(13.4%) were screened positive and 29(5.6%) were biopsy positive for cervical intra-epithelial neoplasia. Of these, 26(37.1 %) were positive on visual inspection; 14 (20 %) on cytology; and 30 (42.8%) on combined test. The sensitivity of visual inspection was 78.5% vs 61.1% for Pap smear (p<0.001). The specificity of visual inspection was 99.3% vs 99.4% for cytology (p<0.1). Significantly higher sensitivity and specificity was found for the combined test than either of the two alone; 93.1% and 99.1% respectively (p<0.001). The positive predictive value of visual inspection vs pap was 84.6% vs 78.5% (p<0.001) and negative predictive value was 98.6% vs 96.5% (p<0.1). Both values of combined test were significanth values of combined test were significantly higher than either of the two tests alone (p<0.01). Conclusion: Visual inspection with acetic acid has significantly higher sensitivity than Pap smear and may replace pap smear as a primary screening tool for universal screening. Combined test with higher predictive accuracy may be used for opportunistic screening. (author)

  20. Improving follow-up after an abnormal pap smear: results from a quasi-experimental intervention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, C P; Bastani, R; Belin, T R; Marcus, A; Nasseri, K; Hu, M Y

    2000-09-01

    The success of cervical cancer control programs depends on regular screening with the Pap smear test and prompt and appropriate treatment of early neoplastic lesions. Recognizing the potentially grave consequences of lack of follow-up for abnormal Pap smears, numerous intervention studies have tested the impact of a variety of strategies to increase return for follow-up. The majority of these studies were evaluated under controlled experimental conditions. Despite the encouraging findings of these trials, the next step in the research continuum requires that the effectiveness of these interventions be demonstrated in real world settings before full implementation is initiated. We report the results of an evaluation study assessing the combined effectiveness of three intervention modalities found effective in prior randomized studies: a tracking follow-up protocol, transportation incentives, and financial incentives. This study used a before-after, nonequivalent control group design to assess the impact of a multifaceted intervention that included a computerized tracking protocol with transportation and financial incentives. The study was implemented at two major hospitals, two comprehensive health centers (CHC), and nine public health centers (PHC) under the jurisdiction of the Los Angeles County Department of Health Services. One hospital, one CHC, and the four PHC located in the catchment area of the CHC were selected as experimental sites. The control sites - one hospital, one CHC, and five PHC - provided usual care. All women with an abnormal Pap smear at the intervention and control sites were included in the study. The study consisted of a 1-year period of baseline data collection (September 1989-August 1990), followed by a 2(1/2)-year intervention period (September 1990-February 1993). During the intervention period, the intervention protocol was implemented at the experimental sites, and the control sites provided usual care. Overall, we found that the rates of receipt of follow-up care were consistent with those found in similar studies. In contrast to results obtained in these prior randomized trials, we did not find strong and consistent evidence for intervention effects. Significant findings emerged only at the CHC and hospital levels and only for selected years. Results underscore the importance of testing interventions in real world conditions before large-scale implementation is initiated. In addition, this study highlights the challenge of detecting intervention effects in large-scale studies because of the greater measurement difficulties in field studies as compared with controlled experiments. PMID:11025870

  1. Experience obtained from construction and preliminary test of in-core structure test section (T-2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The in-core structure test section (T2) in Helium Engineering Demonstration Loop (HENDEL) simulates a part of the core bottom structure with the same scale as that of a very high temperature reactor (VHTR) in JAERI. The main objectives of T2 are to verify the following items by testing under the same condition as that of the VHTR : (1) sealing performance through the side gaps between permanent reflector blocks, and inspection of an accuracy in fabrication, (2) insulation performance of the carbon blocks, (3) mixing characteristic of the hot plenum, (4) structural integrity of the core bottom structure. The design and construction of T2 were started in March 1983, and a preliminary test was carried out in June 1986. In the construction of T2, a fabricating technology of the graphite blocks and electric graphite pipe heater for raising up the temperature of the helium gas was developed as well as that of another metal structure. Especially, the technology of the graphite blocks is thought to be prime importance to achieve the outlet coolant temperature of 950 deg C. If the side gap between the reflector blocks around the core were wider than 0.2 mm, the outlet temperature would become lower than 950 deg C because of leaking cold coolant gas. The preliminary test revealed that the flow rate of leakage was about 30 % of the expected value, because the gap was about 1/5 of the design value of 0.2 mm. These data would be useful fue of 0.2 mm. These data would be useful for licensing and design work of the VHTR. (author)

  2. Testing for HPV

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... HPV test, what does it mean? Testing for HPV What’s the difference between a Pap test and an HPV test? A Pap test is used to find ... HPV is found. Should I be tested for HPV? If you are a woman under age 30 ...

  3. Papshop: Not a 'melon'choly Pap smear workshop!

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    C, Gordon.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available As Head of Undergraduate Education in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology at the University of Cape Town, South Africa, I have a particular interest in the competencies needed to perform primary care gynaecological procedures, one of which is the Pap smear. I was approached by a group of ke [...] en volunteer students to assist with Pap smear training to roll out a pilot screening programme at studentrun after-hours clinics in Cape Town and at volunteer rural health promotion clinics. This article describes a novel approach to teaching the Pap smear technique, using fruit and toilet rolls, which can easily be replicated in resource-constrained areas. Students branded the workshops as 'Papshops', and the name has stuck. Increasing numbers of students are now taught by peers already trained in prior Papshops, thereby expanding the teaching workforce. To date, during 2013 - 2014, Papshop students have performed almost 300 Pap smears for eligible women in under-resourced areas.

  4. Perception and Experience of Primary Care Physicians on Pap Smear Screening for Women with Intellectual Disabilities: A Preliminary Finding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jin-Ding; Sung, Chang-Lin; Lin, Lan-Ping; Liu, Ta-Wen; Lin, Pei-Ying; Chen, Li-Mei; Chu, Cordia M.; Wu, Jia-Ling

    2010-01-01

    This study aims to establish evidence-based data to explore the perceptions and experience of primary care physicians in the Pap smear screening provision for women with intellectual disabilities (ID), and to analyze the associated factors in the delivery of screening services to women with ID in Taiwan. Data obtained by a cross-sectional survey…

  5. Cervical cancer screening in primary health care setting in Sudan: a comparative study of visual inspection with acetic acid and Pap smear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim A

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Ahmed Ibrahim1, Arja R Aro1, Vibeke Rasch2, Eero Pukkala3,41Unit for Health Promotion Research, University of Southern Denmark, Esbjerg, Denmark; 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Odense University Hospital, Odense, Denmark; 3Finnish Cancer Registry, Institute for Statistical and Epidemiological Cancer Research, Helsinki, Finland; 4School of Public Health, University of Tampere, Tampere, FinlandObjective: To determine the feasibility of visual inspection with the use of acetic acid (VIA as a screening method for cervical cancer, an alternative to the Pap smear used in primary health care setting in Sudan, and to compare sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, and histological diagnosis of positive cases of both tests.Methods: A cross-sectional study of 934 asymptomatic women living in Khartoum, Sudan, was conducted during 2009–2010. A semi-structured questionnaire containing socio-economic and reproductive variables was used to collect data from each participant. Methods of screening used were VIA and conventional Pap smear, followed by colposcopy and biopsy for confirmation of the positive results of both screening tests.Results: The tests identified altogether 119 (12.7% positive women. VIA detected significantly more positive women than Pap smear (7.6% versus 5.1%; P = 0.004, with an overlap between the two screening tests in 19% of positive results. There was no significant difference between VIA and Pap smear findings and sociodemographic and reproductive factors among screened women. Use of colposcopy and biopsy for positive women confirmed that 88/119 (73.9% were positive for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. VIA had higher sensitivity than Pap smear (74.2% versus 72.9%; P = 0.05 respectively. Out of 88 confirmed positive cases, 22 (25.0% cases were invasive cervical cancer in stage 1, of which 19 versus three were detected by VIA and Pap smear respectively (P = 0.001. VIA had higher sensitivity and lower specificity than Pap smear (60.2% versus 47.7% and (41.9% versus 83.8% respectively. The combination of VIA/Pap has better sensitivity and specificity than each independent test (82.6% and 92.2%.Conclusion: The findings of this study showed that VIA has higher sensitivity and lower specificity compared to Pap smear, but a combination of both tests has greater sensitivity and specificity than each test independently. It indicates that VIA is useful for screening of cervical cancer in the primary health care setting in Sudan, but positive results need to be confirmed by colposcopy and biopsy.Keywords: cervical, cancer, screening, VIA, Pap smear, colposcopy, sensitivity, specificity, predictive value, primary health care setting

  6. Molecular testing of human papillomavirus in cervical specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective was to improve the diagnosis of cervical neoplasia by early detection of human papillomavirus (HPV) in uterine cervix, by adding molecular testing of HPV using hybrid capture 2 (HC2) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) tests to Papanicoalou (Pap) test. One hundred women were enrolled in this study. The mean age (mean+-SD) was 41.97+- 8.76 years and range was 27-65 years. All women had undergone cervical cytological screening with cervical cytology, HPV DNA testing by HC2 and PCR, during the period from January to December 2006, at King Abdul-Aziz University Hospital (KAAUH) and King Fahd research Center, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. The results were obtained by HC2 for detection of HPV were 5(5%) high-risk HPV, one low-risk HPV (1%) and 94(94%) negative cases. The PCR detected only 4(4%) cases. Using the HC2 test as a reference, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive, negative predictive values and accuracy of base line Pap were 50, 85, 17.7, 96.4 and 83%; of final Pap smear were 100, 96.8, 66.7, 100, and 97% and for PCR were 66.7, 100, 100, 97.9 and 98%. The Pap test was repeated within a year for patients with abnormal Pap test with positive HPV DNA. Combined screening by cytology and HPV testing using both HC2 and PCR sensitively detects women with existing disease. The absence of HPV DNA provides reassurance that patients are unlikely to develop cancer for several years. We suggest using Pap with HC2 and PCR in screening programs to ensure that women witcreening programs to ensure that women with the double negative result at baseline might safely be screened at longer intervals. (author)

  7. Test of irradiation of tellurium oxide for obtaining iodine-131 by dry distillation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the purpose of optimizing to the maximum independently the work of the reactor of those mathematical calculations of irradiation that are already optimized, now it corresponds to carry out irradiation tests in the different positions with their respective neutron fluxes that it counts the reactor for samples irradiation. Then, it is necessary to carry out the irradiation of the tellurium dioxide through cycles, with the purpose of observing the activity that it goes accumulating in each cycle and this way to obtain an activity of the Iodine-131 obtained when finishing the last cycle. (Author)

  8. COMPARISON OF MAXIMUM HEART RATE OBTAINED IN TESTS TREADMILL AND FIELD IN HEALTHY MEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sílvio Anderson Toledo Fernandes

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available CERQUEIRA, M.S. ; PRIMO, P.G. ; FERNANDES, S.A.T. ; MARINS, J.C.B. Comparison of maximum heart rate obtained in tests treadmill and field in healthy men. Brazilian Journal of Biomotricity. v. 6, n. 1, p. 18-24, 2012. The aim of this study were to compare the response of maximum heart rate (MHR to two treadmill protocols (Bruce et al.; Balke and Ware and one of field (2,400 m. of the Cooper. The sample was composed by thirty subjects of masculine gender (22,9 ± 2,45 years old university students. To determine the differences between MHR was chosen for the test of analysis Anova One Way, followed by verification of post-hot Tukey. The results of MHR protocols were Balke and Ware 186.8 ± 7.7 bpm, Bruce et al. 190.9 ± 7.6 bpm, 194.2 ± 8.6 bpm Cooper. The values of the MHR test of Bruce et al. and Cooper showed no statistically significant difference, while the MHR test of Balke and Ware was significantly lower than that of the Cooper test. We conclude that both the Cooper and the protocol of Bruce et al. are adequate to determine the FCM in the sample, while the Balke and Ware test underestimates the FCM, and is not suitable for its determination.

  9. Analysis of results obtained from field tracing test under natural rain condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As one of the tests arranged by the cooperative research between CIRP and JAERI, field tracing tests using 3H, 60Co, 85Sr and 134Cs were conducted in pits at the CIRP's field test site located on a loess tableland under natural rain condition. Precipitation amount and evaporation rate were measured to study complicated spatial-temporal behavior of soil water movement under that condition. The evaporation rate was obtained through an analysis on the measured data by a combined method of heat balance and eddy correlation. Numerical model, that is based on piston flow assumption of soil water movement, was developed and applied to determine the behavior of the soil water movement in the pits. Using the determined water movement, 3H migration was evaluated by numerical simulation. Change of 3H distribution as a function of elapsed time as well explained by careful evaluation of the soil water movement that carried out before the analysis. (5 figs.)

  10. Get Tested for Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... smear) is done in a doctor’s office or clinic. Most deaths from cervical cancer can be prevented if women get regular Pap tests. A Pap test can ... and treated. Cervical cancer is more common in women over age 30. The cervix connects the uterus (or womb) ... test. Call a doctor’s office or local health clinic to schedule your Pap test and pelvic exam. ...

  11. Cervical cancer screening in primary health care setting in Sudan : a comparative study of visual inspection with acetic acid and Pap smear

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibrahim, Ahmed; Aro, Arja R

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the feasibility of visual inspection with the use of acetic acid (VIA) as a screening method for cervical cancer, an alternative to the Pap smear used in primary health care setting in Sudan, and to compare sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, and histological diagnosis of positive cases of both tests. METHODS: A cross-sectional study of 934 asymptomatic women living in Khartoum, Sudan, was conducted during 2009-2010. A semi-structured questionnaire containing socio-economic and reproductive variables was used to collect data from each participant. Methods of screening used were VIA and conventional Pap smear, followed by colposcopy and biopsy for confirmation of the positive results of both screening tests. RESULTS: The tests identified altogether 119 (12.7%) positive women. VIA detected significantly more positive women than Pap smear (7.6% versus 5.1%; P = 0.004), with an overlap between the two screening tests in 19% of positive results. There was nosignificant difference between VIA and Pap smear findings and sociodemographic and reproductive factors among screened women. Use of colposcopy and biopsy for positive women confirmed that 88/119 (73.9%) were positive for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. VIA had higher sensitivity than Pap smear (74.2% versus 72.9%; P = 0.05) respectively. Out of 88 confirmed positive cases, 22 (25.0%) cases were invasive cervical cancer in stage 1, of which 19 versus three were detected by VIA and Pap smear respectively (P = 0.001). VIA had higher sensitivity and lower specificity than Pap smear (60.2% versus 47.7%) and (41.9% versus 83.8%) respectively. The combination of VIA/Pap has better sensitivity and specificity than each independent test (82.6% and 92.2%). CONCLUSION: The findings of this study showed that VIA has higher sensitivity and lower specificity compared to Pap smear, but a combination of both tests has greater sensitivity and specificity than each test independently. It indicates that VIA is useful forscreening of cervical cancer in the primary health care setting in Sudan, but positive results need to be confirmed by colposcopy and biopsy.

  12. Analysis of data obtained in two-phase flow tests of primary heat transport pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report analyzes data obtained in two-phase flow tests of primary heat transport pumps performed during the period 1980-1983. Phenomena which have been known to cause pump-induced flow oscillations in pressurized piping systems under two-phase conditions are reviewed and the data analyzed to determine whether any of the identified phenomena could have been responsible for the instabilities observed in those tests. Tentative explanations for the most severe instabilities are given based on those analyses. It is shown that suction pipe geometry probably plays an important role in promoting instabilities, so additional experiments to investigate the effect of suction pipe geometry on the stability of flow in a closed pipe loop under two-phase conditions are recommended

  13. Report of test and research results on atomic energy obtained in national institutes in fiscal 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As for the test and research on the utilization of atomic energy in national institutes, the budget was appropriated for the first time in fiscal year 1956, and since then, the many valuable results of research have been obtained so far in the diversified fields of nuclear fusion, safety research, the irradiation of foods, medicine and others, thus the test and research accomplished the large role for promoting the utilization of atomic energy in Japan. In this report, the gists of the results of the test and research on the utilization of atomic energy carried out by national institutes in fiscal year 1985 are collected. No.1 of this report was published in 1960, and this is No.26. It is desired to increase the understanding about the recent trend and the results of the test and research on atomic energy utilization with this book. The researches on nuclear fusion, engineering safety and environmental radioactivity safety, the irradiation of foods, the countermeasures against cancer, fertilized soil, the quality improvement of brewing and farm products, the protection of farm products and the improvement of breeding, diagnosis and medical treatment, pharmaceuticals, environmental hygiene, the application to physiology and pathology, radiochemistry, radiation measurement, process analysis, nuclear reactor materials, nuclear powered ships, civil engineering, radioactivation analysis and injury prevention are reported. (Kako, I.))

  14. Continuous stress-induced dopamine dysregulation augments PAP-I and PAP-II expression in melanotrophs of the pituitary gland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konishi, Hiroyuki, E-mail: konishi@med.osaka-cu.ac.jp [Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka (Japan); The 21st Century COE Program ' Base to Overcome Fatigue' , Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka (Japan); Department of Anatomy and Neuroscience, Nagoya University, Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya (Japan); Ogawa, Tokiko, E-mail: togawa@med.osaka-cu.ac.jp [Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka (Japan); The 21st Century COE Program ' Base to Overcome Fatigue' , Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka (Japan); Kawahara, Shinichi, E-mail: kawahara@med.osaka-cu.ac.jp [Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka (Japan); Matsumoto, Sakiko, E-mail: s-matsumoto@med.osaka-cu.ac.jp [Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka (Japan); Department of Anatomy and Neuroscience, Nagoya University, Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya (Japan); Kiyama, Hiroshi, E-mail: kiyama@med.osaka-cu.ac.jp [Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka (Japan); The 21st Century COE Program ' Base to Overcome Fatigue' , Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka (Japan); Department of Anatomy and Neuroscience, Nagoya University, Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya (Japan)

    2011-04-01

    Research highlights: {yields} We focused on the rat pituitary intermediate lobe (IL) under continuous stress (CS). {yields} CS induced PAP-I and PAP-II expression in melanotrophs of the IL. {yields} This gene induction was triggered by CS-related dopamine dysregulation. {yields} PAP-I and PAP-II may sustain homeostasis of the IL under CS. -- Abstract: Under continuous stress (CS) in rats, melanotrophs, the predominant cell-type in the intermediate lobe (IL) of the pituitary, are hyperactivated to secrete {alpha}-melanocyte-stimulating hormone and thereafter degenerate. Although these phenomena are drastic, the molecular mechanisms underlying the cellular changes are mostly unknown. In this study, we focused on the pancreatitis-associated protein (PAP) family members of the secretory lectins and characterized their expression in the IL of CS model rats because we had identified two members of this family as up-regulated genes in our previous microarray analysis. RT-PCR and histological studies demonstrated that prominent PAP-I and PAP-II expression was induced in melanotrophs in the early stages of CS, while another family member, PAP-III, was not expressed. We further examined the regulatory mechanisms of PAP-I and PAP-II expression and revealed that both were induced by the decreased dopamine levels in the IL under CS. Because the PAP family members are implicated in cell survival and proliferation, PAP-I and PAP-II secreted from melanotrophs may function to sustain homeostasis of the IL under CS conditions in an autocrine or a paracrine manner.

  15. Continuous stress-induced dopamine dysregulation augments PAP-I and PAP-II expression in melanotrophs of the pituitary gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research highlights: ? We focused on the rat pituitary intermediate lobe (IL) under continuous stress (CS). ? CS induced PAP-I and PAP-II expression in melanotrophs of the IL. ? This gene induction was triggered by CS-related dopamine dysregulation. ? PAP-I and PAP-II may sustain homeostasis of the IL under CS. -- Abstract: Under continuous stress (CS) in rats, melanotrophs, the predominant cell-type in the intermediate lobe (IL) of the pituitary, are hyperactivated to secrete ?-melanocyte-stimulating hormone and thereafter degenerate. Although these phenomena are drastic, the molecular mechanisms underlying the cellular changes are mostly unknown. In this study, we focused on the pancreatitis-associated protein (PAP) family members of the secretory lectins and characterized their expression in the IL of CS model rats because we had identified two members of this family as up-regulated genes in our previous microarray analysis. RT-PCR and histological studies demonstrated that prominent PAP-I and PAP-II expression was induced in melanotrophs in the early stages of CS, while another family member, PAP-III, was not expressed. We further examined the regulatory mechanisms of PAP-I and PAP-II expression and revealed that both were induced by the decreased dopamine levels in the IL under CS. Because the PAP family members are implicated in cell survival and proliferation, PAP-I and PAP-II secreted from melanotrophs may function to sustain homeostasis of the IL under CS conditions in an autocrine or a paracrine manner.

  16. Selective indication for positive airway pressure (PAP) in sleep-related breathing disorders with obstruction

    OpenAIRE

    Stasche, Norbert

    2006-01-01

    Positive airway pressure (PAP) is the therapy of choice for most sleep-related breathing disorders (SRBD). A variety of PAP devices using positive airway pressure (CPAP, BiPAP, APAP, ASV) must be carefully considered before application. This overview aims to provide criteria for choosing the optimal PAP device according to severity and type of sleep-related breathing disorder. In addition, the range of therapeutic applications, constraints and side effects as well as alternative methods to PA...

  17. Test plan: Air intake shaft performance test -- Addendum for obtaining cores in the Culebra for radionuclide retardation studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Core samples are needed for obtaining data on radionuclide retardation. The cores will be used to first determine local basic properties of Culebra rock such as permeability, structural integrity, fracture spacing, and fracture size. These quantities will then be used to design a laboratory experimental program to determine radionuclide retardation in a column flow apparatus using the cores obtained in this project. This addendum covers only the coring activities necessary to retrieve Culebra cores. The laboratory work will be documented in a separate test plan. It is anticipated that Culebra rock samples will be highly fractured, with a fracture spacing on the order of 2 to 3 inches To obtain representative core samples that are intact, horizontal cores about 6 inches in diameter and several feet long will be needed. These cores will provide a good indication of Culebra rock fracturing and provide several samples needed to conduct column flow experiments. If the rock is so fractured that only rubble is obtained, then the rubble will be used in the column experiments. In addition, as a byproduct of the coring operation, natural groundwater collected from the holes will be used to develop a synthetic brine for the laboratory experiments

  18. 14 CFR 61.307 - What tests do I have to take to obtain a sport pilot certificate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...What tests do I have to take to obtain a sport pilot certificate? 61.307 Section...FLIGHT INSTRUCTORS, AND GROUND INSTRUCTORS Sport Pilots § 61.307 What tests do I have to take to obtain a sport pilot certificate? To obtain a...

  19. Missed Opportunities for Health Education on Pap Smears in Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayer, Angela M.; Nussbaum, Lauren; Cabrera, Lilia; Paz-Soldan, Valerie A.

    2011-01-01

    Despite cervical cancer being one of the leading causes of cancer-related deaths among women in Peru, cervical Pap smear coverage is low. This article uses findings from 185 direct clinician observations in four cities of Peru (representing the capital and each of the three main geographic regions of the country) to assess missed opportunities for…

  20. Study of Pap smear and other feasible tests among self reported symptomatic married women in reproductive age group (15-49 yrs) regarding reproductive tract infections in a rural community of Maharashtra

    OpenAIRE

    Chavan, Smita S.; Giri, Purushottam A.; Singh, Vijaykumar S.; Shantha Sankaranarayan

    2013-01-01

    Background: Reproductive tract infections (RTIs) represent a major public health problem in developing countries. Integrating RTIs/STIs management and early detection of cervical dysplasia in broader reproductive health services can improve women?s health. The objectives of the study were 1. To study the association of socio-demographic & reproductive factors among self-reported symptomatic women for reproductive tract infections. 2. To carry out clinical examination & feasible tests lik...

  1. 77 FR 72905 - Pipeline Safety: Random Drug Testing Rate; Contractor MIS Reporting; and Obtaining DAMIS Sign-In...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-06

    ...Random Drug Testing Rate; Contractor MIS Reporting; and Obtaining DAMIS Sign-In...reminder for operators to report contractor MIS data, and new method for operators to obtain...submissions of Management Information System (MIS) reports required by Sec....

  2. Epidemiological Study of pap Genes among Diarrheagenic or Septicemic Escherichia coli Strains Producing CS31A and F17 Adhesins and Characterization of Pap31A Fimbriae

    OpenAIRE

    Bertin, Yolande; Girardeau, Jean-Pierre; Darfeuille-Michaud, Arlette; Martin, Christine

    2000-01-01

    The association of the pap operon with the CS31A and F17 adhesins was studied with 255 Escherichia coli strains isolated from calves, lambs, or humans with diarrhea. The three classes of PapG adhesin with different receptor binding preferences were also screened. The pap operon was associated with 50 and 36% of human strains that produced CS31A and ovine strains that produced F17, respectively. Among the bovine isolates, the pap operon was detected in 61% of the CS31A-positive isolates and 72...

  3. [Cloning of DNA fragments of the genetic transfer factor pAP39].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krivskaia, K S; Medvedkova, N A; Pekhov, A P

    1986-10-01

    Large HindIII digested fragments of the plasmid pAP39 have been cloned on the cosmid vector pHC79. The study of the structure of HindIII fragments of plasmid pAP39 in the recombinant plasmids has shown that these fragments are represented by f1 + f2 fragments from the plasmid pAP1055, by f1 + f6 fragments from the plasmid pAP1056, by f2 + f3 fragments from the plasmid pAP1057 and by two f3 fragment from the plasmid pAP1058. Physical maps of the recombinant plasmids have been constructed. The plasmid pAP39 is shown to contain two functionally active tra regions. PMID:3025681

  4. Cervical and Vaginal Cancer Screening (Pap Test and Pelvic Exam)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... directives & long-term care Electronic prescribing Electronic Health Records (EHRs) Download claims with Medicare’s Blue Button Coordinating your care Forms, Help, & Resources Find health & drug plans Find doctors, hospitals, & facilities Get help paying costs ...

  5. Inhibition of pokeweed antiviral protein (PAP) by turnip mosaic virus genome-linked protein (VPg).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domashevskiy, Artem V; Miyoshi, Hiroshi; Goss, Dixie J

    2012-08-24

    Pokeweed antiviral protein (PAP) from Phytolacca americana is a ribosome-inactivating protein (RIP) and an RNA N-glycosidase that removes specific purine residues from the sarcin/ricin loop of large rRNA, arresting protein synthesis at the translocation step. PAP is also a cap-binding protein and is a potent antiviral agent against many plant, animal, and human viruses. To elucidate the mechanism of RNA depurination, and to understand how PAP recognizes and targets various RNAs, the interactions between PAP and turnip mosaic virus genome-linked protein (VPg) were investigated. VPg can function as a cap analog in cap-independent translation and potentially target PAP to uncapped IRES-containing RNA. In this work, fluorescence spectroscopy and HPLC techniques were used to quantitatively describe PAP depurination activity and PAP-VPg interactions. PAP binds to VPg with high affinity (29.5 nm); the reaction is enthalpically driven and entropically favored. Further, VPg is a potent inhibitor of PAP depurination of RNA in wheat germ lysate and competes with structured RNA derived from tobacco etch virus for PAP binding. VPg may confer an evolutionary advantage by suppressing one of the plant defense mechanisms and also suggests the possible use of this protein against the cytotoxic activity of ribosome-inactivating proteins. PMID:22773840

  6. Genetic tests obtainable through pharmacies: the good, the bad, and the ugly

    OpenAIRE

    Patrinos, George P.; Baker, Darrol J; Al-Mulla, Fahd; VASILIOU, VASILIS; Cooper, David N.

    2013-01-01

    Genomic medicine seeks to exploit an individual’s genomic information in the context of guiding the clinical decision-making process. In the post-genomic era, a range of novel molecular genetic testing methodologies have emerged, allowing the genetic testing industry to grow at a very rapid pace. As a consequence, a considerable number of different private diagnostic testing laboratories now provide a wide variety of genetic testing services, often employing a direct-to-consumer (DTC) busin...

  7. OTTO-PAP: An alternative option to the PBMR fuelling philosophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Once Through Then Out, Power Adjusted by Poison (OTTO-PAP) fuelling of a high temperature pebble-bed reactor offers a simple alternative to the MEDUL (Mehrfachdurchlauf = German for multi-pass) fuelling regime followed in pebble bed reactor designs to date. The prerequisite for a modular reactor unit of maximum power output, subject to observing passive safety characteristics is a sufficiently flat axial neutron flux profile. This is achieved by introducing B4C coated particles of pre-calculated size and packing density within the fuel spheres. In accordance with AVR operating practise the temperature profile is radially equalised by introducing a 2-zone core loading. Adding pure graphite spheres loosely into the centre column area of the core effectively reduced the maximum power in the middle. Increasing the reactor diameter is enabled by the introduction of noses. A 3-D geometric modeller developed in cylindrical co-ordinates enables a given flow description of the pebbles adjacent to the nose boundaries and in the vicinity of the shut down/control rods. After translation of the geometric data the neutronic behaviour of the reactor is followed in 3-D by the CITATION code. This study is aimed towards achieving an optimal core layout with a LEU (Low Enriched Uranium) fuel cycle. Physical properties of the OTTO-PAP, 150 MWt reference design is reported, while computations performed observe results obtained by the reference HTR-MODUL design. (author)

  8. Serum and urinary measurements of prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP) and prostatic specific antigen (PSA) in dogs / Mensurações sérica e urinária de fosfatase ácida prostática e antígeno prostático específico em cães

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    R.L., Amorim; V.M.B.D., Moura; G.W., Di Santis; E.P., Bandarra; C., Padovani.

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Realizaram-se mensurações sérica e urinária de fosfatase ácida prostática (PAP) e antígeno prostático específico (PSA) de 20 cães. Os testes de PAP e PSA foram feitos em um equipamento automatizado, com o uso de kits comerciais para humanos. A média de PAP sérico foi de 0,7U/l e urinário 0,U/l. As m [...] édias do PSA sérico e urinário foram 0,005ng/dL e 0,004ng/dl, respectivamente. A determinação do dois biomarcadores in vivo é uma nova opção de diagnóstico na medicina veterinária e os valores obtidos devem ser correlacionados com a lesão morfológica da próstata. Abstract in english Serum and urinary prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP) and prostatic specific antigen (PSA) from 20 dogs were measured. PAP and PSA tests were carried out in authomatized equipment with commercial kits used for humans. Mean PAP serum value was 0.7U/l and urinary 0.1U/l. Mean serum and urinary PSA were 0 [...] .005ng/dl and 0.004ng/dl, respectively. In vivo determination of these two biomarkers in dogs is a new form of diagnosis in veterinary medicine and these values should be correlated with the morphological lesion of the prostate gland.

  9. Intelligent and nature inspired optimization methods in medicine : The Pap smear cell classification problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marinakis, Yannis; Marinaki, Magdalene

    2009-01-01

    The classification problem consists of using some known objects, usually described by a large vector of features, to induce a model that classifies others into known classes. Feature selection is widely used as the first stage of the classification task to reduce the dimension of the problem, decrease noise and improve speed by the elimination of irrelevant or redundant features. The present paper deals with the optimization of nearest neighbour classifiers via intelligent and nature inspired algorithms for a very significant medical problem, the Pap smear cell classification problem. The algorithms used include tabu search, genetic algorithms, particle swarm optimization and ant colony optimization. The proposed complete algorithmic scheme is tested on two sets of data. The first consists of 917 images of Pap smear cells and the second set consists of 500 images, classified carefully by expert cyto-technicians and doctors. Each cell is described by 20 numerical features, and the cells fall into seven classesrepresenting a variety of normal and abnormal cases. Nevertheless, from the medical diagnosis viewpoint, a minimum requirement corresponds to the general two-class problem of correct separation between normal and abnormal cells.

  10. New York to let mothers obtain results of infants' HIV tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-10-20

    In March of 1995, the Association to Benefit Children (ABC) filed suit to ask the Supreme Court of the State of New York to overturn the State's practice of testing newborns for HIV but not informing the mothers of the test results. This practice, known as blind screening, was initiated to assess the incidence and prevalence of HIV in the State. Since 1987, the New York Health Department has been screening all newborns for evidence of HIV antibodies; positive test results were not disclosed to the baby's parents or legal guardians. New York Governor George Pataki and Attorney General Dennis Vacco announced the settlement of the lawsuit on October 10, 1995. Gretchen Buchenholz, director of the ABC, explained that under the new policy, doctors would be required to advise parents and guardians of the availability of test results. AIDS advocates argue that required testing of newborns amounts to mandatory testing of all pregnant women. PMID:11362839

  11. Genetic tests obtainable through pharmacies: the good, the bad, and the ugly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrinos, George P; Baker, Darrol J; Al-Mulla, Fahd; Vasiliou, Vasilis; Cooper, David N

    2013-01-01

    Genomic medicine seeks to exploit an individual's genomic information in the context of guiding the clinical decision-making process. In the post-genomic era, a range of novel molecular genetic testing methodologies have emerged, allowing the genetic testing industry to grow at a very rapid pace. As a consequence, a considerable number of different private diagnostic testing laboratories now provide a wide variety of genetic testing services, often employing a direct-to-consumer (DTC) business model to identify mutations underlying (or associated with) common Mendelian disorders, to individualize drug response, to attempt to determine an individual's risk of a multitude of complex (multifactorial) diseases, or even to determine a person's identity. Recently, we have noted a novel trend in the provision of private molecular genetic testing services, namely saliva and buccal swab collection kits (for deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) isolation) being offered for sale over the counter by pharmacies. This situation is somewhat different from the standard DTC genetic testing model, since pharmacists are healthcare professionals who are supposedly qualified to give appropriate advice to their clients. There are, however, a number of issues to be addressed in relation to the marketing of DNA collection kits for genetic testing through pharmacies, namely a requirement for regulatory clearance, the comparative lack of appropriate genetics education of the healthcare professionals involved, and most importantly, the lack of awareness on the part of both the patients and the general public with respect to the potential benefits or otherwise of the various types of genetic test offered, which may result in confusion as to which test could be beneficial in their own particular case. We believe that some form of genetic counseling should ideally be integrated into, and made inseparable from, the genetic testing process, while pharmacists should be obliged to receive some basic training about the genetic tests that they offer for sale. PMID:23835256

  12. DETECTION OF ABNORMAL CERVICAL CYTOLOGY BY PAP’S SMEAR AND COMPARISON BETWEEN RURAL AND URBAN WOMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neelam

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT : BACKGROUND: This study was carried out in department of ob stetrics and gynaecology G.R. Medical College Gwalior (MP. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To study the incidence of malignant and pre malignant cases of cancer cervix in women attending outdoor patient department of G R medical college Gwalior. To find out the role of PAP's smear in early detection of premalignant and early carcinoma cervix and to compare the results between urban and rural women. MATERIAL AND METHOD: a total of 400 subjects were selected attending outdoor patient department of G R medical college G walior with equal number of urban and rural areas. Information about age, parity, age at marriage, complaints, clinical findings, Pap’s smears were prepared and histological interpretations were recorded. RESULTS : Maximum number of patients was in the age group of 31 - 40 years. Mean age at marriage was 17.5 years for woman of rural areas and that for urban woman was 21.5 years. In the rural patients highest number were P2 - P4 (53% followed by > P4 (46.5%. In urban patients too maximum number of patients had parity between P2 - P4 (69.5% followed by > P4 (28.5%. Grand multiparity was seen in 20.5% among rural women as compared to 1.5 % among urban women. Among the rural patients use of barrier method of contraception was only 12% while in urban areas it was 3 0%. Percentage of couples who were not using any contraception was 47.5% in rural area and 33% in urban area. The most common presenting complaint was white discharge among both rural and urban groups (75% vs. 72%. The most common clinical finding was cer vical erosion (57.5% Histopathological interpretation of Pap’s smear revealed cervical squamous epithelial lesions (LSIL and HSIL in 10.5% smears of rural and 4.5% smears of urban women. A total of 4% smears were found positive for malignancy in rural wo men as compared to 1.5% smears in urban women

  13. Cytopathological pattern of cervical Pap smear according to the Bethesda system in Southwestern Saudi Arabia.

    OpenAIRE

    Elhakeem, Howaida A.; Al-ghamdi, Abdulhameed S.; Al-maghrabi, Jaudah A.

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVES Cervical carcinoma is an important women's health problem worldwide. The aim of this study is to evaluate the abnormal cytological entities detected by cervical Pap smear in Al-Baha region of KSA, to reclassify the cytological findings according to the recently recommended Bethesda system and to discuss the significance of Pap smear's screening programs. METHODS A retrospective study was designed to review the Pap smears from the archives of the Department of Pat...

  14. Comparison of fracture energy values obtained from 3PB, WST and CT test configurations.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Holušová, Tá?a; Seitl, Stanislav; Canteli, A.

    Zurich : Trans Tech Publications, 2014 - (Kotrasová, K.; Kormanikova, E.), s. 89-92 ISBN 978-3-03835-147-4. ISSN 1022-6680. - (Advanced Materials Research. 969). [SPACE 2013 - International Conference on Structural and Physical Aspects of Civil Engineering /2./. Štrbské Pleso (SK), 27.11.2013-29.11.2013] R&D Projects: GA ?R(CZ) GAP104/11/0833 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : Fracture energy * Compact tension * Three-point bending test * Wedge-splitting test * Cement-based composite Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics

  15. Results obtained with a Drift Chamber Prototype in the CERN H2 test beam area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The performance of a small size prototype of the CMS barrel muon chamber detector has been studied in a test beam. Results on chamber efficiency, drift velocity and single wire resolution,under different experimental conditions are presented. The effects of the magnetic field on the chamber behaviour are also discussed. (Author)

  16. Report of test and research results on atomic energy obtained in national institutes in fiscal 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The test and research regarding the utilization of atomic energy carried out in national institutions have produced many valuable results in diverse fields so far, such as nuclear fusion, safety research, food irradiation and medicine, since the budget had been appropriated for the first time in 1956. It has accomplished large role in the promotion of atomic energy utilization in Japan. This report is volume 27, in which the results of the test and research on atomic energy utilization carried out by national institutions in fiscal year 1986 are summarized. It is hoped that the understanding about the recent trend and the results of the test and research on atomic energy utilization is further promoted by this report. The contents of this report are nuclear fusion; the research on engineering safety and environmental radioactivity safety; food irradiation; the countermeasures against cancer; fertilized soil, the improvement of quality, the protection of plants and the improvement of breeding in agriculture and fishery fields; diagnosis and medical treatment, pharmaceuticals, environmental hygiene and the application to physiology and pathology in medical field; radiation chemistry and radiation measurement in mining and industry fields; nuclear reactor materials and nuclear-powered ships; civil engineering; radioactivation analysis; and the research on the prevention of injuries. (Kako, I.)

  17. Report of test and research results on atomic energy obtained in national institutes in fiscal 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The test and research regarding the utilization of atomic energy carried out in national institutions have produced many valuable results in diverse fields so far, such as nuclear fusion, safety research, food irradiation and medicine, since the budget had been appropriated for the first time in 1956. It has accomplished large role in the promotion of atomic energy utilization in Japan. This report is Volume 25, in which the results of the test and research on atomic energy utilization carried out by national institutions in fiscal year 1984 are summarized. It is hoped that the understanding about the recent trend and the results of the test and research on atomic energy utilization is further promoted by this report. The contents of this report are nuclear fusion; the research on engineering safety and environmental radioactivity safety; food irradiation; the countermeasures against cancer; fertilized soil, the improvement of quality, the protection of plants and the improvement of breeding in agriculture and fishery fields; diagnosis and medical treatment, pharmaceuticals, environmental hygiene and the application to physiology and pathology in medical field; radiation chemistry and radiation measurement in mining and industry fields; nuclear reactor materials and nuclear-powered ships; civil engineering; radioactivation analysis; and the research on the prevention of injuries. (Kako, I.)

  18. Report of test and research results on atomic energy obtained in national institutes in fiscal 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The test and research on atomic energy utilization in national institutions were begun in 1956, and valuable results have been produced in the fields of nuclear fusion, safety research, food irradiation, medicine and others, thus those have accomplished great roles for the promotion of atomic energy utilization in Japan. Atomic energy technology synthesizes various advanced technologies over wide technical domains, therefore at the time of its research and development, it is important to place emphasis on the creative and innovative regions which cause large technical innovation and in which the effect spreading to general science and technology can be expected. In addition to the test and research according to such recognition, also the basic technology of atomic energy field has been studied. At present foreign countries request Japan to contribute to the development of the world by creating the new technology and knowledge on atomic energy, and national institutions must meet the request. This is the report No. 30, in which the results of the test and research in the fields of nuclear fusion, safety research, food irradiation, the countermeasures to cancer, agriculture, forestry and fishery, medicine, mining and industry, power utilization, construction, radioactivation analysis and advanced basic research, carried out in 1989 are summarized. (J.P.N.)

  19. Report of test and research results on atomic energy obtained in national institutes in fiscal 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As for the test and research on the utilization of atomic energy by national organizations, the budget was appropriated for the first time in fiscal year 1956. Since then, many valuable results of research have been produced in the diverse fields of nuclear fusion, safety research, food irradiation, medicine and others, in this way, the test and research have played large roles in the promotion of the utilization of atomic energy in Japan. This is the 24th report, in which the results of the test and research on the utilization of atomic energy carried out in fiscal year 1983 by national organizations are summarized. 5 researches on nuclear fusion, 19 researches on engineering safety and environmental radioactivity safety, 3 researches on food irradiation, 6 researches on the countermeasures to cancer, 19 researches on agriculture, forestry and fishery, 30 researches on medicine, pharmaceuticals and environmental hygiene, 6 researches on mining and industry, 6 researches on power reactors and nuclear ships, 1 research on agricultural water, 7 researches on activation analysis and 4 researches on injury prevention are reported. (Kako, I.)

  20. Report of test and research results on atomic energy obtained in national institutes in fiscal 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The test and research regarding the utilization of atomic energy carried out in national institutions have produced many valuable results in diverse fields so far, such as nuclear fusion, safety research, food irradiation and medicine, since the budget had been appropriated for the first time in 1956. It has accomplished large role in the promotion of atomic energy utilization in Japan. This report is volume 28, in which the results of the test and research on atomic energy utilization carried out by national institutions in fiscal year 1987 are summarized. It is hoped that the understanding about the recent trend and the results of the test and research on atomic energy utilization is further promoted by this report. The contents of this report are nuclear fusion; the research on engineering safety and environmental radioactivity safety; food irradiation; the countermeasures against cancer; fertilized soil, the improvement of quality, the protection of plants and the improvement of breeding in agriculture and fishery fields; diagnosis and medical treatment, pharmaceuticals, environmental hygiene and the application to physiology and pathology in medical field; radiation measurement and process analysis in mining and industry fields; nuclear reactor materials and nuclear-powered ships; civil engineering; radioactivation analysis; the research on the prevention of injuries; and the basic researches on materials and acessment and reduction of irradiation risk. (J.P.N.)d reduction of irradiation risk. (J.P.N.)

  1. Fluorescence Spectrum and Decay Measurement for Hsil VS Normal Cytology Differentiation in Liquid Pap Smear Supernatant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaitkuviene, A.; Gegzna, V.; Juodkazis, S.; Jursenas, S.; Miasojedovas, S.; Kurtinaitiene, R.; Rimiene, J.; Vaitkus, J.

    2009-06-01

    Cervical smear material contains endo and exocervical cells, mucus and inflammative, immune cells in cases of pathology. Just not destroyed keratinocytes lay on the glass for microscopy. Liquid cytology supernatant apart other diagnostics could be used for photodiagnostic. The spectroscopic parameters suitable for Normal and HSIL cytology groups supernatant differentiation are demonstrated. The dried liquid PAP supernatant fractions—sediment and liquid were investigated. Excitation and emission matrices (EEM), supernatant fluorescence decay measured under 280 nm diode short pulse excitation and fluorescence spectroscopy by excitation with 355 nm laser light were analyzed. The differences between Normal and HSIL groups were statistically proven in the certain spectral regions. Fluorescence decay peculiarities show spectral regions consisting of few fluorophores. Obtained results on fluorescence differences in Normal and HSIL groups' supernatant shows the potency of photodiagnosis application in cervical screening.

  2. Using the Climbing Drum Peel (CDP) Test to Obtain a G(sub IC) value for Core/Facesheet Bonds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nettles, A. T.; Gregory, Elizabeth D.; Jackson, Justin R.

    2006-01-01

    A method of measuring the Mode I fracture toughness of core/facesheet bonds in sandwich Structures is desired, particularly with the widespread use of models that need this data as input. This study examined if a critical strain energy release rate, G(sub IC), can be obtained from the climbing drum peel (CDP) test. The CDP test is relatively simple to perform and does not rely on measuring small crack lengths such as required by the double cantilever beam (DCB) test. Simple energy methods were used to calculate G(sub IC) from CDP test data on composite facesheets bonded to a honeycomb core. Facesheet thicknesses from 2 to 5 plies were tested to examine the upper and lower bounds on facesheet thickness requirements. Results from the study suggest that the CDP test, with certain provisions, can be used to find the GIG value of a core/facesheet bond.

  3. First test of a 1.5 GHz single cell accelerating cavity obtained by magnetron sputtering of niobium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first results of RF tests on a single cell copper niobium cavity operating at 1.5 GHz are presented. The cavity was obtained by spinning an OFHC copper sheet in half cups and tubes. The cavity's components are welded together under vacuum; the so obtained cavity was niobium coated by using a scaled version (to the authors dimension) of the magnetron sputtering system developed at CERN for S/C cavities operating at 350 and 500 MHz. The results of their first tests on two cavities, together with the ancillary measurements performed on several Niobium samples are presented

  4. Effect of Cervical Wiping with Sterile Cotton on the Quality of Pap-smear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahin Kamalifard

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: There are conflicting reports about the effect of wiping cervix with cotton on Pap-smear results. Therefore, we aimed to do a research about this subject. Materials and Methods: 234 eligible women attended to have Pap-smear at an educational hospital in Rasht, Iran, from July to September 2011, were allocated by block randomization into two groups. In the intervention group, we cleaned cervix with a sterile cotton rotating 360 degrees and obtained samples using spatula for exocervix and cytobrush for endocervix. This method was performed without cleaning the cervix on the control group. Data collection, vulvovaginal examination, laboratory assay were done by investigators masked to the group allocation. Participants were also blind. The data were analyzed using logistic regression in SPSS-13.Results: Rate of sufficient endocervical cell of the slides in the intervention group was significantly higher than in the control group (70.3% vs. 57.8%, p=0.03. In the intervention group 42.4% of the slides were satisfactory and 57.6% had limited quality for interpretation. These figures in the control group were 37.1% and 62.9%, respectively. This difference was not statistically significant. Also, there was no significant difference between the groups on rate of slides with inadequacy of squamous cells and obscuring 75% or more of the slides with inflammatory exudate or blood (p>0.05.Conclusion: There were no significant differences between the groups on some quality indicators of the smears. However, frequency of smears with sufficient endocervical cells was higher in the group with cervical wipping. Therefore, it is recommended to clean cervix before obtaining the smears.

  5. Load-bearing capacity of coating–substrate systems obtained from spherical indentation tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ? Complex analysis of deformation and fracture of coating–substrate systems. ? Analysis of load bearing capacity of coating–substrate system-failure mechanisms: substrate yield and coating fracture. ? Analysis of wear at different load conditions. ? TEM and SEM studies of wear mechanisms of coating–substrate systems under contact load. - Abstract: Despite the numerous applications of tribological coatings, a methodology that estimates the load-bearing capacity of coating–substrate systems has not yet been developed. In this paper, the allowable loads for coated surfaces were determined using spherical indentation tests with a 20–500 ?m range of indenter tip radius. Titanium nitride (TiN) coatings, 0.7–2.4 ?m thick, deposited on steel substrates by the pulsed laser deposition (PLD) technique were tested. Indentation results allow to draw the map of deformation of this coating–substrate system and estimate the allowable loads, into avoid the destruction of the system by the substrate yield and coating fracture. Tribological studies, carried out in the ball-on-disc contact, showed a completely different character of wear of the systems for loads below and above the permissible level. The wear process was analyzed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) on thin films prepared from wear tracks by the focus ion beam technique (FIB)

  6. Report of test and research results on atomic energy obtained in national institutes in fiscal 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The tests and researches on the development and utilization of atomic energy in national laboratories were begun in 1956, and have accomplished the great role for the advance of the development and utilization of atomic energy in Japan by having produced many valuable results so far. Atomic energy has been utilized not only in the field of nuclear power but also in diverse fields, and in national laboratories, the research for expanding the development and utilization of atomic energy in medicine, agriculture, forestry, fishery, radioactivation analysis and others in addition the basic research on nuclear fusion have been advanced. Further expecting the pervasive effect to general science and technology, the development of integrated research are promoted from the viewpoint of new technical innovation and creative technology. The safety research of nuclear facilities have been carried out to keep them high level on the basis of the yearly program enacted by Nuclear Safety Commission. This is the report No. 33, in which the results of the test and research in the fields of nuclear fusion safety research, food irradiation, cancer countermeasures, agriculture, forestry, fishery, medicine, mining and manufacture, power utilization, construction, radioactivation analysis carried on in fiscal 1992 are summarized. (J.P.N.)

  7. Report of test and research results on atomic energy obtained in national institutes in fiscal 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The tests and researches on the development and utilization of atomic energy in national laboratories were begun in 1956, and have accomplished the great role for the advance of the development and utilization of atomic energy in Japan by having produced many valuable results so far. Atomic energy has been utilized in diverse fields, and also in national laboratories, the research for expanding the development and utilization of atomic energy in food irradiation, medicine, agriculture, forestry, fishery and others in addition to the basic research on nuclear fusion and safety have been advanced. Further expecting the pervasive effect to general science and technology, the development of basic technology and integrated research are promoted from the viewpoint of new techical innovation and creative technology. This is 31st report in which the results of the tests and researches carried out by national laboratories in fiscal year 1990 are summarized. Nuclear fusion, safety research, food irradiation, cancer countermeasures, agriculture, forestry, fishery, medicine, mining and manufacture, power utilization, construction, radioactivation analysis and so on were the main subjects. (K.I.)

  8. How to obtain J-R curve from one test on one sample

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Operational definition of J concept is first examined. Then it is shown that conventional methods of experimental determination of J values are based on the following assumption: if the load-deflexion curve is known for one value of the crack length it is possible to know the load-deflexion curve for any value of the crack length. This assumption is generalized with the help of scale functions and formula giving J are deduced. Attention is given to the effect of crack propagation on J values. The same assumption is used to extract the crack length from the load-deflexion curve. As the real crack lengths are known before propagation occurs and at the end of the test, it is possible to achieve a good calibration of the material characteristic

  9. Simulation of spectroscopic patterns obtained in W/C test-limiter sputtering experiment at TEXTOR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On the TEXTOR tokamak various experiments aimed at investigation of tungsten erosion and transport are performed. In one experiment a spherical W/C twin limiter positioned close to the last-closed flux surface in the near scrape-off layer was exposed to a number of comparable plasma discharges with stepwise variations of edge plasma parameters. Spatial distribution of tungsten and carbon light emission was recorded with two dimensional CCD cameras and spectrometer systems with high spectral and spatial resolution. Penetration depths, tungsten sputtering fluxes and erosion yields were measured. Comparison between experimental data and the results of modelling with the 3D Monte-Carlo code ERO is performed. The main objective of this study was to test the adequacy of the existing atomic data for neutral tungsten. The modelled penetration depths of the light emission of tungsten are a factor of 2–3 smaller than in experiment, which may indicate the overestimation of ionization rates

  10. Study on uncertainties of radionuclide migration parameter values obtained from in-situ tracer tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is one of the key issues to evaluate the effects of a conceptual model uncertainty and a parameter uncertainty of radionuclide transport on a safety assessment of a high-level nuclear waste disposal. In this paper, the inversion method based on the maximum likelihood concept was developed, and the values and the error variances (uncertainties) of radionuclide transport parameters were identified from a series of conservative and reactive tracer tests carried out in a single fracture at the AEspoe Hard Rock Laboratory in Sweden. From the results, it is found that the parameter uncertainty caused by the model uncertainty is larger than that caused by the fluctuation of the observed breakthrough curve data. (author)

  11. Simulation of spectroscopic patterns obtained in W/C test-limiter sputtering experiment at TEXTOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondratyev, D.; Borodin, D.; Kirschner, A.; Brezinsek, S.; Coenen, J. W.; Laengner, M.; Stoschus, H.; Vainshtein, L.; Pospieszczyk, A.; Samm, U.

    2013-07-01

    On the TEXTOR tokamak various experiments aimed at investigation of tungsten erosion and transport are performed. In one experiment a spherical W/C twin limiter positioned close to the last-closed flux surface in the near scrape-off layer was exposed to a number of comparable plasma discharges with stepwise variations of edge plasma parameters. Spatial distribution of tungsten and carbon light emission was recorded with two dimensional CCD cameras and spectrometer systems with high spectral and spatial resolution. Penetration depths, tungsten sputtering fluxes and erosion yields were measured. Comparison between experimental data and the results of modelling with the 3D Monte-Carlo code ERO is performed. The main objective of this study was to test the adequacy of the existing atomic data for neutral tungsten. The modelled penetration depths of the light emission of tungsten are a factor of 2-3 smaller than in experiment, which may indicate the overestimation of ionization rates.

  12. Determining the interobserver reproducibility of Pap smears in the diagnosis of epithelial cell abnormalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izadi-Mood N

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available "n 800x600 Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";} Background: Cancer of uterine cervix is the second cause of death in women in the world and the most common cause in developing countries. Because the majority of women with invasive cervical cancer of the uterine have not previously undergone screening, many clinicians assume that Pap smear has a high degree of accuracy; but problems such as false positive and false negative interpretations, as well as interobserver variability have questioned its validity."n"nMethods : We retrieved 162 positive cervical smears that had been originally interpreted as ASC-US, ASC-H, LSIL, HSIL, SCC, AGC and adenocarcinoma from the cytology archives of Women's Hospital in Tehran, Iran. The slides were rescreened by an experienced pathologist and reclassified in the mentioned categories. All the 162 slides were reviewed by three more pathologists in a blind study using interpretative criteria utilized in their daily routine to evaluate interobserver reproducibility. To increase the level of interobserver agreement, the diagnostic categories were reduced to squamous Vs. glandular abnormalities and invasive (SCC and adenocarcinoma Vs. non-invasive abnormalities."n"nResults : The results obtained in this study indicated slight interobserver agreement (k=0.26. The most reproducible category was the invasive category (SCC in addition to adenocarcinoma and the least agreement was seen for HSIL (k=0.19. "n"nConclusion: This study showed that reproducibility of cytological interpretation of conventional Pap smears varies among interpretive categories and the overall interobserver agreement is slight. Since convening on the reduction of interobserver discrepancy in Pap smear interpretations necessitates more reliable information of interpretative variability, larger studies need to be undertaken.

  13. Identification and Characterization of Inorganic Pyrophosphatase and PAP Phosphatase from Thermococcus onnurineus NA1?

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Hyun Sook; Kim, Yun Jae; Lee, Jung-hyun; Kang, Sung Gyun

    2009-01-01

    Two hypothetical genes were functionally verified to be a pyrophosphatase and a PAP phosphatase in Thermococcus onnurineus NA1. This is the first report of the pyrophosphatases and the PAP phosphatases being organized in the gene clusters of the sulfate activation system only in T. onnurineus NA1 and “Pyrococcus abyssi.”

  14. Shaking table testing of a HTGR reactor core, comparison with the results obtained using a nonlinear mathematical model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two series of horizontal tests have been performed at Saclay on the shaking table VESUVE: sinusoidal test and time history response. Sinusoidal tests have shown the strongly nonlinear dynamic behavior of the core. The resonant frequency of the core is dependent on the level of the excitation. These phenomena have been explained by a computer code, which is a lumped mass nonlinear model. El Centro time history displacement at the level of PCRV was reproduced on the shaking table. The analytical model was applied to this excitation and good comparison was obtained for forces and velocities

  15. First experiences with commercial RIA kits for prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Five commercial PAP RIA kits were intercompared by common RIA quality control criteria. All RIAs performed basically well although some differences existed in respect to concentration range, specific and non-specific binding, 50%-intercept, sensitivity and measurements of serum PAP in male and female controls. The latter finding may have been due to differences in antigen purity, antiserum specificity and composition of the assay medium employed. Good correlation was found between PAP determination by RIA and by enzyme assay. First measurements of PAP in patients treated for prostatic carcinoma being performed for orientation purposes are demonstrated. The PAP RIA has been introduced into our routine diagnostic and follow-up of prostatic carcinoma. (orig.)

  16. Differenzierte Anwendung von positivem Atemwegsdruck (positive airway pressure, PAP) bei schlafbezogenen Atmungsstörungen mit Obstruktion der oberen Atemwege

    OpenAIRE

    Stasche, N.

    2006-01-01

    Positive airway pressure (PAP) is the therapy of choice for most sleep-related breathing disorders (SRBD). A variety of PAP devices using positive airway pressure (CPAP, BiPAP, APAP, ASV) must be carefully considered before application. This overview aims to provide criteria for choosing the optimal PAP device according to severity and type of sleep-related breathing disorder. In addition, the range of therapeutic applications, constraints and side effects as well as alternative methods to PA...

  17. Pap smears for men: a vision of the future?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Oon, S F

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN) rarely receives as much publicity as its neighbouring orifice, the cervix. As in the cervix, intraepithelial neoplasias are precursors to cancer in the anal canal. AIN and cervical interstitial neoplasia (CIN) undergo dysplasia as a consequence of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. Since the advent of screening with the Pap smear in CIN, cervical cancer has plummeted to a fifth of its initial incidence. Anal cancer, however, has been rising, with a predilection for human immunodeficiency virus-infected men. HPV causes a squamous epithelial dysplasia and converts healthy tissue into AINs of increasing severity until anal cancer manifests. CLINICAL CASE: This article describes a clinical case of anogenital HPV infection refractory to medical and surgical therapy. It also describes an effective surgical excision technique associated with a good cosmetic outcome. CONCLUSIONS: The paper concludes by briefly discussing the implications of a national screening programme against AIN in the future.

  18. User experience network. Supply gas failure alarm on Cardinal Health Infant Flow SiPAP units may not activate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-01

    The supply gas failure alarm on Cardinal Health Infant Flow SiPAP units manufactured before April 2009 may not activate in the event of a gas supply loss if the device's silencer accessory is attached. However, the unit's FiO2 (fraction of inspired oxygen) and low-airway-pressure alarms will activate in such cases. If both of these alarms activate simultaneously, users should suspect a failure of the gas supply pressure. Identifying affected units requires testing that can be conducted during the device's next scheduled maintenance. PMID:20848954

  19. Viscoplastic-dynamic analyses of small-scale fracture tests to obtain crack arrest toughness values for PTS conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reliable predictions of crack arrest at the high upper shelf toughness conditions involved in postulated pressurized thermal shock (PTS) events require procedures beyond those utilized in conventional fracture mechanics treatments. To develop such a procedure, viscoplastic-dynamic fracture mechanics finite element analyses, viscoplastic material characterization testing, and small-scale crack propagation and arrest experimentation are being combines in this research. The approach couples SwRI's viscoplastic-dynamic fracture mechanics finite element code VISCRK with experiments using duplex 4340/A533B steel compact specimens. The experiments are simulated by VISCRK computations employing the Bodner-Partom viscoplastic constitutive relation and the nonlinear fracture mechanics parameter T. The goal is to develop temperature-dependent crack arrest toughness values for A533B steel. While only room temperature KIa values have been obtained so far, these have been found to agree closely with those obtained from wide plate tests. (author)

  20. Mobile multimedia antenna systems for station wagons and the achievable diversity effectiveness obtained by analysis of virtual test drives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopf, J. F.; Lindenmeier, H. K.; Reiter, L. M.

    2003-04-01

    For modern cars, antennas are required for AM reception, FM and TV diversity reception, weatherband reception (USA), terrestrial digital radio, remote control functions, keyless entry, mobile phone for all worldwide used systems, GPS, and in the future, satellite broadcast radio services. Those services cover the frequency range from 150 kHz up to 2.4 GHz. Such kind of a multiantenna system developed for station wagons is presented in this paper. The obtainable FM and TV diversity effectiveness is discussed for several types of antenna arrangements in detail. This value is the number of fictitious completely decorrelated antenna signals and is obtained by virtual test drives. The characteristic of the respective antennas under test is introduced in the software as antenna pattern, measured or calculated with respect to amplitude and phase. During the computer analysis the car with the antennas is driven virtually through a Rayleigh field scenario with desired and undesired signals.

  1. Comparison of aerodynamic coefficients obtained from theoretical calculations wind tunnel tests and flight tests data reduction for the alpha jet aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guiot, R.; Wunnenberg, H.

    1980-01-01

    The methods by which aerodynamic coefficients are determined and discussed. These include: calculations, wind tunnel experiments and experiments in flight for various prototypes of the Alpha Jet. A comparison of obtained results shows good correlation between expectations and in-flight test results.

  2. Compliance with cervical cancer screening and human papillomavirus testing guidelines among insured young women

    Science.gov (United States)

    HIRTH, Jacqueline M.; TAN, Alai; WILKINSON, Gregg S.; BERENSON, Abbey B.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives In December 2009, the American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) recommended that women under 21 years old should not receive cervical cancer screening (Pap tests) or HPV tests. This study examined whether clinicians stopped administering Pap and HPV tests among women less than 21 years of age after new ACOG guidelines were issued. Study Design This study was a retrospective secondary data analysis of administrative claims data that included insurance enrollees from across the US that examined the frequency of Pap tests and HPV tests among 178,898 non-immunocompromised females 12–20 years old who had a paid claim for a well-woman visit in 2008, 2009, or 2010. Young women with well-woman exams in each observed year were examined longitudinally to determine whether past diagnoses of cervical cell abnormalities accounted for Pap testing in 2010. Results The proportion of women less than 21 years old that received a Pap test as part of her well-woman exam dropped from 77% in 2008 and 2009 to 57% by December of 2010, while HPV testing remained stable across time. A diagnosis of cervical cell abnormalities in 2009 was associated with Pap testing in 2010. However, a previous Pap test was more strongly associated with a Pap test in 2010. Conclusions These data show that some physicians are adjusting their practices among young women according to ACOG guidelines, but Pap and HPV testing among insured women less than 21 years of age still remains unnecessarily high. PMID:23727519

  3. PAP-1, the mutated gene underlying the RP9 form of dominant retinitis pigmentosa, is a splicing factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PAP-1 is an in vitro phosphorylation target of the Pim-1 oncogene. Although PAP-1 binds to Pim-1, it is not a substrate for phosphorylation by Pim-1 in vivo. PAP-1 has recently been implicated as the defective gene in RP9, one type of autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa (adRP). However, RP9 is a rare disease and only two missense mutations have been described, so the report of a link between PAP-1 and RP9 was tentative. The precise cellular role of PAP-1 was also unknown at that time. We now report that PAP-1 localizes in nuclear speckles containing the splicing factor SC35 and interacts directly with another splicing factor, U2AF35. Furthermore, we used in vitro and in vivo splicing assays to show that PAP-1 has an activity, which alters the pattern of pre-mRNA splicing and that this activity is dependent on the phosphorylation state of PAP-1. We used the same splicing assay to examine the activities of two mutant forms of PAP-1 found in RP9 patients. The results showed that while one of the mutations, H137L, had no effect on splicing activity compared with that of wild-type PAP-1, the other, D170G, resulted in both a defect in splicing activity and a decreased proportion of phosphorylated PAP-1. The D170G mutation may therefore cause RP by altering splicing of retinal genes through a decrease in PAP-1 phosphorylation. These results demonstrate that PAP-1 has a role in pre-mRNA splicing and, given that three other splicing factors have been implicated in adRP, thg factors have been implicated in adRP, this finding provides compelling further evidence that PAP-1 is indeed the RP9 gene

  4. Aero thermal test results obtained on the n. C 5 EL 4 Cluster in the atmospheric pressure cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the framework of thermal studies on the EL-4 cluster, the full-scale tests at atmospheric pressure are designed to permit measurement of local values of the wall temperature, of the velocity and of the temperature in the fluid. The experimental results, obtained with the help of an original measuring apparatus, make it possible to follow the changes in these values along the cluster and to predict in much detail the in-pile thermal behaviour. In particular it is shown that changes in the wall temperature along the cluster are greatly influenced by disruption of the flow caused by grids and supports. (author)

  5. Comparison of HFNC, bubble CPAP and SiPAP on aerosol delivery in neonates: An in-vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunbul, Fatemah S; Fink, James B; Harwood, Robert; Sheard, Meryl M; Zimmerman, Ralph D; Ari, Arzu

    2014-12-01

    Aerosol drug delivery via high flow nasal cannula (HFNC), bubble continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP), and synchronized inspiratory positive airway pressure (SiPAP) has not been quantified in spontaneously breathing premature infants. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to compare aerosol delivery via HFNC, bubble CPAP, and SiPAP in a model of a simulated spontaneously breathing preterm infant. Working hypothesis: The types of CPAP systems and nebulizer positions used during aerosol therapy will impact aerosol deposition in simulated spontaneously breathing infants. Study design: Quantitative, comparative, in-vitro study. Methodology: A breath simulator was set to preterm infant settings (VT : 9?ml, RR: 50?bpm and Ti: 0.5?sec) and connected to the trachea of an anatomical upper airway model of a preterm infant via collecting filter distal to the trachea. The HFNC (Optiflow; Fisher & Paykel), Bubble CPAP (Fisher & Paykel), and SiPAP (Carefusion) were attached to the nares of the model via each device's proprietary nasal cannula and set to deliver a baseline of 5?cm H2 O pressure. Albuterol sulfate (2.5?mg/0.5?ml) was aerosolized with a mesh nebulizer (Aeroneb Solo) positioned(1) proximal to the patient and(2) prior to the humidifier (n?=?5). The drug was eluted from the filter with 0.1?N HCl and analyzed via spectrophotometry (276?nm). Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, t-tests, and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), with P?PAP (0.79?±?0.11) was lower compared to both HFNC (1.30?±?0.17; P?=?0.003) and bubble CPAP (1.24?±?0.24; p?=?0.008). Placement of the nebulizer prior to the humidifier increased deposition with all devices (P?

  6. Selective indication for positive airway pressure (PAP in sleep-related breathing disorders with obstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stasche, Norbert

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Positive airway pressure (PAP is the therapy of choice for most sleep-related breathing disorders (SRBD. A variety of PAP devices using positive airway pressure (CPAP, BiPAP, APAP, ASV must be carefully considered before application. This overview aims to provide criteria for choosing the optimal PAP device according to severity and type of sleep-related breathing disorder. In addition, the range of therapeutic applications, constraints and side effects as well as alternative methods to PAP will be discussed. This review is based on an analysis of current literature and clinical experience. The data is presented from an ENT-sleep-laboratory perspective and is designed to help the ENT practitioner initiate treatment and provide support. Different titration methods, current devices and possible applications will be described. In addition to constant pressure devices (CPAP, most commonly used for symptomatic obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA without complicating conditions, BiPAP models will be introduced. These allow two different positive pressure settings and are thus especially suitable for patients with cardiopulmonary diseases or patients with pressure intolerance, increasing compliance in this subgroup considerably. Compliance can also be increased in patients during first night of therapy, patients with highly variable pressure demands or position-dependent OSA, by using self-regulating Auto-adjust PAP devices (Automatic positive airway pressure, APAP. Patients with Cheyne-Stokes breathing, a subtype of central sleep apnoea, benefit from adaptive servo-ventilation (ASV, which analyzes breathing patterns continually and adjusts the actual ventilation pressure accordingly. This not only reduces daytime sleepiness, but can also influence heart disease positively. Therapy with positive airway pressure is very effective in eliminating obstruction-related sleep diseases and symptoms. However, because therapy is generally applied for life, the optimal PAP device must be carefully selected, taking into account side effects that influence compliance.

  7. Novel chromatin texture features for the classification of pap smears

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bejnordi, Babak E.; Moshavegh, Ramin; Sujathan, K.; Malm, Patrik; Bengtsson, Ewert; Mehnert, Andrew

    2013-03-01

    This paper presents a set of novel structural texture features for quantifying nuclear chromatin patterns in cells on a conventional Pap smear. The features are derived from an initial segmentation of the chromatin into bloblike texture primitives. The results of a comprehensive feature selection experiment, including the set of proposed structural texture features and a range of different cytology features drawn from the literature, show that two of the four top ranking features are structural texture features. They also show that a combination of structural and conventional features yields a classification performance of 0.954±0.019 (AUC±SE) for the discrimination of normal (NILM) and abnormal (LSIL and HSIL) slides. The results of a second classification experiment, using only normal-appearing cells from both normal and abnormal slides, demonstrates that a single structural texture feature measuring chromatin margination yields a classification performance of 0.815±0.019. Overall the results demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed structural approach and that it is possible to detect malignancy associated changes (MACs) in Papanicoloau stain.

  8. Time-dependent effect of p-Aminophenol (PAP) toxicity in renal slices and development of oxidative stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    p-Aminophenol (PAP), a metabolite of acetaminophen, is nephrotoxic. This study investigated PAP-mediated changes as a function of time that occur prior to loss of membrane integrity. Experiments further evaluated the development of oxidative stress by PAP. Renal slices from male Fischer 344 (F344) rats (N = 4-6) were exposed to 0.1, 0.25, and 0.5 mM PAP for 15-120 min under oxygen and constant shaking at 37 oC. Pyruvate-stimulated gluconeogenesis, adenine nucleotide levels, and total glutathione (GSH) levels were diminished in a concentration- and time-dependent manner prior to detection of a rise in lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) leakage. Glutathione disulfide (GSSG) levels were increased by PAP suggesting the induction of oxidative stress. Western blot analysis confirmed a rise in 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE)-adducted proteins in tissues exposed to 0.1 and 0.25 mM PAP for 90 min. The appearance of 4-HNE-adducted proteins at the 0.1 mM concentration of PAP occurred prior to development of increased LDH leakage. Pretreatment with 1 mM glutathione (GSH) for 30 min only partially reduced PAP toxicity as LDH values were less severely depleted relative to tissues not pretreated with GSH. In contrast, pretreatment for 15 min with 2 mM ascorbic acid completely protected against PAP toxicity. Further studies showed that ascorbic acid pretreatment prevented PAP-mediated depletion of GSH. In summary, PAP rapidly depletes GSH and adenine nucleotides and inhibits gluconeogenenine nucleotides and inhibits gluconeogenesis prior to a rise in LDH leakage. PAP induces oxidative stress as indicated by an increase in GSSG and 4-HNE-adducted proteins. Ascorbic acid pretreatment prevents PAP toxicity by maintaining GSH status

  9. A Hybrid Computational Intelligence Approach Combining Genetic Programming And Heuristic Classification for Pap-Smear Diagnosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsakonas, Athanasios; Dounias, Georgios

    2001-01-01

    The paper suggests the combined use of different computational intelligence (CI) techniques in a hybrid scheme, as an effective approach to medical diagnosis. Getting to know the advantages and disadvantages of each computational intelligence technique in the recent years, the time has come for proposing successful combinations of CI tools and techniques for the improvement of decision making, Diagnosis and classification in complex domains of application. In the current approach genetic programming is embedded within a heuristic scheme for classification of medical records into different diagnoses. The final result is a short but robust rule based classification scheme, achieving high degree of classification accuracy (exceeding 90% of accuracy for most classes) in a meaningful and user-friendly representation form for the medical expert. The domain of application analyzed through the paper is the well-known Pap-Test problem, corresponding to a numerical database, which consists of 450 medical records, 25 diagnostic attributes and 5 different diagnostic classes. Experimental data are divided in two equal parts for the training and testing phase, and 8 mutually dependent rules for diagnosis are generated. Medical experts comment on the nature, the meaning and the usability of the acquired results.

  10. IFPE/CAGR-UOX-SWELL, Fuel swelling Data Obtained from the AGR/Halden Ramp Test Programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Description: An extensive study of fuel swelling in oxide fuel has been performed on fuel which has been ramp-tested in the Halden Heavy Boiling Water Reactor. The ramp-tests were performed to study the mechanisms of P CI in Advanced Gas-cooled Reactor fuel (AGR) but the initial clad deformation measurements were later supplemented by the use of Transmission Electron Microscopy (Tem) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (Sem). The driving force for P CI arises from a combination of pellet thermal expansion and the creation of fission gas porosity during a temperature/rating transient. Fuel specimens from thirteen ramped rods and two control-reference rods have been examined using Tem and Sem. Swelling measurements have been made at four or five radial locations in the fuel. At least six full grain boundaries were used for the inter-granular study at each location and three complete trans-granular fractures employed for the intra-granular bubbles. In the latter case, the trans-granular regions were examined under very high magnifications to reveal pores as small as 20-25 nm diameter. The Sem study comprises nearly three thousand micrographs. The microscope study was augmented by use of the Enigma fuel modelling code to obtain estimates of the local temperatures and conditions from which the Sem/Tem samples were obtained. Nea-1705/02: The analysis from the 4135, 4136 and 4140 data has been incorporated. Data 4000, 4004, 4064, 4065, 4162, and 4163 have been revised. Many of 4162, and 4163 have been revised. Many of the tables have been improved. The main report has been extensively modified from the earlier version

  11. Signaling-State Formation Mechanism of a BLUF Protein PapB from the Purple Bacterium Rhodopseudomonas palustris Studied by Femtosecond Time-Resolved Absorption Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujisawa, Tomotsumi; Takeuchi, Satoshi; Masuda, Shinji; Tahara, Tahei

    2014-12-10

    We studied the signaling-state formation of a BLUF (blue light using FAD) protein, PapB, from the purple bacterium Rhodopseudomonas palustris, using femtosecond time-resolved absorption spectroscopy. Upon photoexcitation of the dark state, FADH(•) (neutral flavin semiquinone FADH radical) was observed as the intermediate before the formation of the signaling state. The kinetic analysis based on singular value decomposition showed that FADH(•) mediates the signaling-state formation, showing that PapB is the second example of FADH(•)-mediated formation of the signaling state after Slr1694 (M. Gauden et al. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 2006, 103, 10895-10900). The mechanism of the signaling-state formation is discussed on the basis of the comparison between femtosecond time-resolved absorption spectra of the dark state and those obtained by exciting the signaling state. FADH(•) was observed also with excitation of the signaling state, and surprisingly, the kinetics of FADH(•) was indistinguishable from the case of exciting the dark state. This result suggests that the hydrogen bond environment in the signaling state is realized before the formation of FADH(•) in the photocycle of PapB. PMID:25406769

  12. Total sleep time obtained from actigraphy versus sleep logs in an academic sleep center and impact on further sleep testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Auger RR

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available R Robert Auger,1,2 Ranji Varghese,1 Michael H Silber,1,3 Nancy L Slocumb1 1Center for Sleep Medicine, 2Department of Psychiatry and Psychology, 3Department of Neurology, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Rochester, MN, USA Background: While actigraphy has been deemed ideal for the longitudinal assessment of total sleep time (TST by select groups, endorsement has not been universal and reimbursement is lacking, preventing its widespread use in clinical practice. This study compares longitudinal TST data obtained by actigraphy and logs preceding a clinical evaluation, and secondarily ascertains whether longitudinal TST impacts clinicians' decisions to proceed with further sleep testing. Methods: This was a retrospective, consecutive chart review spanning about 4 months in an academic sleep center. Eighty-four patients wore actigraphs in anticipation of clinical evaluations. Concomitant completion of sleep logs is routinely requested in this setting. Longitudinal TST data available in complete form was reviewed in a blinded fashion among a subset of these patients. A review of text from clinical notes of an expanded cohort with complete actigraphy data (regardless of the degree of completion of logs enabled determination of the frequency and rationale for cancellation of prescheduled sleep testing. Results: Of 84 actigraphy recordings, 90% produced complete data, and 30% produced fully completed logs. Among the subset with both available in complete form, significant mean TST differences were observed on weekends (7.06 ± 2.18 hours versus 8.30 ± 1.93 hours, P = 0.009, but not on weekdays (7.38 ± 1.97 hours versus 7.72 ± 1.62 hours, P = 0.450 for actigraphy and logs, respectively. Further analyses revealed poor agreement between the two measures, with predominantly increased TST estimation with logs. Among those with complete actigraphy data (±logs, testing was cancelled in 11 (15%, eight of whom (73% presented with hypersomnia and three of whom (27% presented with insomnia. Determination of insufficient sleep time was cited as the primary reason for cancellation (64%. Conclusion: Actigraphy and sleep logs provided discrepant mean TST data on weekends only, and the latter predominantly estimated increased TST. Actigraphy was completed more reliably than logs. Longitudinal TST information influenced clinicians' decisions to proceed with further testing, particularly among patients presenting with hypersomnia. Keywords: sleep diaries, polysomnography, multiple sleep latency testing

  13. DNA sequences of three papA genes from uropathogenic Escherichia coli strains: evidence of structural and serological conservation.

    OpenAIRE

    Denich, K.; Blyn, L. B.; Craiu, A.; Braaten, B. A.; Hardy, J.; Low, D. A.; O Hanley, P. D.

    1991-01-01

    Pyelonephritis-associated pili (Pap) are important in the pathogenesis of ascending, unobstructive Escherichia coli-caused renal infections because these surface bacterial organelles mediate digalactoside-specific binding to host uroepithelial cells. Pap are composed of many different polypeptides, of which only the tip proteins mediate specific binding. The PapA moiety polymerizes to form the bulk of the pilus structure and has been employed in vaccines despite its lack of Gal alpha(1-4)Gal ...

  14. Molecular basis for group-specific activation of the virulence regulator PlcR by PapR heptapeptides

    OpenAIRE

    Bouillaut, L.; Perchat, S.; Arold, S.; Zorrilla, S.; Slamti, L.; Henry, C.; Gohar, M.; Declerck, N.; Lereclus, D.

    2008-01-01

    The transcriptional regulator PlcR and its cognate cell–cell signalling peptide PapR form a quorum-sensing system that controls the expression of extra-cellular virulence factors in various species of the Bacillus cereus group. PlcR and PapR alleles are clustered into four groups defining four pherotypes. However, the molecular basis for group specificity remains elusive, largely because the biologically relevant PapR form is not known. Here, we show that the in vivo active form of PapR is ...

  15. A cysteine-sulfinic acid in peroxiredoxin regulates H2O2-sensing by the antioxidant Pap1 pathway

    OpenAIRE

    Vivancos, Ana P; Castillo, Esther A.; Biteau, Benoît; Nicot, Carine; Ayté, José; Toledano, Michel B.; Hidalgo, Elena

    2005-01-01

    The Schizosaccharomyces pombe transcription factor Pap1 regulates antioxidant-gene transcription in response to H2O2. Pap1 activation occurs only at low, but not elevated, H2O2 concentrations that instead strongly trigger the mitogen-activated protein kinase Sty1 pathway. Here, we identify the peroxiredoxin Tpx1 as the upstream activator of Pap1. We show that, at low H2O2 concentrations, this oxidant scavenger can transfer a redox signal to Pap1, whereas higher concentrations of the oxidant i...

  16. Nuclear localization of PAPS synthetase 1: a sulfate activation pathway in the nucleus of eukaryotic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besset, S; Vincourt, J B; Amalric, F; Girard, J P

    2000-02-01

    Sulfation is a major modification of many molecules in eukaryotes that is dependent on the enzymatic synthesis of an activated sulfate donor, 3'-phosphoadenosine 5'-phosphosulfate (PAPS). While sulfate activation has long been assumed to occur in the cytosol, we show in this study that human PAPS synthetase 1 (PAPSS1), a bifunctional ATP sulfurylase/adenosine 5'-phosphosulfate (APS) kinase enzyme sufficient for PAPS synthesis, accumulates in the nucleus of mammalian cells. Nuclear targeting of the enzyme is mediated by its APS kinase domain and requires a catalytically dispensable 21 amino acid sequence at the amino terminus. Human PAPSS1 and Drosophila melanogaster PAPSS localize to the nucleus in yeast and relieve the methionine auxotrophy of ATP sulfurylase- or APS kinase-deficient strains, suggesting that PAPSS1 is fully functional in vivo when targeted to the nucleus. A second PAPS synthetase gene, designated PAPSS2, has recently been described, mutations of which are responsible for abnormal skeletal development in human spondyloepimetaphyseal dysplasia and murine brachymorphism. We found that PAPSS2, which localizes to the cytoplasm when ectopically expressed in mammalian cells, is relocated to the nucleus when coexpressed with PAPSS1. Taken together, these results indicate that a sulfation pathway might exist in the nucleus of eukaryotic cells. -Besset, S., Vincourt, J.-B., Amalric, F., Girard, J.-P. Nuclear localization of PAPS synthetase 1: a sulfate activation pathway in the nucleus of eukaryotic cells. PMID:10657990

  17. Sulfation in high endothelial venules: cloning and expression of the human PAPS synthetase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard, J P; Baekkevold, E S; Amalric, F

    1998-05-01

    High endothelial venules (HEVs) are specialized postcapillary venules found in lymphoid organs and chronically inflamed tissues that support high levels of lymphocyte extravasation from the blood. Studies with chlorate, a metabolic inhibitor of sulfation, had previously revealed that production of PAPS (3'-phosphoadenosine-5'-phosphosulfate), the high-energy donor of sulfate, is required for sulfation and high-affinity recognition of HEV sialomucins GlyCAM-1 and CD34 by the lymphocyte homing receptor L-selectin. Here, we report the molecular characterization of a novel 2.5 kb human cDNA from MECA-79+ HEV-derived endothelial cells that encodes the target of chlorate, PAPS synthetase, a multifunctional enzyme containing domains for both ATP sulfurylase and adenosine-5'-phosphosulfate kinase. Functional expression of the isolated cDNA in Chinese hamster ovary cells results in high levels of PAPS synthesis, which is abolished by treatment of the transfected cells with chlorate. Northern blot analysis reveals a wide tissue distribution of PAPS synthetase mRNA in the human body, suggesting that human PAPS synthetase may be important for sulfation not only of HEV sialomucins, but also of many other molecules, including mucins such as the P-selectin ligand PSGL-1, proteoglycans, hormones, neurotransmitters, drugs, and xenobiotics. PMID:9576487

  18. 14 CFR 61.405 - What tests do I have to take to obtain a flight instructor certificate with a sport pilot rating?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...obtain a flight instructor certificate with a sport pilot rating? 61.405 Section 61...INSTRUCTORS Flight Instructors With a Sport Pilot Rating § 61.405 What tests...obtain a flight instructor certificate with a sport pilot rating? To obtain a flight...

  19. Biochemical and molecular characterization of PvPAP3, a novel purple acid phosphatase isolated from common bean enhancing extracellular ATP utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Cuiyue; Tian, Jiang; Lam, Hon-Ming; Lim, Boon Leong; Yan, Xiaolong; Liao, Hong

    2010-02-01

    Purple acid phosphatases (PAPs) play diverse physiological roles in plants. In this study, we purified a novel PAP, PvPAP3, from the roots of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) grown under phosphate (Pi) starvation. PvPAP3 was identified as a 34-kD monomer acting on the specific substrate, ATP, with a broad pH range and a high heat stability. The activity of PvPAP3 was insensitive to tartrate, indicating that PvPAP3 is a PAP-like protein. Amino acid sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis suggest that PvPAP3 belongs to the group of plant PAPs with low molecular mass. Transient expression of 35S:PvPAP3-green fluorescent protein in onion (Allium cepa) epidermal cells verified that it might anchor on plasma membrane and be secreted into apoplast. Pi starvation led to induction of PvPAP3 expression in both leaves and roots of common bean, and expression of PvPAP3 was strictly dependent on phosphorus (P) availability and duration of Pi starvation. Furthermore, induction of PvPAP3 expression was more rapid and higher in a P-efficient genotype, G19833, than in a P-inefficient genotype, DOR364, suggesting possible roles of PvPAP3 in P efficiency in bean. In vivo analysis using a transgenic hairy root system of common bean showed that both growth and P uptake of bean hairy roots from the PvPAP3 overexpression transgenic lines were significantly enhanced when ATP was supplied as the sole external P source. Taken together, our results suggest that PvPAP3 is a novel PAP that might function in the adaptation of common bean to P deficiency, possibly through enhancing utilization of extracellular ATP as a P source. PMID:19955264

  20. Four-flap Breast Reconstruction: Bilateral Stacked DIEP and PAP Flaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayo, James L.; Allen, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    Background: In cases of bilateral breast reconstruction when the deep inferior epigastric perforator (DIEP) free flap alone does not provide sufficient volume for body-specific reconstruction, stacking each DIEP flap with a second free flap will deliver added volume and maintain a purely autologous reconstruction. Stacking the profunda artery perforator (PAP) flap with the DIEP flap offers favorable aesthetics and ideal operative efficiency. We present the indications, technique, and outcomes of our experience with 4-flap breast reconstruction using stacked DIEP/PAP flaps. Methods: The authors performed 4-flap DIEP/PAP breast reconstruction in 20 patients who required bilateral reconstruction without adequate single donor flap volume. The timing of reconstruction, average mastectomy/flap weights, and operative time are reported. Complications reviewed include fat necrosis, dehiscence, hematoma, seroma, mastectomy flap necrosis, and flap loss. Results: Twenty patients underwent 4-flap DIEP/PAP breast reconstruction. Surgical time averaged 7 hours and 20 minutes. The primary recipient vessels were the antegrade and retrograde internal mammary vessels. No flap losses occurred. Complications included 1 hematoma, 1 incidence of arterial and venous thrombosis successfully treated with anastomotic revision, 1 incidence of thigh donor site dehiscence, and 3 episodes of minor mastectomy skin flap necrosis. Conclusions: Four-flap breast reconstruction is a favorable autologous reconstructive option for patients requiring bilateral reconstruction without adequate single donor flap volume. Stacking DIEP/PAP flaps as described is both safe and efficient. Furthermore, this combination provides superior aesthetics mirroring the natural geometry of the breast. Bilateral stacked DIEP/PAP flaps represent our first choice for breast reconstruction in this patient population.

  1. Physical Activity and Cervical Cancer Testing among American Indian Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muus, Kyle J.; Baker-Demaray, Twyla B.; Bogart, T. Andy; Duncan, Glen E.; Jacobsen, Clemma; Buchwald, Dedra S.; Henderson, Jeffrey A.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Studies have shown that women who engage in high levels of physical activity have higher rates of cancer screening, including Papanicalaou (Pap) tests. Because American Indian (AI) women are at high risk for cervical cancer morbidity and mortality, we examined Pap screening prevalence and assessed whether physical activity was associated…

  2. Potential application of electronic nose in processed animal proteins (PAP detection in feedstuffs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dell'Orto V.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Electronic nose and olfactometry techniques represent a modern analytical approach in food industry since they could potentially improve quality and safety of food processing. The aim of this study was to evaluate possible application of electronic nose in PA P detection and recognition in feed. For this purpose 6 reference feedstuffs (CRA-W / UE STRAT F E E D Project were used. The basis of the test samples was a compound feed for bovine fortified with processed animal proteins ( PAP consisting of meat and bone meal (MBM and/or fish meal at different concentrations. Each feed sample was tested in glass vials and the odour profile was determined by the ten MOS (metal oxide semi-conductor sensors of the electronic nose. Ten different descriptors, representing each ten sensors of electronic nose, were used to characterise the odour of each sample. In the present study, electronic nose was able to discriminate the blank sample from all other samples containing PA P ( M B M , fish meal or both. Samples containing either 0.5% of MBM or 5% of fish meal were identified, while samples containing a high fish meal content (5% associated with a low MBM content (0.5% were not discriminated from samples containing solely fish meal at that same high level (5%. This latter indicates that probably the high fish meal level, in samples containing both MBM and fish meal, tended to mask MBM odour. It was also evident that two odour descriptors were enough to explain 72.12% of total variability in odour pattern. In view of these results, it could be suggested that electronic nose and olfactometry techniques can provide an interesting approach for screening raw materials in feed industry, even though further studies using a wider set of samples are needed.

  3. In silico Comparative Modeling of PapA1 and PapA2 Proteins Involved in Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Sulfolipid-1 Biosynthesis Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rana Adnan Tahir

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis is one of the most serious health problems, as globally; around 2 billion or one third of the world's total population has been infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a unique among bacterial pathogens in that it displays a wide array of complex lipids and lipoglycans on its cell surface. One such glycolipid, sulfolipid-1 (SL-1, is the most sulfatide, consists of a trehalose core, four fatty acyl groups, and a sulfate ester. Several proteins involved in SL-1 biosynthesis have been identified, the enzymes that acylate the T2S core to form SL1278 and SL-1, and the biosynthetic order of these acylation reactions, are unknown. Here we studied the in silico identification of PapA2 and PapA1, proteins responsible for the sequential acylation of T2S to form SL1278 and are essential for SL-1 biosynthesis, by applying different bioinformatics tools. Benchmark, of 3 different homology modeling programs Modeller, Swiss-Model (Deep View, and ESyPred3D, has been performed used to transform the alignment to a 3D model. The 3D structures of targeted proteins were evaluated by evaluation tools, ANOLEA and Verify3D. It is concluded that in SL-1 biosynthesis pathway, PapA1 and PapA2 proteins could be used as drug target, drug lead design and to find out the other proteins involved in this pathway that not yet have been identified and may be used to the cure of tuberculosis infection.

  4. CNS activity of Pokeweed Anti-viral Protein (PAP in mice infected with Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis Virus (LCMV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tibbles Heather E

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Others and we have previously described the potent in vivo and in vitro activity of the broad-spectrum antiviral agent PAP (Pokeweed antiviral protein against a wide range of viruses. The purpose of the present study was to further elucidate the anti-viral spectrum of PAP by examining its effects on the survival of mice challenged with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV. Methods We examined the therapeutic effect of PAP in CBA mice inoculated with intracerebral injections of the WE54 strain of LCMV at a 1000 PFU dose level that is lethal to 100% of mice within 7–9 days. Mice were treated either with vehicle or PAP administered intraperitoneally 24 hours prior to, 1 hour prior to and 24 hours, 48 hours 72 hours and 96 hours after virus inoculation. Results PAP exhibits significant in vivo anti- LCMV activity in mice challenged intracerebrally with an otherwise invariably fatal dose of LCMV. At non-toxic dose levels, PAP significantly prolonged survival in the absence of the majority of disease-associated symptoms. The median survival time of PAP-treated mice was >21 days as opposed to 7 days median survival for the control (p = 0.0069. Conclusion Our results presented herein provide unprecedented experimental evidence that PAP exhibits antiviral activity in the CNS of LCMV-infected mice.

  5. Comparative study of visual inspection of the cervix by 3% acetic acid (VIA versus Pap smear by Bethesda method in sexually active women aged 25-50 years as an equally or more effective cervical cancer screening method in a low resource setup

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohit Rajendra Saraogi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cervical cancer is the most common cancer in Indian women and is a preventable cancer. Pap smear being an expensive screening test, increased emphasis is being laid on the development of a reliable and cost effective screening method for cervical cancer. This study aims at early detection of cervical dysplastic lesions using a simple and cost-effective screening test like visual inspection of cervix with 3% acetic acid (VIA and comparing its diagnostic efficacy with the more expensive Pap screening by Bethesda method. Methods: Ours was a prospective study carried out on a 100 sexually active women aged 25-50 years, coming to our OPD. The women were subjected to both a VIA and Pap smear. All Pap and VIA positive women were subjected to a cervical biopsy, whose histopathological report was taken as the gold standard. Results: In our study the sensitivity of VIA was more than that of cytology (100% versus 66.67% but the specificity was significantly lesser (47.83% compared to the 73.91%. The negative predictive value of VIA was comparable with Pap smear (100% and 85% respectively as was the positive predictive value (42.86% and 50%. However the diagnostic accuracy of VIA was lower than that of Pap smear (66.67% and 81.25% in our study. Conclusions: In this study VIA was found to have efficacy comparable to Pap smear in screening cervical cancer. Thus we recommend that VIA could be used as an alternative screening tool to detect early cervical dysplasia - especially in poor resource settings. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2014; 3(3.000: 688-691

  6. Pattern of abnormal Pap smears in developing countries : A report from a large referral hospital in Saudi Arabia using the revised 2001 Bethesda System

    OpenAIRE

    Abdullah Layla

    2007-01-01

    Background: Reports describing the frequency and pattern of abnormal Pap smears in developing countries using the revised Bethesda system for Pap smear are few. We studied the pattern of cervical intraepithelial le--sions and carcinoma detected in Pap smears of Saudi females in the western region of Saudi Arabia using the revised system. Methods: All cervical Pap smears reported in the Department of Pathology of King Abdulaziz Medical City, Jeddah, from 1 January 1998 to 31 August 2005 wer...

  7. Assessing the impact of common forensic presumptive tests on the ability to obtain results using a novel rapid DNA platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donachie, Gillian E; Dawnay, Nick; Ahmed, Romana; Naif, Sarah; Duxbury, Nicola J; Tribble, Nicholas D

    2015-07-01

    The rise of DNA evidence to the forefront of forensic science has led to high sample numbers being submitted for profiling by investigators to casework laboratories: bottleneck effects are often seen resulting in slow turnaround times and sample backlog. The ParaDNA(®) Screening and Intelligence Tests have been designed to guide investigators on the viability of potential sources of DNA allowing them to determine which samples should be sent for full DNA analysis. Both tests are designed to augment the arsenal of available forensic tests for end users and be used concurrently to those commonly available. Therefore, assessing the impact that common forensic tests have on such novel technology is important to measure. The systems were tested against various potential inhibitors to which samples may be exposed as part of the investigative process. Presumptive test agents for biological materials (blood, semen and saliva) and those used as fingerprint enhancement agents were both used. The Screening Test showed a drop in performance following application of aluminium powder and cyanoacrylate (CNA) on fingerprints samples; however this drop in performance was not replicated with high template DNA. No significant effect was observed for any agent using the Intelligence Test. Therefore, both tests stand up well to the chemical agents applied and can be used by investigators with confidence that system performance will be maintained. PMID:25864157

  8. Treatment of Cardiomyopathy with PAP Therapy in a Patient with Severe Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    OpenAIRE

    Grewal, Ritu G.

    2012-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea is common in patients with heart failure. This case illustrates that treatment with PAP therapy can improve cardiac function in patients with both conditions. CPAP-emergent central apnea, as seen in this patient, has multiple etiologies. It is commonly seen in patients with severe sleep apnea, usually resolves over time, and does not need treatment with adaptive servoventilation.

  9. Biotransformation of the trichoderma metabolite 6-n-pentyl-2H-pyran-2-one (6PAP) by selected fungal isolates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooney; Lauren

    1999-05-01

    A variety of fungi were tested for their ability to transform the antifungal Trichoderma metabolite 6-n-pentyl-2H-pyran-2-one (6PAP) (1). Three Penicillium isolates, a Sclerotinia isolate, and a Fusarium isolate were all able to rapidly metabolize 1 and gave mixtures of isomers of monohydroxylated 1 and, in some cases, products resulting from further oxidation to carboxylic acids. Among these products were four previously unidentified metabolites (6, 7, 8, and 9) which were isolated and characterized by NMR spectroscopy. Sphaeropsis sapinea, Ophiostoma quercus, Ophiostoma piceae, a Verticillium sp., and two additional Fusarium isolates were unable to metabolize 1 efficiently. PMID:10346944

  10. CIR, a corepressor of CBF1, binds to PAP-1 and effects alternative splicing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have reported that PAP-1, a product of a causative gene for autosomal retinitis pigmentosa, plays a role in splicing. In this study, CIR, a protein originally identified as a CBF1-interacting protein and reported to act as a transcriptional corepressor, was identified as a PAP-1 binding protein and its function as a splicing factor was investigated. In addition to a basic lysine and acidic serine-rich (BA) domain and a zinc knuckle-like motif, CIR has an arginine/serine dipeptide repeat (RS) domain in its C terminal region. The RS domain has been reported to be present in the superfamily of SR proteins, which are involved in splicing reactions. We generated CIR mutants with deletions of each BA and RS domain and studied their subcellular localizations and interactions with PAP-1 and other SR proteins, including SC35, SF2/ASF, and U2AF35. CIR was found to interact with U2AF35 through the BA domain, with SC35 and SF2/ASF through the RS domain, and with PAP-1 outside the BA domain in vivo and in vitro. CIR was found to be colocalized with SC35 and PAP-1 in nuclear speckles. Then the effect of CIR on splicing was investigated using the E1a minigene as a reporter in HeLa cells. Ectopic expression of CIR with the E1a minigene changed the ratio of spliced isoforms of E1a that were produced by alternative selection of 5'-splice sites. These results indicate that CIR is a member of the family of SR-related proteins and that CIR plays a role in splicingeins and that CIR plays a role in splicing regulation

  11. Comparison of visual field test results obtained through Humphrey matrix frequency doubling technology perimetry versus standard automated perimetry in healthy children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibel Kocabeyoglu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims : The aim of this study was to compare the visual field test results in healthy children obtained via the Humphrey matrix 24-2 threshold program and standard automated perimetry (SAP using the Swedish interactive threshold algorithm (SITA-Standard 24-2 test. Materials and Methods: This prospective study included 55 healthy children without ocular or systemic disorders who underwent both SAP and frequency doubling technology (FDT perimetry visual field testing. Visual field test reliability indices, test duration, global indices (mean deviation [MD], and pattern standard deviation [PSD] were compared between the 2 tests using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test and paired t-test. The performance of the Humphrey field analyzer (HFA 24-2 SITA-standard and frequency-doubling technology Matrix 24-2 tests between genders were compared with Mann-Whitney U-test. Results: Fifty-five healthy children with a mean age of 12.2 ± 1.9 years (range from 8 years to 16 years were included in this prospective study. The test durations of SAP and FDT were similar (5.2 ± 0.5 and 5.1 ± 0.2 min, respectively, P = 0.651. MD and the PSD values obtained via FDT Matrix were significantly higher than those obtained via SAP (P < 0.001, and fixation losses and false negative errors were significantly less with SAP (P < 0.05. A weak positive correlation between the two tests in terms of MD (r = 0.352, P = 0.008 and PSD (r = 0.329, P = 0.014 was observed. Conclusion: Children were able to complete both the visual test algorithms successfully within 6 min. However, SAP testing appears to be associated with less depression of the visual field indices of healthy children. FDT Matrix and SAP should not be used interchangeably in the follow-up of children.

  12. Corrosion studies of tantalum in oxidizing media - intercomparison of data obtained in model media and in a test facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The suitability of tantalum as a material for wet incineration of combustible wastes has been tested in model mixtures of sulfuric and nitric acid at about 250deg C. In addition parts of a semi-technical test facility have been investigated, which had been in operation for more than 3000 h. In general there is good correspondence between predicted wall losses and those found under real conditions. (orig.)

  13. Test of a high temperature reactor core on a shaking table; comparison with results obtained by a non linear mathematical model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two series of horizontal tests have been performed at Saclay on the shaking table VESUVE: sinusoidal test and time history response. Sinusoidal tests have shown the strongly non-linear dynamic behaviour of the core: the resonant frequency of the core is dependent on the level of the excitation. These phenomena have been explained by the results obtained with a computer code, which is a lumped mass non linear model. El Centro earthquake time history displacement at the level of PCRV was reproduced on the shaking table. The analytical model was applied to this excitation and good comparison was obtained for forces and velocities

  14. Problems in obtaining sufficient anaesthesia with propofol and remifentanil : three cases, a test infusion, and a review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bache, Stefan Holst; Stendell, L

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: /st>Over a 5 yr period, we have encountered three patients in whom remifentanil appeared to have no clinical effect during general anaesthesia (GA). We describe seven anaesthetics in these three patients. METHODS: /st>We reviewed the literature on this subject. A simple reproducible test to explore this response was designed. This involved a controlled infusion of increasing doses of remifentanil while observing respiratory variables, pain threshold, pupil size, and Glasgow coma scale score. In addition, blood was sampled for genotyping. RESULTS: /st>No description of this impaired response was found in the review of the literature. Two of the patients agreed to participate in the test. In both patients, we found a seemingly normal analgesic response but a lack of respiratory depression and almost no depression of consciousness, even at doses well above the recommended level for clinical use. The genotyping did not explain the results of the test. CONCLUSIONS: /st>The potential causes of this effect are discussed. We advise clinicians to be aware of this unusual response to remifentanil. If such a response is suspected, we recommend the use of another opioid. If this is suspected before GA, we propose the use of our test as a diagnostic tool.

  15. Benefits of obtaining test-negative Level 4 classification for beef producers in the Voluntary Bovine Johne's Disease Control Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin, L A; Fosgate, G T; Ward, M P; Roussel, A J; Feagin, R A; Schwartz, A L

    2009-10-01

    The US Voluntary Bovine Johne's Disease Control Program (VBJDCP) stipulates the national standards for Johne's disease (JD) control, and herds classified as test-negative at Level 4 of the VBJDCP have the greatest likelihood of being non-infected. A questionnaire survey of owners of VBJDCP test-negative Level 4 beef herds was conducted to describe perceived benefits of attaining Level 4 status. Thirty-nine of the 40 producers returned completed or partially completed surveys. Sixty-four percent (23/36) of herds contained 50 or less test eligible cattle. Twenty-seven percent (10/37) of producers reported increased marketing opportunities as a goal for enrollment in the VBJDCP. Classification at test-negative Level 4 status in the VBJDCP led to increased marketing opportunities for more than one-third (13/35) of the producers. Twenty-five percent (9/36) of the producers reported significant and 39% (14/36) marginal benefits (financial and non-financial) as a result of participation in the VBJDCP. The median (range) reported annual benefit was $0 ($0, $10,000), whilst the median (range) annual cost of implementing and sustaining the VBJDCP on ranches was $200 ($0, $5000). It is suggested that greater publicity about the VBJDCP in the beef cattle industry will increase its chances of success by increasing awareness amongst producers concerned about herd health/disease monitoring, and through improved marketing opportunities. PMID:19625094

  16. Generador de flujo con presión binivelada (BiPAP) a través de traqueostomía / Flow generator with double level pressure (BiPAP) through Tracheostomy

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    SOLEDAD, MONTES F; MIREYA, MÉNDEZ R; PATRICIO, BARAÑAO G; PAMELA, SALINAS F; FRANCISCO, PRADO A.

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: El Programa Chileno de Ventilación No Invasiva en domicilio (AVNI) extendió su cobertura utilizando generadores de flujo con presión bi-nivelada (BiPAP) en niños con ventilación mecánica prolongada (VMP) y traqueostomía (TQT). Objetivo: Reportar la experiencia de esta estrategia descri [...] biendo criterios de selección, modalidades de uso y tecnologías complementarias. Pacientes y Métodos: Estudio descriptivo, transversal y prospectivo durante un año desde Junio 2006, en 20 pacientes manejados en el Hospital Josefina Martínez, otros centros de la red asistencial del Ministerio de Salud y en domicilio. Se registraron las características clínicas, modos ventilatorios, evolución y complicaciones. Resultados: La mediana de edad fue de 3,5 años (rango 3 meses a 17 años). La duración de la VMP fue lm a 5a, 6 pacientes (30%) se encuentran en domicilio y 14 (70%) hospitalizados. La principal causa para VMP fue enfermedad neuromuscular (14, 70%). No hubo mortalidad y 4 pacientes tuvieron complicaciones menores. Conclusión: El BiPAP a través de TQT, usado con criterios estrictos de selección, es un método de VMP que puede ser factible. Se requieren estudios comparativos para definir costos, beneficios y riesgos de estos equipos comparándolos con ventiladores licenciados para soporte vital. Abstract in english Background: The Chilean Program of Noninvasive Home Ventilation started using flow generating equipment with differential pressure at 2 levels (BiPAP) through tracheostomies for prolonged mechanical ventilation (PMV). Objective: Describe the experience of this ventilatory support, reporting selectio [...] n criteria, procedure and technological requirements. Method: Descriptive-transversal study that includes 20 patients treated at Hospital Josefina Martínez, other pediatric hospitals and at home, for 12 months since June 2006. The clinical features, ventilation support, technical characteristics, follow-up and complications were reported. Results: The mean age was 3.5 years-old (range 3 months - 17 years). The duration of PMV ranged between 1 month to 5 years. Six patients (30%) are at home and 14 (70%) are hospitalized. In 14 patients (70%), the need of PMV was due to neuromuscular diseases. There was no mortality related to the use of Bipap through tracheostomy; only 4 patients had minor complications. Conclusions: This report suggests that the use of BiPAP through tracheostomy in patients with selection criteria is an applicable PVM method. However, comparative systematic trials are necessary to define costs, benefits and risks of this type of ventilation.

  17. Psychological impact, support and information needs for women with an abnormal Pap smear: comparative results of a questionnaire in three European countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Anna

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Extensive information on cervical cancer is currently available. Its effectiveness in reducing anxiety in women receiving abnormal Pap tests is not clear. We investigated current practices of communicating abnormal Pap results to evaluate women's reactions and determine the sources of information they use subsequently. Methods A self-administered questionnaire-based study was performed in 1475 women in France, Spain and Portugal who had received an abnormal Pap smear result in the 12 months prior to completing the questionnaire. Questions covered methods of communication of the result, emotional reactions, support received (from the physician and entourage, and information sources, using pre-specified check box options and rating scales. Data were analyzed by country. Results Pap test results were mostly communicated by phone to Spanish women (76%, while physician letters were common in France (59% and Portugal (36%. Frequent reactions were anxiety, panic and stress, which were less common in Spanish women than their French and Portuguese counterparts. After discussing with their physician, half of the participants were worried, despite rating highly the psychological support received. Over 90% of women in each country discussed their results with family or friends. Partners provided a high level of support. Overall, the abnormal diagnosis and consequences had a low to medium impact on daily, professional and family life and their relationships with their partner. Impact was higher in Spanish women than the French or Portuguese. Information on the diagnosis and its treatment was rated average, and nearly 80% of participants wanted more information, notably French women. Preferred sources were the physician and the Internet. Conclusions Women expressed a strong wish for more information about cervical cancer and other HPV-related diseases, and that their physician play a major role in its provision and in support. There was a heavy reliance on the close entourage and the Internet for information, highlighting the need for dissemination of accurate material. Differences between countries suggest information management strategies may need to be tailored to different geographical regions.

  18. Colour discrimination thresholds in Parkinson's disease: results obtained with a rapid computer-controlled colour vision test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regan, B C; Freudenthaler, N; Kolle, R; Mollon, J D; Paulus, W

    1998-11-01

    A dysfunction of dopaminergic retinal neurons is thought to occur in Parkinson's disease, manifesting itself in impaired performance on various visual discrimination tasks. We have investigated whether differences in colour discrimination could readily be detected between a normal group and a Parkinsonian group, using a computer-controlled test of colour vision. Although some individual Parkinsonian patients showed an abnormal elevation of colour discrimination thresholds, there was no significant difference between the normal group and the Parkinsonian group. PMID:9893860

  19. Comparison of durability indicators obtained by Non Destructive Testing methods to monitor the durability of concrete structures

    OpenAIRE

    Villain, Géraldine; Balayssac, Jean-Paul; Garnier, Vincent; Piwakowski, Bogdan; Salin, Jean; Fardeau, Vincent; Dérobert, Xavier; Coffec, Odile; Joubert, Anaëlle

    2014-01-01

    This paper deals with the use of non destructive testing methods (NDT) to assess indicators of concrete durability and mechanical properties of reinforced concrete structures. On site, NDT methods based on electromagnetic or ultrasonic wave propagation (such as radar, impact echo, ultrasonic transmission deviceÉ) are used because they are more or less sensitive to water content and mechanical properties depending on the method. It has been shown, in a former project [1, 2], that the NDT resul...

  20. Test of a numerical optimization algorithm for obtaining cross sections for multiple collision processes from electron swarm data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A numerical optimization technique is used to obtain low-energy momentum transfer, j = 0 ? 2 rotational and v = 0 ? vibrational sections from measured electron swarm data for parahydrogen. The downhill simplex algorithm is used to find cross sections that represent the best numerical fit to the measured electron drift velocity and characteristic energy over a range of E/N. These results, which are in excellent agreement with published cross sections derived using traditional swarm analysis techniques, demonstrates the feasibility of using automated computational algorithms for swarm analysis involving the estimation of multiple cross sections. (Author)

  1. RELIABILITY AND VALIDITY OF PHYSIOLOGICAL DATA OBTAINED WITHIN A CYCLE-RUN TRANSITION TEST IN AGE-GROUP TRIATHLETES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica Vleck

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the validity and reliability of a sequential "Run-Bike-Run" test (RBR in age-group triathletes. Eight Olympic distance (OD specialists (age 30.0 ± 2.0 years, mass 75.6 ± 1.6 kg, run VO2max 63.8 ± 1.9 ml·kg-1·min-1, cycle VO2peak 56.7 ± 5.1 ml·kg-1·min-1 performed four trials over 10 days. Trial 1 (TRVO2max was an incremental treadmill running test. Trials 2 and 3 (RBR1 and RBR2 involved: 1 a 7-min run at 15 km·h-1 (R1 plus a 1-min transition to 2 cycling to fatigue (2 W·kg-1 body mass then 30 W each 3 min; 3 10-min cycling at 3 W·kg-1 (Bsubmax; another 1-min transition and 4 a second 7-min run at 15 km·h-1 (R2. Trial 4 (TT was a 30-min cycle - 20-min run time trial. No significant differences in absolute oxygen uptake (VO2, heart rate (HR, or blood lactate concentration ([BLA] were evidenced between RBR1 and RBR2. For all measured physiological variables, the limits of agreement were similar, and the mean differences were physiologically unimportant, between trials. Low levels of test-retest error (i.e. ICC <0.8, CV<10% were observed for most (logged measurements. However [BLA] post R1 (ICC 0.87, CV 25.1%, [BLA] post Bsubmax (ICC 0.99, CV 16.31 and [BLA] post R2 (ICC 0.51, CV 22.9% were least reliable. These error ranges may help coaches detect real changes in training status over time. Moreover, RBR test variables can be used to predict discipline specific and overall TT performance. Cycle VO2peak, cycle peak power output, and the change between R1 and R2 (deltaR1R2 in [BLA] were most highly related to overall TT distance (r = 0.89, p < 0. 01; r = 0.94, p < 0.02; r = 0.86, p < 0.05, respectively. The percentage of TR VO2max at 15 km·h-1, and deltaR1R2 HR, were also related to run TT distance (r = -0.83 and 0.86, both p < 0.05

  2. Deoxygenation and the blood volume signals in the flexor carpi ulnaris and radialis muscles obtained during the execution of the Mirallas's test of judo athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdaguer-Codina, Joan; Mirallas, Jaume A.

    1996-12-01

    The technique of execution of any movement in Judo is extremely important. The coaches want tests and tools easy to use and cheaper, to evaluate the progress of a judoist in the tatame. In this paper we present a test developed by Mirallas, which has his name 'Test of Mirallas' to evaluate the maximal power capacity of the judoist. The near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) signals were obtained to have a measurement of the metabolic work of the flexor carpi ulnaris and radialis muscles, during the execution of the ippon-seoi-nage movement, allowing this measurement to assess by NIRS the maximal oxygen uptake. Also obtained were tympanic, skin forehead, and biceps brachii temperatures during the test time and recovery phase to study the effects of ambient conditions and the post-exercise oxygen consumption. The deoxygenation and blood volume signals obtained gave different results, demonstrating the hypothesis of the coaches that some judoist do the execution of the ippon-seoi-nage movement correctly and the rest didn't. The heart rate frequency obtained in the group of judoist was between 190-207 bpm, and in the minute five of post-exercise was 114-137 bpm; the time employed in the MIrallas's test were from 7 feet 14 inches to 13 feet 49 inches, and the total of movements were from 199 to 409. The data obtained in the skin forehead, and skin biceps brachii confirms previous works that the oxygen consumption remains after exercise in the muscle studied. According to the results, the test developed by Mirallas is a good tool to evaluate the performance of judoist any time, giving better results compared with standard tests.

  3. Thermal isocreep curves obtained during multi-axial creep tests on recrystallized Zircaloy-4 and M5™ alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rautenberg, M., E-mail: mrautenb@gmail.com [AREVA, AREVA NP, 10 rue Juliette Récamier, 69456 Lyon (France); CIRIMAT, CNRS/UPS/INPT, 4 allée Emile Monso, 31030 Toulouse (France); Poquillon, D. [CIRIMAT, CNRS/UPS/INPT, 4 allée Emile Monso, 31030 Toulouse (France); Pilvin, P. [LIMATB, University Bretagne-Sud, rue de Saint-Maudé, 56321 Lorient (France); Grosjean, C. [AREVA, AREVA NP, 10 rue Juliette Récamier, 69456 Lyon (France); CIRIMAT, CNRS/UPS/INPT, 4 allée Emile Monso, 31030 Toulouse (France); Cloué, J.M. [AREVA, AREVA NP, 10 rue Juliette Récamier, 69456 Lyon (France); Feaugas, X. [LEMMA, Université de La Rochelle, Avenue Michel Crépeau, 17042 La Rochelle (France)

    2014-04-01

    Zirconium alloys are widely used in the nuclear industry. Several components, such as cladding or guide tubes, undergo strong mechanical loading during and after their use inside the pressurized water reactors. The current requirements on higher fuel performances lead to the developing on new Zr based alloys exhibiting better mechanical properties. In this framework, creep behaviors of recrystallized Zircaloy-4 and M5™, have been investigated and then compared. In order to give a better understanding of the thermal creep anisotropy of Zr-based alloys, multi-axial creep tests have been carried out at 673 K. Using a specific device, creep conditions have been set using different values of ? = ?{sub zz}/?{sub ??}, ?{sub zz} and ?{sub ??} being respectively the axial and hoop creep stresses. Both axial and hoop strains are measured during each test which is carried out until stationary creep is stabilized. The steady-state strain rates are then used to build isocreep curves. Considering the isocreep curves, the M5™ alloy shows a largely improved creep resistance compared to the recrystallized Zircaloy-4, especially for tubes under high hoop loadings (0 < ? < 1). The isocreep curves are then compared with simulations performed using two different mechanical models. Model 1 uses a von Mises yield criterion, the model 2 is based on a Hill yield criterion. For both models, a coefficient derived from Norton law is used to assess the stress dependence.

  4. Reconstruction of $^{60}$Co Radiation Source Locations Using Goodness-of-Fit Tests on Spectra Obtained from an HPGe Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Evans, L T; De, R; Henning, R; Morgan, E D

    2009-01-01

    High purity germanium (HPGe) detectors are ubiquitous in nuclear physics experiments and are also used in numerous low radioactive background detectors, including the proposed {\\sc Majorana} experiment. Spatial reconstruction of the location of radiation sources from spectral distortions could be used to locate unwanted backgrounds or "hot-spots" inside the detector shield. The effect of the position of a $^{60}$Co point source on the shape of spectra was studied with both Monte Carlo and HPGe detector measurements. We briefly confirm previous work on the position dependence of relative heights of peaks. Spectra taken with the radiation source placed at locations around the detector were then compared using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov (K-S) goodness-of-fit test. We discuss the position reconstruction accuracy of this statistical method, which is promising.

  5. Papanicolaou na pós-menopausa: fatores associados a sua não realização / Factors associated with lack of Pap smear screening in a group of postmenopausal Brazilian women

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Sheila Cristina Rocha, Brischiliari; Cátia Millene, Dell' Agnolo; Laís Moraes, Gil; Tiara Cristina, Romeiro; Ângela Andréia França, Gravena; Maria Dalva de Barros, Carvalho; Sandra Marisa, Pelloso.

    1976-19-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar os fatores de risco relacionados à não realização do exame de Papanicolaou entre as mulheres que vivenciam a menopausa. Neste estudo de base populacional, composto de mulheres de 45-69 anos, residentes na área urbana de Maringá, Paraná, Brasil, foram avaliadas 45 [...] 6 mulheres no período da menopausa, as quais apresentaram uma média de 58,7 ± 5,7 anos, sendo 48,0 ± 5,0 anos a idade média do início da menopausa. A maior parte relatou ter até sete anos de estudo, apresentava companheiro, realizava atividade remunerada, era sedentária e não usuária de terapia de reposição hormonal. A cobertura de rastreamento de Papanicolaou foi de 84,5%. Após ajuste por análise multivariada, a faixa etária de 45-69 anos, ocupação remunerada, sem consulta ao ginecologista no último ano e sem realização de mamografia nos últimos dois anos foram associadas à não realização do exame. Os esforços para melhorar o rastreamento do câncer de colo do útero devem estar focados no conhecimento das mulheres e na diminuição dos fatores contribuintes para a não realização do exame de Papanicolaou. Abstract in english This study aimed to analyze risk factors for lack of Pap smear screening among menopausal women. This population-based study evaluated 456 women 45-69 years of age (mean 58.7; SD 5.7), with age at menopause 48.0 years (SD 5.0) living in the urban area of Maringá, Paraná State, Brazil. Most reported [...] having 7 years of schooling or less, were married or living with a partner, had paid work, were sedentary, and were not on hormone replacement therapy. Coverage of Pap smear screening was 84.5%. After adjustment by multivariate analysis, the 45-69-year age bracket, paid work, no visit to the gynecologist in the previous year, and no mammogram in the two previous years were statistically associated with lack of Pap smear screening. Efforts to improve cervical cancer screening should focus on women's knowledge and reduce the factors that hinder women from performing Pap smear tests.

  6. The Pap smear screening as an occasion for smoking cessation and physical activity counselling: effectiveness of the SPRINT randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorini Giuseppe

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The organized Cervical Cancer Screening Programme (CCSP in Italy might represent an occasion to deliver smoking cessation (SC counselling to women attending the Pap test examination. Evidence of effectiveness of physical activity (PA promotion and intervention in adjunct to SC counselling is not strong. Objective of the SPRINT trial was to evaluate the effectiveness of a standard SC counselling intervention delivered by trained midwives in the CCSP, and whether the adjunct of a PA counselling to the SC counselling might increase quit rates. Methods/Design We undertook a randomized controlled trial of 1,100 women undergoing the Pap examination in the three study centres Florence, Turin, and Mantua: 363 were randomly assigned to the SC counselling arm, 366 to the SC?+?PA counselling arm, and 371 to the control group. The intervention was a standard brief SC counselling combined with a brief counselling on increasing PA, and was tailored according to the Di Clemente-Prochaska motivational stages of change for SC and/or PA. Primary outcomes were quit rates, improvement in the motivational stages of change for SC, and reduced daily cigarette consumption. Analysis was by intention to treat. Results Participants randomized in both intervention arms and in the preparation stage of change for SC doubled their likelihood of quitting at 6-month follow-up in comparison to controls (odds ratio [OR]=2.1, 95% confidence interval [95% CI]:1.0-4.6. Moreover, participants in the intervention arms and in the contemplation stage were more likely to reduce their daily cigarette consumption after the intervention (OR=1.8, 95% CI:1.1-3.0. Our study did not show any effect of PA counselling on various outcomes. Conclusions Smoking cessation counselling delivered by midwives to smokers in preparation and contemplation stages of change during the Pap-smear screening was effective and should be recommended, given the high number of women attending the cervical cancer screening programme in Italy. Moreover, the daily number of women invited for the Pap-smear examination should be slightly lowered, in order to let midwives deliver SC counselling to smokers. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN52660565

  7. Associations of demographic variables and the Health Belief Model constructs with Pap smear screening among urban women in Botswana

    OpenAIRE

    McFarl; DM

    2013-01-01

    Ditsapelo M McFarland College of Nursing and Public Health, Adelphi University, Garden City, NY, USA Purpose: Papanicolaou (Pap) smear services are available in most urban areas in Botswana. Yet most women in such areas do not screen regularly for cancer of the cervix. The purpose of this article is to present findings on the associations of demographic variables and Health Belief Model constructs with Pap smear screening among urban women in Botswana. Sample and methods: The study included a...

  8. Microspores irradiation in anther culture: testing a new technique to obtain mutations immediatly detected and fixed (Application to Nicotiana tabacum)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to consider the effects of microspores irradiation on embryo development, and in order to observe the morphological responses of haploid plantlets derived from androgenetic anthers to ionizing irradiation, 1000, 1500 and 2000r of gamma rays were delivered on anthers of Nicotiana tabacum (DL50 range calculated: 1500r). The cytological studies of embryo development revealed an apparent increase in irradiated microspores: cell division is stimulated but followed by an early mortality. A sharp rise in lethality effects was observed when gamma rays were applied beyond the seventh day of culture, when the proembryo contains an average of 4 cells. Morphological aberrations and colour changes in the Mo progeny derived from irradiated microspores are diverse. But after chromosome doubling and mutation checking out, all the plants were not recorded to have transmitted their aberrant characters. Thus, heritable character 'mutations) and not heritable character (variations) were obtained. The variations characters include dwarfing, excessive branching, fasciation and dichotomy of the stems, altered flower form, especially of petals. As to the leaves, they usually show induced changes in their colour (chlorotic areas, mosaic-colour changes, or an over-all colour changes), in their form (irregularity in outline) and in their texture (thickening, hairless leaf). Among the mutants, a monster tobacco, with excrescences on the leaves and the flowers is certainly thehe leaves and the flowers is certainly the most conspicuous. But mutants also include altered leaf colour (over-all pale green) and altered flower colour, (dark red, clear pink, white)

  9. Citopatológico de colo uterino entre gestantes no Sul do Brasil: um estudo transversal de base populacional Pap smears among pregnant women in Southern Brazil: a representative cross-sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juraci Almeida Cesar

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar a prevalência e identificar fatores associados ao não rastreamento voluntário para citopatológico (CP de colo uterino entre puérperas em Rio Grande (RS. MÉTODOS: Entrevistadores previamente treinados aplicaram questionário padronizado, ainda na maternidade, em busca de informações sobre características demográficas da gestante, nível socioeconômico da família e tipo de assistência recebida durante o pré-natal para todas aquelas residentes nesse município que tiveram filhos entre 1º de janeiro e 31 de dezembro de 2010. Foram utilizados o teste do ?² para comparar proporções e a regressão de Poisson com ajuste robusto da variância na análise multivariável. RESULTADOS: Dentre as 2.288 entrevistadas, 33% não se submeteram ao CP de colo uterino. Destas, dois terços disseram desconhecer a necessidade de realizá-lo, 18% não fizeram este exame por medo ou vergonha e as demais por outras razões. Após ajuste para diversos fatores de confusão, as maiores razões de prevalência (RP para não buscar por CP ocorreram entre aquelas de menor idade (RP=1,5; IC95% 1,25 - 1,80 e escolaridade (RP=1,5; IC95% 1,12 - 2,12, que viviam sem companheiro (RP=1,4; IC95% 1,24 - 1,62, fumantes (RP=1,2; IC95% 1,07 - 1,39, que não planejaram a gravidez (RP=1,3; IC95% 1,21 - 1,61, que completaram menos de seis consultas durante pré-natal (RP=1,4; IC95% 1,32 - 1,69 e usuárias de contraceptivo oral (RP=1,2; IC95% 1,04 - 1,38. CONCLUSÕES: Quanto maior o risco para câncer de colo uterino, menor a probabilidade de a gestante se submeter ao CP de colo uterino. Isso, certamente, tem contribuído para o aumento da morbimortalidade por esta doença nesta localidade.PURPOSE: To determine the prevalence and risk factors associated with failure of voluntary screening for cervical cancer during the gestational period in Rio Grande, Rio Grande do Sul State, Southern Brazil. METHODS: Previously trained interviewers applied a standardized questionnaire in the maternity to all mothers from this municipality who had delivered from January 1st to December 31st 2010 to obtain information about the demographic characteristics of the pregnant women, family socioeconomic status, and prenatal care received. The ?² test was used to compare proportions and Poisson regression with robust adjustment of variance was used in the multivariate analysis. RESULTS: Among the 2,288 respondents, 33% were not submitted to the Pap smear during pregnancy. Two thirds of these women stated that they were not aware of the need to perform it, 18% were not screened out of fear or shame, and the rest for other reasons. After adjustment, the highest prevalence ratios (PR for noncompliance with the Pap smear occurred among young women (PR=1.5; 95%CI 1.25 - 1.80, with lower educational level (PR=1.5; 95%CI 1.12 - 2.12, who were living without a partner (PR=1.4; 95%CI 1.24 - 1.62, smokers (PR=1.2; 95%CI 1.07 - 1.39, who did not plan the current pregnancy (PR=1.3; 95%CI 1,21 - 1.61, who had attended less than six medical visits during the prenatal period (PR=1.4; 95%CI 1.32 - 1.69 and among users of oral contraceptives (PR=1.2; 95%CI 1.04 - 1.38. CONCLUSIONS: The higher the risk for uterine cervical cancer, the less likely a pregnant woman is to undergo a Pap smear. This definitely contributed to the increased morbidity and mortality from this disease in this setting.

  10. Citopatológico de colo uterino entre gestantes no Sul do Brasil: um estudo transversal de base populacional / Pap smears among pregnant women in Southern Brazil: a representative cross-sectional survey

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Juraci Almeida, Cesar; Gabriela Breitembach dos, Santos; Andrea Tomais, Sutil; Carolina Fischer, Cunha; Samuel de Carvalho, Dumith.

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar a prevalência e identificar fatores associados ao não rastreamento voluntário para citopatológico (CP) de colo uterino entre puérperas em Rio Grande (RS). MÉTODOS: Entrevistadores previamente treinados aplicaram questionário padronizado, ainda na maternidade, em busca de informa [...] ções sobre características demográficas da gestante, nível socioeconômico da família e tipo de assistência recebida durante o pré-natal para todas aquelas residentes nesse município que tiveram filhos entre 1º de janeiro e 31 de dezembro de 2010. Foram utilizados o teste do ?² para comparar proporções e a regressão de Poisson com ajuste robusto da variância na análise multivariável. RESULTADOS: Dentre as 2.288 entrevistadas, 33% não se submeteram ao CP de colo uterino. Destas, dois terços disseram desconhecer a necessidade de realizá-lo, 18% não fizeram este exame por medo ou vergonha e as demais por outras razões. Após ajuste para diversos fatores de confusão, as maiores razões de prevalência (RP) para não buscar por CP ocorreram entre aquelas de menor idade (RP=1,5; IC95% 1,25 - 1,80) e escolaridade (RP=1,5; IC95% 1,12 - 2,12), que viviam sem companheiro (RP=1,4; IC95% 1,24 - 1,62), fumantes (RP=1,2; IC95% 1,07 - 1,39), que não planejaram a gravidez (RP=1,3; IC95% 1,21 - 1,61), que completaram menos de seis consultas durante pré-natal (RP=1,4; IC95% 1,32 - 1,69) e usuárias de contraceptivo oral (RP=1,2; IC95% 1,04 - 1,38). CONCLUSÕES: Quanto maior o risco para câncer de colo uterino, menor a probabilidade de a gestante se submeter ao CP de colo uterino. Isso, certamente, tem contribuído para o aumento da morbimortalidade por esta doença nesta localidade. Abstract in english PURPOSE: To determine the prevalence and risk factors associated with failure of voluntary screening for cervical cancer during the gestational period in Rio Grande, Rio Grande do Sul State, Southern Brazil. METHODS: Previously trained interviewers applied a standardized questionnaire in the materni [...] ty to all mothers from this municipality who had delivered from January 1st to December 31st 2010 to obtain information about the demographic characteristics of the pregnant women, family socioeconomic status, and prenatal care received. The ?² test was used to compare proportions and Poisson regression with robust adjustment of variance was used in the multivariate analysis. RESULTS: Among the 2,288 respondents, 33% were not submitted to the Pap smear during pregnancy. Two thirds of these women stated that they were not aware of the need to perform it, 18% were not screened out of fear or shame, and the rest for other reasons. After adjustment, the highest prevalence ratios (PR) for noncompliance with the Pap smear occurred among young women (PR=1.5; 95%CI 1.25 - 1.80), with lower educational level (PR=1.5; 95%CI 1.12 - 2.12), who were living without a partner (PR=1.4; 95%CI 1.24 - 1.62), smokers (PR=1.2; 95%CI 1.07 - 1.39), who did not plan the current pregnancy (PR=1.3; 95%CI 1,21 - 1.61), who had attended less than six medical visits during the prenatal period (PR=1.4; 95%CI 1.32 - 1.69) and among users of oral contraceptives (PR=1.2; 95%CI 1.04 - 1.38). CONCLUSIONS: The higher the risk for uterine cervical cancer, the less likely a pregnant woman is to undergo a Pap smear. This definitely contributed to the increased morbidity and mortality from this disease in this setting.

  11. Outline of test and research results obtained with research commissioning expense for peaceful use of atomic energy in fiscal 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report was compiled by the Atomic Energy Bureau, Science and Technology Agency. Six reports on radiation injury prevention, six reports on radiation utilization, and three reports on nuclear fuel cycle are collected, and the outline of respective tests and research is described. In radiation injury prevention, the scattering of radioisotopes, the evaluation of gaseous radioactive nuclides, the distribution and the behavior of natural and artificial radioactive nuclides, the risk estimation of delayed injuries and hereditary injuries due to low dose radiation, and the epidemiologic study of the group repeatedly exposed to low dose for radiation risk estimation were taken up. In radiation utilization, the hereditary safety of irradiated foods, the automation of the production of short life, RI-labeled compounds, the safety of radioisotope-using facilities in earthquakes, the techniques of treating radioactive wastes in RI utilization, the cleaning of radioactivity-contaminated things with organic solvent, and the facility for treating radioactive liquid using a new filter were studied. In nuclear fuel cycle, the behavior of uranium hexafluoride in fire, the dynamic concentrated management system for the information on safeguard measures and the low level radioactive wastes produced in fuel fabrication establishments were researched. (Kako, I.)

  12. The Anal Pap Smear: Cytomorphology of squamous intraepithelial lesions

    OpenAIRE

    Arain Shehla; Walts Ann; Thomas Premi; Bose Shikha

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Background Anal smears are increasingly being used as a screening test for anal squamous intraepithelial lesions (ASILs). This study was undertaken to assess the usefulness and limitations of anal smears in screening for ASILs. Methods The cytomorphological features of 200 consecutive anal smears collected in liquid medium from 198 patients were studied and findings were correlated with results of surgical biopsies and/or repeat smears that became available for 71 patients within six...

  13. Charging and discharging tests for obtaining an accurate dynamic electro-thermal model of high power lithium-ion pack system for hybrid and EV applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mihet-Popa, Lucian; Camacho, Oscar Mauricio Forero

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a battery test platform including two Li-ion battery designed for hybrid and EV applications, and charging/discharging tests under different operating conditions carried out for developing an accurate dynamic electro-thermal model of a high power Li-ion battery pack system. The aim of the tests has been to study the impact of the battery degradation and to find out the dynamic characteristics of the cells including nonlinear open circuit voltage, series resistance and parallel transient circuit at different charge/discharge currents and cell temperature. An equivalent circuit model, based on the runtime battery model and the Thevenin circuit model, with parameters obtained from the tests and depending on SOC, current and temperature has been implemented in MATLAB/Simulink and Power Factory. A good alignment between simulations and measurements has been found.

  14. The Anal Pap Smear: Cytomorphology of squamous intraepithelial lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walts Ann E

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anal smears are increasingly being used as a screening test for anal squamous intraepithelial lesions (ASILs. This study was undertaken to assess the usefulness and limitations of anal smears in screening for ASILs. Methods The cytomorphological features of 200 consecutive anal smears collected in liquid medium from 198 patients were studied and findings were correlated with results of surgical biopsies and/or repeat smears that became available for 71 patients within six months. Results Adequate cellularity was defined as an average of 6 or more nucleated squamous cells/hpf. A glandular/transitional component was not required for adequacy. Dysplastic cells, atypical parakeratotic cells and bi/multinucleated cells were frequent findings in ASIL while koilocytes were infrequent. Smears from LSIL cases most frequently showed mildly dysplastic and bi/multinucleate squamous cells followed by parakeratotic cells (PK, atypical parakeratotic cells (APK, and koilocytes. HSIL smears contained squamous cells with features of moderate/severe dysplasia and many APKs. Features of LSIL were also found in most HSIL smears. Conclusions In this study liquid based anal smears had a high sensitivity (98% for detection of ASIL but a low specificity (50% for predicting the severity of the abnormality in subsequent biopsy. Patients with cytologic diagnoses of ASC-US and LSIL had a significant risk (46–56% of HSIL at biopsy. We suggest that all patients with a diagnosis of ASC-US and above be recommended for high resolution anoscopy with biopsy.

  15. Technique for determination of the number of PapA units in an E. Coli P pilus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Magnus; Fällman, Erik; Uhlin, Bernt E.; Axner, Ove

    2006-02-01

    Optical tweezers have previously been used to characterize the force-vs.-elongation dependence of the PapA rod of uropathogenic E. coli P pili. It was found that the PapA rod elongates in several elongation regions. In the two first, the elongation originates from an elastic stretching and a sequential unfolding of the layer-to-layer bonds (and thereby of the helical structure). Region III is characterized by an elongation that originates from an elastic stretching and an opening of the head-to-tail bonds in the linearized PapA rod. The opening of these bonds takes place in a random order, wherefore the response in this region is affected by entropy. Since the entropic softening of a macromolecule depends on the number of units, the shape of this region can be used to assess the number of PapA units. We provide in this work a recipe for how this can be done solely from the form of region III. An advantage with this technique is that it does not require a continuous monitoring of the elongation of a single PapA rod from unstretched conditions, which often is difficult because of simultaneous multi-pili binding; it suffices to detect it in the third region at which binding often is mediated by only one pilus. Another advantage is that it does not require any prior knowledge about (or assessment of) any physical entity of the PapA rod; the number of PapA units can be assessed solely from the shape of the curve in the third elongation region.

  16. Combined Hierarchical Watershed Segmentation and SVM Classification for Pap Smear Cell Nucleus Extraction / Extracción de núcleos de células en imágenes de la prueba de Papanicolaou usando watershed jerárquico y máquinas de vectores soporte

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Maykel, Orozco-Monteagudo; Cosmin, Mihai; Hichem, Sahli; Alberto, Taboada-Crispi.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se presenta un método en dos etapas para la segmentación y clasificación de núcleos de células en imágenes tomadas de la prueba de Papanicolaou. La primera etapa, la etapa de segmentación, está formada por un algoritmo morfológico (watershed o marcas de agua) y un algoritmo je [...] rárquico de mezclado (waterfall o salto de agua). Para realizar el mezclado de regiones, waterfall usa información espectral, de forma y de las regiones que se separarán. En la segunda etapa, la etapa de clasificación, el objetivo es obtener los núcleos a partir de las clasificaciones de las regiones obtenidas en la primera etapa. Antes de realizar la clasificación, fueron probadas tres medidas no supervisadas de calidad de la segmentación para determinar el mejor resultado de la mezcla de regiones. La clasificación de las regiones se realizó usando Máquinas de Vector Soporte. Los resultados fueron comparados con las segmentaciones realizadas por patólogos demostrándose la eficacia del método propuesto. Abstract in english In this paper, we propose a two-phase approach to nuclei segmentation/classification in Pap smear test images. The first phase, the segmentation phase, includes a morphological algorithm (watershed) and a hierarchical merging algorithm (waterfall). In the merging step, waterfall uses spectral and sh [...] ape information as well as the class information. In the second phase, classification, the goal is to obtain nucleus regions and cytoplasm areas by classifying the regions resulting from the first phase based on their spectral and shape features, merging of the adjacent regions belonging to the same class. Between the two phases, three unsupervised segmentation quality criteria were tested in order to determine the best one selecting the best level after merging. The classification of individual regions is obtained using a Support Vector Machine (SVM) classifier. The segmentation and classification results are compared to the segmentation provided by expert pathologists and demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed method.

  17. An evaluation of parameters compliance obtained through quality control tests in mammography undertaken at Sao Paulo, Brazil, from 2000 to 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Portaria 453 of 1998 established a mandatory police for quality assurance program in Radiodiagnostic (PGQ), as a constituent part the Quality Control of Equipment, which includes a minimum set of constancy tests, it establishes acceptance performance limits and requires a minimum frequency to be undertaken. The Resolution 64 of 2003 added a methodology to undertake tests in Mammography which was substituted by Resolution 1016 of 2006 up today. The objective of mammography is the early detection of breast anomalies in order to indicate the efficient treatment with better chance of healing. The PGQ goal is optimization of the detection process with a good quality image and a minimum necessary patient dose. This work presents an evaluation of improvement in adequacy of main parameters obtained through quality assurance tests in Mammography undertaken at Sao Paulo from 2000 to 2009. (author)

  18. Knowledge Attitude and Practice of Women in Shiraz about Cervical Cancer and Pap Smear 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi N

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cervical cancer is one of the prevalent and mortal cancers. The aim of the study is to assess knowledge, atti tude and practice of women toward this cancer and Pap smear. Methods: We carried out a cross-sectional study among 402 women through a questionnaire with 5 socio-demographi c parameters and 14 questions about knowledge, attitude and practice. We ai med to know how knowledge, attitude and practice are affected by socio-demographic stat us and how practice is affected by knowledge and attitude. Results: The mean score was 4.09. Knowledge and age did not correlate directly. Old aged women had the best knowledg e. As the number of children rose, knowledge deteriorated, vi ce versa about the age of marriage and education. The clerks were better than housewives and businesswomen. Just 3.5% did not consider the regular Pap as necessary (with the lower educational level. Almost 99% intended to get more information. The minority (28.1% had the incorrect attitude toward the curability of the c ancer. Most of the women referred to do Pap due to health center personnel’s advice. About 80% had undesired practice. Discussion: The educated ones had more approp riate and optimistic incorrect attitude compared to the uneducated ones . As more years pass from the age of marriage, practice gets worse. All the newly married women had the desired practice, correct attitude and intended to get more inform ation. All the women who knew it unnecessary had undesired practice . Women with the desired practice had 9% more correct attitude and 9% more optimistic incorre ct attitude compared to the undesirably practicing ones. Totally, prac tice is not much influenced by attitude.

  19. PapARt : interactive 3D graphics and multi-touch augmented paper for artistic creation

    OpenAIRE

    Laviole, Jérémy; Hachet, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Standard physical pen-and-paper creation and computer graphics tools tend to evolve in separate tracks. In this paper, we propose a new interface, PapARt, that bridges the gap between these two worlds. We developed a system that allow users to visualize, ma- nipulate and edit a 3D scene projected onto a paper sheet. Using multitouch and tangible interfaces, users can directly interact with the 3D scene to prepare their drawings. Then, thanks to the pro- jection of the 3D scene directly on the...

  20. In vitro study of sirolimus release from a drug-eluting stent: Comparison of the release profiles obtained using different test setups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidlitz, Anne; Schick, Wiebke; Reske, Thomas; Senz, Volkmar; Grabow, Niels; Petersen, Svea; Nagel, Stefan; Weitschies, Werner

    2015-06-01

    In this study drug release from the CYPHER™ stent, the gold standard in drug-eluting stent therapy until the end of its marketing in 2011/2012, was systematically evaluated using different in vitro release tests. The test systems included incubations setups, the reciprocating holder apparatus (USP7), the flow-through cell apparatus (USP4) and the vessel-simulating flow-through cell (vFTC) specifically designed for stent testing. The results obtained show a large variability regarding the fractions released into the media after 7d ranging from 38.6%±4.5% to 74.6%±1.2%. The lowest fraction released was observed in the vFTC and the highest in an incubation setup with frequently changed media of a volume of 2mL. Differences were even observed when using fairly similar and simple incubations setups with mere changes of the media volume, under maintenance of sink conditions, and of the vessel geometry. From these data it can be concluded, that in vitro release even from a slow releasing drug-eluting stent is greatly influenced by the experimental conditions and care must be taken when choosing a suitable setup. Comparison of the obtained in vitro release profiles to published in vivo data did not result in a distinct superiority of any of the tested methods regarding the predictability for the situation in vivo due to large differences in the reported in vivo data. However, this comparison yielded that the release observed in vitro using the 2mL incubation setup and the reciprocating holder apparatus may be faster than the reported in vivo release. The results of this study also emphasize the necessity to use highly standardized release tests when comparisons between results from different experiments or even different labs are to be performed. In this context, the compendial methods are most likely offering the highest degree of standardization. PMID:25936852

  1. Pap smear

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Lobo RA, Gershenson DM, Katz VL, eds. Comprehensive Gynecology . 6th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Elsevier Mosby; 2012:chap ... Gynecologists. Committee Opinion No. 463: Cervical cancer in adolescents: screening, evaluation, and management. Obstet Gynecol . 2010;116: ...

  2. Pap Smear Diagnosis Using a Hybrid Intelligent Scheme Focusing on Genetic Algorithm Based Feature Selection and Nearest Neighbor Classification

    OpenAIRE

    Marinakis, Yannis; Dounias, Georgios; Jantzen, Jan

    2008-01-01

    The term pap-smear refers to samples of human cells stained by the so-called Papanicolaou method. The purpose of the Papanicolaou method is to diagnose pre-cancerous cell changes before they progress to invasive carcinoma. In this paper a metaheuristic algorithm is proposed in order to classify the cells. Two databases are used, constructed in different times by expert MDs, consisting of 917 and 500 images of pap smear cells, respectively. Each cell is described by 20 numerical features, and ...

  3. DNA sequences of three papA genes from uropathogenic Escherichia coli strains: evidence of structural and serological conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denich, K; Blyn, L B; Craiu, A; Braaten, B A; Hardy, J; Low, D A; O'Hanley, P D

    1991-01-01

    Pyelonephritis-associated pili (Pap) are important in the pathogenesis of ascending, unobstructive Escherichia coli-caused renal infections because these surface bacterial organelles mediate digalactoside-specific binding to host uroepithelial cells. Pap are composed of many different polypeptides, of which only the tip proteins mediate specific binding. The PapA moiety polymerizes to form the bulk of the pilus structure and has been employed in vaccines despite its lack of Gal alpha(1-4)Gal receptor specificity. Animal recipients of PapA pilus-based vaccines are protected against experimental pyelonephritis caused by homologous and heterologous Gal-Gal-binding uropathogenic E. coli strains. Specific PapA immunoglobulin G antibodies in urine are correlated with protection in these infection models. The nucleotide sequences of the gene encoding PapA were determined for three E. coli clones expressing F7(1), F7(2), and F9 pili and were compared with corresponding sequences for other F serotypes. Specific rabbit antisera were employed in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays to study the cross-reactivity between Gal-Gal pili purified from recombinant strains expressing F7(1), F7(2), F9, or F13 pili and among 60 Gal-Gal-binding wild-type strains. We present data which corroborate the concept that papA genes are highly homologous and encode proteins which exhibit greater than 70% homology among pili of different serotypes. The differences primarily occur in the cysteine-cysteine loop and variable regions and constitute the basis for serological diversity of these pili. Although there are differences in primary structures among these pili, antisera raised against pili of one serotype cross-reacted frequently with many other Gal-Gal pili of different serotypes. Furthermore, antisera raised against pili of the F13 serotype cross-reacted strongly or moderately with 52 (86%) of 60 wild-type Gal-Gal-binding E. coli strains. These data suggest that there are common immunogenic domains among these proteins. These additional data further support the hypothesis that broadly cross-protective PapA pilus vaccines for the immunoprophylaxis of pyelonephritis might be developed. PMID:1682251

  4. Comparative study of visual inspection of the cervix by 3% acetic acid (VIA) versus Pap smear by Bethesda method in sexually active women aged 25-50 years as an equally or more effective cervical cancer screening method in a low resource setup

    OpenAIRE

    Mohit Rajendra Saraogi; Alka Gupta

    2014-01-01

    Background: Cervical cancer is the most common cancer in Indian women and is a preventable cancer. Pap smear being an expensive screening test, increased emphasis is being laid on the development of a reliable and cost effective screening method for cervical cancer. This study aims at early detection of cervical dysplastic lesions using a simple and cost-effective screening test like visual inspection of cervix with 3% acetic acid (VIA) and comparing its diagnostic efficacy with the more expe...

  5. Tamizaje en cáncer cervical: conocimiento de la utilidad y uso de citología cervical en México Cervical cancer screening: knowledge of Pap smear benefits and utilization in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José A Aguilar-Pérez

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Identificar y evaluar los factores que predisponen a la utilización de la prueba de Papanicolaou en la población que usa el servicio del Programa Nacional de Detección Oportuna de Cáncer en México. MÉTODOS: Se realizó un estudio del tipo transversal de enero de 1997 a diciembre de 1998, en la Ciudad de México; se incluyeron a 2.107 mujeres en edad reproductiva que acudieron a un servicio de planificación familiar, las cuáles respondieron a un cuestionario con preguntas sobre características: sociodemográficas, factores de riesgo reproductivo asociados a cáncer cervical, historia de vida sexual, uso de métodos anticonceptivos, conocimiento de la utilidad y utilización del Papanicolaou. Para el análisis de los datos se construyeron modelos multivariados de regresión logística no condicional. RESULTADOS: Los predisponentes de utilización del programa de detección oportuna de cáncer en esta población fueron: el conocimiento de la utilidad del Papanicolaou incrementó en seis veces más la posibilidad de utilización (IC 95% 4,70-7,67; el antecedente de utilización de dos o más métodos de planificación familiar (OR=2,38; IC 95% 1,75-3,24; el antecedente de historia de infección vaginal (OR=2,18; IC 95% 1,73-2,75, y la aceptación del esposo para la realización de exploraciones ginecológicas (OR=1,56; IC 95% 1,07-2,29. CONCLUSIONES: La implementación de programas educativos en la prevención de cáncer, deberán incluir la utilidad de las pruebas de detección. En México, en mujeres en edad reproductiva utilización de la prueba de Papanicolaou se ofrece predominantemente en forma oportunista, por lo que el antecedente de utilización de los Servicios de Salud es un determinante para la utilización del Programa de Detección Oportuna de Cáncer Cervical. Estos resultados muestran la necesidad de ampliar la promoción a la salud de este programa a las mujeres de alto riesgo, incluyendo a sus parejas sexuales.OBJECTIVE: To identify and evaluate the predisposing factors regarding the utilization of the Pap smears in the population seen in the Cervical Cancer Screening Program in Mexico METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted from January 1997 through December 1998 in Mexico city. A questionnaire was applied to a total of 2,107 women of reproductive age who attended a family planning program and data was collected regarding the following topics: social-demographics, reproductive risk factors associated with cervical cancer, sexual behavior and partner history, birth control, knowledge about Pap smear' benefits, and its utilization. Statistic analysis was conducted using Student´s test and non-conditional multiple logistic regression model for determining significance. RESULTS: The predisposing factors were: knowledge about Pap smear's benefits (OR=6.00, CI 95% 4.70-7.67, history of using at least two birth control methods (OR=2.38, CI 95% 1.75-3.24, previous history of vaginal infection (OR=2.18, CI 95% 1.73-2.75, sexual partner's approval of gynecological examinations (OR=1.56, CI 95% 1.07-2.29. CONCLUSIONS: Educational programs on cancer prevention in this population should include the benefits of screening tests. Pap smears for Mexican women of reproductive age are mostly offered opportunely. The previous use of health services is a determinant factor for the utilization of the Cervical Cancer Screening Program. These results show the need to strengthen health promotion programs to women at high risk of cervical cancer and their sexual partners.

  6. A heterodimer of human 3'-phospho-adenosine-5'-phosphosulphate (PAPS) synthases is a new sulphate activating complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    3'-Phospho-adenosine-5'-phosphosulphate (PAPS) synthases are fundamental to mammalian sulphate metabolism. These enzymes have recently been linked to a rising number of human diseases. Despite many studies, it is not yet understood how the mammalian PAPS synthases 1 and 2 interact with each other. We provide first evidence for heterodimerisation of these two enzymes by pull-down assays and Foerster resonance energy transfer (FRET) measurements. Kinetics of dimer dissociation/association indicates that these heterodimers form as soon as PAPSS1 and -S2 encounter each other in solution. Affinity of the homo- and heterodimers were found to be in the low nanomolar range using anisotropy measurements employing proteins labelled with the fluorescent dye IAEDANS that - in spite of its low quantum yield - is well suited for anisotropy due to its large Stokes shift. Within its kinase domain, the PAPS synthase heterodimer displays similar substrate inhibition by adenosine-5'-phosphosulphate (APS) as the homodimers. Due to divergent catalytic efficacies of PAPSS1 and -S2, the heterodimer might be a way of regulating PAPS synthase function within mammalian cells.

  7. Interpretação de dados obtidos em testes de vigor para a comparação qualitativa entre lotes de sementes de milho Interpretation of data obtained in vigor tests for quality comparison among corn seed lots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Martins

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desta pesquisa foi estudar, em lotes de sementes de milho, a possibilidade de estabelecer relações entre os dados de vigor obtidos em laboratório com os verificados no campo. Para tanto, foram utilizados 28 lotes (tratamentos de sementes de milho (cv. Al Bandeirante padronizadas em relação ao grau de umidade, à largura, ao comprimento e à germinação. Posteriormente, foram conduzidos testes de vigor em laboratório (conjunto A: frio sem solo, envelhecimento acelerado, germinação sob estresse hídrico e comprimentos da raiz, da parte aérea e da plântula com variações na disponibilidade hídrica e em campo (conjunto B: emergência das plântulas. Para a comparação entre as médias, foi utilizado o teste de Tukey a 5% de probabilidade; complementarmente, os lotes receberam pontuações obedecendo a ordenação hierárquica de desempenho verificada em cada avaliação, segundo critérios de classificações estatística e absoluta, para serem agrupados de acordo com o desempenho verificado nos conjuntos (A e B de testes. A interpretação de dados de vigor, oriundos de um conjunto de testes, adquire complexidade diretamente proporcional aos números de testes e de lotes colocados em comparação. Nessa situação, a classificação absoluta supera a classificação estatística nas tarefas de hierarquizar qualitativamente lotes de sementes de milho, segundo o desempenho geral, e de quantificar o relacionamento entre as respostas provenientes dos testes de laboratório com as obtidas em campo.The objective of this research was to study, using corn seed lots, the possibility of establishing relations between vigor data obtained in the laboratory with those observed in the field. To do so, twenty eight corn seed lots (treatments of the Al Bandeirante open-pollinated variety were standardized regarding seed moisture content, width, length and germination. Afterwards, seed vigor tests were conducted in the laboratory (group A: modified cool germination test; accelerated aging; germination under variations in water availability; radicle, shoot and seedling length under variations in water availability and in the field (group B: seedling emergence. In order to compare means the 5% Tukey test was used; in addition, the seed lots were assigned points according to a ranking order of performance observed in each evaluation, following criteria of absolute and statistical classifications, so to group them in order of performance in the A and B test groups. Interpretation of vigor data resulting from a group of tests acquires a complexity directly proportional to the number of tests and lots being compared. In this way, the use of absolute classification surpasses the statistical classification in the tasks of qualitatively ranking corn seed lots according to their general performance and, in addition, quantifies the relationship among the responses observed in the laboratory with those obtained in the field

  8. Heterologous expression of AtPAP2 in transgenic potato influences carbon metabolism and tuber development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Youjun; Sun, Feng; Fettke, Joerg; Schöttler, Mark Aurel; Ramsden, Lawrence; Fernie, Alisdair R; Lim, Boon Leong

    2014-10-16

    Changes in carbon flow and sink/source activities can affect floral, architectural, and reproductive traits of plants. In potato, overexpression (OE) of the purple acid phosphatase 2 of Arabidopsis (AtPAP2) resulted in earlier flowering, faster growth rate, increased tubers and tuber starch content, and higher photosynthesis rate. There was a significant change in sucrose, glucose and fructose levels in leaves, phloem and sink biomass of the OE lines, consistent with an increased expression of sucrose transporter 1 (StSUT1). Furthermore, the expression levels and enzyme activity of sucrose-phosphate synthase (SPS) were also significantly increased in the OE lines. These findings strongly suggest that higher carbon supply from the source and improved sink strength can improve potato tuber yield. PMID:25173632

  9. Use of data obtained from core tests in the design and operation of spent brine injection wells in geopressured or geothermal systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jorda, R.M.

    1980-03-01

    The effects of formation characteristics on injection well performance are reviewed. Use of data acquired from cores taken from injection horizons to predict injectivity is described. And methods for utilizing data from bench scale testing of brine and core samples to optimize injection well design are presented. Currently available methods and equipment provide data which enable the optimum design of injection wells through analysis of cores taken from injection zones. These methods also provide a means of identifying and correcting well injection problems. Methods described in this report are: bulk density measurement; porosity measurement; pore size distribution analysis; permeability measurement; formation grain size distribution analysis; core description (lithology) and composition; amount, type and distribution of clays and shales; connate water analysis; consolidatability of friable reservoir rocks; grain and pore characterization by scanning electron microscopy; grain and pore characterization by thin section analysis; permeability damage and enhancement tests; distribution of water-borne particles in porous media; and reservoir matrix acidizing effectiveness. The precise methods of obtaining this information are described, and their use in the engineering of injection wells is illustrated by examples, where applicable. (MHR)

  10. No increased risk for cervical cancer after a broader definition of a negative Pap smear

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rebolj, Matejka; van Ballegooijen, Marjolein

    2008-01-01

    The definition of minimal relevant Pap smear abnormality is crucial for balancing the beneficial effects of screening (prevented mortality) with negative side-effects (the high positivity rate). After inflammation ceased to be defined as a borderline abnormal smear outcome in The Netherlands in 1996, the proportion of these smears dropped from 10% to less than 2%. Because this may have caused a loss in smear sensitivity, we analysed the changes in the incidence of cervical cancer after a negative Pap smear. All negative smears made at ages 30-64 in 1990-1995 (n = 1,546,252) and 1998-2006 (n = 3,552,716), registered in the national registry of histo- and cytopathology (PALGA), were followed for up to 9 years. During follow-up of the 1990-1995 smears, 377 women developed cervical cancer within 5,232,959 woman-years at risk, while during the follow-up of the 1998-2006 smears, 619 women developed cervical cancer within 11,210,675 woman-years at risk. The cumulative incidence after the definition change was not significantly higher than before: e.g. at 6 years, the cumulative incidence for smears made in 1990-1995 was 46 per 100,000 (95% CI: 41-52), and for smears in 1998-2006 was 48 per 100,000 (95% CI: 43-54), p = 0.59. The hazard ratio for 1998-2006 compared to 1990-1995 adjusted for age, number of previous negative smears and history of abnormalities was 0.90 (95% CI: 0.78-1.03). In The Netherlands, a setting with high-quality cytological screening, treating smears with only signs of inflammation as negative leads to a considerably lower positivity rate without increasing the risk for cervical cancer after a negative smear.

  11. Phosphorus-containing fluorinated organics: polyfluoroalkyl phosphoric acid diesters (diPAPs), perfluorophosphonates (PFPAs), and perfluorophosphinates (PFPIAs) in residential indoor dust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Silva, Amila O; Allard, Cody N; Spencer, Christine; Webster, Glenys M; Shoeib, Mahiba

    2012-11-20

    Indoor dust is thought to be a source of human exposure to perfluorocarboxylates (PFCAs) and perfluorosulfonates (PFSAs), but exposures to emerging organofluorine compounds, including precursors to PFCAs and PFSAs via indoor dust, remain unknown. We report an analytical method for measuring several groups of emerging phosphorus-containing fluorinated compounds, including polyfluoroalkyl phosphoric acid diesters (diPAP), perfluorophosphonates (PFPA), and perfluorophosphinates (PFPIA), as well as perfluoroethylcyclohexane sulfonate (PFECHS) in indoor dust. This method was used to analyze diPAP, PFPA, and PFPIA levels in 102 residential dust samples collected in 2007-2008 from Vancouver, Canada. The results indicated a predominant and ubiquitous presence of diPAPs (frequency of detection 100%, mean and median ?diPAPs 7637 and 2215 ng/g). Previously measured median concentrations of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), and fluorotelomer alcohols (FTOHs) in the same samples were 14-74 times lower than ?diPAP levels, i.e. 71 ng/g PFOS, 30 ng/g PFOA, and 152 ng/g ?FTOHs. PFPAs and PFPIAs were detected in 62% and 85% of samples, respectively, at concentrations nearly 3 orders of magnitude lower than diPAPs (median 2.3 ng/g ?PFPAs and 2.3 ng/g ?PFPIAs). PFECHS was detected in only 8% of dust samples. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of these compounds in indoor dust. In this study, diPAP concentrations represented 98% ± 7% of the total measured analytes in the dust samples. Detection of diPAPs at such high concentrations in indoor dust may represent an important and as-yet unrecognized indirect source of PFCA exposure in humans, given the identified biotransformation pathways. Identifying the sources of diPAPs to the indoor environment is a priority for future research to improve air quality in households. PMID:23102111

  12. PapR6, a putative atypical response regulator, functions as a pathway-specific activator of pristinamycin II biosynthesis in Streptomyces pristinaespiralis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dun, Junling; Zhao, Yawei; Zheng, Guosong; Zhu, Hong; Ruan, Lijun; Wang, Wenfang; Ge, Mei; Jiang, Weihong; Lu, Yinhua

    2015-02-01

    There are up to seven regulatory genes in the pristinamycin biosynthetic gene cluster of Streptomyces pristinaespiralis, which infers a complicated regulation mechanism for pristinamycin production. In this study, we revealed that PapR6, a putative atypical response regulator, acts as a pathway-specific activator of pristinamycin II (PII) biosynthesis. Deletion of the papR6 gene resulted in significantly reduced PII production, and its overexpression led to increased PII formation, compared to that of the parental strain HCCB 10218. However, either papR6 deletion or overexpression had very little effect on pristinamycin I (PI) biosynthesis. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSAs) demonstrated that PapR6 bound specifically to the upstream region of snaF, the first gene of the snaFE1E2GHIJK operon, which is likely responsible for providing the precursor isobutyryl-coenzyme A (isobutyryl-CoA) and the intermediate C11 ??-unsaturated thioester for PII biosynthesis. A signature PapR6-binding motif comprising two 4-nucleotide (nt) inverted repeat sequences (5'-GAGG-4 nt-CCTC-3') was identified. Transcriptional analysis showed that inactivation of the papR6 gene led to markedly decreased expression of snaFE1E2GHIJK. Furthermore, we found that a mutant (snaFmu) with base substitutions in the identified PapR6-binding sequence in the genome exhibited the same phenotype as that of the ?papR6 strain. Therefore, it may be concluded that pathway-specific regulation of PapR6 in PII biosynthesis is possibly exerted via controlling the provision of isobutyryl-CoA as well as the intermediate C11 ??-unsaturated thioester. PMID:25404695

  13. Thermoregulation of the pap operon: evidence for the involvement of RimJ, the N-terminal acetylase of ribosomal protein S5.

    OpenAIRE

    White-Ziegler, C A; Low, D.A.

    1992-01-01

    Our previous work showed that pap pilin gene transcription is subject to a thermoregulatory control mechanism under which pap pilin is not transcribed at a low temperature (23 degrees C) (L. B. Blyn, B. A. Braaten, C. A. White-Ziegler, D. H. Rolfson, and D. A. Low, EMBO J. 8:613-620, 1989). In order to isolate genes involved in this temperature regulation of gene expression, chromosomal mini-Tn10 (mTn10) mutations that allowed transcription of the pap pilin gene at 23 degrees C were identifie...

  14. CIEMAT Interlaboratories Comparison of the Results obtained in the Proficiency Test Run by IAEA; Comparacion Interlaboratorios del CIEMAT de los Resultados Obtenidos en la Prueba de Capacitacion de Analisis de Transuranicos en Cenizas propocionadas por el OIEA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gasco, C.; Anton, M. P.; Alvarez, A.; Navarro, N.; Meral, J.; Gonzalez, A.; Higueras Lafaja, E. [Ciemat. Madrid (Spain)

    2000-07-01

    This report contains the results obtained by two different laboratories from CIEMAT after participating in the Proficiency Test organised by IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency) in 1999. This test involves the analysis of fly ashes containing natural radionuclides and different amounts of added transuranics. The extraction techniques, counting methods and results obtained are detailed. This type of test are used for the labs to achieve their accreditation and check the reliability of the procedures routinely employed. (Author) 4 refs.

  15. HPV vaccination programs have not been shown to be cost-effective in countries with comprehensive Pap screening and surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilyman, Judy

    2013-01-01

    Pap screening combined with loop electrosurgical excision procedures (LEEP) is almost 100% effective in preventing cervical cancer mortality yet many countries with these procedures have now implemented broad HPV vaccination programs. HPV vaccines have not been demonstrated to be more effective or safer than Pap screening in the prevention of cervical cancer and Pap screening will still be required even in vaccinated women. The HPV vaccine costs Au$450 per person and it does not protect against ~30% of cancer. This investigation analyses the cost-effectiveness of using the HPV vaccine in countries where Pap screening and surgical procedures have already reduced cervical cancer mortality to very low rates. Cost-effectiveness of vaccination programs is being determined by mathematical models which are founded on many assumptions. It is necessary to examine the rigor of these assumptions to be certain of the health benefits that are predicted. In 2002 scientists concluded that HPV 16 and 18 were the central and independent cause of most cervical cancer. This conclusion was based on molecular technology. If HPV 16 and 18 infections are the central and independent cause of most cervical cancer then the incidence of HPV 16 and 18 should vary with the incidence and mortality of cervical cancer worldwide. This correlation does not exist. It is also observed that the majority of HPV 16/18 infections do not lead to cervical cancer. This indicates that other etiological or 'risk' factors are necessary for persistent HPV infection to progress to cancer. The benefits of HPV vaccines have been determined by using pre-cancerous lesions in young women as a surrogate for cervical cancer. This surrogate is found to be inadequate as an end-point for cervical cancer. Clinical trials have only provided speculative benefits for the efficacy of HPV vaccines against cancer and the long-term risks of the vaccine have not been established. Pap screening will still be required in vaccinated women hence HPV vaccination programs are not cost-effective, and may do more harm than good, in countries where regular Pap screening and surgery has already reduced the burden of this disease. PMID:23758803

  16. Examen oftálmico para trámite de la licencia de conducción en Santiago de Cuba Ophthalmic test for the procedure to obtain a driving licence in Santiago de Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eglis Esteban García Alcolea

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó la experiencia acumulada durante los años 2003-2009 por la Comisión Municipal de Chequeo Oftalmológico de Santiago de Cuba; grupo de trabajo evaluador de los aspirantes a obtener la licencia de conducción, que radica en el Policlínico Docente "Frank País García". En tal sentido, el examen ocular a los presuntos futuros conductores reviste suma importancia, de modo que constituye una gran responsabilidad, tanto para el médico como para los interesados, que esa revisión de la agudeza visual se realice con la calidad requerida y periódicamente para brindar una mayor seguridad en la vía pública. En el municipio de Santiago de Cuba, donde se dispone de vastos conocimientos prácticos al respecto y capital humano capacitado, se han logrado buenos resultados hasta el 2010; éxito en esta esfera que se ha extendido a las restantes comisiones de la provincia y contribuido a alcanzar la excelencia en los servicios.The experience gathered during the years 2003-2009 from the Municipal Committee of Ophthalmic Examination in Santiago de Cuba was assessed; this work group is settled in the Teaching General Hospital "Frank País Garcia" and evaluates the candidates for obtaining a driving license. In this way, the ophthalmic test to the presumptive future drivers involves great significance, so it constitutes a great responsibility for both, the doctor and the interested person, to carry out this ophthalmic examination with the required quality and periodically, to provide a major safety in the public highway. In the municipality of Santiago de Cuba, where wide practical knowledge on the topic and qualified human staff is stipulated. Good results have been achieved up to 2010 in Santiago de Cuba municipality where wide practical knowledge and qualified human staff exist; and this success was broaden to the other committees of the province, which has contributed to reach excellence on the services.

  17. Examen oftálmico para trámite de la licencia de conducción en Santiago de Cuba / Ophthalmic test for the procedure to obtain a driving licence in Santiago de Cuba

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Eglis Esteban, García Alcolea; Gaspar, González Deruville; Magalis, Despaigne Revilla; María del Carmen, Ruiz Álvarez.

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó la experiencia acumulada durante los años 2003-2009 por la Comisión Municipal de Chequeo Oftalmológico de Santiago de Cuba; grupo de trabajo evaluador de los aspirantes a obtener la licencia de conducción, que radica en el Policlínico Docente "Frank País García". En tal sentido, el examen [...] ocular a los presuntos futuros conductores reviste suma importancia, de modo que constituye una gran responsabilidad, tanto para el médico como para los interesados, que esa revisión de la agudeza visual se realice con la calidad requerida y periódicamente para brindar una mayor seguridad en la vía pública. En el municipio de Santiago de Cuba, donde se dispone de vastos conocimientos prácticos al respecto y capital humano capacitado, se han logrado buenos resultados hasta el 2010; éxito en esta esfera que se ha extendido a las restantes comisiones de la provincia y contribuido a alcanzar la excelencia en los servicios. Abstract in english The experience gathered during the years 2003-2009 from the Municipal Committee of Ophthalmic Examination in Santiago de Cuba was assessed; this work group is settled in the Teaching General Hospital "Frank País Garcia" and evaluates the candidates for obtaining a driving license. In this way, the o [...] phthalmic test to the presumptive future drivers involves great significance, so it constitutes a great responsibility for both, the doctor and the interested person, to carry out this ophthalmic examination with the required quality and periodically, to provide a major safety in the public highway. In the municipality of Santiago de Cuba, where wide practical knowledge on the topic and qualified human staff is stipulated. Good results have been achieved up to 2010 in Santiago de Cuba municipality where wide practical knowledge and qualified human staff exist; and this success was broaden to the other committees of the province, which has contributed to reach excellence on the services.

  18. Preliminary interpretations of geologic results obtained from boreholes UE25a-4, -5, -6, and -7, Yucca Mountain, Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since 1978, the USGS (US Geological Survey) has been providing technical assistance in characterizing suitable rock masses at or contiguous to the NTS (Nevada Test Site) for long-term storage of high-level nuclear waste. Current efforts have been focused on investigating Yucca Mountain, a volcanic highland situated along the western boundary of NTS in southern Nevada. Detailed stratigraphic and structural studies have been in progress along a northeastern segment of the highland in a wedge-shaped area bounded by Basin and Range faults, most of which trend north-northeast. A series of four locally steep-walled, nearly parallel, linear washes transect the northeastern half of the area of interest and display trends similar to major faults to the northeast. Prior to the present study, drill hole UE25a-1, located about 1600 feet southeast of the edge of the area of interest, was cored to a depth of 2500 feet. Subsurface information derived from the upper 500 feet of this drill hole is included in this report to compare with recently acquired data. Surface electrical surveys have been conducted by both the University of Utah and the USGS perpendicular to the trend of the washes in an attempt to better understand factors that have influenced the present drainage pattern. Preliminary data of both pole-dipole and dipole-dipole resistivity/IP electrical methods indicate numerous vertical and horizontal discontinuities between adjacent resistive bodies that strongly suggest a bresistive bodies that strongly suggest a broad zone of faulting, fracturing, and (or) brecciation. To verify the existence of structural discontinuities suggested by the linear washes and electrical anomalies, a drilling program was initiated in June 1979, to obtain geologic information within the southernmost of four northwest-trending washes

  19. Fission yeast 26S proteasome mutants are multi-drug resistant due to stabilization of the Pap1transcription factor.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Penney, Mary; Samejima, Itaru

    2012-01-01

    Here we report the result of a genetic screen for mutants resistant to the microtubule poison methyl benzimidazol-2-yl carbamate (MBC) that were also temperature sensitive for growth. In total the isolated mutants were distributed in ten complementation groups. Cloning experiments revealed that most of the mutants were in essential genes encoding various 26S proteasome subunits. We found that the proteasome mutants are multi-drug resistant due to stabilization of the stress-activated transcription factor Pap1. We show that the ubiquitylation and ultimately the degradation of Pap1 depend on the Rhp6/Ubc2 E2 ubiquitin conjugating enzyme and the Ubr1 E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase. Accordingly, mutants lacking Rhp6 or Ubr1 display drug-resistant phenotypes.

  20. Fission Yeast 26S Proteasome Mutants Are Multi-Drug Resistant Due to Stabilization of the Pap1 Transcription Factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penney, Mary; Samejima, Itaru; Wilkinson, Caroline R.; McInerny, Christopher J.; Mathiassen, Søs G.; Wallace, Mairi; Toda, Takashi; Hartmann-Petersen, Rasmus; Gordon, Colin

    2012-01-01

    Here we report the result of a genetic screen for mutants resistant to the microtubule poison methyl benzimidazol-2-yl carbamate (MBC) that were also temperature sensitive for growth. In total the isolated mutants were distributed in ten complementation groups. Cloning experiments revealed that most of the mutants were in essential genes encoding various 26S proteasome subunits. We found that the proteasome mutants are multi-drug resistant due to stabilization of the stress-activated transcription factor Pap1. We show that the ubiquitylation and ultimately the degradation of Pap1 depend on the Rhp6/Ubc2 E2 ubiquitin conjugating enzyme and the Ubr1 E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase. Accordingly, mutants lacking Rhp6 or Ubr1 display drug-resistant phenotypes. PMID:23209828

  1. Pap smear diagnosis using a hybrid intelligent scheme focusing on genetic algorithm based feature selection and nearest neighbor classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinakis, Yannis; Dounias, Georgios; Jantzen, Jan

    2009-01-01

    The term pap-smear refers to samples of human cells stained by the so-called Papanicolaou method. The purpose of the Papanicolaou method is to diagnose pre-cancerous cell changes before they progress to invasive carcinoma. In this paper a metaheuristic algorithm is proposed in order to classify the cells. Two databases are used, constructed in different times by expert MDs, consisting of 917 and 500 images of pap smear cells, respectively. Each cell is described by 20 numerical features, and the cells fall into 7 classes but a minimal requirement is to separate normal from abnormal cells, which is a 2 class problem. For finding the best possible performing feature subset selection problem, an effective genetic algorithm scheme is proposed. This algorithmic scheme is combined with a number of nearest neighbor based classifiers. Results show that classification accuracy generally outperforms other previously applied intelligent approaches. PMID:19147127

  2. Pap Smear Diagnosis Using a Hybrid Intelligent Scheme Focusing on Genetic Algorithm Based Feature Selection and Nearest Neighbor Classification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marinakis, Yannis; Dounias, Georgios

    2009-01-01

    The term pap-smear refers to samples of human cells stained by the so-called Papanicolaou method. The purpose of the Papanicolaou method is to diagnose pre-cancerous cell changes before they progress to invasive carcinoma. In this paper a metaheuristic algorithm is proposed in order to classify the cells. Two databases are used, constructed in different times by expert MDs, consisting of 917 and 500 images of pap smear cells, respectively. Each cell is described by 20 numerical features, and the cells fall into 7 classes but a minimal requirement is to separate normal from abnormal cells, which is a 2 class problem. For finding the best possible performing feature subset selection problem, an effective genetic algorithm scheme is proposed. This algorithmic scheme is combined with a number of nearest neighbor based classifiers. Results show that classification accuracy generally outperforms other previously applied intelligent approaches.

  3. Relação entre indicadores fisiológicos obtidos em teste ergoespirométrico em cicloergômetro de membros superiores e desempenho na canoagem / Relationship between physiological indicators obtained in ergospirometry test in cycle ergometer of upper extremities and performance in canoeing

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Fábio Yuzo, Nakamura; Daniel Müller, Hirai; Thiago Oliveira, Borges; Alexandre Hideki, Okano; Fernando Roberto, De-Oliveira; Antonio Fernando, Brunetto.

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available A avaliação de indicadores de aptidão aeróbia em canoístas revela características funcionais adquiridas por treinamento específico, podendo estar relacionadas ao desempenho competitivo. Assim, o objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar indicadores funcionais obtidos em teste ergoespirométrico de jove [...] ns canoístas, e verificar a relação destas variáveis com a performance em distâncias de 200, 500 e 1.000m. Foram avaliados 12 atletas do sexo masculino (17,6 ± 2,1 anos; 175,7 ± 2,5cm; 68,3 ± 6,3kg) por meio de teste em cicloergômetro de membros superiores para determinação do consumo de oxigênio no limiar ventilatório 1 (LV1 - 1,8 ± 0,4L/min), no limiar ventilatório 2 (LV2 - 2,9 ± 0,4L/min) e VO2pico (3,5 ± 0,4L/min). O teste tinha início com carga de 17W, com incrementos de 17W/min até a exaustão voluntária. Os atletas foram também submetidos a testes específicos em embarcação individual K-1 em um lago, objetivando alcançar os menores tempos nas distâncias referidas (tempos equivalentes a 47,6 ± 4,3, 122,0 ± 9,0 e 239,5 ± 12,6s, respectivamente). Foi utilizado o teste de correlação de Spearman-Rank (rs), com nível de significância fixado em 5%. Observou-se correlação moderada entre LV2 e tempo nos 1.000m (rs = -0,685), VO2pico e tempo nos 500m (rs = -0,699) e VO2pico e tempo nos 1.000m (rs = -0,734). Portanto, conclui-se que LV2 e VO2pico obtidos em cicloergômetro de membros superiores, e expressos em termos absolutos, predizem o desempenho em provas de 500 e 1.000m de canoagem, podendo ser potencialmente empregados na avaliação de canoístas. Abstract in english Evaluation of aerobic fitness indicators in canoers reveals functional characteristics acquired through specific training, which can be related to competitive performance. Thus, the aim of the present study was to evaluate functional evaluators obtained in ergospirometry test of young canoers, as we [...] ll as to verify the relationship of these variables with performance in 200, 500 and 1000 m distances. The sample consisted of 12 male athletes (17.6 ± 2.1 years; 175.7 ± 2.5 cm; 68.3 ± 6.3 kg) through a test in cycle ergometer of upper extremities for determination of oxygen uptake in the ventilatory threshold 1 (VT1 - 1.8 ± 0.4 L/min), in the ventilatory threshold 2 (VT2 - 2.9 ± 0.4 L/min) and VO2peak (3.5 ± 0.4 L/min). The test began with a 17 W load, with 17 W/min increments until voluntary exhaustion. The athletes have been also submitted to specific tests in K-1 individual canoe in a lake, with the purpose to reach the lowest times in the referred distances (times equivalent to 47.6 ± 4.3, 122.0 ± 9.0 and 239.5 ± 12.6 s, respectively). The Spearman-Rank correlation test was used (rs), with significance level set at 5%. Moderate correlation was observed between VT2 and time in the 1000 m (rs = -0.685), VO2peak and time in the 500 m (rs = -0.699) and VO2peak and time in the 1000 m) rs = -0.734). Therefore, it is concluded that VT2 and VO2peak obtained in cycle ergometer of upper extremities, and expressed in absolute terms, predict performance in 500 and 1000 m canoeing events and can be potentially applied in evaluation of canoers.

  4. Relação entre indicadores fisiológicos obtidos em teste ergoespirométrico em cicloergômetro de membros superiores e desempenho na canoagem Relationship between physiological indicators obtained in ergospirometry test in cycle ergometer of upper extremities and performance in canoeing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Yuzo Nakamura

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available A avaliação de indicadores de aptidão aeróbia em canoístas revela características funcionais adquiridas por treinamento específico, podendo estar relacionadas ao desempenho competitivo. Assim, o objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar indicadores funcionais obtidos em teste ergoespirométrico de jovens canoístas, e verificar a relação destas variáveis com a performance em distâncias de 200, 500 e 1.000m. Foram avaliados 12 atletas do sexo masculino (17,6 ± 2,1 anos; 175,7 ± 2,5cm; 68,3 ± 6,3kg por meio de teste em cicloergômetro de membros superiores para determinação do consumo de oxigênio no limiar ventilatório 1 (LV1 - 1,8 ± 0,4L/min, no limiar ventilatório 2 (LV2 - 2,9 ± 0,4L/min e VO2pico (3,5 ± 0,4L/min. O teste tinha início com carga de 17W, com incrementos de 17W/min até a exaustão voluntária. Os atletas foram também submetidos a testes específicos em embarcação individual K-1 em um lago, objetivando alcançar os menores tempos nas distâncias referidas (tempos equivalentes a 47,6 ± 4,3, 122,0 ± 9,0 e 239,5 ± 12,6s, respectivamente. Foi utilizado o teste de correlação de Spearman-Rank (rs, com nível de significância fixado em 5%. Observou-se correlação moderada entre LV2 e tempo nos 1.000m (rs = -0,685, VO2pico e tempo nos 500m (rs = -0,699 e VO2pico e tempo nos 1.000m (rs = -0,734. Portanto, conclui-se que LV2 e VO2pico obtidos em cicloergômetro de membros superiores, e expressos em termos absolutos, predizem o desempenho em provas de 500 e 1.000m de canoagem, podendo ser potencialmente empregados na avaliação de canoístas.Evaluation of aerobic fitness indicators in canoers reveals functional characteristics acquired through specific training, which can be related to competitive performance. Thus, the aim of the present study was to evaluate functional evaluators obtained in ergospirometry test of young canoers, as well as to verify the relationship of these variables with performance in 200, 500 and 1000 m distances. The sample consisted of 12 male athletes (17.6 ± 2.1 years; 175.7 ± 2.5 cm; 68.3 ± 6.3 kg through a test in cycle ergometer of upper extremities for determination of oxygen uptake in the ventilatory threshold 1 (VT1 - 1.8 ± 0.4 L/min, in the ventilatory threshold 2 (VT2 - 2.9 ± 0.4 L/min and VO2peak (3.5 ± 0.4 L/min. The test began with a 17 W load, with 17 W/min increments until voluntary exhaustion. The athletes have been also submitted to specific tests in K-1 individual canoe in a lake, with the purpose to reach the lowest times in the referred distances (times equivalent to 47.6 ± 4.3, 122.0 ± 9.0 and 239.5 ± 12.6 s, respectively. The Spearman-Rank correlation test was used (rs, with significance level set at 5%. Moderate correlation was observed between VT2 and time in the 1000 m (rs = -0.685, VO2peak and time in the 500 m (rs = -0.699 and VO2peak and time in the 1000 m rs = -0.734. Therefore, it is concluded that VT2 and VO2peak obtained in cycle ergometer of upper extremities, and expressed in absolute terms, predict performance in 500 and 1000 m canoeing events and can be potentially applied in evaluation of canoers.

  5. Self-reported history of Pap-smear in HIV-positive women in Northern Italy: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghinelli Florio

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The incidence of invasive cervical cancer in HIV-positive women is higher than in the general population. There is evidence that HIV-positive women do not participate sufficiently in cervical cancer screening in Italy, where cervical cancer is more than 10-fold higher in women with AIDS than in the general population. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the history of Pap-smear in HIV-positive women in Italy in recent years. We also examined the sociodemographic, clinical, and organizational factors associated with adherence to cervical cancer screening. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted between July 2006 and June 2007 in Emilia-Romagna region (Northern Italy. All HIV-positive women who received a follow-up visit in one of the 10 regional infectivology units were invited to participate. History of Pap-smear, including abnormal smears and subsequent treatment, was investigated through a self-administered anonymous questionnaire. The association between lack of Pap-smear in the year preceding the interview and selected characteristics was assessed by means of odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals adjusted for study centre and age. Results A total of 1,002 HIV-positive women were interviewed. Nine percent reported no history of Pap-smear, and 39% had no Pap-smear in the year prior to the date of questionnaire (last year. The lack of Pap-smear in the last year was significantly associated with age Three hundred five (34% women reported a previous abnormal Pap-smear, and of the 178 (58% referred for treatment, 97% complied. Conclusions In recent years the self-reported history of Pap-smear in HIV-positive women, in some public clinics in Italy, is higher than previously reported, but further efforts are required to make sure cervical cancer screening is accessible to all HIV-positive women.

  6. Dissection of a Redox Relay: H2O2-Dependent Activation of the Transcription Factor Pap1 through the Peroxidatic Tpx1-Thioredoxin Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel A. Calvo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In fission yeast, the transcription factor Pap1 undergoes H2O2-dependent oxidation that promotes its nuclear accumulation and the activation of an antioxidant gene program. However, the mechanisms that regulate the sensitivity and selectivity of Pap1 activation by peroxides are not fully understood. Here, we demonstrate that the peroxiredoxin Tpx1, the sensor of this signaling cascade, activates the otherwise unresponsive Pap1 protein once the main cytosolic reduced thioredoxin, Trx1, becomes transiently depleted. In other words, Pap1 works as an alternative electron donor for oxidized Tpx1. We have trapped the very transient Tpx1-Pap1 intermediate in cells depleted in Trx1, as we show here using mass spectrometry. Recycling of Tpx1 by Trx1 is required for the efficient signaling to Pap1, suggesting that the complete cycle of H2O2 scavenging by Tpx1 and further recycling of oxidized Tpx1 by Trx1 is required for full downstream activation of the redox cascade.

  7. False-Negative Results Obtained with the Gen-Probe Amplified Mycobacterium tuberculosis Direct Test Caused by Unrecognized Inhibition of the Amplification Reaction?

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Ji Yeon; Ferraro, Mary Jane; Branda, John A.

    2009-01-01

    The Gen-Probe Amplified Mycobacterium tuberculosis direct test is widely used in the diagnosis of tuberculosis. Specimens may contain amplification inhibitors, potentially leading to false-negative results if unrecognized. We report a failure to detect inhibition, despite adherence to the inhibition testing guidelines provided on the label, and recommend changes.

  8. Manual liquid based cytology for Pap smear preparation and HPV detection by PCR in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbar, Shehla; Pervez, Shgufta Nasir; Shah, Walayat

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted on female patients with different gynecological problems attending the gynecology out-patient departments of two tertiary care hospitals in Peshawar city of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan between August 2012 and October 2013. The 200 patients had an age range of 21-65 years. Smears were taken with cervical brushes and preserved in preservative medium and processed for manual liquid based cytology (MLBC) for Pap staining. Out of 200 collected samples, 30 samples were found inadequate on cytology. Of the remaining 170 samples, 164 (96.47%) were normal, 5 (2.94%) were of atypical squamous cells of unknown significance (ASCUS) and 1 (0.6%) was of high grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL). On PCR all the samples were positive for beta globin gene fragment including those reported inadequate on cytology. Out of the 5 ASCUS samples, 2 samples were positive for HPV, one each for HPV 16 and HPV 18, and the rest of the 3 samples were negative for HPV DNA. The 1 sample of HSIL was positive for HPV 16 on PCR. Out of 164 normal samples on cytology, only 1 sample was HPV 16 positive. So overall, 4 (2%) out of 200 samples were positive for HPV DNA, where 3 were HPV 16 (1.5%), and 1 was HPV 18 (0.5%) positive, and thus the ratio of infection with of HPV 16 to HPV 18 was 3:1 in the general population. In conclusion, PCR based HPV detection is a more sensitive method for screening of HPV infection than cytology as sample inadequacy does not affect the results. However, it can be combined with cytology methods in a HPV positive female to achieve the maximum results. PMID:25684490

  9. Detection of human papillomavirus in women attending Pap cervical screening camp at a peripheral hospital of North-Eastern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Sibnarayan; Agarwal, Manisha; Chatterjee, Soumya; Gogoi, Hemanta Kumar; Veer, Vijay; Singh, Lokendra

    2015-04-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) associated cervical cancer is the leading cause of deaths in India. However, cytological/HPV screening may result in early detection of cervical cancer, resulting in early treatment and reduced mortality. Although reports related to general population is available, data on HPV prevalence among women attending AFMS health care facilities is scarce. Cervical samples were collected for cytological staining by Pap test and molecular detection by PCR, genotyping by HPV specific primers and sequencing. Apart from finding of atypical cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) in one subject, no evidence of malignancy was observed. A high prevalence of HPV was found in this study group, which was intermediate between previous reports from general population and cervical cancer patients. All the subjects had infection of high risk HPV type16. HPV prevalence was found similar between different age groups. Although, none of the study subjects had malignant changes, but due to high prevalence of high risk HPV infection and other associated risk factors, these subjects might be at an elevated risk of developing cervical cancer. Regular follow-up of these patients who were detected HPV positive are required to screen for cervical malignancy. PMID:25859083

  10. IMPLEMENTASI HASIL PAP SMEARS PADA PENGEMBANGAN SURVEILANS TERPADU INFEKSI MENULAR SEKSUAL DI JAWA TIMUR (ANALISIS UNTUK MENGEMBANGKAN SURVEILANS-RESPONS IMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widjiartini Widjiartini

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The implementation analysis of Pap Smears result to the integrated Surveillance development of sexual infection in order to respond the IMS and HIV/AIDS cases which increased especially among the housewife and its aim to the implementation Pap Smears result. Results: The Analysis result: 1. Based on the Pap Smears analysis result when its managed properly might be benefited the information not merely detected service cancer which is tend to increase but its also detected fungal infection and 5 types of IMS data: Haemavilus Vaginalis (HV, Gonococoes (Cocen, Trichomonas Vaginalis (TV, Herpes and Virus Papiloma Humanus (HPV which is Cocen and TV tend to increase every years. This data might be used for Surveillance Respond of Pap Smears intended to the productive housewife who is representing susceptible age group against sexual infection and HIV/AIDS. 2. The integrated Surveillance activity of HIV and sexual infection along with eight steps of respond Pap Smears, the structure is matching up with Surveillance of WHO respond and the system and mechanism base on decision of Minister of Health number 1116/2003 to instruct the formation of Surveillance technical implementation and the formation Surveillance technical implementation and the formation Surveillance networking among those units. 3. Developing the integrated Surveillance of sexual infection and HIV/AIDS through the uphold unit Pap Smears is required the determination of basis function, the Surveillance uphold unit, the Respond Surveillance uphold and function, formulation of Protap and Instruction, Training, Monitoring and Evaluation Surveillance System, Communication, Procurement of Coordination and Resources. Exceptional the above mentioned it is necessary pay attention as well as Surveillance structure and quality. Suggestion: 1. Improving the Surveillance Respond System by improving the users of culture information and data for making a decision the unit of Pap Smears entirely levels of administrative at Central or Regional. 2. Developing the production of Health Information System that is able to convert data into information Pap Smears to facilitate analysis and interpretation of data. 3. Developing Data Centers, Surveillance and Health Information in accordance with decision of Minister of Health number 116/2003 and filling those units with functional staff epidemiologists and health information experts. Key words: Pap Smears, Surveillance Respond, Sexual Infection-housewife

  11. Over-expression of AtPAP2 in Camelina sativa leads to faster plant growth and higher seed yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Youjun

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lipids extracted from seeds of Camelina sativa have been successfully used as a reliable source of aviation biofuels. This biofuel is environmentally friendly because the drought resistance, frost tolerance and low fertilizer requirement of Camelina sativa allow it to grow on marginal lands. Improving the species growth and seed yield by genetic engineering is therefore a target for the biofuels industry. In Arabidopsis, overexpression of purple acid phosphatase 2 encoded by Arabidopsis (AtPAP2 promotes plant growth by modulating carbon metabolism. Overexpression lines bolt earlier and produce 50% more seeds per plant than wild type. In this study, we explored the effects of overexpressing AtPAP2 in Camelina sativa. Results Under controlled environmental conditions, overexpression of AtPAP2 in Camelina sativa resulted in longer hypocotyls, earlier flowering, faster growth rate, higher photosynthetic rate and stomatal conductance, increased seed yield and seed size in comparison with the wild-type line and null-lines. Similar to transgenic Arabidopsis, activity of sucrose phosphate synthase in leaves of transgenic Camelina was also significantly up-regulated. Sucrose produced in photosynthetic tissues supplies the building blocks for cellulose, starch and lipids for growth and fuel for anabolic metabolism. Changes in carbon flow and sink/source activities in transgenic lines may affect floral, architectural, and reproductive traits of plants. Conclusions Lipids extracted from the seeds of Camelina sativa have been used as a major constituent of aviation biofuels. The improved growth rate and seed yield of transgenic Camelina under controlled environmental conditions have the potential to boost oil yield on an area basis in field conditions and thus make Camelina-based biofuels more environmentally friendly and economically attractive.

  12. The Correlation of Blood Test Results with the Data Obtained from MRI Images during the Determination of Pathology in Small Bones.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Marcon, P.; Bartušek, Karel; Šprláková, A.; Dohnal, P.

    Berlin : IEEE, 2014, s. 490-493. ISBN 978-80-214-4983-1. ISSN 1805-5435. [TSP 2014. International Conference on Telecommunications and Signal Processing /37./. Berlín (DE), 01.07.2014-03.07.2014] R&D Projects: GA ?R GAP102/12/1104 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : blood test results * bone * correlation * MRI images Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers

  13. Discordant results obtained on testing sera from immunocompromised patients for cytomegalovirus IgG by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The investigation of sera from immunocompromised patients for antibody to CMV by ELISA, RIA, immunofluorescence (IF) and complement-fixation (CF) revealed discrepancies that reflected differences in test specificity rather than sensitivity and suggested that for the long-term serological follow-up of such patients it would be advisable not to rely on only a single assay procedure. (author). 12 refs.; 8 figs.; 1 tab

  14. One year of Seaglider dissolved oxygen concentration profiles at the PAP site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binetti, Umberto; Kaiser, Jan; Heywood, Karen; Damerell, Gillian; Rumyantseva, Anna

    2015-04-01

    Oxygen is one of the most important variables measured in oceanography, influenced both by physical and biological factors. During the OSMOSIS project, 7 Seagliders were used in 3 subsequent missions to measure a multidisciplinary suite of parameters at high frequency in the top 1000 m of the water column for one year, from September 2012 to September 2013. The gliders were deployed at the PAP time series station (nominally at 49° N 16.5° W) and surveyed the area following a butterfly-shaped path. Oxygen concentration was measured by Aanderaa optodes and calibrated using ship CTD O2 profiles during 5 deployment and recovery cruises, which were in turn calibrated by Winkler titration of discrete samples. The oxygen-rich mixed layer deepens in fall and winter and gets richer in oxygen when the temperature decreases. The spring bloom did not happen as expected, but instead the presence of a series of small blooms was measured throughout spring and early summer. During the summer the mixed layer become very shallow and oxygen concentrations decreased. A Deep Oxygen Maximum (DOM) developed along with a deep chlorophyll maximum during the summer and was located just below the mixed layer . At this depth, phytoplankton had favourable light and nutrient conditions to grow and produce oxygen, which was not subject to immediate outgassing. The oxygen concentration in the DOM was not constant, but decreased, then increased again until the end of the mission. Intrusions of oxygen rich water are also visible throughout the mission. These are probably due to mesoscale events through the horizontal transport of oxygen and/or nutrients that can enhance productivity, particularly at the edge of the fronts. We calculate net community production (NCP) by analysing the variation in oxygen with time. Two methods have been proposed. The classical oxygen budget method assumes that changes in oxygen are due to the sum of air-sea flux, isopycnal advection, diapycnal mixing and NCP. ERA-Interim provides climatological data to calculate air-sea gas exchange fluxes based on wind-speed parameterisations of the gas exchange coefficient. The second method exploits the high frequency of the measurements to determine the increment of oxygen over time during daylight hours to measure NCP. Together with the O2 concentration decrease during the night (due to community respiration), this method also allows us to derive gross oxygen production rates. The results of these two methods are compared.

  15. Constitutive equations of Li2TiO3 and Li4SiO4 pebble Beds obtained by means of standard triaxial tests: implementation of the model in a FEM code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the ITER operation, some Test Breeding Modules (TBM) will be tested in the equatorial ports of the reactor. Presently, these TBM are being developed in different research centres in the world. The Helium-Cooled Pebble Bed (HCPB) blanket is one of two breeder blanket concepts developed in Europe. The HCPB uses Beryllium pebbles as neutron multiplier and. Li4SiO4 or Li2TiO3 pebbles as breeder material. The analysis of the breeding blanket is complex for the geometry as well as for the loading conditions. Advanced computer codes are needed in order to determine the reliability of the different designs. In this context the mechanical characterisation of pebble beds is important in order to simulate their behaviour. This paper illustrates the standard tests, performed in order to obtain the effective properties of the pebble beds, and the implementation of a constitutive model of the granular material in a FEM code. Several Authors have analyzed the pebble bed by meand uniaxial compression tests (oedometer tests). This test permits to obtain an effective displacement- load law under lateral constraint, but no data are obtained about the pebble bed shear resistance or about the three-dimensional behaviour of the bed. In the soil (made of sand, gravel or clay) qualification, triaxial tests are used for determining all their constitutive properties. In these test the soil is loaded by axial and lateral loads which can be varied independently. The measurement of the loa independently. The measurement of the load and the displacement in both the directions permits to obtain the material constants f the constitutive models elaborated for describing the soil behaviour. The classic soil models are the Cam-Clay model and the Drucker-Prager with cap model. These models are implemented in several commercial FEM codes and they could be easily used for simulating the pebble beds. But the pebble bed behaviour is different from that of the soil. The soil models describe in detail the behaviour dependent on the water pressure and on the drainage conditions. These aspects have not any meaning for the pebble bed. Moreover the soil consolidation is different from the creep of the pebble bed. The paper demonstrates the limits of applying the soil model to the pebble bed. In fact the triaxial tests have been simulated numerically by means a commercial FEM code considering the classic soil models and the material constants obtained by the tests. Moreover the paper emphasizes the relative importance of the material constants (about 10), contained in the classic soil model, in order to fit the experimental results of the tests on the pebble beds. (orig.)

  16. Interpretation of actinide-distribution data obtained from non-destructive and destructive post-test analyses of an intact-core column of Culebra dolomite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, W. George; Lucero, Daniel A.

    2001-02-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE), with technical assistance from Sandia National Laboratories, has successfully received EPA certification and opened the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), a nuclear waste disposal facility located approximately 42 km east of Carlsbad, NM. Performance assessment (PA) analyses indicate that human intrusions by inadvertent, intermittent drilling for resources provide the only credible mechanisms for significant releases of radionuclides from the disposal system. For long-term brine releases, migration pathways through the permeable layers of rock above the Salado formation are important. Major emphasis is placed on the Culebra Member of the Rustler Formation because this is the most transmissive geologic layer overlying the WIPP site. In order to help quantify parameters for the calculated releases, radionuclide transport experiments have been carried out using intact-core columns obtained from the Culebra dolomite member of the Rustler Formation within the WIPP site. This paper deals primarily with results of analyses for 241Pu and 241Am distributions developed during transport experiments in one of these cores. Transport experiments were done using a synthetic brine that simulates Culebra brine at the core recovery location (the WIPP air-intake shaft (AIS)). Hydraulic characteristics (i.e., apparent porosity and apparent dispersion coefficient) for intact-core columns were obtained via experiments using the conservative tracer 22Na. Elution experiments carried out over periods of a few days with tracers 232U and 239Np indicated that these tracers were weakly retarded as indicated by delayed elution of the species. Elution experiments with tracers 241Pu and 241Am were attempted but no elution of either species has been observed to date, including experiments of many months' duration. In order to quantify retardation of the non-eluted species 241Pu and 241Am after a period of brine flow, non-destructive and destructive analyses of one intact-core column were carried out to determine distribution of these actinides in the rock. Analytical results indicate that the majority of the 241Am remained very near the injection surface of the core (possibly as a precipitate), and that the majority of the 241Pu was dispersed with a very high apparent retardation value. The 241Pu distribution is interpreted using a single-porosity advection-dispersion model, and an approximate retardation value is reported.

  17. Interpretation of Actinide-Distribution Data Obtained from Non-Destructive and Destructive Post-Test Analyses of an Intact-Core Column of Culebra Dolomite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US DOE, with technical assistance from Sandia National Laboratories, has successfully received EPA certification and opened the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), a nuclear waste disposal facility located approximately 42 km east of Carlsbad, New Mexico. Performance assessment analyses indicate that human intrusions by inadvertent, intermittent drilling for resources provide the only credible mechanisms for releases of radionuclides from the disposal system. In modeling long-term brine releases, subsequent to a drilling event, potential migration pathways through the permeable layers of rock above the Salado formation were analyzed. Major emphasis is placed on the Culebra Member of the Rustler Formation because this is the most transmissive geologic layer overlying the WIPP site. In order to help quantify parameters for the calculated releases, radionuclide transport experiments have been earned out using intact-core columns obtained from the Culebra dolomite member of the Rustler Formation within the WIPP site. This paper deals primarily with results of analyses for 241Pu and 241Am distributions developed during transport experiments in one of these cores. Transport experiments were done using a synthetic brine that simulates Culebra brine at the core recovery location (the WIPP air-intake shaft--AIS). Hydraulic characteristics (i.e., apparent porosity and apparent dispersion coefficient) for intact-core columns were obtained via experiments using the conservative tracer 22Na. Elution experiments carried out over periods of a few days with tracers 232U and 239Np indicated that these tracers were weakly retarded as indicated by delayed elution of the species. Elution experiments with tracers 241Pu and 241Am were attempted, but no elution of either species has been observed to date, including experiments of many months' duration. In order to quantify retardation of the non-eluted species 241Pu and 241Am after a period of brine flow, non-destructive and destructive analyses of one intact-core column were carried out to determine distribution of these actinides in the rock. Analytical results indicate that the majority of the 241Am remained very near the injection surface of the core (possibly as a precipitate), and that the majority of the 241Pu was dispersed with a very high apparent retardation value. The 241Pu distribution is interpreted using a single-porosity advection-dispersion model, and an approximate retardation value is reported

  18. Endocervical curettage and brushing during colposcopic evaluation in patients having suspected changes in pap smear and negative colposcopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borré-Arrieta Orlando

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: the aim of this study was to evaluate the utility of endocervical curettage and brushing during colposcopic evaluation in patients having suspected changes in Pap smear and negative colposcopy.Methodology: results from 43 women having abnormal Pap smear and negative satisfactory colposcopy; endocervical curettage during colposcopic evaluation were thus compared to endocervical brushing during colposcopic evaluation.Results: the endocervical curettage was useful to detect cervical intraepithelial neoplasia no suspected during satisfactory colposcopic evaluation. The endocervical brushings was useful too, but the endocervical curettage was better.Conclusion: this study suggests that endocervical curettage can be useful during negative satisfactory colposcopic evaluation of a patient with an abnormal Papnicolaou smear.RESUMENObjetivos: El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar la utilidad del cepillado y legrado endocervical durante la evaluación colposcópica en pacientes con citología anormal y colposcopia satisfactoria negativa. Materiales y métodos: Se incluyeron 43 mujeres con citología anormal y colposcopia satisfactoria negativa. Se realizó legrado y cepillado endocervical y se compararon los resultados.Resultados: El legrado endocervical fue útil en detectar neoplasia intraepitelial cervical no observada durante la evaluación colposcópica satisfactoria. El cepillado endocervical también fue útil, pero el legrado fue mejor.Conclusión: Este estudio sugiere que el legrado endocervical puede ser de utilidad durante la evaluación colposcópica satisfactoria negativa de pacientes con una citología anormal.

  19. Automated segmentation of free-lying cell nuclei in Pap smears for malignancy-associated change analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moshavegh, Ramin; Ehteshami Bejnordi, Babak; Mehnert, Andrew; Sujathan, K; Malm, Patrik; Bengtsson, Ewert

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an automated algorithm for robustly detecting and segmenting free-lying cell nuclei in bright-field microscope images of Pap smears. This is an essential initial step in the development of an automated screening system for cervical cancer based on malignancy associated change (MAC) analysis. The proposed segmentation algorithm makes use of gray-scale annular closings to identify free-lying nuclei-like objects together with marker-based watershed segmentation to accurately delineate the nuclear boundaries. The algorithm also employs artifact rejection based on size, shape, and granularity to ensure only the nuclei of intermediate squamous epithelial cells are retained. An evaluation of the performance of the algorithm relative to expert manual segmentation of 33 fields-of-view from 11 Pap smear slides is also presented. The results show that the sensitivity and specificity of nucleus detection is 94.71% and 85.30% respectively, and that the accuracy of segmentation, measured using the Dice coefficient, of the detected nuclei is 97.30±1.3%. PMID:23367143

  20. Links between surface productivity and deep ocean particle flux at the Porcupine Abyssal Plain (PAP) sustained observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frigstad, H.; Henson, S. A.; Hartman, S. E.; Omar, A. M.; Jeansson, E.; Cole, H.; Pebody, C.; Lampitt, R. S.

    2015-04-01

    In this study we present hydrography, biogeochemistry and sediment trap observations between 2003 and 2012 at Porcupine Abyssal Plain (PAP) sustained observatory in the northeast Atlantic. The time series is valuable as it allows for investigation of the link between surface productivity and deep ocean carbon flux. The region is a perennial sink for CO2, with an average uptake of around 1.5 mmol m-2 d-1. The average monthly drawdowns of inorganic carbon and nitrogen were used to quantify the net community production (NCP) and new production, respectively. Seasonal NCP and new production were found to be 4.57 ± 0.27 mol C m-2 and 0.37 ± 0.14 mol N m-2. The Redfield ratio was high (12), and the production calculated from carbon was higher than production calculated from nitrogen, which is indicative of carbon overconsumption. The export ratio and transfer efficiency were 16 and 4%, respectively, and the site thereby showed high flux attenuation. Particle tracking was used to examine the source region of material in the sediment trap, and there was large variation in source regions, both between and within years. There were higher correlations between surface productivity and export flux when using the particle-tracking approach, than by comparing with the mean productivity in a 100 km box around the PAP site. However, the differences in correlation coefficients were not significant, and a longer time series is needed to draw conclusions on applying particle tracking in sediment trap analyses.

  1. Development of a High Volume Air Sampler for the sensitive detection of ?-emitting radionuclides attached to aerosols. Results obtained in the test period 1991 - 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An early warning for small nuclear incidents requires a sensitive monitoring of the activity concentration of ?-emitting radionuclides attached to aerosols. To achieve a detection limit lower than 1 ?Bq.m-3 a High Volume Air Sampler (HVS) is needed which is able to sample volumes of at least 50,000 m3 per week. In this report the development of a High Volume Air Sampler (HVS) by the RIVM Laboratory of Radiation Research is described. A seven-day sampling period with a fixed flowrate of 300 m3.h-1 was used starting November 1992. Detection of the filters was carried out direct by gamma spectroscopy with a coaxial detector, followed by chemical destruction of the filters and ?-spectroscopy of the residue with a well-type detector. The determination with the coaxial detector cannot be omitted because of the short time needed for sample pretreatment, which can be very important in the case of nuclear accidents and for the detection of volatile nuclides like 131I. Both types of analysis will be maintained for ?-activity determinations of aerosols. For most nuclides ( 54Mn, 57Co, 58Co, 59Fe, 60Co, 65Zn 75Se, 95Nb, 95Zr, 103Ru, l06Ru, 110Ag, 113Sn, 123Te, 124Sb, 125Sb, 134Cs, 136Cs, 137Cs, 140Ba, 137Cs, 140Ba, 141Ce, 144Ce and 202Tl) the detection limits obtained with the well-type detector were in the range of 0.1 - 1.0 ?Bq.m-3. A small number of nuclides (7Be, 40K, 51Cr, 99Mo, 109Cd, 115MCd, 129MTe, 131I, 132Te, 140La, 210Pb and 237U) had detection limits in the range of 1 - 20 ?Bq.m-3. 13 figs., 1 tab., 1 appendix, 5 refs

  2. Preventive screening. What factors influence testing?

    OpenAIRE

    Mm, Finkelstein

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine factors associated with having preventive screening tests in a population-based sample of Ontario women. DESIGN: Secondary analysis of data from Statistics Canada's National Population Health Survey linked to data from the Ontario Health Insurance Plan to ascertain whether women aged 20 or older had Pap smears, mammography, bone densitometry, or cholesterol testing. Factors associated with having testing were subjected to logistic regression analysis. SETTING: Ontario....

  3. Resultados histológicos e detecção do HPV em mulheres com células escamosas atípicas de significado indeterminado e lesão escamosa intra-epitelial de baixo grau na colpocitologia oncológica / Histological results and HPV detection in women with pap smear showing atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance and low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    André Luis Ferreira, Santos; Sophie Françoise Mauricette, Derchain; Luis Otávio, Sarian; Elizabete Aparecida, Campos; Marcos Roberto dos, Santos; Gislaine Aparecida, Fonsechi-Carvasan.

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: avaliar o desempenho da colpocitologia oncológica (CO) e da Captura de Híbridos II (CHII) para o diagnóstico de lesão cervical histológica significativa (NIC2/3) em mulheres encaminhadas com CO contendo atipias celulares de significado indeterminado (ASCUS) ou lesão escamosa intra-epiteli [...] al de baixo grau (LSIL). MÉTODOS: estudo de corte transversal no qual foram incluídas 161 mulheres encaminhadas, entre agosto de 2000 e setembro de 2002, devido a CO com resultado de ASCUS ou LSIL. As mulheres responderam a questionário específico sobre características sociodemográficas e reprodutivas e foram submetidas a exame ginecológico com coleta de CO e CHII, sendo realizada colposcopia com eventual biópsia de áreas suspeitas. Foi aplicado o teste do qui-quadrado para as associações da idade, uso de condom, uso de anticoncepcional oral e tabagismo com os resultados da CHII. Foram calculados a sensibilidade, especificidade, valor preditivo positivo e valor preditivo negativo da CO e da CHII para detectar NIC2/3. Todos os cálculos foram realizados com intervalos de confiança estatística de 95%. RESULTADOS: sessenta e sete porcento das mulheres com menos de 30 anos de idade tiveram testes positivos para o HPV. A CO e CHII tiveram sensibilidade de 82% em detectar NIC2/3 quando considerados como positivos ASCUS, LSIL ou HSIL. Quando se consideram como positivas apenas as CO com HSIL, este exame apresenta acentuado ganho de especificidade (de 29 para 95%) e valor preditivo positivo (de 12 para 50%), superando a CHII, porém com redução igualmente significativa de sua sensibilidade (de 82 para 41%). CONCLUSÕES: nossos resultados indicaram grande potencial da CHII para detectar mulheres com NIC2/3 entre as pacientes com ASCUS/LSIL na CO de encaminhamento. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: to assess the ability of Pap smear and hybrid capture II (HCII) to detect clinically significant cervical lesions (CIN2/3) in women referred to hospital due to atypical squamous cells of unknown significance (ASCUS) or low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL). METHODS: a cross-se [...] ctional study comprising 161 women referred to the Taubaté University Hospital due to ASCUS/LSIL, between August 2000 and September 2002. All women responded to a questionnaire regarding sociodemographic and reproductive characteristics and were subjected to gynecological examination with specimen collection for Pap test and HCII, along with colposcopy and eventual cervical biopsy. The relationship between HCII results and age, use of condom, oral hormonal contraception, and smoking were evaluated by the chi-square test. The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of both Pap test and HCII were calculated. All calculations were performed within 95% confidence intervals. RESULTS: sixty-seven percent of the women that tested positive for HPV were less than 30 years old. Pap smear and HCII showed the same 82% sensitivity in detecting CIN2/3 when the threshold for a positive Pap result was ASCUS, LSIL or HSIL. Pap smear specificity and positive predictive values were substantially increased when only HSIL results were considered as positive (from 29 to 95% and 12 to 50%, respectively). These figures were superior to those of HCII, but at the expense of an expressive loss of sensitivity (from 82% to 41%). CONCLUSIONS: our results substantiate the potential of HCII in detecting CIN2/3 among women referred due to ASCUS/LSIL.

  4. Uso precoz del BiPAP en el tratamiento de la insuficiencia respiratoria en un lactante con osteogénesis imperfecta: Case report / Early use of BiPAP in the management of respiratory failure in an infant with osteogenesis imperfecta

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Luis, Vega-Briceño; Ilse, Contreras E; Ignacio, Sánchez D; Pablo, Bertrand N.

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available [...] Abstract in english Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is an heterogeneous group of genetic disorders that affect connective tissue integrity. Severe forms cause chest deformities, sometimes associated to alveolar hypoventilation. We report a 4 months old infant with OI type III, who developed respiratory failure (RF) due to [...] a bronchiolitis and required mechanical ventilation. Weaning progressed successfully to a nasal bi-level Positive Airway Pressure (n-BiPAP) device. Clinical follow up showed a normal cognitive development and growth. Respiratory condition, blood gases and ventilation status were in normal ranges. Non invasive ventilation, associated to careful monitoring may avoid tracheostomy and its complications in infants with OI (Rev Méd Chile 2004; 132: 861-4)

  5. Uso precoz del BiPAP en el tratamiento de la insuficiencia respiratoria en un lactante con osteogénesis imperfecta: Case report Early use of BiPAP in the management of respiratory failure in an infant with osteogenesis imperfecta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Vega-Briceño

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI is an heterogeneous group of genetic disorders that affect connective tissue integrity. Severe forms cause chest deformities, sometimes associated to alveolar hypoventilation. We report a 4 months old infant with OI type III, who developed respiratory failure (RF due to a bronchiolitis and required mechanical ventilation. Weaning progressed successfully to a nasal bi-level Positive Airway Pressure (n-BiPAP device. Clinical follow up showed a normal cognitive development and growth. Respiratory condition, blood gases and ventilation status were in normal ranges. Non invasive ventilation, associated to careful monitoring may avoid tracheostomy and its complications in infants with OI (Rev Méd Chile 2004; 132: 861-4

  6. Follow-up of women with inadequate Pap smears: a prospective cohort study / Acompanhamento de mulheres com esfregaços de Papanicolaou inadequados: um estudo prospectivo de coorte

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Fanny, López-Alegría; Dino Roberto Soares De, Lorenzi; Orlando Quezada, Poblete.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXTO E OBJETIVO: Esfregaços inadequados de Papanicolaou não fornecem amostra satisfatória de células para avaliação, ficando assim mais difícil detectar anomalias citológicas cervicais. O objetivo deste estu [...] do foi determinar os resultados de seguimento citológico e histológico de mulheres com relatórios de esfregaços inadequados nas unidades básicas de saúde em Santiago, Chile, 2010-2011. DESENHO E LOCAL: Estudo prospectivo de coorte em unidades básicas de saúde em Santiago, Chile. MÉTODOS: A população foi selecionada do banco de dados Cito-Expert em 2010. Na sequência, os dados foram organizados pelos resultados de seguimento citológico e histológico de 2.547 mulheres com relatórios inadequados de citologia cervical pelo período de 12 meses. As amostras foram atri-buídas a grupos com base na causa de inadequação (esfregaços com células endocervicais; amostras insuficientes, inflamatórias, ou com má fixação, amostras insuficientes e hemorrágicas, ou espéci-mes insuficientes e inflamatórios). Os dados foram analisados com base no “conditional probability tree diagram" e estatísticas descritivas. RESULTADOS: Metade das mulheres (n = 1.285) preencheram os requisitos do Ministério da Saúde para repetir esses esfregaços; dessas mulheres, 1.104 tiveram resultados normais para citologia (85,9%). A detec-ção de lesões cervicais por grupo variou de 0% (esfregaços com apenas células endocervicais e espécimes insuficientes e hemorrágicos) para 4,1% (má fxação). CONCLUSÃO: Uma grande proporção de resultados normais justifica a revisão das diretrizes clínicas atuais. Os resultados mostraram que não é necessário repetir tão cedo o teste de Papanicolaou, exceto em resul-tados inadequados de hemorragia e citologia inflamatória. Abstract in english CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Inadequate Pap smears do not provide satisfactory cell samples for evaluation, thus making it more difficult to detect cervical cytological abnormalities. The objective of this study was t [...] o determine the cytological and histological follow-up results from women with inadequate smear reports in primary healthcare centers in Santiago, Chile 2010-2011. DESIGN AND SETTING: Prospective cohort study at primary healthcare clinics in Santiago, Chile. METHODS: The population was taken from the “Cito-Expert" database of 2010. The data were then organized according to the cytological and histological follow-up results of 2,547 women with inadequate cervical cytological reports over the 12-month period. The samples were assigned to groups based on the cause of inadequacy (smears with endocervical cells alone; insufficient, hemorrhagic, inflammatory or poorly fixed samples; insufficient and hemorrhagic samples; or insufficient and inflammatory specimens). The data were analyzed using the “conditional probability tree diagram" and descriptive statistics. RESULT: Half of the women (n = 1,285) met the requirements of the Ministry of Health for repeating these inadequate smears, and 1,104 of these women had normal cytological results (85.9%). The detection rate for cervical lesions according to group ranged from 0% (smears with endocervical cells alone or insufficient and hemorrhagic specimens) to 4.1% (poor fixation). CONCLUSION: The large proportion of normal results justifies revision of the current clinical guidelines. The results showed that it is not necessary to repeat the Pap test early on, with the exception of inadequate hemorrhagic and inflammatory cytological results.

  7. Chronic constipation - the role of clinical assessment and colorectal physiologic tests to obtain an etiologic diagnosis O papel da avaliação clínica e dos testes de fisiologia colo-reto anal no diagnóstico etiológico da constipação intestinal crônica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Lacerda-Filho

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Diagnosis of subtypes of chronic constipation has been considered difficult to achieve even in specialized centers. Although colorectal physiologic tests have brought an important contribution, it remains unclear in which patients these tests should be indicated for. AIMS: This study aims to establish a differential diagnosis for chronic constipation cases using clinical assessment and physiologic tests and to identify clinical parameters that could predict which patients need physiologic tests. METHODS: One hundred and seventy nine patients (83% females; mean age, 45 with chronic constipation according to Rome II criteria were initially treated by dietary advice and functional reeducation and those unresponsive (110 or 61.5% were submitted to colonic transit time, defecography, anorectal manometry and electromyography, as needed. RESULTS: A differential diagnosis was achieved in 63.6% of patients tested. However, 61.5% of 179 patients with chronic constipation (69 with no need to tests and 40 with normal tests have etiologic diagnosis established only on clinical basis. Irritable bowel syndrome (32%, pelvic floor dysfunction (29% and functional constipation due to faulty diet and life style habits (22% were the main causes of chronic constipation. Alternating constipation and nausea/vomiting were symptoms significantly related to the diagnosis of irritable bowel syndrome; younger age, larger intervals between bowel movements, occurrence of fecal impaction and necessity of enema were related to the diagnosis of non-chagasic megacolon and digital assistance to evacuate and large rectocele or spastic pelvic floor on rectal exam were associated to pelvic floor dysfunction. Patients with long-standing constipation, fecal impaction, abdominal pain not eased after defecation, necessity for enemas, digital assistance and evidence of rectocele tended to be in need for physiologic tests to define the cause of chronic constipation. CONCLUSIONS: The etiologic diagnosis of chronic constipation can be achieved in most of patients on a clinical basis and some symptoms may be significantly related to specific diagnoses. Indications for physiologic tests should be based on specific clinical parameters.RACIONAL: O diagnóstico dos subtipos de constipação crônica tem sido considerado difícil de ser estabelecido, mesmo em centros especializados. Embora os testes fisiológicos tenham trazido uma importante contribuição, ainda há dúvidas quanto as suas indicações. OBJETIVOS: Estabelecer o diagnóstico diferencial em casos de constipação crônica através da avaliação clínica e da utilização de testes fisiológicos, procurando-se identificar parâmetros clínicos que poderiam predizer quais pacientes necessitariam de tais testes. MÉTODOS: Cento e setenta e nove pacientes (83% do sexo feminino; média de idade de 45 anos com constipação crônica de acordo com os critérios de Roma II foram inicialmente tratados com medidas dietéticas e reeducação funcional e aqueles que não responderam (110 ou 61,5% foram submetidos a tempo de trânsito colônico, defecografia, manometria anorretal e eletromiografia, de acordo com apresentação clínica da constipação crônica. RESULTADOS: O diagnóstico etiológico foi obtido em 63.6% dos pacientes testados. Entretanto, em 61,5% (69 que não necessitaram dos testes e 40 que tiveram testes normais, o diagnóstico etiológico foi estabelecido em bases clínicas. A síndrome do intestino irritável (32%, a disfunção do assoalho pélvico (29% e a constipação funcional secundária a inadequação dietética e de hábitos de vida (22% foram os principais diagnósticos etiológicos da constipação crônica. A alternância de constipação e a presença de náuseas/vômitos estiveram significativamente relacionadas ao diagnóstico de síndrome do intestino irritável; idade precoce, grandes intervalos entre as evacuações, ocorrência de impactação fecal e necessidade de enemas estiveram relacionadas ao diagnóstico de megacólon não-chagásico, enqu

  8. Chronic constipation - the role of clinical assessment and colorectal physiologic tests to obtain an etiologic diagnosis / O papel da avaliação clínica e dos testes de fisiologia colo-reto anal no diagnóstico etiológico da constipação intestinal crônica

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Antônio, Lacerda-Filho; Marcílio José Rodrigues, Lima; Marisa Fonseca, Magalhães; Rodrigo de Almeida, Paiva; José Renan da, Cunha-Melo.

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available RACIONAL: O diagnóstico dos subtipos de constipação crônica tem sido considerado difícil de ser estabelecido, mesmo em centros especializados. Embora os testes fisiológicos tenham trazido uma importante contribuição, ainda há dúvidas quanto as suas indicações. OBJETIVOS: Estabelecer o diagnóstico di [...] ferencial em casos de constipação crônica através da avaliação clínica e da utilização de testes fisiológicos, procurando-se identificar parâmetros clínicos que poderiam predizer quais pacientes necessitariam de tais testes. MÉTODOS: Cento e setenta e nove pacientes (83% do sexo feminino; média de idade de 45 anos) com constipação crônica de acordo com os critérios de Roma II foram inicialmente tratados com medidas dietéticas e reeducação funcional e aqueles que não responderam (110 ou 61,5%) foram submetidos a tempo de trânsito colônico, defecografia, manometria anorretal e eletromiografia, de acordo com apresentação clínica da constipação crônica. RESULTADOS: O diagnóstico etiológico foi obtido em 63.6% dos pacientes testados. Entretanto, em 61,5% (69 que não necessitaram dos testes e 40 que tiveram testes normais), o diagnóstico etiológico foi estabelecido em bases clínicas. A síndrome do intestino irritável (32%), a disfunção do assoalho pélvico (29%) e a constipação funcional secundária a inadequação dietética e de hábitos de vida (22%) foram os principais diagnósticos etiológicos da constipação crônica. A alternância de constipação e a presença de náuseas/vômitos estiveram significativamente relacionadas ao diagnóstico de síndrome do intestino irritável; idade precoce, grandes intervalos entre as evacuações, ocorrência de impactação fecal e necessidade de enemas estiveram relacionadas ao diagnóstico de megacólon não-chagásico, enquanto assistência digital para evacuar e grande retocele ou assoalho pélvico espástico ao toque retal se associaram à disfunção do assoalho pélvico. Pacientes com constipação de longa duração, impactação fecal, dor abdominal não aliviada pelas evacuações, necessidade de enemas, assistência digital para evacuar e com evidência de retocele tendem a necessitar de testes de fisiologia para definição da causa de constipação crônica. CONCLUSÕES: O diagnóstico etiológico da constipação crônica pode ser obtido na maioria dos pacientes somente em bases clínicas, sendo que alguns sintomas estão significativamente associados a determinados diagnósticos. A indicação dos testes de fisiologia, por sua vez, deve ser baseada em parâmetros clínicos específicos. Abstract in english BACKGROUND: Diagnosis of subtypes of chronic constipation has been considered difficult to achieve even in specialized centers. Although colorectal physiologic tests have brought an important contribution, it remains unclear in which patients these tests should be indicated for. AIMS: This study aim [...] s to establish a differential diagnosis for chronic constipation cases using clinical assessment and physiologic tests and to identify clinical parameters that could predict which patients need physiologic tests. METHODS: One hundred and seventy nine patients (83% females; mean age, 45) with chronic constipation according to Rome II criteria were initially treated by dietary advice and functional reeducation and those unresponsive (110 or 61.5%) were submitted to colonic transit time, defecography, anorectal manometry and electromyography, as needed. RESULTS: A differential diagnosis was achieved in 63.6% of patients tested. However, 61.5% of 179 patients with chronic constipation (69 with no need to tests and 40 with normal tests) have etiologic diagnosis established only on clinical basis. Irritable bowel syndrome (32%), pelvic floor dysfunction (29%) and functional constipation due to faulty diet and life style habits (22%) were the main causes of chronic constipation. Alternating constipation and nausea/vomiting were symptoms significantly related to the diagnosis of irritable bowel sy

  9. Identification of responders/non-responders to 5-fluorouracil based on individual 50% inhibitory area under the concentration curve of 5-fluorouracil obtained with collagen gel droplet-embedded culture-drug sensitivity test in colorectal cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Ochiai, Takumi; Nishimura, Kazuhiko; Watanabe, Tomoo; Kitajima, Masayuki; Nakatani, Akinori; Marusasa, Takashi; Hashiguchi, Tadasuke; Uchida, Takayuki; Sakuyama, Naoki; Sato, Tsuyoshi; Kishine, Kennji; Futagawa, Shunji; Nagaoka, Isao

    2011-01-01

    We previously reported the 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) sensitivity of cancer cells obtained from colorectal cancer (CRC) patients using the collagen gel droplet-embedded culture-drug sensitivity test (CD-DST). Multiple drug concentrations and contact durations, and the area under the concentration curve (AUC) and growth inhibition rate (IR) were combined, resulting in the AUC-IR curve, which was approximated to the logarithmic curve. Moreover, the individualized AUCIR50, the AUC value which gives 5...

  10. Liqui Prepâ„¢ a New Liquid Based Cervical Cytology Method in Comparison with Conventional Pap Smear in Developing Counteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to compare, the screening performance of a new liquid-based cytology method, Liquiprepâ„¢,with conventional Pap in a low risk population, using colposcopy followed histology as "gold standard". Methods: This prospective study was performed in a general gynecology clinic in ValiAsr University Hospital, Tehran, Iran from February 2004 to March 2005. The split-sample method was used for preparing conventional and liquid-based cytology. A new technique of liquid-based cytology; Liqui-prepâ„¢ was used in this study. All positive result of smears and 10% of negative results in each group were submitted to colposcopy and a biopsy taken when any atypical transformation zone was seen. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values and overall accuracy of both conventional and Liquiprepâ„¢ methods were computed in relation to histology. A total of 506 patients were analyzed by two cytology methods and in 65 (12.84% of cases histologic diagnosis was performed. There were more adequate samples with Liquiprepâ„¢ (94.7% than with conventional (92.1% smears. There was not any LSIL and HSIL report in two groups. ASCUS was diagnosed significantly more with conventional than with Liquiprepâ„¢ smear (1.56 vs. 0.79%. Pathologically 50% of ASCUS in Liquiprepâ„¢ and 12.5% in CP had squamous abnormality. Liquiprepâ„¢ had a significantly higher sensitivity (66 vs. 83% and specificity (86 vs. 98% than the conventional Pap smear to detect ASCUS+ at histology. This study confirms the superiority of the Liquiprepâ„¢ method to detect cervical lesions.

  11. Dimeric Fe (II, III) complex of quinoneoxime as functional model of PAP enzyme: Moessbauer, magneto-structural and DNA cleavage studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purple acid phosphatase, (PAP), is known to contain dinuclear Fe2+2,+3 site with characteristic Fe+3 2+2,+3 (o-NQCH3ox) (o-NSQCH3ox)2 (CAT) H2O]. Fe-2: [Fe+3(o-NQCH3ox) (p-NQCH3ox)2]2 a molecularly associated dimer of phthiocoloxime synthesized for comparison of charge transfer. 57Fe Moessbauer studies was used to quantitize unusual valences due to ligand in dimeric Fe-1 and Fe-2 complexes which are supported by EPR and SQUID studies. 57Fe Moessbauer spectra for Fe-1 at 300 K indicates the presence of two quadrupole split asymmetric doublets due to the differences in local coordination geometries of [Fe+3]A and [Fe+2]B sites. The hyperfine interaction parameters are ?A = 0.152, (?EQ)A 0.598 mm/s with overlapping doublet at ?B = 0.410 and (?EQ)B 0.468 mm/s. Due to molecular association tendency of ligand, dimer Fe-2 possesses 100% Fe+3(h.s.) hexacoordinated configuration wh.s.) hexacoordinated configuration with isomer shift ? = 0.408 mm/s. Slightly distorted octahedral symmetry created by NQCH3ox ligand surrounding Fe+3(h.s.) state generates small field gradient indicated by quadrupole split ?EQ = 0.213 mm/s. Decrease of isomer shifts together with variation of quadrupole splits with temperature in Fe-1 dimer compared to Fe-2 is result of charge transfers in [Fe2+2,+3 SQ] complexes. EPR spectrum of Fe-1 shows two strong signals at g1 = 4.17 and g2 = 2.01 indicative of S = 3/2 spin state with an intermediate spin of Fe+3(h.s.) configuration. SQUID data of ?mcorr.T were best fitted by using HDVV spin pair model S = 2, 3/2 resulting in antiferromagnetic exchange (J = -13.5 cm-1 with an agreement factor of R = 1.89 x 10-5). The lower J value of antiferromagnetic exchange leads to Fe+3?-(OH) Fe+2 bridging in Fe-1 dimer instead of ?-oxo bridge. The intermolecular association through H-bonds may lead to weakly coupled antiferromagnetic interaction between two Fe-2 molecules having Fe+3(h.s.) centers. Using S = 5/2, 5/2 spin pair model we obtained best-fitted parameters such as J = -12.4 cm-1, g = 2.3 with R = 3.58 x 10-5. Synthetic strategy results in non-equivalent iron sites in Fe-1 dimer analogues to PAP enzyme hence its reconstitution results in pUC-19 DNA cleavage activity, as physiological functionality of APase. It is compared with nuclease activity of Fe-2 RAPase.

  12. Dimeric Fe (II, III) complex of quinoneoxime as functional model of PAP enzyme: Mössbauer, magneto-structural and DNA cleavage studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salunke-Gawali, Sunita; Ahmed, Khursheed; Varret, François; Linares, Jorge; Zaware, Santosh; Date, Sadgopal; Rane, Sandhya

    2008-07-01

    Purple acid phosphatase, ( PAP), is known to contain dinuclear Fe2 + 2, + 3 site with characteristic Fe + 3 ? Tyr ligand to metal charge transfer in coordination. Phthiocoloxime (3-methyl-2-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone-1-oxime) ligand L, mimics (His/Tyr) ligation with controlled and unique charge transfers resulting in valence tautomeric coordination with mixed valent diiron site in model compound Fe-1: [?-OH-Fe2 + 2, + 3 ( o-NQCH3ox) ( o-NSQCH3ox)2 (CAT) H2O]. Fe-2: [Fe + 3( o-NQCH3ox) ( p-NQCH3ox)2]2 a molecularly associated dimer of phthiocoloxime synthesized for comparison of charge transfer. 57Fe Mössbauer studies was used to quantitize unusual valences due to ligand in dimeric Fe-1 and Fe-2 complexes which are supported by EPR and SQUID studies. 57Fe Mössbauer spectra for Fe-1 at 300 K indicates the presence of two quadrupole split asymmetric doublets due to the differences in local coordination geometries of [Fe + 3]A and [Fe + 2]B sites. The hyperfine interaction parameters are ? A = 0.152, (? E Q)A = 0.598 mm/s with overlapping doublet at ? B = 0.410 and (? E Q)B = 0.468 mm/s. Due to molecular association tendency of ligand, dimer Fe-2 possesses 100% Fe + 3(h.s.) hexacoordinated configuration with isomer shift ? = 0.408 mm/s. Slightly distorted octahedral symmetry created by NQCH3ox ligand surrounding Fe + 3(h.s.) state generates small field gradient indicated by quadrupole split ? E Q = 0.213 mm/s. Decrease of isomer shifts together with variation of quadrupole splits with temperature in Fe-1 dimer compared to Fe-2 is result of charge transfers in [Fe2 + 2, + 3 SQ] complexes. EPR spectrum of Fe-1 shows two strong signals at g 1 = 4.17 and g 2 = 2.01 indicative of S = 3/2 spin state with an intermediate spin of Fe + 3(h.s.) configuration. SQUID data of ? _m^{corr} .T were best fitted by using HDVV spin pair model S = 2, 3/2 resulting in antiferromagnetic exchange ( J = -13.5 cm - 1 with an agreement factor of R = 1.89 × 10 - 5). The lower J value of antiferromagnetic exchange leads to Fe+3?-(OH) Fe + 2 bridging in Fe-1 dimer instead of ?-oxo bridge. The intermolecular association through H-bonds may lead to weakly coupled antiferromagnetic interaction between two Fe-2 molecules having Fe + 3(h.s.) centers. Using S = 5/2, 5/2 spin pair model we obtained best-fitted parameters such as J = -12.4 cm - 1, g = 2.3 with R = 3.58 × 10 - 5. Synthetic strategy results in non-equivalent iron sites in Fe-1 dimer analogues to PAP enzyme hence its reconstitution results in pUC-19 DNA cleavage activity, as physiological functionality of APase. It is compared with nuclease activity of Fe-2 RAPase.

  13. Pattern of abnormal Pap smears in developing countries : A report from a large referral hospital in Saudi Arabia using the revised 2001 Bethesda System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Layla

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Reports describing the frequency and pattern of abnormal Pap smears in developing countries using the revised Bethesda system for Pap smear are few. We studied the pattern of cervical intraepithelial le--sions and carcinoma detected in Pap smears of Saudi females in the western region of Saudi Arabia using the revised system. Methods: All cervical Pap smears reported in the Department of Pathology of King Abdulaziz Medical City, Jeddah, from 1 January 1998 to 31 August 2005 were reclassified according to the revised system with age ranges identified. RESULTS: Of 5590 sufficient smears, 261 (5% were identified as abnormal and were further classified as atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US (103 cases, 40%, atypical squamous cells of high grade (6 cases, 2%, low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL (56 cases, 22%, high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL (31 cases, 12%, glandular cell abnormalities (30 cases, 11% and invasive squa--mous cell carcinoma (21 cases, 9%. The ASC-US/SIL ratio was 1.9%. Invasive adenocarcinoma accounted for 14 cases (4% with a similar age range as invasive squamous cell carcinoma. Conclusion: Although this study showed a lower incidence and a wider age range of cervical epithelial cell abnormalities than others published internationally, the results emphasize the need for a well-organized cervi--cal screening program supplemented by larger national studies on the pattern of cervical abnormalities in this country. The information provided in this study will encourage use of the Pap smear as a screening method for cervical cancer in developing countries.

  14. Bacterial curli protein promotes the conversion of PAP248-286 into the amyloid SEVI: cross-seeding of dissimilar amyloid sequences

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    Kevin Hartman

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Fragments of prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP248-286 in human semen dramatically increase HIV infection efficiency by increasing virus adhesion to target cells. PAP248-286 only enhances HIV infection in the form of amyloid aggregates termed SEVI (Semen Enhancer of Viral Infection, however monomeric PAP248-286 aggregates very slowly in isolation. It has therefore been suggested that SEVI fiber formation in vivo may be promoted by exogenous factors. We show here that a bacterially-produced extracellular amyloid (curli or Csg acts as a catalytic agent for SEVI formation from PAP248-286 at low concentrations in vitro, producing fibers that retain the ability to enhance HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus infection. Kinetic analysis of the cross-seeding effect shows an unusual pattern. Cross-seeding PAP248-286 with curli only moderately affects the nucleation rate while significantly enhancing the growth of fibers from existing nuclei. This pattern is in contrast to most previous observations of cross-seeding, which show cross-seeding partially bypasses the nucleation step but has little effect on fiber elongation. Seeding other amyloidogenic proteins (IAPP (islet amyloid polypeptide and A?1?40 with curli showed varied results. Curli cross-seeding decreased the lag-time of IAPP amyloid formation but strongly inhibited IAPP elongation. Curli cross-seeding exerted a complicated concentration dependent effect on A?1?40 fibrillogenesis kinetics. Combined, these results suggest that the interaction of amyloidogenic proteins with preformed fibers of a different type can take a variety of forms and is not limited to epitaxial nucleation between proteins of similar sequence. The ability of curli fibers to interact with proteins of dissimilar sequences suggests cross-seeding may be a more general phenomenon than previously supposed.

  15. Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... curesma.org > learn about sma > causes & diagnoses > testing Testing An SMA diagnosis must be confirmed through genetic ... and must be identified through further testing. Prenatal Testing Prenatal testing is used to determine if a ...

  16. Comportamiento de las citologías orgánicas alteradas en un área de salud Behavior of organic altered Pap in one health area

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    María Eulalia Prieto Herrera

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: el cáncer de útero es, después del cáncer de mama, el que más frecuentemente afecta a la mujer. La detección y tratamiento temprano de las lesiones premalignas garantizan la durabilidad de esta afección. Objetivo: conocer el comportamiento de las citologías orgánicas alteradas en un área de salud. Métodos: se realizó un estudio descriptivo, transversal y retrospectivo en el Policlínico Este del municipio Camagüey en el período de enero de 2005 a diciembre de 2010. El universo estuvo constituido por las 189 mujeres que presentaron citologías orgánicas anormales en el período antes señalado. Se recogieron variables como: grupo de edades, resultados de las citologías orgánicas según toma de muestra, edad de las primeras relaciones sexuales, número de partos, diagnóstico citológico de infección por virus del papiloma humano (VPH. Resultados: poco menos de la mitad de las mujeres inició las relaciones sexuales antes de los 18 años (46,56 % y la mayoría tenía entre 1 y 3 partos (83,06 %. El 56,08 % de las pacientes presentaron infección por VPH. Conclusiones: predominaron las pacientes con neoplasia intraepitelial cervical II, el año 2006 fue el de mayor incidencia de lesiones de cuello uterino.Introduction: uterine cancer is the type of cancer which most frequently affects women after breast cancer. The early detection and treatment of pre-malignant damage guarantees the durability of this condition. Objective: to understand the behavior of organic altered Pap in one health area. Methods: a descriptive, cross-sectional and retrospective study was conducted I, the eastern polyclinic in Camagüey municipality from January 2005 to December 2010. The sample consisted of 189 women who had abnormal Pap organic in the aforementioned period. Variables were collected such as: age group, organic cytology results according to sampling, age of first intercourse, parity, cytological diagnosis of infection with human papillomavirus (HPV. Results: slightly less than half of these women had their first sex intercourse before the age of 18 (46.56 % and most had had 1-3 births (83.06 %. 56.08 % of these patients had HPV infection. Conclusions: cervical intraepithelial neoplasia II was predominant in these patients. The highest incidence of cervical lesions occurred in 2006.

  17. Patterns of epithelial cell abnormalities in Pap smears and its clinicopathological and demographic association: a descriptive study from Visakhapatnam city, Andhra Pradesh, India

    OpenAIRE

    Bhagya Lakshmi, A.; Devi Madhavi, B.; Vasundhara, M.; Satya Sri, K.; Vani, I.; Sreelekha, A.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Cervical cancer is one of the leading cancers amongst women. Periodic pap screening is the simplest way to diagnose precancerous lesions. Factors such as ignorance, poverty poorly developed public healthcare delivery system put women in urban slums at a disadvantage for receiving any health screening activity. Objectives of the present study were to know the prevalence of epithelial cell abnormalities of the cervix among the subjects and to study the association with clinical and ...

  18. Tobacco expressing pap1 increases the responses to par and uv-a by enhancing soluble sugars and flavonoids and elevating plant protections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Five lines of transgenic tobacco over-expressing Production of Anthocyanin Pigment 1 (PAP1) cDNA were analysis of metabolic response against the radiation and their protection of the plant under tissue culture condition. PAP1 transgenic and wild type (WT) plants were treated with the radiations of photosynthetically activate radiation (PAR) or PAR combined with UV-A. All lines of transgenic significantly increased in amounts of p-coumaric acid, naringenin apigenin more than WT under both treatments. Additional UV-A radiating to plant rose up kaempferol content in WT plant (1.5 times) and in PAP1 transgenics (1.8 times). These transgenic plants treated under both conditions had also increased anthocyanin substances (pelargonidin) with significant value after compared to WT. Content of total soluble sugar (TSS) was related to the content of total flavonoids in transgenic. PAR combined with UV-A had a lower induction of the electrolyte leakage percentage and malondialdehyde (MDA) level in the transgenic leaf tissue compared to WT tissue. The metabolic substance levels were considered on its protection of plant cells. In transgenic tissue, the enhancement of apigenin level strongly diminished the increase level of electrolyte leakage while the levels of TSS, p-coumaric acid and naringinin less affected. Moreover, the increase levels of kaempferol and pelargonidin associated with the decrease level of MDA, while the TSS level reversely responded. The PAP1 transgenic increased response of light by adaptation of their metabolites (TSS, p-coumaric acid and flavonoids) consequently enhance parameter indicating protections of the cell. (author)

  19. Modification of the synthesis of bioactive flavonoids in transgenic hop Humulus lupulus L. by PAP1/MYB75 from Arabidopsis thaliana L.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Aldinger, C.; Stanke, M.; Alheit, C.; Gatíca, A.; Höhnle, M.; Matoušek, Jaroslav; Weber, G.

    Hüll : Scientific Commission of the International Hop Growers Convention , 2009 - (Seigner, E.), s. 49-52 ISSN 1814-2192. [Scientific Commission of the International Hop Growers Convention Meeting. León (ES), 21.06.2009-25.06.2009] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50510513 Keywords : flavonoid biosynthesis * transgenic hop Humulus lupulus L. cv. Tettnanger * Arabidopsis thaliana PAP1/MYB75 regulatory gene Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry

  20. Blind pre-analysis of the main building complex WWER-1000 Kozloduy. Comparison of analytical and experimental results obtained by explosive testing (task 8a of workplan 96/97)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In accordance with the 96/97 workplan of the Research Programme on 'Benchmark Studies for Seismic Analysis and Testing of WWER-Type Nuclear Power Plants', blind pre analyses were prepared for the main building complex of the WWER-1000 based on given excitations derived from explosive tests. The investigations were performed by several institutions based on various mathematical models and procedures for consideration of soil-structure interaction effects, but on the same explosive test input data recently obtained. The methods of calculation and software tools used will also be different. The aim of this investigation is to validate different idealization concepts (mathematical models for the idealization of the structures and the soil) as well as investigation procedures (time domain and frequency domain analysis) and finally the software tools by comparing structural response results (time histories and response spectra). This report contains the results of the blind pre analysis performed by Siemens using an equivalent beam model of the main building of the WWER 1000. The calculations were performed by means of a frequency domain calculation

  1. Identification of hemostatic genes expressed in human and rat leg muscles and a novel gene (LPP1/PAP2A suppressed during prolonged physical inactivity (sitting

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    Zderic Theodore W

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Partly because of functional genomics, there has been a major paradigm shift from solely thinking of skeletal muscle as contractile machinery to an understanding that it can have roles in paracrine and endocrine functions. Physical inactivity is an established risk factor for some blood clotting disorders. The effects of inactivity during sitting are most alarming when a person develops the enigmatic condition in the legs called deep venous thrombosis (DVT or “coach syndrome,” caused in part by muscular inactivity. The goal of this study was to determine if skeletal muscle expresses genes with roles in hemostasis and if their expression level was responsive to muscular inactivity such as occurs in prolonged sitting. Methods Microarray analyses were performed on skeletal muscle samples from rats and humans to identify genes associated with hemostatic function that were significantly expressed above background based on multiple probe sets with perfect and mismatch sequences. Furthermore, we determined if any of these genes were responsive to models of physical inactivity. Multiple criteria were used to determine differential expression including significant expression above background, fold change, and non-parametric statistical tests. Results These studies demonstrate skeletal muscle tissue expresses at least 17 genes involved in hemostasis. These include the fibrinolytic factors tetranectin, annexin A2, and tPA; the anti-coagulant factors TFPI, protein C receptor, PAF acetylhydrolase; coagulation factors, and genes necessary for the posttranslational modification of these coagulation factors such as vitamin K epoxide reductase. Of special interest, lipid phosphate phosphatase-1 (LPP1/PAP2A, a key gene for degrading prothrombotic and proinflammatory lysophospholipids, was suppressed locally in muscle tissue within hours after sitting in humans; this was also observed after acute and chronic physical inactivity conditions in rats, and exercise was relatively ineffective at counteracting this effect in both species. Conclusions These findings suggest that skeletal muscle may play an important role in hemostasis and that muscular inactivity may contribute to hemostatic disorders not only because of the slowing of blood flow per se, but also potentially because of the contribution from genes expressed locally in muscles, such as LPP1.

  2. Prevalencia de la toma de citología vaginal en estudiantes de una universidad pública de Colombia / Prevalence of Pap smear take in students of a Colombian public university

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    César, Guevara-Cuéllar; Claudia, Guevara-Chaux; Camilo, Medina; Soraya, Mera Cerón; Luis, Torres-Martínez.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Determinar la prevalencia de la toma de citología vaginal en las estudiantes de los seis primeros semestres de los programas profesionales de la Facultad de Salud de una universidad pública en Cali (Colombia) durante 2007. Materiales y métodos: Estudio descriptivo transversal con estudiant [...] es de los seis primeros semestres de programas en la Facultad de Salud de una universidad pública en Cali a través de una encuesta en la que se determinó la toma de citología vaginal y comportamientos de salud sexual y reproductiva. Resultados: Participaron 180 estudiantes con un promedio de edad de 19,9±2,5 años. 41,7% de las encuestadas se habían realizado citología vaginal; de éstas, el 23,3% se la realizaban cada año. El 84% de las participantes habían reclamado el resultado. El 35,3% habían tenido un compañero sexual, y la edad promedio de inicio de relaciones sexuales fue 16,8±1,5 años. El principal argumento para no realizársela fue la condición de virginidad (40%). Se encontró asociación estadística entre la toma de citología vaginal con edad (p=0,002), el estar casada (p=0,002), el número de relaciones sexuales en el último mes (p Abstract in english Objective: Determine the prevalence of taking Pap Smear in the students of the first six semesters of the professional programs of the faculty of Health of a public University of Cali en 2007. Materials and methods: It was carried out a cross sectional study with students of professional programs in [...] the faculty of health of a public university in Cali, Colombia through an inquiry that included information about achieve Pap smear and sexuality behaviors. Results: 180 students participated and the age average was 19,9±2,5 años. 41,7% of students carried out Pap smear; 23,3% each year. 84% of students claimed the result. 35,5% have have one sexual partner and age average for initial intercourse was 16,8±1,5 years. The main reason for not take Pap smear was virginity(40%). There are statistic association between take Pap smear with age (p=0,002), married status (p=0,002), number of sexual intercourses in last month (p

  3. Challenging the present definition of "normal" vitamin D levels obtained by a single blood test. Can we develop a formula to predict vitamin D levels in the 4 seasons from a single season's measure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tandeter, Howard

    2014-08-01

    Publications on the health effects of vitamin D (25(OH) D) had almost triplicate in the last 10years, not only for its known "calcemic effects" (calcium, phosphor, PTH), but for the more recent findings on its "non-calcemic effects" (all-cause and cardiovascular mortality, and relation with certain types of cancer). Part of these publications deal with the definition of what is a "normal" circulating level of 25(OH) D that may distinguish between health and disease. The literature also deals with seasonal variations of vitamin D, showing levels that rise in summer and fall in winter and with DBP phenotypes and geographical location that affect seasonality of 25(OH) D measurements. Despite the knowledge of the existence of these phenomena many studies on vitamin D fail to acknowledge the time of the year the blood sample was extracted. Thus, when we compare results from different studies without defining the season that the samples were drawn, we compare incomparable figures. Furthermore, it is quite absurd to define "normal levels" as a static measure (over or under a certain value) using a single blood test when the value measured is known to change with seasons. Knowing that people have different vitamin D levels in different seasons of the year, we should ask ourselves which of these measurements should be used to define a "real" or "normal" level? Is it the lower one? Is there a "mean measure" that should be used for this matter? If yes, how do we obtain it? Do we have to make 4 seasonal measurements in each patient? Alternatively, might there be a possibility of developing a formula to help us obtain the mean from a single season's measure or one season's prediction from another season's measurement? And knowing that DBP phenotypes and geographical location affect seasonality of 25(OH) D measurements; shouldn't we include this in the equation? In this article I will discuss the hypothetical existence of an Individual Mean Annual vitamin D level that I will call the "IMAD level" and a recovery formula "RF" that may be used to calculate this mean having one single measure (in any of the 4 seasons) and to predict any season's value from another season's measurement. IMAD levels should be obtained in the two main DBP phenotypes, taking into account the geographical location of the test. PMID:24854576

  4. Prevalencia de alteraciones oncológicas en la citología cervicovaginal de pacientes de una institución prestadora de servicios de salud de Medellín, 2010-2012 / Oncology findings of pap smear in a health provider institution of Medellín, 2010-2012

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    JAIBERTH ANTONIO, CARDONA-ARIAS; MARLENY, VALENCIA-ARREDONDO.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: el cáncer cervico-uterino es la enfermedad maligna más frecuente en mujeres colombianas; la tamización con la citología cérvico-vaginal ha sido útil para disminuir su morbilidad y mortalidad. Objetivo: determinar la prevalencia de alteraciones oncológicas en la citología cervical, en m [...] ujeres atendidas en una institución prestadora de servicios de salud, Medellín 2010-2012. Métodos: estudio de prevalencia en 205 917 mujeres del programa de detección y prevención del cáncer cervicouterino de Metrosalud. Se calculó la prevalencia global de cada uno de los hallazgos oncológicos y de forma específica según el grupo etario y el método de planificación y sector de residencia. Resultados: la prevalencia global de alteraciones citológicas fue 8,5 %; las lesiones intraepiteliales escamosas (LIE) de bajo grado se presentaron en el 2 %, las de alto grado en 0,3 %; las células escamosas atípicas de significado indeterminado en 3,2 % y las células glandulares atípicas de significado indeterminado (AGC-US) 0,4 %. En las menores de 30 años se obtuvo una mayor prevalencia de lesiones intraepiteliales escamosas de bajo grado, las neoplasias intraepiteliales vaginales de alto grado y células escamosas atípicas de significado indeterminado; en las mayores de 50 se observaron las prevalencias más elevadas de lesiones intraepiteliales escamosas de alto grado, inflamación y atrofia. Conclusiones: la prevalencia de alteraciones citológica cervicales fue baja en los subgrupos estudiados; las adolescentes constituyen un grupo de mayor riesgo para las lesiones intraepiteliales escamosas de bajo grado Abstract in english Introduction: Cervical cancer is the most prevalent malignancy in colombian women. The screening with Pap smear has been a key tool for reducing morbidity and mortality. Objectives: to determine the prevalence of oncological alterations in the Pap smear in women of a health provider in institution, [...] Medellín 2010-2012. Methods: The prevalence study in 205,917 women of program to detect and prevent cervical cancer of Metrosalud The overall prevalence of oncologic findings was calculated, also prevalence by age group, the planning method and sector of residence. Results: the overall prevalence of disorders was 8.5 %, low grade Squamous Intraepithelial Lesions (SIL) 2 % and High grade SIL 0.3 %, atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US) 3.2 % and atypical glandular cells of undetermined significance (AGC-US) 0.4 %. The prevalence of HSIL, inflammation and atrophy were highest at woman 50 and older, in the under 30 a higher prevalence of low grade SIL, highgrade vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia, ASCUS and ASC was obtained. Conclusions: The prevalence of cervical cytological abnormalities was low in the subgroups studied; adolescents are a higher risk group for low-grade SIL

  5. Ruthenium nitrosyl complexes with 1,4,7-trithiacyclononane and 2,2'-bipyridine (bpy) or 2-phenylazopyridine (pap) coligands. Electronic structure and reactivity aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De, Prinaka; Maji, Somnath; Chowdhury, Abhishek Dutta; Mobin, Shaikh M; Mondal, Tapan Kumar; Paretzki, Alexa; Lahiri, Goutam Kumar

    2011-12-14

    The present article describes ruthenium nitrosyl complexes with the {RuNO}(6) and {RuNO}(7) notations in the selective molecular frameworks of [Ru(II)([9]aneS(3))(bpy)(NO(+))](3+) (4(3+)), [Ru(II)([9]aneS(3))(pap) (NO(+))](3+) (8(3+)) and [Ru(II)([9]aneS(3))(bpy)(NO?)](2+) (4(2+)), [Ru(II)([9]aneS(3))(pap)(NO?)](2+) (8(2+)) ([9]aneS(3) = 1,4,7-trithiacyclononane, bpy = 2,2'-bipyridine, pap = 2-phenylazopyridine), respectively. The nitrosyl complexes have been synthesized by following a stepwise synthetic procedure: {Ru(II)-Cl} ? {Ru(II)-CH(3)CN} ? {Ru(II)-NO(2)} ? {Ru(II)-NO(+)} ? {Ru(II)-NO?}. The single-crystal X-ray structure of 4(3+) and DFT optimised structures of 4(3+), 8(3+) and 4(2+), 8(2+) establish the localised linear and bent geometries for {Ru-NO(+)} and {Ru-NO?} complexes, respectively. The crystal structures and (1)H/(13)C NMR suggest the [333] conformation of the coordinated macrocyclic ligand ([9]aneS(3)) in the complexes. The difference in ?-accepting strength of the co-ligands, bpy in 4(3+) and pap in 8(3+) (bpy < pap) has been reflected in the ?(NO) frequencies of 1945 cm(-1) (DFT: 1943 cm(-1)) and 1964 cm(-1) (DFT: 1966 cm(-1)) and E°({Ru(II)-NO(+)}/{Ru(II)-NO?}) of 0.49 and 0.67 V versus SCE, respectively. The ?(NO) frequency of the reduced {Ru-NO?} state in 4(2+) or 8(2+) however decreases to 1632 cm(-1) (DFT: 1637 cm(-1)) or 1634 cm(-1) (DFT: 1632 cm(-1)), respectively, with the change of the linear {Ru(II)-NO(+)} geometry in 4(3+), 8(3+) to bent {Ru(II)-NO?} geometry in 4(2+), 8(2+). The preferential stabilisation of the eclipsed conformation of the bent NO in 4(2+) and 8(2+) has been supported by the DFT calculations. The reduced {Ru(II)-NO?} exhibits free-radical EPR with partial metal contribution revealing the resonance formulation of {Ru(II)-NO?}(major)?{Ru(I)-NO(+)}(minor). The electronic transitions of the complexes have been assigned based on the TD-DFT calculations on their DFT optimised structures. The estimated second-order rate constant (k, M(-1) s(-1)) of the reaction of the nucleophile, OH(-) with the electrophilic {Ru(II)-NO(+)} for the bpy derivative (4(3+)) of 1.39 × 10(-1) is half of that determined for the pap derivative (8(3+)), 2.84 × 10(-1) in CH(3)CN at 298 K. The Ru-NO bond in 4(3+) or 8(3+) undergoes facile photolytic cleavage to form the corresponding solvent species {Ru(II)-CH(3)CN}, 2(2+) or 6(2+) with widely varying rate constant values, (k(NO), s(-1)) of 1.12 × 10(-1) (t(1/2) = 6.2 s) and 7.67 × 10(-3) (t(1/2) = 90.3 s), respectively. The photo-released NO can bind to the reduced myoglobin to yield the Mb-NO adduct. PMID:21986798

  6. Aplicação do método de ensaio das frequências naturais de vibração para obtenção do módulo de elasticidade de peças estruturais de madeira / Analysis of the natural vibration frequency test method to obtain the modulus of elasticity of wood structural components

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Pedro Gutemberg de Alcântara, Segundinho; Leiliane Cristina, Cossolino; Antônio Henrique Alves, Pereira; Carlito, Calil Junior.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Existem diversas técnicas para caracterização do módulo de elasticidade de madeiras e, dentre as atualmente empregadas, destacam-se aquelas que utilizam as frequências naturais de vibração, por serem técnicas não destrutivas e, portanto, apresentarem resultados que podem ser repetidos e comparados a [...] o longo do tempo. Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a eficácia, dos métodos de ensaios baseados nas frequências naturais de vibração comparando-os aos resultados obtidos na flexão estática na obtenção das propriedades elásticas em peças estruturais de madeira de reflorestamento que são usualmente empregadas na construção civil. Foram avaliadas 24 vigas de Eucalyptus sp. com dimensões nominais (40 x 60 x 2.000 mm) e 14 vigas de Pinus oocarpa com dimensões nominais (45 x 90 x 2.300 mm), ambas sem tratamento; 30 pranchas com dimensões nominais (40 x 240 x 2.010 mm) e 30 pranchas com dimensões nominais (40 x 240 x 3.050 mm), ambas de Pinnus oocarpa e com tratamento preservativo à base de Arseniato de Cobre Cromatado - CCA. Os resultados obtidos apresentaram boa correlação quando comparados aos resultados obtidos pelo método mecânico de flexão estática, especialmente quando empregada a frequência natural de vibração longitudinal. O emprego da frequência longitudinal mostrou-se confiável e prático, portanto recomendada para a determinação do módulo de elasticidade de peças estruturais de madeira. Verificou-se ainda que, empregando a frequência longitudinal, não há necessidade de um suporte específico para os corpos de prova ou calibrações prévias, reduzindo assim o tempo de execução e favorecendo o ensaio de grande quantidade de amostras. Abstract in english There are several techniques to characterize the elastic modulus of wood and those currently using the natural frequencies of vibration stand out as they are non-destructive techniques, producing results that can be repeated and compared over time. This study reports on the effectiveness of the test [...] ing methods based on the natural frequencies of vibration versus static bending to obtain the elastic properties of reforested structural wood components usually employed in civil construction. The following components were evaluated: 24 beams of Eucalyptus sp. with nominal dimensions (40 x 60 x 2.000 mm) and 14 beams of Pinus oocarpa with nominal dimensions (45 x 90 x 2.300 mm) both without treatment; 30 boards with nominal dimensions (40 x 240 x 2.010 mm) and 30 boards with nominal dimensions (40 x 240 x 3.050 mm), both of Pinus oocarpa and with chromate copper arsenate (CCA) preservative treatment. The results obtained in thiswork show good correlation when compared to the results obtained by the static bending mechanical method, especially when applying the natural frequency of longitudinal vibration. The use of longitudinal frequency was reliable and practical, therefore recommended for determining the modulus of elasticity of wood structural elements. It was also found that no specific support is needed for the specimens using the longitudinal frequency, as well as no previous calibrations, reducing the execution time and enabling to test many samples.

  7. Aplicação do método de ensaio das frequências naturais de vibração para obtenção do módulo de elasticidade de peças estruturais de madeira Analysis of the natural vibration frequency test method to obtain the modulus of elasticity of wood structural components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Gutemberg de Alcântara Segundinho

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Existem diversas técnicas para caracterização do módulo de elasticidade de madeiras e, dentre as atualmente empregadas, destacam-se aquelas que utilizam as frequências naturais de vibração, por serem técnicas não destrutivas e, portanto, apresentarem resultados que podem ser repetidos e comparados ao longo do tempo. Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a eficácia, dos métodos de ensaios baseados nas frequências naturais de vibração comparando-os aos resultados obtidos na flexão estática na obtenção das propriedades elásticas em peças estruturais de madeira de reflorestamento que são usualmente empregadas na construção civil. Foram avaliadas 24 vigas de Eucalyptus sp. com dimensões nominais (40 x 60 x 2.000 mm e 14 vigas de Pinus oocarpa com dimensões nominais (45 x 90 x 2.300 mm, ambas sem tratamento; 30 pranchas com dimensões nominais (40 x 240 x 2.010 mm e 30 pranchas com dimensões nominais (40 x 240 x 3.050 mm, ambas de Pinnus oocarpa e com tratamento preservativo à base de Arseniato de Cobre Cromatado - CCA. Os resultados obtidos apresentaram boa correlação quando comparados aos resultados obtidos pelo método mecânico de flexão estática, especialmente quando empregada a frequência natural de vibração longitudinal. O emprego da frequência longitudinal mostrou-se confiável e prático, portanto recomendada para a determinação do módulo de elasticidade de peças estruturais de madeira. Verificou-se ainda que, empregando a frequência longitudinal, não há necessidade de um suporte específico para os corpos de prova ou calibrações prévias, reduzindo assim o tempo de execução e favorecendo o ensaio de grande quantidade de amostras.There are several techniques to characterize the elastic modulus of wood and those currently using the natural frequencies of vibration stand out as they are non-destructive techniques, producing results that can be repeated and compared over time. This study reports on the effectiveness of the testing methods based on the natural frequencies of vibration versus static bending to obtain the elastic properties of reforested structural wood components usually employed in civil construction. The following components were evaluated: 24 beams of Eucalyptus sp. with nominal dimensions (40 x 60 x 2.000 mm and 14 beams of Pinus oocarpa with nominal dimensions (45 x 90 x 2.300 mm both without treatment; 30 boards with nominal dimensions (40 x 240 x 2.010 mm and 30 boards with nominal dimensions (40 x 240 x 3.050 mm, both of Pinus oocarpa and with chromate copper arsenate (CCA preservative treatment. The results obtained in thiswork show good correlation when compared to the results obtained by the static bending mechanical method, especially when applying the natural frequency of longitudinal vibration. The use of longitudinal frequency was reliable and practical, therefore recommended for determining the modulus of elasticity of wood structural elements. It was also found that no specific support is needed for the specimens using the longitudinal frequency, as well as no previous calibrations, reducing the execution time and enabling to test many samples.

  8. Experimental and clinical testings of 99mTc-pertechnetate and 131I without carrier obtained at the Institute of Nuclear Physics of the National Nuclear Center of the Republic of Kazakhstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During 2000-2002 in the Almaty city's medical centers both experimental and clinical tests of the domestic radiopharmaceuticals on the basis of 131I and 99mTc radioisotopes produced at the Institute of Nuclear Physics of the National Nuclear Center of the Republic of Kazakhstan (INP of NNC RK) were carried out. The experimental studies on the rates showing the conformity of the 131I and 99mTc distribution in the animals' organism to its pharmacologic and kinetic properties and analogous organic trophy in the relation to the thyroid. It is emphasized that injection of the pharmaceuticals into the animal's organism does not caused both negative reactions and side toxic exhibitions. In the experimental and clinical approbation the radiometric, scanning, and scintigraphic methods were used. Radiometry have been conducted 2, 4 and 24 hours after 131I injection and scanning after 24 hours in 27 patients. 5 patients without the thyroid pathology made up the control group. The conducted examinations allow to receive data reflecting the anatomical, topographical, structural and functional status of the thyroid. High tireotrophy of the 131I permits to study in vivo iodine exchange conditions and got the qualitative image of the thyroid. With help of the 99mTc-pertechnetate the dynamical and static scintigraphy studies of 11 patients with different thyroid pathologies and 7 patients with the head brain logies and 7 patients with the head brain pathologies were examined. The changes revealed by the radionuclide method corresponding to clinical diagnosis and distinguishing from the control group. As well as the dynamic scintigraphy angiography of kidneys with help of 99mTc-DTPA, static scintigraphy of kidneys with 99mTc-DMCA, the liver dynamical scintigraphy with 99mTc-Technide, the liver static al scintigraphy with 99mTc-phytone (7 patients) ware carried out. The obtained results confirm the labelled compound strength manufacture with 99mTc of domestic manufacture. The reactions on the radionuclide administration during/after examination of the patient did not observed, and clinical and laboratory changes did not noted as well. By the result of testing the sterile sodium pertechnetate (99mTc) and sodium iodide (131I) produced at the INP of NNC RK are recommended to the commercial production for radionuclide diagnostics use

  9. Comparison of Pap Smear Quality With Anatomical Spatula Method and the Common Method (Spatula? Cytobrush: A Single Blind Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soleimani M

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cervical cancer is the third most common cancer in women in the world. Papanicolaou smear is known as a standard test for cervical cancer screening; however, the most important challenge is high rates of false negative results. The aim of this study was to compare the quality of smears obtained by anatomical spatula and spatula-cytobrush. The most important factor in false negative result is inappropriate tool of sampling. Methods: One hundred married women participated in this single blind clinical trial. All participants were interviewed; two samples were obtained from every participant: one with spatula-cytobrush and another one with anatomical spatula. All slides were encoded and were assessed by two pathologists. Then, data were analyzed by means of kappa coefficient. Results: Cell adequacy was 96.1 % in anatomical spatula method and 91.2 % in spatula-cytobrush method (p= 0.016. The rates for endocervical cells and metaplasia cells in anatomical spatula method were 70.6% and 24.5% respectively and these amounts were 69.6% and 24.5% respectively in the spatula-cytobrush method (p 0.05. Regarding infection and inflammatory reactions there was no statistically significant difference between two methods (p>0.05. Conclusion: Based on our findings in this study, results of sampling with anatomical spatula method were more acceptable and better than those with spatulacytobrush sampling.

  10. Equilibration of [3H]glucosamine and [35S]sulfate with intracellular pools of UDP-N-acetylhexosamine and 3'-phosphoadenosine-5'-phosphosulfate (PAPS) in cultured fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nucleotides and sugar nucleotides were extracted from cultures of human fibroblasts with perchloric acid, separated by isotachophoresis, and quantified by uv absorption analysis at 254 nm. ATP (936 pmol/micrograms DNA) was, as expected, the dominating nucleotide pool. The energy charge was estimated to 0.9. The UDP-N-acetylhexosamine pool was also a very prominent compound (596 pmol/micrograms DNA). After incubation of fibroblasts with [3H]glucosamine, more than 95% of the acid-soluble radioactivity was found in the UDP-N-acetylhexosamine pool. Incubation with [35S]sulfate resulted in the incorporation of [35S]sulfate into 3'-phosphoadenosine-5'-phosphosulfate (PAPS). The latter could, however, only be measured as radioactivity, as the amount was too small to be quantified as total mass. Pulse-labeling of fibroblasts with [35S]sulfate and [3H]glucosamine from 5 min to 16 h showed that [35S]PAPS was equilibrated in less than 10 min, while [3H]glucosamine required a longer time, 2-4 h, to attain a steady state with UDP-N-acetylhexosamine. [14C]Glucose required approximately the same time as [3H]glucosamine to reach steady state with UDP-acetylhexosamine, which suggests that the reason for the long equilibration time is the slow turnover of this pool

  11. Evaluation of adjunctive tests for cervical cancer screening in low resource settings

    OpenAIRE

    Bhatla Neerja; Mukhopadhyay Asima; Kriplani Alka; Pandey R; Gravitt Patti; Shah K; Iyer V; Verma Kusum

    2007-01-01

    Background: Visual inspection of cervix after application of acetic acid (VIA) is an effective screening tool for cervical cancer in low resource settings, but its low specificity leads to high referral rates. Adjunctive testing may overcome this drawback. Aims: This pilot study was aimed to assess test performances of VIA, human papillomavirus (HPV) testing and Pap smear, individually and in simulated combinations, to determine the probable best screening option. Setting and Design: Gyn...

  12. Relação da taxa de gestação com sêmen bovino congelado e testes de avaliação espermática in vitro / Relationship between conception rates obtained by using bovine frozen semen and in vitro spermatic evaluation

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Jeanne Broch, Siqueira; José Domingos, Guimarães; Eduardo Paulino da, Costa; Marc, Henry; Ciro Alexandre Alves, Torres; Marcos Vinícius Gualberto Barbosa da, Silva; Thiago da Silva, Silveira.

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a relação entre os testes complementares (teste hiposmótico, teste de termorresistência lento e teste de reação acrossômica) e os testes de avaliações convencionais (aspectos físicos e morfológicos) de sêmen bovino congelado/descongelado e os índices de prenhez. Os valores médios da motil [...] idade espermática progressiva retilínea avaliados pelo teste de termorresistência foram de 53,48 (pós-descongelamento), 43,69 (60 minutos), 35,88 (120 minutos) e 33,04% (180 minutos) e a porcentagem de células reativas ao teste hiposmótico foi de 37,89%. Correlação positiva e de média intensidade foi encontrada para a motilidade espermática progressiva retilínea pós-descongelamento e o teste hiposmótico (0,21). Entretanto, a correlação da motilidade aos 180 minutos com o teste hiposmótico foi alta (0,64). A porcentagem de células que tiveram acrossoma reagido pós-descongelamento foi de 9,85%, apresentando correlações negativas de média e alta intensidade (-0,25 e -0,46, respectivamente) com a motilidade espermática progressiva retilínea pós-descongelamento e após 3 horas de incubação. Não houve correlação dos testes complementares e da motilidade pós-descongelamento com a taxa de gestação. Nenhum parâmetro considerado isoladamente serviu para avaliar a capacidade fertilizante do sêmen congelado/descongelado. Abstract in english The objective of this study was to evaluate the relationship between complementary (hiposmotic, thermo-resistance and acrosome reaction tests) and conventional evaluations (physical and morphologic aspects) of bovine frozen/thawed semen and conception rates. Average values for spermatic motility eva [...] luated by thermo-resistance test were of 53.48% (post-thawed), 43.69% (60 minutes), 35.88% (120 minutes) and 33.04% (180 minutes). The percentage of reactive cells observed for the hiposmotic test was 37.89%. Average intensity was observed for post-thawing spermatic motility, positively correlated to hiposmotic test (0.21). However, correlation between motility in the 180 minutes and hiposmotic test was high (0.64). The percentage of cells presenting post-thawing acrosome reaction was 9.85%, which was negative correlated to post-thawing (-0.25) and after three hours of incubation (-0.46) spermatic motility. No correlation was observed for complementary tests and post-thawed motility and the conception rate. No one of the parameters evaluated in this study was individually able to indicate the fertilizing capacity of the frozen/thawed semen.

  13. Relação da taxa de gestação com sêmen bovino congelado e testes de avaliação espermática in vitro Relationship between conception rates obtained by using bovine frozen semen and in vitro spermatic evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeanne Broch Siqueira

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a relação entre os testes complementares (teste hiposmótico, teste de termorresistência lento e teste de reação acrossômica e os testes de avaliações convencionais (aspectos físicos e morfológicos de sêmen bovino congelado/descongelado e os índices de prenhez. Os valores médios da motilidade espermática progressiva retilínea avaliados pelo teste de termorresistência foram de 53,48 (pós-descongelamento, 43,69 (60 minutos, 35,88 (120 minutos e 33,04% (180 minutos e a porcentagem de células reativas ao teste hiposmótico foi de 37,89%. Correlação positiva e de média intensidade foi encontrada para a motilidade espermática progressiva retilínea pós-descongelamento e o teste hiposmótico (0,21. Entretanto, a correlação da motilidade aos 180 minutos com o teste hiposmótico foi alta (0,64. A porcentagem de células que tiveram acrossoma reagido pós-descongelamento foi de 9,85%, apresentando correlações negativas de média e alta intensidade (-0,25 e -0,46, respectivamente com a motilidade espermática progressiva retilínea pós-descongelamento e após 3 horas de incubação. Não houve correlação dos testes complementares e da motilidade pós-descongelamento com a taxa de gestação. Nenhum parâmetro considerado isoladamente serviu para avaliar a capacidade fertilizante do sêmen congelado/descongelado.The objective of this study was to evaluate the relationship between complementary (hiposmotic, thermo-resistance and acrosome reaction tests and conventional evaluations (physical and morphologic aspects of bovine frozen/thawed semen and conception rates. Average values for spermatic motility evaluated by thermo-resistance test were of 53.48% (post-thawed, 43.69% (60 minutes, 35.88% (120 minutes and 33.04% (180 minutes. The percentage of reactive cells observed for the hiposmotic test was 37.89%. Average intensity was observed for post-thawing spermatic motility, positively correlated to hiposmotic test (0.21. However, correlation between motility in the 180 minutes and hiposmotic test was high (0.64. The percentage of cells presenting post-thawing acrosome reaction was 9.85%, which was negative correlated to post-thawing (-0.25 and after three hours of incubation (-0.46 spermatic motility. No correlation was observed for complementary tests and post-thawed motility and the conception rate. No one of the parameters evaluated in this study was individually able to indicate the fertilizing capacity of the frozen/thawed semen.

  14. Electrochemical Genotoxicity Assay Based on a SOS/umu Test Using Hydrodynamic Voltammetry in a Droplet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuharu Sugawara

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The SOS/umu genotoxicity assay evaluates the primary DNA damage caused by chemicals from the ?-galactosidase activity of S. typhimurium. One of the weaknesses of the common umu test system based on spectrophotometric detection is that it is unable to measure samples containing a high concentration of colored dissolved organic matters, sediment, and suspended solids. However, umu tests with electrochemical detection techniques prove to be a better strategy because it causes less interference, enables the analysis of turbid samples and allows detection even in small volumes without loss of sensitivity. Based on this understanding, we aim to develop a new umu test system with hydrodynamic chronoamperometry using a rotating disk electrode (RDE in a microliter droplet. PAPG when used as a substrate is not electroactive at the potential at which PAP is oxidized to p-quinone imine (PQI, so the current response of chronoamperometry resulting from the oxidation of PAP to PQI is directly proportional to the enzymatic activity of S. typhimurium. This was achieved by performing genotoxicity tests for 2-(2-furyl-3-(5-nitro-2-furyl-acrylamide (AF-2 and 2-aminoanthracene (2-AA as model genotoxic compounds. The results obtained in this study indicated that the signal detection in the genotoxicity assay based on hydrodynamic voltammetry was less influenced by the presence of colored components and sediment particles in the samples when compared to the usual colorimetric signal detection. The influence caused by the presence of humic acids (HAs and artificial sediment on the genotoxic property of selected model compounds such as 4-nitroquinoline-N-oxide (4-NQO, 3-chloro-4-(dichloromethyl-5-hydroxy-2(5H-furanone (MX, 1,8-dinitropyrene (1,8-DNP and 1-nitropyrene (1-NP were also investigated. The results showed that the genotoxicity of 1-NP and MX changed in the presence of 10 mg?L–1 HAs. The genotoxicity of tested chemicals with a high hydrophobicity such as 1,8-DNP and 1-NP were decreased substantially with the presence of 1 g?L–1 sediment. This was not observed in the case of genotoxins with a low log Kow value.

  15. The Pap smear screening as an occasion for smoking cessation and physical activity counselling: baseline characteristics of women involved in the SPRINT randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chellini Elisabetta

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gender-specific smoking cessation strategies have rarely been developed. Evidence of effectiveness of physical activity (PA promotion and intervention in adjunct to smoking cessation programs is not strong. SPRINT study is a randomized controlled trial (RCT designed to evaluate a counselling intervention on smoking cessation and PA delivered to women attending the Italian National Health System Cervical Cancer Screening Program. This paper presents study design and baseline characteristics of the study population. Methods/Design Among women undergoing the Pap examination in three study centres (Florence, Turin, Mantua, participants were randomized to the smoking cessation counselling [S], the smoking cessation + PA counselling [S + PA], or the control [C] groups. The program under evaluation is a standard brief counselling on smoking cessation combined with a brief counselling on increasing PA, and was delivered in 2010. A questionnaire, administered before, after 6 months and 1 year from the intervention, was used to track behavioural changes in tobacco use and PA, and to record cessation rates in participants. Discussion Out of the 5,657 women undergoing the Pap examination, 1,100 participants (55% of smokers were randomized in 1 of the 3 study groups (363 in the S, 366 in the S + PA and 371 in the C groups. The three arms did not differ on any demographic, PA, or tobacco-use characteristics. Recruited smokers were older, less educated than non-participant women, more motivated to quit (33% vs.9% in the Preparation stage, p p p Trial registration number ISRCTN: ISRCTN52660565

  16. Algunos factores biológicos asociados con la aparición de citologías alteradas Some biological factors associated with the appearance of altered Pap smears

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René Mustelier Despaigne

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio observacional, de tipo caso-control, basado en 54 mujeres con estudios citológicos alterados (casos y 108 supuestamente sanas con citologías normales (controles, para identificar algunos factores biológicos asociados con la aparición del fenómeno durante 1994 en el área de salud "Frank País García" de Santiago de Cuba. En el análisis estadístico se determinó la razón de productos cruzados, el intervalo de confianza, el nivel de asociación y el riesgo atribuible en expuesto porcentual, para determinar aquellos factores que al incidir sobre ellos garantizaran una mayor influencia positiva en la población expuesta, estos fueron: tener antecedentes personales de afecciones benignas de cuello uterino, manipulaciones e infecciones por oncovirus, así como antecedentes patológicos familiares de cáncer cervical; razones que justifican dar a conocer estos datos a los médicos y enfermeras del área, con vistas a trazar estrategias de trabajo encaminadas a actuar tempranamente sobre la población con riesgo.A limited controlled observational trial based on 54 women with altered Pap smears (cases and 108 apparently sound women with normal Pap smears (controls was conducted aimed at identifying some biological factors associated with the appearance of this phenomenon during 1994 at the "Frank País García" health area, in Santiago de Cuba. The ratio of crossed products, the confidence interval, the level of association, and the attributable risk in percent exposé were determinated by statistical analysis to identify those factors that on inciding on them guarantee a higher positive influence on the exposed population. The following factors were found: personal history of benign affections of the cervix uteri, manipulations and infections caused by oncovirus, and pathological family history of cervix uteri cancer. It is important for physicians and nurses to know these data in order to lay down working strategies that allow the early treatment of the population at risk.

  17. Static Longitudinal and Lateral Stability and Control Data Obtained from Tests of a 1/15-Scale Model of the Goodyear XZP5K Airship, TED No. NACA DE 211

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, Michael D.

    1956-01-01

    Static longitudinal and lateral stability and control data are presented of an investigation on a l/15-scale model of the Goodyear XZP5K airship over a pitch and yaw range of +/-20 deg and 0 deg to 30 deg, respectively, for various rudder and elevator deflections. Two tail configurations of different plan forms were tested and wake and boundary-layer surveys were conducted. Testing was conducted in the Langley full-scale tunnel at a Reynolds number of approximately 16.5 x 10(exp 6) based on hull length, and corresponds to a Mach number of about 0.12.

  18. Role of visual inspection of cervix with acetic acid and high risk human papilloma virus DNA testing in screening for cervical cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Neha Gami; Gauri Gandhi; Swaraj Batra; Vijay Zutshi; Das, B.C.; Suresh Bhambhani

    2013-01-01

    Background: To evaluate the role of VIA alone and in combination with high risk Human Papilloma virus DNA testing as a screening test for cervical dysplasia and cancer. Methods: 400 symptomatic patients from the gynecology outpatient department were screened using Pap smear and VIA. HPV DNA testing was done for 62 VIA positive and 100 VIA negative women. Colposcopy was done for all women. Those found positive on any or all of the screening tests were subjected to cervical biopsy. The results ...

  19. Obtención y evaluación de películas de materiales con aplicaciones electrónicas mediante pruebas aceleradas de corrosión / Obtaining and evaluation of material films with electronic applications by means of accelerated tests of corrosion

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Diana Milena, Marín; Maryory Astrid, Gómez Botero; Rodolfo, Mira; Félix, Echeverría.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de la investigación fue evaluar el comportamiento frente a la corrosión de diferentes materiales utilizados en la electrónica. Se depositaron películas delgadas de Al, Cu, Ni y una bicapa Cu/Au sobre sustratos de mica, mediante evaporación física en fase vapor. Los recubrimientos se some [...] tieron a ensayos acelerados de corrosión en cámara climática, bajo atmósferas de NOx y SO2. Las películas se evaluaron conectadas en circuito y de forma individual. El tiempo total de exposición fue de 9 semanas. Se realizaron medidas de rugosidad y resistencia de los recubrimientos a las diferentes semanas de exposición y se estudiaron por microscopía óptica, STM, SEM y EDS. La bicapa Cu/Au presentó mayor estabilidad respecto al Cu en las pruebas aceleradas de corrosión. Mediante los análisis EDS se encontró la presencia de elementos precursores del proceso corrosivo. Abstract in english The air of this study was to evaluate the corrosion behaviour of different materials employed in electronics. Thin films of Al, Cu, Ni an bilayer of Cu/Au were deposited by PVD on mica substrates. The coatings were exposed at accelerated corrosion test in chamber, using atmospheres containing NOx an [...] d SO2. The films were tested both connected and as individual parts. The total exposure time was weeks. Roughness and electrical resistance of the coatings across the exposure time and they were studied by optical microscopy, STM, SEM and EDS. The bilayer Cu/AU shows more stability compared with Cu according to the accelerated corrosion test. EDS analysis identified the presence of the corrosive aggressive species.

  20. Coefficient of variation of normal seedlings obtained from the validation of methods for the seed germination testing of 20 species belonging to the family Fabaceae / Coeficientes de variação de plântulas normais obtidas na validação de métodos para teste de germinação de sementes de 20 espécies florestais da família Fabaceae

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Vanderley José, Pereira; Denise Garcia, Santana.

    Full Text Available A uniformização dos resultados inter laboratoriais de testes de germinação de sementes de espécies florestais exige que os métodos sejam robustos. Assim, o objetivo foi comparar e discutir, por meio do coeficiente de variação obtido para plântulas normais, as variabilidades presentes no processo de [...] validação de métodos obtidas no teste de germinação de sementes de 20 espécies da família Fabaceae. Coeficientes de variação para o experimento, por lote e por laboratório para a variável plântulas normais foram calculados. Os coeficientes de variação obtidos para plântulas normais de 20 espécies florestais nativas, são de baixos (até 9,84%) a médios (até 17,66%), contrariando o esperado pela grande variabilidade genética dessas espécies pouco melhoradas. O aumento do coeficiente de variação não está relacionado ao tratamento utilizado para superação de dormência, porém cresce à medida que a qualidade do lote decresce. Os altos coeficientes obtidos por laboratório, superestimados pelo efeito de lotes, são uniformes indicando que os métodos são reproduzíveis. O coeficiente de variação não é um indício capaz de predizer a heterogeneidade das variâncias do modelo. Como a distribuição normal modela eventos aleatórios, a aleatoriedade está presente no processo de validação de métodos das 20 espécies florestais da família Fabaceae. Abstract in english The standardization of inter-laboratory results of germination test of forest species seeds requires that the methods be robust. Therefore, the objective was to compare and discuss, through the coefficient of variation for normal seedlings, the variabilities present in the process of validation meth [...] ods obtained in the germination test for seeds of 20 species of the family Fabaceae. Coefficients of variation for the experiment by lot and by laboratory were calculated for normal seedlings from the statistical analysis of method validations. For normal seedlings of 20 Brazilian forest species, the coefficients of variation are low (up to 9.84%), to average (up to 17.66%), contrary to expectations due to high genetic variability in these barely improved species. The increase of the coefficient is not related to treatment for breaking dormancy, but it grows as the lot quality decreases. The high coefficients by laboratory, overestimated by the lot effect, are uniform indicating that the methods are repeatable. The coefficient is not an indicator capable of predicting the heterogeneity of model variance. As normal distribution models random events, randomness is present in the validation process of the 20 forest species of the Fabaceae family.

  1. Role of visual inspection of cervix with acetic acid and high risk human papilloma virus DNA testing in screening for cervical cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neha Gami

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: To evaluate the role of VIA alone and in combination with high risk Human Papilloma virus DNA testing as a screening test for cervical dysplasia and cancer. Methods: 400 symptomatic patients from the gynecology outpatient department were screened using Pap smear and VIA. HPV DNA testing was done for 62 VIA positive and 100 VIA negative women. Colposcopy was done for all women. Those found positive on any or all of the screening tests were subjected to cervical biopsy. The results were analysed for PAP, VIA, HPV and a combined test using VIA and HPV both. Results: VIA had the highest sensitivity (91% to detect any grade of dysplasia. The sensitivity of the combination test (VIA + HPV was 80.6% which was lower than that of VIA (91% and also lower than that of HR HPV DNA detection (86%. The specificity of the combination test (VIA + HPV was 68.3 % which was significantly higher than that of VIA alone (39% (p = 0.000 and also higher than that for HPV DNA detection when used alone (56%. Pap smear had the highest specificity (95.12 % but sensitivity was much lower at 52.7 %. Conclusions: VIA is a highly sensitive screening test. The main disadvantage is its low specificity. However the combination test of VIA + HR HPV testing overcomes this and at the same time maintains a high sensitivity. Thus a test which combines VIA plus HR HPV testing is better screening method than either of the three tests (VIA, HPV, PAP done alone. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2013; 2(2.000: 152-156

  2. Quantitative comparison of the results obtained by the multiple-dose guinea pig maximization test and the non-radioactive murine local lymph-node assay for various biocides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We compared the results of the multiple-dose guinea pig maximization test (GPMT) and the non-radioactive murine local lymph-node assay (LLNA) for various biocides. Thirteen out of 17 positive biocides in the GPMT gave positive results in the LLNA. In the GPMT, the minimum first induction doses ranged over four orders (0.00005-0.5%), while elicitation-threshold doses, which were evaluated using an optimally sensitized group of animals in the multiple-dose studies, ranged over five orders (0.00006-2.8%). In the LLNA, minimum induction doses ranged over more than three orders (0.01-30%). With respect to 13 biocides that were positive in both the GPMT and the LLNA, results were quantitatively compared. When compared after conversion to corresponding area doses (?g/cm), the minimum doses required to elicit skin reaction in guinea pigs were always lower than that for induction in mice with all biocides. Correlation between minimum induction doses from the GPMT and the LLNA seemed poor (r = 0.57), while that between minimum induction doses in the LLNA and elicitation-threshold doses in the GPMT was relatively good (r = 0.73). The results suggest the possibility to estimate human elicitation-threshold doses, which are definitely lacking in the process of risk assessment for skin-sensitizers, from the data of the LLNA

  3. Improved Moscovian part of the Gondwana APWP for paleocontinental reconstructions, obtained from a first paleomagnetic pole, age-constrained by a fold test, from In Ezzane area in the Murzuq basin (Algeria, stable Africa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amenna, M.; Derder, M. E. M.; Henry, B.; Bayou, B.; Maouche, S.; Bouabdallah, H.; Ouabadi, A.; Ayache, M.; Beddiaf, M.

    2014-11-01

    To improve paleocontinental reconstructions, paleomagnetic reference curves (Apparent Polar Wander Path: APWP) feature for large continents have to be continuously refined by adding up new high-quality data. For stable Africa, the Moscovian period was favorable for such aim, with well-dated and widespread geological formations. A new study has been conducted in the Upper “Dembaba” geological formation of Lower Moscovian age outcropping in the western part of the “Murzuq” basin (Saharan platform). Well-defined ChRMs, combined with remagnetization circles data, both constrained in age by a positive fold test, yield a new significant paleomagnetic pole (? = 25.2°S, ? = 59.9°E, K = 55, A95 = 5.4°). When joined with previous African data of the same age, it gives an improved reference pole for Africa (? = 28.9°S, ? = 54.5°E, K = 106, A95 = 3.6°). The Mean Moscovian paleomagnetic pole determined from an updated Gondwana Paleozoic APWP (? = 29.4°S, ? = 51.5°E, K = 11, A95 = 1.8°), associated with the corresponding Laurussia pole (Domeier et al., 2012), yields a more constrained paleocontinental reconstruction for 310 Ma.

  4. Performance of Various Testing Methodologies for Detection of Heteroresistant Vancomycin-Intermediate Staphylococcus aureus in Bloodstream Isolates?

    OpenAIRE

    van Hal, Sebastian J; Wehrhahn, Michael C.; Barbagiannakos, Thelma; Mercer, Joanne; Chen, Dehua; PATERSON, DAVID L.; Gosbell, Iain B.

    2011-01-01

    The best screening method for detecting heteroresistant vancomycin-intermediate Staphylococcus aureus (hVISA) remains unclear. Using population analysis profiling utilizing the area under the concentration-time curve (PAP-AUC) as the gold standard, we screened 458 consecutive methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) bloodstream isolates to determine the most accurate and cost-effective testing strategy to detect the presence of heteroresistance. All isolates were also tested using the macrometh...

  5. Cada cuánto me tengo que hacer la prueba de Papanicoláu (How Often to Get a Pap Test)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-01-10

    El cáncer de cuello uterino ha disminuido en los Estados Unidos, pero cada año se le diagnostica a más de 12,000 mujeres y 4,000 mueren. Este podcast habla sobre la importancia de las pruebas de Papanicoláu.  Created: 1/10/2013 by MMWR.   Date Released: 11/4/2013.

  6. Patterns of epithelial cell abnormalities in Pap smears and its clinicopathological and demographic association: a descriptive study from Visakhapatnam city, Andhra Pradesh, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bhagya Lakshmi

    2014-02-01

    Results: Among the 194 women, in 8 subjects, the smears collected were unsatisfactory for evaluation. Analysis was done in the remaining 186 subjects. Among the latter, in 83.9%, the smears were negative for intraepithelial lesions (NIEL and 16.1% revealed epithelial cell abnormalities (ECA. Among those with ECA, Atypical cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS was identified in 66.67%, Low grade squamous intraepithelial lesions(LSIL in 16.67%, Atypical squamous cells-cannot exclude HSIL (ASC-H and Atypical glandular cells-not otherwise specified (AGC-NOS in 6.67% each and High grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL in 3.33%. Epithelial cell abnormalities were more common in women in the age group of 30-60 years (80%, they were more common in those with age at marriage between 13-18 years (63.3% and in those with age at first child birth between 15-19 years (56.7%. Conclusions: Therefore there is a need for Pap screening at regular intervals through camp based approach in these populations to motivate the women, increase their awareness, ensure follow up and referral and timely intervention in appropriate cases. [Int J Res Med Sci 2014; 2(1.000: 300-305

  7. Anticorpos anti-HBs obtidos em coelhos e sua utilização como reagentes para testes sorológicos no diagnóstico da hepatite B Anti-HBs antibodies obtained in rabbits and its use as reagents for serological tests in the diagnosis of hepatitis B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. F. T. Yoshida

    1984-09-01

    Full Text Available Pela técnica de cromatografia de afinidade, utilizando-se a resina de Sepharose 4B ligada ao anti-HBs, obteve-se na passagem de plasma de portador assintomático de antígeno HBs, um antígeno parcialmente purificado. Este antígeno foi utilizado para a inoculação em coelhos, num esquema de cinco doses, sendo a primeira dose de 1mg e as quatro subseqüentes de 0,5 mg, com intervalos aproximadamente de quinze dias. Observando-se que os títulos não mais variaram após a quinta inoculação, os animais foram sangrados no 62° dia e os anticorpos anti-HBs obtidos foram padronizados através dos seguintes métodos para detecção de antígeno HBs: a Hemaglutinação passiva reversa (HAPR – utilizando-se a gamaglobulina específica obtida de soro imune dos coelhos através de cromatografia de afinidade, alcançando uma concentração ótima de apenas 10µg/ml para a sensibilização de hemácias de carneiro a 5%, fixadas com glutaraldeído. B Contraimunoeletroforese (CIEF – utilizando-se o soro imune diluído até 1/20 como reagente para a detecção do antígeno HBs. O soro imune anti-HBs foi também utilizado para a conjugação com uma nova resina de Sepharose 4b tendo uma captação aproximada de 0,5 a 1,0mg antígeno HBs por ml de resina após completa saturação.By the method of affinity chromatography a partially purified antigen was obtained after passing the plasma of an asymptomatic carrier of HBs Ag through a column of Sepharose 4 B linked to angi-HBs. This antigen was inoculated in rabbits using a schedule of 1.0 mg in the first dose and 4 other doses of 0,5 mg with intervals of approximately 15 days. Observing that blood samples colletcted after the 5th inoculation showed no change in antibody levels, the animals were bled on the 62 th day and these immune ser were standardized with the following tests for the detection of HBsAg: a reverse passive hemagglutination (R-PHA – using specific gamma globulin that was obtained from rabbit sera by affinity chromatography and reaching an optimal concentration of 10µg/ml to sensitise SRBC at 5% fixed in glutaraldehyde. b Counter immuno electrophoresis (CIEP – using the rabbit immune sera diluted to 1/20 as a reagent for the detection of HBsAg. The immune sera was also used to conjugate new Sepharose 4B for affinity chromatography and was found having a linking capacity of approximately 0,5 to 1,0mg of HbsAg per ml of Sepharose after complete saturation.

  8. Experimental results obtained at GANIL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review of experimental results obtained at GANIL on the study of nuclear structure and nuclear reactions with secondary radioactive beams is presented. Mass measurements by means of the GANIL cyclotrons are described. The possibilities of GANIL/LISE3 for the production and separation of radioactive beams are illustrated through a large variety of experiments. (author). 19 refs., 8 figs

  9. Obtainment and characterization of cordierite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Synthetic cordierite was obtained from smectites clays from Boa Vista-PB and concentrated salt solutions. The X-ray results show the formation of the cordierite phase from 1200 sup(0)C and after calcination at 1300 sup(0)C for 1 hour cordierite phase and traces of hematite were observed. (author)

  10. Methods of obtaining thermodynamic data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The types of thermodynamic data needed to predict behavior of high temperature systems such as an overheated nuclear reactor in which the fuel has been exposed to water and oxygen are discussed. Procedures for obtaining the needed data are reviewed. 14 refs

  11. Obtaining lignin nanoparticles by sonication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilca, Iulian Andrei; Popa, Valentin I; Crestini, Claudia

    2015-03-01

    Lignin, the main natural aromatic polymer was always aroused researchers interest. Currently around 90% of this biomaterial is burned for energy. It has a very complex and complicated structure which depends on the separation method and plant species, what determine difficulties to use as a raw material widely. This research presents a physical method to modify lignin by ultrasonic irradiation in order to obtain nanoparticles. The nanoparticles synthesized were dimensionally and morphologically characterized. At the same time the preoccupations were to determine the structural and compositional changes that occurred after sonication. To achieve this, two types of commercial lignins (wheat straw and Sarkanda grass) were used and the modifications were analyzed by FTIR-spectroscopy, GPC-chromatography, (31)P-NMR-spectroscopy and HSQC0. The results confirm that the compositional and structural changes of nanoparticles obtained are not significantly modified at the intensity applied but depend on the nature of lignin. PMID:25218770

  12. Employment Obtaining and Business Starting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Lan

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The implementation of business starting education in higher vocational colleges is of important and realistic meanings for cultivating advanced technology application-type talents and for releasing the employment obtaining pressure of higher vocational students. Based on the analysis on the employment situation of higher vocational graduates, this paper explores the thoughts and methods for higher vocational colleges to implement business starting education.

  13. Biogeochemical variations at the Porcupine Abyssal Plain Sustained Observatory (PAP-SO) in the northeast Atlantic Ocean, from weekly to inter-annual time scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, S. E.; Jiang, Z.-P.; Turk, D.; Lampitt, R. S.; Frigstad, H.; Ostle, C.

    2014-08-01

    We present high-resolution autonomous measurements of carbon dioxide partial pressure p(CO2) taken in situ at the Porcupine Abyssal Plain sustained observatory (PAP-SO) in the Northeast Atlantic (49° N, 16.5° W; water depth of 4850 m) for the period 2010 to 2012. Measurements of p(CO2) made at 30 m depth on a sensor frame are compared with other autonomous biogeochemical measurements at that depth (including chlorophyll a-fluorescence and nitrate concentration data) to analyse weekly to seasonal controls on p(CO2) flux in the inter-gyre region of the North Atlantic. Comparisons are also made with in situ regional time-series data from a ship of opportunity and mixed layer depth (MLD) measurements from profiling Argo floats. There is a persistent under saturation of CO2 in surface waters throughout the year which gives rise to a perennial CO2 sink. Comparison with an earlier dataset collected at the site (2003 to 2005) confirms seasonal and inter-annual changes in surface seawater chemistry. There is year-to-year variability in the timing of stratification and deep winter mixing. The 2010 to 2012 period shows an overall increase in p(CO2) values when compared to the 2003-2005 period. This is despite similar surface temperature, wind speed and MLD measurements between the two periods of time. Future work should incorporate daily CO2 flux measurements made using CO2 sensors at 1 m depth and the in situ wind speed data now available from the UK Met Office Buoy.

  14. Obtaining the acyclovir labelled compound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elemental tritium is obtained during the decontamination process of the moderator from Cernavoda Nuclear Power Plant. It may be stocked for use in controlled fusion, in a relatively far future, or, it can be immediately used as raw material in the synthesis of labelled compounds with important economic values. Acyclovir, C8H11N5O3 is a biologically active compound, with antiviral properties. The use of the radioisotopic labelled compound, accompanied by radiometric measurements in biological samples is recommended in pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic studies for promoting pharmaceutical products. The labelled Acyclovir was obtained by isotopic exchange reaction in heterogenous catalysis, using Acyclovir as substrate and T2 as labelling agent. Pd/C and Pd/BaSO4 were used as catalyst and the mixtures dioxane-water-acetic acid or dimethylformamide-phosphate buffer as solvents. Reaction time was 20-25 hours. The labelled compound was conditioned as aqueous solution. Characterization of labelled compound was accomplished by determination of chemical and radioactive concentrations and purities. (authors)

  15. An EPR experiment testing the non-separability of the $K^{0} \\overline{K^{0}}$ wave function

    CERN Document Server

    Apostolakis, Alcibiades J; Backenstoss, Gerhard; Bargassa, P; Behnke, O; Benelli, A; Bertin, V; Blanc, F; Bloch, P; Carlson, P J; Carroll, M; Cawley, E; Chardin, G; Chertok, M B; Cody, A; Dejardin, M; Derré, J; Ealet, A; Eleftheriadis, C; Ferreira-Marques, R; Fetscher, W; Fidecaro, Maria; Filipcic, A; Francis, D; Fry, J; Gabathuler, Erwin; Gamet, R; Gerber, H J; Go, A; Guyot, C; Haselden, A; Hayman, P J; Henry-Coüannier, F; Hollander, R W; Hubert, E; Jon-And, K; Kettle, P R; Kochowski, Claude; Kokkas, P; Kreuger, R; Le Gac, R; Leimgruber, F; Mandic, I; Manthos, N; Marel, Gérard; Mikuz, M; Miller, J; Montanet, François; Müller, A; Nakada, Tatsuya; Pagels, B; Papadopoulos, I M; Pavlopoulos, P; Policarpo, Armando; Polivka, G; Rickenbach, R; Roberts, B L; Ruf, T; Schäfer, M; Schaller, L A; Schietinger, T; Schopper, A; Schune, P; Tauscher, Ludwig; Thibault, C; Touchard, F; Touramanis, C; van Eijk, C W E; Vlachos, S; Weber, P; Wigger, I; Wolter, M; Yéche, C; Zavrtanik, D

    1998-01-01

    The EPR-type strangeness correlation in the \\PKz \\PaKz ~system produced in the reaction $\\Pap \\Pp \\rightarrow \\PKz \\PaKz$ at rest has been tested using the CPLEAR detector. The strangeness was tagged via strong interaction with absorbers away from the creation point. The results are consistent with the QM non-separability of the wave function and exclude a spontaneous wave-function factorisation at creation (CL $> 99.99\\%$).

  16. Drugs obtained by biotechnology processing

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Hugo, Almeida; Maria Helena, Amaral; Paulo, Lobão.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Nos últimos anos, tem aumentado exponencialmente o número de fármacos de origem biotecnológica ao dispor das mais diversas patologias, entre elas destacam-se, os diferentes tipos de cancêr, as doenças infecciosas (ex. vírus AIDS/HIV), as doenças autoimunes, as doenças cardiovasculares, a Diabetes Me [...] llitus, as doenças neurológicas, as doenças respiratórias, entre outras. A indústria farmacêutica tem recorrido a diferentes tecnologias para a obtenção de novos e promissores princípios ativos, como são exemplo a fermentação, a técnica de DNA Recombinante, a técnica de hidridoma, entre outras. A queda das patentes dos primeiros fármacos de origem biotecnológica e o consequente aparecimento dos produtos biossimilares têm colocado diferentes questões às autoridades de saúde mundiais, sobre a definição, enquadramento e exigências para a autorização de entrada no mercado deste tipo de produtos. Abstract in english In recent years, the number of drugs of biotechnological origin available for many different diseases has increased exponentially, including different types of cancer, diabetes mellitus, infectious diseases (e.g. AIDS Virus / HIV) as well as cardiovascular, neurological, respiratory, and autoimmune [...] diseases, among others. The pharmaceutical industry has used different technologies to obtain new and promising active ingredients, as exemplified by the fermentation technique, recombinant DNA technique and the hybridoma technique. The expiry of the patents of the first drugs of biotechnological origin and the consequent emergence of biosimilar products, have posed various questions to health authorities worldwide regarding the definition, framework, and requirements for authorization to market such products.

  17. Drugs obtained by biotechnology processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Almeida

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the number of drugs of biotechnological origin available for many different diseases has increased exponentially, including different types of cancer, diabetes mellitus, infectious diseases (e.g. AIDS Virus / HIV as well as cardiovascular, neurological, respiratory, and autoimmune diseases, among others. The pharmaceutical industry has used different technologies to obtain new and promising active ingredients, as exemplified by the fermentation technique, recombinant DNA technique and the hybridoma technique. The expiry of the patents of the first drugs of biotechnological origin and the consequent emergence of biosimilar products, have posed various questions to health authorities worldwide regarding the definition, framework, and requirements for authorization to market such products.Nos últimos anos, tem aumentado exponencialmente o número de fármacos de origem biotecnológica ao dispor das mais diversas patologias, entre elas destacam-se, os diferentes tipos de cancêr, as doenças infecciosas (ex. vírus AIDS/HIV, as doenças autoimunes, as doenças cardiovasculares, a Diabetes Mellitus, as doenças neurológicas, as doenças respiratórias, entre outras. A indústria farmacêutica tem recorrido a diferentes tecnologias para a obtenção de novos e promissores princípios ativos, como são exemplo a fermentação, a técnica de DNA Recombinante, a técnica de hidridoma, entre outras. A queda das patentes dos primeiros fármacos de origem biotecnológica e o consequente aparecimento dos produtos biossimilares têm colocado diferentes questões às autoridades de saúde mundiais, sobre a definição, enquadramento e exigências para a autorização de entrada no mercado deste tipo de produtos.

  18. ASSESSMENT OF VISUAL INSPECTION WITH ACETIC ACID (VIA) AS A SCREENING TEST FOR CERVICAL NEOPLASIA IN COMPARISON WITH CYTOLOGIC SCREENING

    OpenAIRE

    F. Ghaemmaghami; M. Modarres Gilani; M. Marjani; A. Mousavi; N. Behtash R. Moghimi

    2003-01-01

    This study has been designed to compare visual inspection of cervix with acetic acid (VIA test) with cytology as an accepted method for screening of cervical carcinoma and its precursors. 1200 eligible women were examined by both Pap-smear and VIA tests in Imam Khomeini Hospital, a referral general hospital in Tehran, Iran. Those who had abnormal results in one or both of the screening tests (n = 308) and those who had clinically suspicious lesions even if the tests were negative in addition ...

  19. Determinantes sociales del abandono del diagnóstico y el tratamiento de mujeres con Papanicolaou anormal en Buenos Aires, Argentina / Social determinants of dropout from diagnosis and treatment by women with abnormal Pap smears in Buenos Aires, Argentina

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Melisa, Paolino; Rengaswamy, Sankaranarayanan; Silvina, Arrossi.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO:Determinar la magnitud y los motivos del abandono del proceso de diagnóstico y tratamiento de las mujeres con citología anormal, así como la relación entre las características socioeconómicas de las mujeres y dicho abandono. MÉTODOS: Estudio transversal-retrospectivo. Se realizó un análisis [...] de fuentes secundarias y entrevistas domiciliarias a mujeres con Papanicolaou (Pap) anormal atendidas en el sistema público municipal entre 2009 y 2011. RESULTADOS: El abandono confirmado en la población de estudio fue de 18,3%. Las mujeres con mayor probabilidad de abandono fueron las que vivían en hogares con presencia de niños menores de 5 años de edad (razón de probabilidades [RP]: 2,4; intervalo de confianza de 95% [IC95%]: 1,2-4,8) y las que vivían en hogares con hacinamiento (RP: 2,9; IC95%: 1,2-7,3). Las mujeres que realizaron el Pap inicial en un centro de atención primaria poseían 4,6 veces más probabilidad de abandono que las atendidas en el hospital (IC95%: 1,7-12,3). Los principales motivos de abandono reportados fueron problemas con la organización de los servicios de salud y la carga de trabajo doméstico. CONCLUSIONES: Las condiciones de vida de las mujeres, y la organización y calidad de los servicios de salud, inciden en el abandono del proceso de diagnóstico y tratamiento de las lesiones precancerosas. Es fundamental desarrollar estrategias que actúen sobre los determinantes sociales del abandono como un modo de asegurar la efectividad de los programas de tamizaje del cáncer cervicouterino. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: Determine the extent and reasons why women with abnormal Pap smears drop out from diagnosis and treatment, and the relationship between women's socioeconomic characteristics and dropping out. METHODS: Cross-sectional retrospective study. Analysis of secondary sources and household intervi [...] ews with women with abnormal Pap smears seen in the public municipal system from 2009 to 2011. RESULTS: Confirmed dropout in the study population was 18.3%. Women with the greatest probability of dropping out lived in homes where there were children under five (probability ratio [PR]: 2.4; 95% confidence interval [95%CI]: 1.2-4.8) and where there was overcrowding (PR: 2.9; 95%CI: 1.2-7.3). Women whose initial Pap smear was done in a primary care center had a 4.6 times greater probability of dropping out than those seen in a hospital (95%CI: 1.7-12.3). The main reasons reported for dropping out were problems with health services organization and domestic workload. CONCLUSIONS: Women's living conditions and the organization and quality of health services affect dropout from diagnosis and treatment of precancerous lesions. Strategies need to be developed that address social determinants of dropping out as a way to ensure effectiveness of cervical cancer screening programs.

  20. Rationalisation of iron ore mixtures for obtaining optimum quality sinters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Various iron ores, fluxes and coke, were used to prepare four ore mixtures with different proportions of these minerals. With each mixtures a series of sinters were produced in the pilot plant. Each one of the sinters was characterised by: chemical and granulometric analysis; degradation test on the sinter during reduction in the blast furnace, (RDI test); cold resistance test, (Tumbler Test); reducibility test; determining of softening and melting temperatures; and the determination of the structure of the sinter by electron microscopy. T he conditions of the mixtures and the operational parameters for obtaining the optimum quality of the sinters were established. (Author) 52 refs

  1. Electrolytic Hydrogen obtaining by a photovoltaic source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At present, the developed countries allocate large funds for the financing of some global programs for fundamental and applicative research for development of hydrogen non-conventional production technologies. One of these technologies is the photo-assisted electrolysis. This technology is adopted in the research, which results are presented in this paper. The experimental model includes as basic equipment 100 W photovoltaic source, electrolysis battery press filter type, control unit of the electric energy discharged, accumulator, hydrogen storage unit. Five types of material have been tested for the electrolysis cell diaphragm: asbestos; Netrom- unwoven material from fibers of polypropylene; ion changing composite membrane - polysulfone support with an active layer of sulfonated poly-sulfone (PSS/PSJ) and poly-sulfone support with an active layer of sulfonated poly-eter cetone (SPEEK/PSf); ion-exchange membrane made from sulfonated poly-eter cetone (SPEEK). The graphics and results from the test system are presented. The analysis of the experimental results lead to the establishment of the optimal configuration of battery and of the operational conditions of the assembly. The experimental results give the opportunity to obtain electrolytic hydrogen with a photovoltaic source, in an efficient system, and promote the Romanian research at a level of a demonstrative installation

  2. Hydrological processes obtained on the plot scale under four simulated rainfall tests during the cycle of different crop systems / Processos hidrológicos obtidos em escala de parcela sob quatro testes de chuva simulada, durante o ciclo de diferentes sistemas de cultivo do solo

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ildegardis, Bertol; Roger Robert, Ramos; Fabrício Tondello, Barbosa; Julio César, Ramos; Douglas Henrique, Bandeira; Mitsui Shinosaka, Tanaka.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available O sistema de cultivo influencia a interceptação de água pelas plantas, a armazenagem de água nas depressões do terreno, a infiltração de água no solo e o escoamento superficial. Este trabalho objetivou quantificar alguns processos hidrológicos em sistemas de cultivo do solo realizados em contorno no [...] declive, em 2009 e 2010, em um Cambissolo Húmico alumínico, cuja área foi mantida sem preparo prévio do solo, nos seguintes tratamentos: solteiros - milho, soja e feijão; e consorciados - milho e feijão. Os tratamentos foram submetidos a quatro testes de chuva simulada, em épocas distintas, com intensidade planejada de 64 mm h-1 e duração de 90 min. O primeiro teste foi aplicado 18 dias após a semeadura e, os demais, aos 39, 75 e 120 dias, após o primeiro. Os diferentes momentos de aplicação das chuvas e os diferentes estádios do ciclo das culturas influenciaram o teor de água no solo antecedente às chuvas, o tempo de início e o de pico da enxurrada e, com isso, os processos hidrológicos de superfície. A lâmina de enxurrada e a de água interceptada pela vegetação + infiltrada no solo + armazenada superficialmente no solo sofreram a influência dos sistemas de cultivo e das chuvas aplicadas nas diferentes épocas. O cultivo de milho foi o tratamento mais eficaz no controle do escoamento superficial, com uma razão de perda de água de 0,38, equivalente a 75 % da razão de perda de água apresentada pelo feijão (0,51), que foi o tratamento menos eficaz em relação aos demais sistemas de cultivo. A perda total de água na forma de enxurrada decresceu linearmente com o aumento do tempo de início da enxurrada, independentemente do tratamento, enquanto o teor de água no solo em base gravimétrica aumentou linearmente do início ao final da chuva. Abstract in english The cropping system influences the interception of water by plants, water storage in depressions on the soil surface, water infiltration into the soil and runoff. The aim of this study was to quantify some hydrological processes under no tillage cropping systems at the edge of a slope, in 2009 and 2 [...] 010, in a Humic Dystrudept soil, with the following treatments: corn, soybeans, and common beans alone; and intercropped corn and common bean. Treatments consisted of four simulated rainfall tests at different times, with a planned intensity of 64 mm h-1 and 90 min duration. The first test was applied 18 days after sowing, and the others at 39, 75 and 120 days after the first test. Different times of the simulated rainfall and stages of the crop cycle affected soil water content prior to the rain, and the time runoff began and its peak flow and, thus, the surface hydrological processes. The depth of the runoff and the depth of the water intercepted by the crop + soil infiltration + soil surface storage were affected by the crop systems and the rainfall applied at different times. The corn crop was the most effective treatment for controlling runoff, with a water loss ratio of 0.38, equivalent to 75 % of the water loss ratio exhibited by common bean (0.51), the least effective treatment in relation to the others. Total water loss by runoff decreased linearly with an increase in the time that runoff began, regardless of the treatment; however, soil water content on the gravimetric basis increased linearly from the beginning to the end of the rainfall.

  3. Relação entre a resistência à compressão da argamassa com adição de sílica ativa aplicada ao substrato e àquela obtida em corpos-de-prova cilíndricos normatizados / Relationship between the compressive strength of silica fume mortar applied to the substratum and the one obtained in standardized cylindrical test specimens

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    N. R., Vaske; J. L., Campagnolo; D. C. C., Dal Molin.

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available No uso de argamassa com adição de sílica ativa como material de reforço adotam-se valores de resistência à compressão provenientes de ensaios normatizados, que tendem a não representar a resistência à compressão da argamassa após lançada ao substrato. Na execução de um reforço, cada porção de argama [...] ssa que é lançada sofre um adensamento que varia em função da energia com que colide com o substrato, gerando, desta forma, pontos de diferentes resistências à compressão por toda a extensão do reforço, refletindo diretamente sobre a resistência do reforço como um todo, que por sua vez define a nova capacidade de carga do elemento estrutural que esta sendo reforçado. Procurando verificar o comportamento real da argamassa de reforço, executou-se uma placa de argamassa com adição de sílica ativa com dimensões iguais a um reforço de uma das faces de um pilar, sendo extraídas amostras prismáticas desta placa e ensaiadas à compressão. Deste ensaio foi de- terminada uma resistência à compressão média que, comparada com a resistência à compressão média obtida de corpos-de-prova cilíndricos, moldados com a mesma argamassa com que foi executada a placa, demonstrou que a resistência à compressão média das amostras prismáticas extraídas da placa apresenta, particularmente neste estudo, uma redução em relação à resistência à compressão média resultante dos corpos- de-prova cilíndricos da ordem de 35%. Abstract in english Compressive strength values obtained from standardized tests are adopted in the use of silica fume mortar as a reinforcement material, how- ever, they usually do not represent the compressive strength of mortar applied to the substratum. In a reinforcement procedure, each portion of mortar applied t [...] o the substratum undergoes densification according to the energy with which it collides with the substratum, resulting in different compressive strength values along the reinforcement; this affects the overall strength of the reinforcement as a whole, which, in turn, defines the new loading capacity of the reinforced structural element. In order to verify the actual behavior of a reinforcement mortar, a silica fume mortar plate dimensionally similar to a reinforced column face was executed, and prismatic samples extracted from the mortar plate were submitted to compression tests. The average compressive strength obtained was compared with the average compressive strength observed in cylindrical test specimens, molded from the same material used in the mortar plate. The prismatic samples' average compressive strength presented a reduction of 35% in this particular case.

  4. STANDARDIZATION OF PROTHROMBIN TIME TEST AND EVALUATION OF QUALITY OF PATIENT MANAGEMENT WITH WARFARIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.H ZARGARZADEH

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. The most common mode of monitoring anticoagulation therapy is the use of prothrombin time (PT. There exist several methods for reporting results of PT. These include prothrombin time in seconds, prothrombin activity percent, prothrombin time ratio, prothrombin index and international normalized ratio (INR. Different sensitivities of thromboplastins along with various methods of performing the PT test and also different ways of reporting the results of tests have led into discrepancies in lab values among different laboratories which in turn has made appropriate pharmacotherapy with anticoagulation drugs quite difficult. In this study, we have compared different methods of reporting PT results and in vestigated the quality of patient management with warfarin. Methods. In this study twenty three blood samples of normal individuals and thirty nine patients under warfarin therapy were collected and PT (INR was measured. Also, PT kits by Biomerieux/France and the PT kit prepared by our team were compared during these measurements. The method of measuring PT was Manual tilt tube technique. Comparison of different modes of reporting PT was done by linear regression analysis. Results. Comparison of the obtained regression lines on PT, PAP, PTR and INR by using the two kits show that INR is independent of the sensitivity of thromboplastin. By considering the recommended therapeutic range of INR, we found that only thirty one percent with Boimerieux kit and twenty eight percent with the prepared PT kit were in the therapeutic range. Eleven percent of patients were sub therapeutic shown by the two kits and fifty eight percent and sixty one percent were above therapeutic range using the Biomerieux kit and the prepared kit, respectively. Discussion. Standardization of PT can be done most accurately through reporting PT by INR. The noticeable percentage of patients out of therapeutic range confirmed by both kits shows the inappropriate management of patients receiving warfarin.

  5. "Tem mulher, tem preventivo": sentidos das práticas preventivas do câncer do colo do útero entre mulheres de Salvador, Bahia, Brasil / "Where there's a woman, there's a Pap smear": the meanings assigned to cervical cancer prevention among women in Salvador, Bahia State, Brazil / "Hay mujer, hay Papanicolaou": sentidos de las prácticas preventivas del cáncer de cuello de útero entre mujeres de Salvador, Bahía, Brasil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ana María, Rico; Jorge Alberto Bernstein, Iriart.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi compreender os significados das práticas preventivas do câncer do colo do útero entre mulheres de bairros populares de Salvador, Bahia, Brasil. Trata-se de estudo qualitativo, baseado na análise de conteúdo de entrevistas semiestruturadas com 15 mulheres entre 24 e 68 a [...] nos. Os resultados evidenciam alta valorização do Papanicolaou, que é realizado como parte de exames de rotina, sem, no entanto, sustentar-se no conhecimento biomédico sobre as suas funções. Além da acessibilidade aos serviços de saúde e da qualidade destes, outros fatores interferem na forma como essas mulheres significam a prevenção do câncer do colo do útero. Valores morais associados à sexualidade e ao gênero interferem na percepção de risco, na adoção de práticas preventivas e na interpretação dos resultados da citologia cervical. A realização continuada do Papanicolaou faz parte da construção da feminilidade, que é associada com maturidade e responsabilidade pessoal pelo cuidado de si em um contexto de medicalização do corpo feminino. Abstract in spanish El objetivo de este trabajo fue comprender los significados de las prácticas preventivas del cáncer de cuello de útero entre mujeres de barrios populares de Salvador, Bahía, Brasil. Se trata de un estudio cualitativo, basado en el análisis de contenido de entrevistas semiestructuradas con 15 mujeres [...] entre 24 y 68 años. Los resultados evidencian una alta valorización del Papanicolaou, que es realizado como parte de exámenes de rutina sin estar basado, no obstante, en el conocimiento biomédico sobre sus funciones. Más allá de la accesibilidad y de la calidad de los servicios de salud, otros factores influyen en la forma en que estas mujeres consideran la prevención del cáncer de cuello de útero. Los valores morales asociados a la sexualidad y al género influyen en la percepción de riesgo, en la adopción de prácticas preventivas y en la interpretación de los resultados de la citología cervical. La realización continuada del Papanicolaou forma parte de la construcción de la feminidad, que está asociada con la madurez y la responsabilidad personal por el cuidado de uno mismo en un contexto de medicalización del cuerpo femenino. Abstract in english This study focuses on the meanings assigned to practices for cervical cancer prevention among women from low-income neighborhoods in Salvador, Bahia State, Brazil. This was a qualitative study based on content analysis of semi-structured interviews with 15 women 24 to 68 years of age. The results sh [...] owed high appreciation of the Pap smear test, performed as part of routine gynecological examination (but without the patient necessarily having biomedical knowledge of its role). Besides accessibility and quality of health services, other factors influence the way the women assign meaning to cervical cancer prevention. Moral values associated with sexuality and gender influence risk perception, adoption of preventive practices, and interpretation of cervical cytology results. The ongoing practice of the Pap smear test is part of the construction of femininity, which is associated with maturity and personal responsibility for self care in a context of medicalization of the female body.

  6. Carga viral do papilomavirus humano na predição da gravidade de lesões cervicais em mulheres com atipias celulares na colpocitologia oncológica Viral load of human papillomavirus as a predictor of the severity of cervical lesions in women with atypical cells at pap smear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Otávio Zanatta Sarian

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar o desempenho da carga viral do HPV por captura de híbridos II (CHII na predição da gravidade das lesões cervicais. MÉTODOS: foram incluídas 309 mulheres admitidas por resultado anormal da colpocitologia oncológica (CO entre agosto de 200 e novembro de 2002. Todas foram submetidas a avaliação histológica, sendo que a presença de neoplasia intra-epitelial cervical (NIC grau 2 ou mais (NIC 3, carcinoma invasor foi considerada doença grave. A CHII foi realizada para tipos de HPV de alto risco oncogênico e a carga viral medida em unidades relativas de luz (URL. O desempenho da CHII foi avaliado por curva receiver operating characteristics (ROC. RESULTADOS: na avaliação histológica, 140 (45,3% mulheres apresentavam cervicite ou NIC 1 e 199 (54,7%, NIC 2/3, adenocarcinoma in situ ou câncer invasor. O melhor ponto de corte da CHII para a detecção de doença grave foi 35 URL, com sensibilidade de 69% e especificidade de 70%. O valor preditivo positivo das alterações compatíveis com lesão de alto grau na CO associado a CHII de 35 URL (unidades relativas de luz foi de 88,2% para a detecção de NIC 2 ou mais. Já 95,7% das mulheres com lesões de baixo grau na CO e CHII menor que 1 URL não apresentaram lesões histológicas graves. CONCLUSÃO: o melhor desempenho da CHII no diagnóstico de NIC 2 ou lesão mais grave foi encontrado com 35 URL. A associação da CO com a CHII em diferentes cargas virais mostrou valores preditivos positivos e negativos muito altos.PURPOSE: to assess the performance of hybrid capture II (HCII HPV viral load in predicting the grade of cervical lesions. METHODS: between August 2000 to November 2002, 309 women admitted due to an abnormal Pap smear result were recruited. Histological disease confirmation was done in all women and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN grade 2 or above was considered as severe disease. HCII was done for high-risk HPV types and viral load was estimated in relative light units (RLU. Receiver operating characteristics analysis was used to test the performance of HCII. RESULTS: histological findings included 140 (45.3% cervicitis or CIN 1 and 199 (54.7% CIN 2/3, in situ adenocarcinoma or invasive cancer. The best cutoff for HCII in detecting severe disease was 35 RLU, showing a sensitivity of 69% and a specificity of 70%. Association of high-grade cervical lesions at Pap smear and HCII at 35 RLU showed a positive predictive value of 88.2% in diagnosis of CIN 2 or above. On the other hand, 95.7% of the women with low grade lesion at cytology and HCII below 1 RLU presented no severe histological disease. CONCLUSIONS: the best performance of HCII in diagnosing CIN 2 or above was found at 35 RLU. Association of cytology and HCII in different settings provided very high positive and negative predictive values.

  7. Bainite obtaining in cast iron with carbides castings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Pietrowski

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In these paper the possibility of upper and lower bainite obtaining in cast iron with carbides castings are presented. Conditions, when in cast iron with carbides castings during continuous free air cooling austenite transformation to upper bainite or its mixture with lower bainte proceeds, have been given. A mechanism of this transformation has been given, Si, Ni, Mn and Mo distribution in the eutectic cell has been tested and hardness of tested castings has been determined.

  8. Bainite obtaining in cast iron with carbides castings

    OpenAIRE

    S. Pietrowski; G. Gumienny

    2010-01-01

    In these paper the possibility of upper and lower bainite obtaining in cast iron with carbides castings are presented. Conditions, when in cast iron with carbides castings during continuous free air cooling austenite transformation to upper bainite or its mixture with lower bainte proceeds, have been given. A mechanism of this transformation has been given, Si, Ni, Mn and Mo distribution in the eutectic cell has been tested and hardness of tested castings has been determined.

  9. Identification of pathogens and virulence profile of Rhodococcus equi and Escherichia coli strains obtained from sand of parks

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    M.C., Fernandes; S., Takai; D.S., Leite; J.P.A.N., Pinto; P.E., Brandão; V.A., Santarém; F.J.P., Listoni; A.V. Da, Silva; M.G., Ribeiro.

    Full Text Available The identification of pathogens of viral (Rotavirus, Coronavirus), parasitic (Toxocara spp.) and bacterial (Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp., Rhodococcus equi) origin shed in feces, and the virulence profile of R. equi and E. coli isolates were investigated in 200 samples of sand obtained from 40 p [...] arks, located in central region of state of Sao Paulo, Brazil, using different diagnostic methods. From 200 samples analyzed, 23 (11.5%) strains of R. equi were isolated. None of the R. equi isolates showed a virulent (vapA gene) or intermediately virulent (vapB gene) profiles. Sixty-three (31.5%) strains of E. coli were identified. The following genes encoding virulence factors were identified in E. coli: eae, bfp, saa, iucD, papGI, sfa and hly. Phylogenetic classification showed that 63 E. coli isolates belonged to groups B1 (52.4%), A (25.4%) and B2 (22.2%). No E. coli serotype O157:H7 was identified. Eggs of Toxocara sp. were found in three parks and genetic material of bovine Coronavirus was identified in one sample of one park. No Salmonella spp. and Rotavirus isolates were identified in the samples of sand. The presence of R. equi, Toxocara sp, bovine Coronavirus and virulent E. coli isolates in the environment of parks indicates that the sanitary conditions of the sand should be improved in order to reduce the risks of fecal transmission of pathogens of zoonotic potential to humans in these places.

  10. Knowledge, practice, and barriers toward cervical cancer screening in Elmina, Southern Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebu, Nancy Innocentia; Mupepi, Sylvia C; Siakwa, Mate Peter; Sampselle, Carolyn M

    2015-01-01

    Aims The aims of this study were: 1) to assess the level of knowledge of women about Pap smear tests, 2) to determine the practices of women regarding Pap smear tests, and 3) to determine the barriers to Pap smear tests in Elmina, Ghana. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted with 392 randomly selected sexually active females aged 10–74 years using structured interview questions. The Institutional Review Board of the University of Cape Coast gave ethical approval for the study and informed consent was obtained from participants. Data were analyzed with SPSS software (v19.0) using frequencies, chi-square test, and exploratory factor analysis. Results The results revealed that 68.4% had never heard about cervical cancer, 93.6% had no knowledge on the risk factors, nine (2.3%) reported multiple sexual partners and being sexually active as risk factors, and 92% did not know about the prevention and treatment of cervical cancer. The majority (97.7%) had never heard of the Pap smear test. Only three (0.8%) women out of 392 had had a Pap smear test. Reasons for seeking a Pap smear test included referral, fear of cervical cancer, and radio campaigns. A significant association was found between institutional and personal barriers and having a Pap smear test. Conclusion Comprehensive education on cervical cancer screening and removal of access barriers are critical in reducing risk associated with the disease and promoting women’s health. PMID:25565902

  11. Treating shale oil to obtain sulfonates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaeffer, H.

    1921-01-21

    The process shows as its principal characteristics: (1) treating the oil with chlorsulfonic acid at a temperature of about 100/sup 0/C; (2) the transformation of the sulfonic acid obtained into salts; (3) as new industrial products, the sulfonates obtained and their industrial application as disinfectants for hides and wood.

  12. HPV Testing Among Providers

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-10-15

    Dr. Walter Kinney, a gynecologic oncologist with The Permanente Medical Group in Sacramento, California, talks about Pap and human papillomavirus (HPV) cotesting in women aged 30 and over.  Created: 10/15/2009 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP), Division of Cancer Prevention and Control (DCPC).   Date Released: 6/9/2010.

  13. Treatment of biomass to obtain ethanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunson, Jr., James B. (Newark, DE); Elander, Richard T. (Evergreen, CO); Tucker, III, Melvin P. (Lakewood, CO); Hennessey, Susan Marie (Avondale, PA)

    2011-08-16

    Ethanol was produced using biocatalysts that are able to ferment sugars derived from treated biomass. Sugars were obtained by pretreating biomass under conditions of high solids and low ammonia concentration, followed by saccharification.

  14. Process for obtaining cobalt and lanthanum nickelate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The invention relates to the process for obtaining polycrystalline ceramics of cobalt and lanthanum nickelate with the perovskite structure from coordinative hetero metallic compounds. The obtained products can be utilized in the industry in the capacity of catalysts. Summary of the invention consists in obtaining polycrystalline ceramics LaCoO3 and LaNiO3 with the perovskite structure by pyrolysis of the parent compounds, namely, the coordinative hetero metallic compounds of the lanthanum cobalt or lanthanum nickel. The pyrolysis of the parent compound runs during one hour at 800 C. The technical result of the invention consists in lowering the temperature of the parent compound pyrolysis containing the precise ratio of metals necessary for ceramics obtaining

  15. Obtaining superfine ethanol in a Cuban distillery

    OpenAIRE

    Yailet Albernas Carvajal; Meilyn González; Gabriela Corsano; Erenio González

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes obtaining superfine ethanol in a Cuban distillery from molasses as base raw material. The operational characteristics of the main stages for obtaining superfine alcohol have been described, emphasising alcohol fermentation due to its complexity in achieving process continuity; a Gantt chart led to determining a 31-hour process time and 5-hour cycle time. The influence of fermentation yield on process profitability was determined through mass and energy balances, demonstra...

  16. Obtainment of cordierite from Boa Vista esmectites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Five different samples of esmectites clays were studied for cordierite formation. These clays were treated with salt solutions and calcined at 1000 to 1300 sup(0)C for 1 hour. The synthetic products obtained were characterized by X-ray diffraction. The results show that cordierite can be obtained by this process, but purity depends upon the used clay. High quantities of Fe2O3 were observed and the brown smectite clay has the closest composition to the theoretical cordierite. (author)

  17. Obtaining useful information from expert based sources.

    OpenAIRE

    Slawson, D. C.; Shaughnessy, A. F.

    1997-01-01

    Clinicians rely heavily on expert based systems-consultation with colleagues, journal reviews and textbooks, and continuing education activities-to obtain new information. The usefulness of sources such as these depends on the relevance and validity of the information and the work it takes to obtain it. Useful information can be distinguished from the useless by asking three questions: Does the information focus on an outcome that my patients care about? Is the issue common to my practice, an...

  18. Are the shocks obtained from SVAR fundamental?

    OpenAIRE

    Hamidi Sahneh, Mehdi

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides new conditions under which the shocks recovered from the estimates of structural vector autoregressions are fundamental. I prove that the Wold innovations are unpredictable if and only if the model is fundamental. I propose a test based on a generalized spectral density to check the unpredictability of the Wold innovations. The test is applied to study the dynamic effects of government spending on economic activity. I find that standard SVAR models commonly employed in the...

  19. Obtain of uranium concentrates from fertil liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This research tried to encounter the form to remove uranium from the rock in the best way, for that it was used different process like leaching, extraction, concentration and precipitation. To leach the mineral was chosen basic leaching, using a mixture of carbonate-sodium bicarbonate, this method is more adequated for the basic nature of the mineral. In extraction was used specific uranium ionic interchanges, so was chosen a tertiary amine like Alamina 336. The concentration phase is intimately binding with the extraction by ionic interchange, for the capability of resine's extraction to obtain concentrated liquids. When the liquids were obtained with high concentration of uranium in the same time were purified and then were precipitated, for that we employed a precipitant agent like: Sodium hydroxide, Amonium hydroxide, Magnesium hydroxide, Hydrogen peroxide and phosphates. With all concentrates we obtain the YELLOW CAKE

  20. Obtaining of ceramics biphasic dense and porous

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Among the bioceramic hydroxyapatite (HAP) and beta-tricalcium phosphate (beta-TCP) are materials commonly used in biomedical field. Their combined properties result in a material with absorbable and at the same time with bioactive surface. Called biphasic ceramics such materials respond more quickly when exposed to physiological environment. In this work, powders of HAP/beta-TCP were obtained by chemical precipitation. After obtaining the post-phase was added at a ratio of 0, 15% and 30w% aqueous solutions of corn starch in order to obtain porous bodies. After mixing the resulting solutions were dried, resigned in tablet form and sintered at 1300 deg C. The initial powder was characterized by X-ray diffraction with Rietveld refinement to quantify the phases present. Bodies-of-evidence has been characterized by calculating the bulk density, X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy and diametral compression. (author)

  1. Thermal treatment of kaolin clay to obtain metakaolin

    OpenAIRE

    Ili? Biljana R.; Mitrovi? Aleksandra A.; Mili?i? Ljiljana R.

    2010-01-01

    The metakaolin was produced by thermal treatment (calcination) of the starting high-quality kaolin clay from Serbia. The optimal calcination parameters, for which nearly complete dehydroxylation of the material was achieved, are: temperature 650°C and heating time of 90 min. The conversion of the kaolinite to metakaolin was confirmed by XRD and IR analyses of the starting and thermally treated kaolin samples. The pozzolanic activity was determined by Chapelle test. The obtained value 0.65 g ...

  2. SCS118 Marques – New rice cultivar obtained through induced mutation

    OpenAIRE

    Moacir Antonio Schiocchet; Jose Alberto Noldin; Juliana Vieira Raimondi; Augusto Tulmann Neto; Rubens Marschalek; Ester Wickert; Gabriela Neves Martins; Eduardo Hickel; Ronaldir Knoblauch; Klaus Konrad Scheuermann; Domingos Savio Eberhardt; Alexander De Andrade

    2014-01-01

    The new rice cultivar, SCS118 Marques, was obtained through gamma irradiation of SCSBRS Tio Taka cultivar. SCS118 Marques presents modern architecture, lodging resistance, late maturity cycle, moderate resistance to blast, high yield potential, long grains and very high cooking quality. Industrial tests performed with SCS118 Marques showed that grains are suitable for parboiling and white rice, and it is recommended to all rice-producing regions of Santa Catarina

  3. SCS118 Marques – New rice cultivar obtained through induced mutation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moacir Antonio Schiocchet

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The new rice cultivar, SCS118 Marques, was obtained through gamma irradiation of SCSBRS Tio Taka cultivar. SCS118 Marques presents modern architecture, lodging resistance, late maturity cycle, moderate resistance to blast, high yield potential, long grains and very high cooking quality. Industrial tests performed with SCS118 Marques showed that grains are suitable for parboiling and white rice, and it is recommended to all rice-producing regions of Santa Catarina

  4. Catalyst and process to obtain hydrogen peroxide

    OpenAIRE

    Frutos Escrig, Pilar; Campos Marti?n, Jose Miguel; Garci?a Fierro, Jose? Luis; Cano Serrano, Encarnacio?n; Blanco Brieva, Gema

    2008-01-01

    In this invention, a process to obtain hydrogen peroxide solutions by means of the direct reaction of hydrogen and oxygen in the presence of a solvent and of catalysts constituted from noble or semi-noble metals, or combinations of several of these metals, supported on a halogen-free acid resin, is described.

  5. Nuclear structure information obtained from charge radii

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We analyze the nuclear structure information obtained from measurements of charge radii in even-even and even-odd nuclei in terms of the interacting boson model. The observed deviations from the smooth behavior, R=R0Asup(1/3), appear to be well described by this model. (orig.)

  6. 47 CFR 54.615 - Obtaining services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...cannot obtain toll-free access to an Internet service provider; (4) The requested...legally authorized to provide under the law in the state in which such health care...in consideration of money or any other thing of value; (6) If the service...

  7. TEXTURAL CHARACTERISTICS OF AEROGELS OBTAINED FROM SONOGELS

    OpenAIRE

    De La Rosa-Fox, N.; Esquivias, L.; Zarzycki, J.

    1989-01-01

    Ultrasonic treatment of mixtures of TEOS + H2O enables gels to be obtained without the necessity of using alcohol as a common solvent. The influence of energy supplied by the ultrasounds and gelation temperature on the texture of the resulting aerogels were studied in order to determine the optimal conditions for sintering.

  8. Properties of piezoceramics, obtained by explosive pressing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Properties of piezoceramics obtained by explosive pressing are investigated. Piezoelectric materials on the base of solid solutions of zirconate-titanate of TsTS-23, TsTS-19 lead type have been used as an object for investigations. Explosive pressing is shown to provide a higher complex of piezoelectric properties that testifies to advance of the explosive pressing method

  9. Methods for obtaining desired helicopter stability characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafson, F B; Tapscott, Robert J

    1954-01-01

    A brief summary is made of methods available to the helicopter designer for obtaining desired stability characteristics by modifications to the airframe design. The discussion is based on modifications made during the establishment of flying-qualities criteria and includes sample indications of theoretical studies of additional methods.

  10. Obtainment of tantalum oxide from national ores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The experimental results of tantalum oxides (Ta2O5) obtainment from Brazilian ores of tantalite and columbite are described. This study is a part of the technologic and scientific research design of refractory metals (Ti, Zr, Hf, V, Nb, Ta, Cr, Mo and W) and correlate ceramics. (C.G.C.)

  11. Cervical cancer screening program based on HPV testing and conventional Papanicolaou cytology for jail inmates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Vincenzoni

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: To assess the validity of Human Papillomavirus (HPV testing in a group of women at high risk for developing cervical cancer, a screening intervention was applied to a population of jail inmates in Rome, Italy. This cross-sectional study provided also new insights on the risk factors and on the HPV genotype distribution. Methods: We have invited 350 inmates to the preliminary stage of the screening program and 98 inmates decided to participate to the study and filled out a questionnaire for the history of attendance to previous cervical screening and for the known risk factors for cervical malignancies. HPV DNA test, conventional Pap smear and HPV genotyping were performed. Results: The percentage of women with High Risk (HR HPV positivity were 19.3%. The inmates with LSIL/ HSIL status showed a significantly higher pre- valence of HR-HPV positivity (100% vs. 16.3%; p < 0.001 and of multiple HPV types (60% vs. 1.2%; p < 0.001 compared to women with normal/ASCUS Pap smear. HPV16 was the predominant genotype in either single or multiple infections. Conclusions: The results indicated that HPV DNA-based approach is a strategy useful for incarcerated women which do not have the opportunity or the social and cultural environment to receive preventive care.

  12. Comparación de cuatro métodos de restauración del ADN en muestras de plasma y láminas de citología cérvico-uterina como una herramienta para mejorar la calidad de la muestra / Comparison of four methods of DNA restoration in samples from plasma and pap smears as a tool for better the samples

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Caterin, Márquez; Dabeiba Adriana, García-Robayo; Marcos, Castillo; Ignacio, Briceño; Jairo, Amaya; Fabio Ancízar, Aristizábal-Gutiérrez.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: comparar cuatro métodos de restauración del ADN en plasma y láminas cérvico-uterinas como una herramienta para mejorar la calidad de la muestra. Métodos: a 20 muestras de plasma sanguíneo y 20 muestras de láminas citológicas, se les realizó aislamiento de ADN mediante kit comercial y feno [...] l-cloroformo. A todas las muestras se les realizó un tratamiento pre-PCR con cuatro diferentes tipos de actividad de ADN polimerasa: 1. Exonucleasa y endonucleasa 5'-3'. 2. Exonucleasa 5'-3'. 3. Klenow, y 4. Klenow más ligasa. Los diferentes métodos se evaluaron mediante PCR en tiempo real con el gen ALU. Resultados: todos los métodos de restauración mejoran la calidad del ADN en los dos tipos de muestras. El método 3 mostró mejores resultados en plasma y en lámina, incrementando la concentración del ADN de 0,0022 ng/µL a 0,6474 ng/µL en láminas de citología y de 0,0039 ng/µL a 0,435 ng/µL en plasma sanguíneo. Conclusiones: ADN de las muestras de plasma y lámina al ser tratadas con un proceso de restauración aumenta la calidad del ADN en comparación a las muestras no tratadas. Abstract in english Objetives: To compare four methods of restoration of DNA in plasma and PAP smears as a tool to improve the quality of the samples. Methods: 20 blood samples and 20 PAP smears samples, we performed DNA isolation by commercial kit and phenol-chloroform respectively. Then all samples underwent a pre-PC [...] R treatment with four different types of activity DNA polymerase: 1. Exonuclease and endonuclease 5'-3'. 2. Exonuclease 5'-3'. 3. Klenow, and 4. Klenow more ligase. Different restoration methods were evaluated quantitatively by real-time PCR with gene ALU. Results: All restoration methods improve the quality of DNA in both types of samples. However, the 3th method showed better results in both plasma and PAP smears, increasing the concentration of DNA from 0.0022 ng/mL to 0.6474 ng/mL in PAP smears and 0.0039 ng/mL to 0.435 ng/mL in blood plasma. Conclusions: DNA from plasma samples and PAP smears to be treated with a restoration process increases the quality of DNA compared to untreated samples.

  13. transparent conductive obtained by different techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text.In2O3, SnO2 and ZnO transparent conductive films have been obtained by different techniques: In2O3 has been synthetized by reactive evaporation, while SnO2 and ZnO have been obtained by spray pyrolysis. The properties of the films have been studied by x-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XRD), optical transmission and electrical measuremetns (conductivity and Hall measurements). It is shown that while in the present experimental conditions, ZnO are tranparent bu tno conductive, SnO2 and In2O3 performances correspond to the requested properties for optoelectronic components applications

  14. Superconductive ceramics obtained with sol gel method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several sol gel routes have been considered, studied and developed to produce large quantities of granulates which can be processed to obtain ceramics having good superconducting characteristics. In the considered process a mixture of commercial nitrates is atomized, at room temperature, in a solution 1:1 of Primene JMT and Benzene and a pale blue gel of the starting elements is suddently formed. The granulates obtained are free flowing, very reactive and well suited for pressing. For their intrinsic characteristics they could be very good precursors for the production of large quantities of superconductive ceramics in different forms. The precipitated gel is dried, calcinated, pressed in the form of cylindrical pellets which are sintered up to 960 degrees C. No griding or different thermal treatments are needed. The sintered material has low electric resistence, shows a clear Meissner effect and has a transition temperature of between 91 and 95 K

  15. Obtaining information by dynamic (effortful) touching

    OpenAIRE

    Turvey, M T; Carello, Claudia

    2011-01-01

    Dynamic touching is effortful touching. It entails deformation of muscles and fascia and activation of the embedded mechanoreceptors, as when an object is supported and moved by the body. It is realized as exploratory activities that can vary widely in spatial and temporal extents (a momentary heft, an extended walk). Research has revealed the potential of dynamic touching for obtaining non-visual information about the body (e.g. limb orientation), attachments to the body (e.g. an object's he...

  16. Direct obtaining zirconium dioxide from zircon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The process of direct obtaining zirconium dioxide from zircon, using different quantities of CaCO3 and Na2SO4 is investigated. Kinetics of the zircon opening by the CaCO3 and NaSO4 mixtures is studied. Technology of cake leaching, providing purification of ZrO2 from silicon dioxide and reagents, which applied on the stage of decomposition is worked out

  17. A system for obtaining an optical spectrum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ndoni, Sokol Technical University of Denmark,

    The present invention relates to a system for obtaining an optical spectrum 648 of analytes in a fluid sample, wherein a porous filter 602a, 602b is arranged so that the fluid sample may be placed onto a first region of the porous filter, and a SERS-active material 610a, 610b having a SERS-active surface is placed at least partially within the pores of the porous filter within a second region of the porous filter. The first region and the second region of the porous filter are spatially separated and connected by through-going pores so that only sufficiently small analytes are able to reach the second region. Thereby, the porous filter enables that the fluid sample is filtered so that only sufficiently small entities in the fluid sample reach the second region where they may be probed so that an optical spectrum related to the analytes in the filtered sample may be obtained. The optical system also comprises a light source 634, a light detector 642, and the optical analysis system is arranged for obtaining the optical spectrum 648 of the analytes adjacent to the SERS-active material 610a, 610b exclusively from the second region of the porous filter 602a, 602b.

  18. DETERMINATION OF ELECTRODEPOSITION HARDNESS BY ANALYTICAL MODELING PART I - Ni-P COATINGS OBTAINED BY VARYING THE ELABORATION TIME -

    OpenAIRE

    Pasa?re, Minodora Maria

    2012-01-01

    Results obtained from Vickers hardness tests were used for analytical modeling models Buckle, Jönsson, Hogmark. Ni-P electrodeposition were obtained by varying the elaboration time. The analytic models obtained by theoretical means, by applying the corresponding formulas to each model have been compared to the experimental results obtained at hardness tests.

  19. Measurements, error analyses, and calculations of water and steam individual mass flow rates, velocities, and related flow parameters obtained from single-phase and two-phase prototype tests of the PKL instrumented spool pieces for the US NRC-RSR 3-D program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The operation of the emergency core cooling system and its related steam-binding problems in pressurized water reactors are the subject of a cooperative study by the United States, Germany, and Japan. Lawrence Livermore Laboratory and EG and G, Inc., San Ramon Operations, are responsible for the design, hardware, and software of the 80.8-mm and 113-mm spool piece measurement systems for the German Primarkreislauf (PKL) Test Facility at Kraftwerk Union in Erlangen, West Germany. Four PKL spool pieces each containing a flow turbine, drag screen, three-beam densitometer, and pressure and temperature probes were constructed and tested to measure single-phase and two-phase steam and water flow parameters. Individual phase velocities, mass flow rates, and densities were calculated from the analytical relationships presented. These calculated and measured parameters were compared to those parameters determined from the test facility instrumentation at Wyle Laboratories. Error analyses were performed, and individual test results were presented for both horizontal and vertical flows. The various flow regimes tested included annular mist, slug, froth, stratified wavy, and homogeneous flow of water or superheated steam

  20. UVC emitting phosphors obtained by spray pyrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The broadband inter-configurational (4f15d1?4f2) emission of Pr3+ doped in lanthanum orthophosphate (LaPO4) and in calcium pyrophosphate (Ca2P2O7) has been investigated under plasma excitation. The synthesis by spray pyrolysis at moderate temperature followed by a controlled annealing proves to be a very efficient way to produce good quality UVC emitting phosphor Ca1.92Pr0.04Na0.04P2O7 (? phase). The emission of this phosphor in the wavelength range 200-350 nm has been measured with a prototype device, which can be employed for anti-microbial testing. - Research Highlights: ? The Pr3+ doped orthophosphate and pyrophosphate were synthesized by spray pyrolysis. ? The dense particles present good quality UVC emitting (200-350 nm). ? The prototype device can be employed for anti-microbial testing.

  1. Comparison between SRAM SEE cross-sections from ion beam testing with those obtained using a new picosecond pulsed laser facility; Comparaison sur des memoires SRAM des mesures de sections efficaces aux SEE sous faisceau d'ions lourds et au moyen d'une nouvelle installation laser picoseconde pulse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, R.; Chugg, A.M.; Jones, C.M.S.; Duncan, P.H. [Matra BAe Dynamics, Radiation Effects Group, Filton, Bristol (United Kingdom); Dyer, C.S.; Sanderson, C. [DERA, Space Dept., Farnborough (United Kingdom)

    1999-07-01

    A laser system has been designed to be capable of delivering large numbers of pulses across a micro-chip die under computer control, so as rapidly to generate upset and latch-up cross-section curves, in order to provide an efficient screening tool for SEE (single event effect) susceptibility. The system has been automated to make screening of parts for use in an SEE environment fast, efficient and inexpensive. A comparison between ion beam test results and laser test results has been used to develop initial calibrations between laser energy and LET (linear energy transfer)

  2. Safety and abuse testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younger, G.

    1978-01-01

    A series of abuse tests on large lithium thionyl chloride cells was initiated. Performance data obtained in testing rectangular 2,000 and 10,000 ampere-hour cells are discussed and graphically presented.

  3. Obtaining growth hormone from calf blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalchev, L. A.; Ralchev, K. K.; Nikolov, I. T.

    1979-01-01

    The preparation of a growth hormone from human serum was used for the isolation of the hormone from calf serum. The preparation was biologically active - it increased the quantity of the free fatty acids released in rat plasma by 36.4 percent. Electrophoresis in Veronal buffer, ph 8.6, showed the presence of a single fraction having mobility intermediate between that of alpha and beta globulins. Gel filtration through Sephadex G 100 showed an elutriation curve identical to that obtained by the growth hormone prepared from pituitary glands.

  4. A method for obtaining thick branes models

    CERN Document Server

    Dutra, A de Souza; da Silva, J M Hoff

    2014-01-01

    In this work we present a new class of braneworld models, where the superpotential function may be decomposed in a very specific form, but still embracing, which allows considerable simplifications in the field equations. We exemplify the method with two specific models that are extended versions of superpotentials already considered in the literature. As one can see in the examples, the braneworld scenarios obtained here present very interesting features, such as split brane mechanism and asymmetric warp factor shape, which is essential to address the hierarchy problem in the context of thick brane scenarios.

  5. Nanocrystalline magnetic materials obtained by flash annealing

    OpenAIRE

    Murakami R.K.; Villas-Boas V.

    1999-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to produce enhanced-remanence nanocrystalline magnetic material by crystallizing amorphous or partially amorphous Pr4.5Fe77B18.5 alloys by the flash annealing process, also known as the dc-Joule heating process, and to determine the optimal conditions for obtaining good magnetic coupling between the magnetic phases present in this material. Ribbons of Pr4.5Fe77B18.5 were produced by melt spinning and then annealed for 10-30 s at temperatures 500 - 640 °C by pas...

  6. Obtaining high purity silica from rice hulls

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    José da, Silva Júnior; Carlo R. da, Cunha; Flávio L. S. de, Carvalho; Ubirajara P., Rodrigues Filho; Paulo R., Oliveira; Marcos A. Segatto, Silva.

    Full Text Available Many routes for extracting silica from rice hulls are based on direct calcining. These methods, though, often produce silica contaminated with inorganic impurities. This work presents the study of a strategy for obtaining silica from rice hulls with a purity level adequate for applications in electr [...] onics. The technique is based on two leaching steps, using respectively aqua regia and Piranha solutions, which extract the organic matrix and inorganic impurities. The material was characterized by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), powder x-ray diffraction (XRD), x-ray fluorescence (XRF), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), particle size analysis by laser diffraction (LPSA) and thermal analysis.

  7. Experimental methodology for obtaining sound absorption coefficients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A. Macía M

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: the authors propose a new methodology for estimating sound absorption coefficients using genetic algorithms. Methodology: sound waves are generated and conducted along a rectangular silencer. The waves are then attenuated by the absorbing material covering the silencer’s walls. The attenuated sound pressure level is used in a genetic algorithm-based search to find the parameters of the proposed attenuation expressions that include geometric factors, the wavelength and the absorption coefficient. Results: a variety of adjusted mathematical models were found that make it possible to estimate the absorption coefficients based on the characteristics of a rectangular silencer used for measuring the attenuation of the noise that passes through it. Conclusions: this methodology makes it possible to obtain the absorption coefficients of new materials in a cheap and simple manner. Although these coefficients might be slightly different from those obtained through other methodologies, they provide solutions within the engineering accuracy ranges that are used for designing noise control systems.

  8. Frequência da colpocitologia oncótica em jovens com antecedentes obstétricos em Teresina, Piauí, Brasil Frequency of Pap smear testing in young women with an obstetric history in Teresina, Piauí, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Michelina F. Barroso; Keila R O Gomes; Jesusmar Ximenes Andrade

    2011-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Analisar a frequência da colpocitologia oncótica em jovens com pelo menos uma gravidez completa em Teresina, capital do Estado do Piauí, Brasil. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal realizado de maio a dezembro de 2008. Foram coletados dados de 464 jovens, selecionadas por amostragem acidental, que finalizaram uma gravidez no primeiro quadrimestre de 2006 em seis maternidades da Cidade de Teresina. Investigou-se a frequência da coleta de colpocitologia oncótica. A frequência inadequada foi d...

  9. Desempenho de enfermeiras na coleta de material cervico uterino para exame de Papanicolaou Desempeño de enfermeras en la recolección de material cérvico uterino para examen de Papanicolaou Performance of nurses in gathering material for Pap smear test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Costa de Oliveira

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Verificar conhecimento e prática de enfermeiras na coleta de material cérvico-uterino, identificar disponibilidade de materiais para realização da coleta e conferir adequabilidade da lâmina. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal, de campo, realizado de agosto a outubro de 2006, com 21 enfermeiras. Conhecimento foi investigado por questionário; técnica de coleta e materiais foram pesquisados por observação; adequabilidade das lâminas foi verificada nos laudos laboratoriais. RESULTADOS: Dezessete enfermeiras se auto-avaliaram seguras para realizar o exame; duas investigaram esvaziamento da bexiga; quatro explicaram o procedimento; nenhuma indagou uso de duchas, abstinência sexual e sangramento intermenstrual; duas não usaram espátula corretamente e duas consideraram desnecessária a coleta da endocérvice; duas coletas levaram tempo excessivo para fixação. Espéculos e pinças Cherron foram insuficientes; 63(100% das lâminas estavam adequadas. CONCLUSÃO: Há déficit de conhecimento e de técnica, insuficiência de materiais, e apesar das falhas observadas na coleta, 100% dos laudos conferiram adequabilidade às lâminas.OBJETIVOS: Verificar conocimiento y práctica de enfermeras en colecta de material del cuello uterino, identificar disponibilidad de materiales para realización de coleta y averiguar adecuación de lámina. METODOS: Estudio transversal, de campo, realizado de agosto a octubre de 2006, con 21 enfermeras. Conocimiento fue investigado por cuestionario; técnica de colecta y materiales fueron investigados por observación; adecuación de láminas fue verificada en laudos laboratorillos. RESULTADOS: Diecisiete enfermeras se evaluaron seguridad en la examinación; dos preguntaron por el vacío de vejiga; cuatro explicaron el procedimiento; ninguno preguntó sobre usar ducha, abstinencia sexual y sangría intermenstrual; dos no utilizaron espátula correctamente y dos habían considerado innecesario colección del endocervice; dos colecciones llevó tiempo excesivo para fijación. Espéculos y pinzas Cherron fueron escasas; 63 (100% láminas fueron satisfactorias. CONCLUSION: Ha déficit del conocimiento y técnica, escasez de materiales, y aunque de las imperfecciones observadas en colección, 100% de las láminas tuvieran adecuación conferida.OBJECTIVES: Verify nurses' knowledge and practice to material uterine cervical, to identify availability of material of collection and to verify suitability of the smears. METHODS: Transversal study, at service, was carried from August to October 2006, with 21 nurses. Knowledge was investigated through questionnaire; collection technique and material were researched through observation; suitability of the smears was verified in the lab reports. RESULTS: Seventeen nurses evaluated themselves security to carry through the examination; two had asked about emptiness of bladder and four had explained procedure; none inquired using a shower, sexual abstinence and bleed intermenstrual; two had left to use of spatula correctly and two had considered unnecessary endocervix collection; two collections the time for fixation was excessive. Speculums and Cherron clamps had been insufficient; 63 (100% blades were adjusted. CONCLUSION: It has been detected deficit of knowledge and technique, insufficiency of materials, and although the imperfections observed in the collection, 100% of the findings had conferred adequateness to the blades.

  10. Ferroelectric perovskite nanopowders obtained by mechanochemical synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabela Szafraniak-Wiza

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Simple perovskite nanopowders were fabricated by mechanochemical synthesis. High-energy milling process of respective oxides, leading to production of ferroelectric perovskites, was carefully investigated and characterized by X-ray diffraction, electron microscopy and X-ray excited photoelectron spectroscopy. It has been found that: (i the powder consists of loosely packed grains with a broad distribution of sizes between a few nm and 45 nm, (ii the grains possess core/shell structure, (iii the grain core of sizes larger than about 20 nm exhibits well developed crystalline structure, (iv the grains are coated by structurally disordered (amorphous shell. Intermediate phases have been found in the process of PbTiO3 mechanosynthesis only. The obtained nanopowders were used for preparation of dense ceramics.

  11. Polypropylene obtained through zeolite supported catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Queli C. Bastos

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Propylene polymerizations were carried out with f2C(Flu(CpZrCl2 and SiMe2(Ind2ZrCl2 catalysts supported on silica, zeolite sodic mordenite (NaM and acid mordenite (HM. The polymerizations were performed at different temperatures and varying aluminium/zirconium molar ratios ([Al]/[Zr]. The effect of these reaction parameters on the catalyst activity was investigated using a proposed statistical experimental planning. In the case of f2C(Flu(CpZrCl2, SiO2 and NaM were used as support and the catalyst performance evaluated using toluene and pentane as polymerization solvent. The molecular weight, molecular weight distribution, melting point and crystallinity of the polymers were examined. The results indicate very high activities for the syndiospecific heterogeneous system. Also, the polymers obtained had superior Mw and stereoregularity.

  12. The method of obtaining of decorative varnish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The method of obtaining of decorative varnish allowing to remove inhibition action of air oxygen and to improve the varnish hardness is described. It is includes the impregnation of texture paper with mixture of PE-284 type polyether lacquer on the basis of unsaturated oligoethylenglycolfumarath resin and cation type salt, putting it on wooden or asbestos cement slabs and further hardening by pulsed beams of accelerated electrons on moving belt. The radiation dose for one pulse is 1,10-2 - 9,10-3 MGy, the number of pulses is 180 - 250, the duration of pulses is 2.3 ms, their frequency is 50 KHz. Chloride, bromide, benzylbromide or iodide of N, N-dialkylaminoethyl (benzil) (met)acrylate are used as cation type salt. (author)

  13. Polypropylene obtained through zeolite supported catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Propylene polymerizations were carried out with ?2C(Flu)(Cp)ZrCl2 and SiMe2(Ind)2ZrCl2 catalysts supported on silica, zeolite sodic mordenite (NaM) and acid mordenite (HM). The polymerizations were performed at different temperatures and varying aluminium/zirconium molar ratios ([Al]/[Zr]). The effect of these reaction parameters on the catalyst activity was investigated using a proposed statistical experimental planning. In the case of f2C(Flu)(Cp)ZrCl2, SiO2 and NaM were used as support and the catalyst performance evaluated using toluene and pentane as polymerization solvent. The molecular weight, molecular weight distribution, melting point and crystallinity of the polymers were examined. The results indicate very high activities for the syndiospecific heterogeneous system. Also, the polymers obtained had superior Mw and stereo regularity. (author)

  14. Polypropylene obtained through zeolite supported catalysts

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Queli C., Bastos; Maria de Fátima V., Marques.

    Full Text Available Propylene polymerizations were carried out with f2C(Flu)(Cp)ZrCl2 and SiMe2(Ind)2ZrCl2 catalysts supported on silica, zeolite sodic mordenite (NaM) and acid mordenite (HM). The polymerizations were performed at different temperatures and varying aluminium/zirconium molar ratios ([Al]/[Zr]). The effe [...] ct of these reaction parameters on the catalyst activity was investigated using a proposed statistical experimental planning. In the case of f2C(Flu)(Cp)ZrCl2, SiO2 and NaM were used as support and the catalyst performance evaluated using toluene and pentane as polymerization solvent. The molecular weight, molecular weight distribution, melting point and crystallinity of the polymers were examined. The results indicate very high activities for the syndiospecific heterogeneous system. Also, the polymers obtained had superior Mw and stereoregularity.

  15. Biological action spectra obtained with synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Synchrotron radiation is an ideal tool to survey biological effects of monochromatic photons in a vast wavelength range. Bacterial spores have been used as the because they tolerate adverse irradiation conditions under extreme vacuum. Sporocidal action spectra have been obtained in the ranges of 0.1 - 0.6 nm and 50 - 300 nm. Drastic lethal consequences of photon absorption at the wavelenghts corresponding to K-electron edges of phosphorus and calcium atoms have been observed. This demonstrates that the two species of atoms constitute important targets for the inactivation ('atomic target'). DNA base-sequence analyses of mutations induced by the irradiation have been pursued using a newly-developed method of PCR-SSCP analysis. Unique multiple-base changes have been observed with vacuum-UV irradiation and with the soft-X irradiation at the wavelength corresponding to the resonance absorption by phosphorus K-electrons. (author)

  16. A new method for obtaining transparent electrodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malureanu, Radu; Zalkovskij, Maksim

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we propose a simple scheme to make a metallic film on a semi-infinite substrate optically transparent, thus obtaining a completely transparent electrode in a desired frequency range. By placing a composite layer consisting of dielectric and metallic stripes on top of the metallic one, we found that the back-scattering from the metallic film can be almost perfectly canceled by the composite layer under certain conditions, leading to transparency of the whole structure. We performed proof-of-concept experiments in the terahertz domain to verify our theoretical predictions, using carefully designed metamaterials to mimic plasmonic metals in optical regime. Experiments are in excellent agreement with full-wave simulations.

  17. Technologies for obtaining large grain sintered pellets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A way to increase fuel burn-up is to use a large grains fuel pellets structure. The paper presents a literature review related to the technologies and the methods for large grains sintered pellets manufacturing. A flowsheet for large grains sintered pellets obtaining by Nb2O5 dopant addition in UO2 sinterable powder, pressing and sintering in H2 atmosphere is showed. In the diagrams are presented the dependency of the main sintered pellets characteristics (pore radius distribution, pores volume, density, grains size) as function of the Nb2O5 dopants concentration, UO2 sinterable powder nature and sintering temperature. Other sintered pellets characteristics (electrical conductivity, Seebeck coefficient, high temperature molar heat capacity and thermomechanical properties) are commented. The beneficial effects resulted from theoretical and practical projects are presented. (author)

  18. Obtaining tetraploid plants of ruzigrass (Brachiaria ruziziensis)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ana Luiza de Oliveira, Timbó; Patrícia Nirlane da Costa, Souza; Roselaine Cristina, Pereira; Juliane Dornellas, Nunes; José Eduardo Brasil Pereira, Pinto; Fausto de, Souza Sobrinho; Lisete Chamma, Davide.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present work was to induce chromosome doubling in genotypes of Brachiaria ruziziensis with potential for production of good-quality biomass and tolerance/resistance to stress caused by aluminum and spittlebugs. Germinated seeds of B. ruziziensis were immersed in 0.1% colchicine [...] solution for 2 or 3 hours. Ploidy level was determined by flow cytometry and confirmed by chromosome count. Fertility of the tetraploid plants was assessed through evaluation of pollen viability by staining. There was no statistical difference with regard to seedling survival and number of duplicate seedlings between the treatments. Survival rate was 8%, of which 11.45% were tetraploid genotypes. The mean viability of pollen grains from the evaluated tetraploid plants ranged from 51.75 to 55.50%. So, the tetraploids plants obtained from genotypes of a bred population of ruzigrass produce fertile pollen, in percentages that render crosses viable in genetic breeding programs.

  19. Obtaining Reliable Feedback for Sanctioning Reputation Mechanisms

    CERN Document Server

    Faltings, B; 10.1613/jair.2243

    2011-01-01

    Reputation mechanisms offer an effective alternative to verification authorities for building trust in electronic markets with moral hazard. Future clients guide their business decisions by considering the feedback from past transactions; if truthfully exposed, cheating behavior is sanctioned and thus becomes irrational. It therefore becomes important to ensure that rational clients have the right incentives to report honestly. As an alternative to side-payment schemes that explicitly reward truthful reports, we show that honesty can emerge as a rational behavior when clients have a repeated presence in the market. To this end we describe a mechanism that supports an equilibrium where truthful feedback is obtained. Then we characterize the set of pareto-optimal equilibria of the mechanism, and derive an upper bound on the percentage of false reports that can be recorded by the mechanism. An important role in the existence of this bound is played by the fact that rational clients can establish a reputation for...

  20. Cytoplasm T-maize tissue culture to obtain methomyl resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The calli of two cytoplasm T-maize hybrids were cultured in vitro with methomyl in the medium in order to obtain resistance. A mutagenic pretreatment was performed in one of the hybrids by injecting ethylmethane sulphonate (EMS) into the ear cob before fetilization. The atrophic tissue method was utilized to obtain totipotent callus. After treatment, coloured pericarp grains were observed in the regenerated plants. Different esterase electrophoretic patterns also appeared in one of them. In the methomyl resistance test, some nearly resistant (R-) and some less susceptible (S-) plants were detected within the same descendance (possibly due to mitochondrial variability). The interaction between mutagenic treatment with EMS and in vitro culture may be a suitable method for inducing changes of methomyl susceptibility in cms-T maize plants. (author)

  1. Methods for obtaining a uniform volume concentration of implanted ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three simple practical methods of irradiations with high energy particles providing the conditions for obtaining a uniform volume concentration of the implanted ions in the massive samples are described in the present paper. Realization of the condition of two-sided irradiation of a plane sample during its rotation in the flux of the projectiles is the basis of the first method. The use of free air as a filter with varying absorbent ability due to movement of the irradiated sample along ion beam brought to the atmosphere is at the basis of the second method of uniform ion alloying. The third method for obtaining a uniform volume concentration of the implanted ions in a massive sample consists of irradiation of a sample through the absorbent filter in the shape of a foil curved according to the parabolic law moving along its surface. The first method is the most effective for obtaining a great number of the samples, for example, for mechanical tests, the second one - for irradiation in different gaseous media, and the third one - for obtaining high concentrations of the implanted ions under controlled (regulated) thermal and deformation conditions. 2 refs., 7 figs

  2. Speaker Identification From Youtube Obtained Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitesh Kumar Chaudhary

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available An efficient, and intuitive algorithm is presented for the identification of speakers from a long dataset (like YouTube long discussion, Cocktail party recorded audio or video.The goal of automatic speaker identification is to identify the number of different speakers and prepare a model for that speaker by extraction, characterization and speaker-specific information contained in the speech signal. It has many diverse application specially in the field of Surveillance , Immigrations at Airport , cyber security , transcription in multi-source of similar sound source, where it is difficult to assign transcription arbitrary. The most commonly speech parameterization used in speaker verification, K-mean, cepstral analysis, is detailed. Gaussian mixture modeling, which is the speaker modeling technique is then explained. Gaussian mixture models (GMM, perhaps the most robust machine learning algorithm has been introduced to examine and judge carefully speaker identification in text independent. The application or employment of Gaussian mixture models for monitoring & Analysing speaker identity is encouraged by the familiarity, awareness, or understanding gained through experience that Gaussian spectrum depict the characteristics of speaker's spectral conformational pattern and remarkable ability of GMM to construct capricious densities after that we illustrate 'Expectation maximization' an iterative algorithm which takes some arbitrary value in initial estimation and carry on the iterative process until the convergence of value is observed We have tried to obtained 85 ~ 95% of accuracy using speaker modeling of vector quantization and Gaussian Mixture model ,so by doing various number of experiments we are able to obtain 79 ~ 82% of identification rate using Vector quantization and 85 ~ 92.6% of identification rate using GMM modeling by Expectation maximization parameter estimation depending on variation of parameter.

  3. Biodegradable Polyelectrolyte Obtained by Radiation Polymerization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poly electrolytes are water-soluble polymers carrying ionic charge along the polymer chain. Depending upon the charge, these polymers are anionic or cationic. The inherent solid - liquid separating efficiency makes these poly electrolytes a unique class of polymers which find extensive application in potable water, industrial raw and process water, municipal sewage treatment, mineral processing and metallurgy, oil drilling and recovery, etc. Also, due to their ability to produce advanced induced coagulation, a considerable amount of bacteria and viruses are precipitated together with the suspended solids. Especially the acrylamide polymers are very efficacious for water treatment but acrylamide is a toxic monomer and therefore their use are governed by international standards that provide the residual acrylamide monomer content (RAMC) in them be less than 0.05%. Under these circumstances our attention was focused on the following research steps that are presented in this paper: 1) Preparation of a special class of poly electrolytes, named Pn, with very low RAMC values, based on electron beam (EB), microwave (MW) and EB + MW induced co-polymerization of aqueous solutions containing appropriate mixtures of acrylamide (AMD) and acrylic acid (AA) monomers (AMD - AA co-polymers). The Pn were obtained by radiation technology with very small RAMC (under 0.01%) as well as in a wide range of molecular weights and charge densities. Very low AMD monomer content of Pn is due to the major advantages of radiation induced polymerization in aqueous solution containing monomers. Due to water presence in the EB irradiated system, irradiated water radicals facilitate the polymerization process and increase rate and level of monomers conversion in co-polymers. Also, once again, by the presence of water, which absorbs MW energy very strongly, the MW polymerization reaction rate is much enhanced resulting in a reaction time about 50-100 times lowers than by conventional heating. Also, due to the rapid, volumetric and selective MW energy transfer, the molecular weight dispersion of the polymeric material is very low. 2) Development of more efficacious methods for Pn application to potable water (PW) and waste water (WW) treatment. The Pan obtained by EB and EB + MW induced polymerization give the best results for TSS (total suspended solid) and T (turbidity) indicators in the PW case while Pn types obtained by MW induced polymerization give always the best results for OM (organic matters) and TOC (total organic carbon) indicators in the WW case. Also, each quality indicator is associated with a certain amount and a certain type of Pn, which exhibits the maximum ability to its reduction. For a given Pn type there is a different amount for each quality indicator, which gives the best result. These aspects have suggested to mix several Pn types (the best for each quality indicator) and to use their mixture (Mn) for water treatment. The use of mixture (Mn) of several Pn types demonstrated the ability in the simultaneous reduction of several quality indicators for PW as well as for WW

  4. Human papillomavirus testing 2007-2012: Co-testing and triage utilization and impact on subsequent clinical management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuzick, Jack; Myers, Orrin; Hunt, William C; Saslow, Debbie; Castle, Philip E; Kinney, Walter; Waxman, Alan; Robertson, Michael; Wheeler, Cosette M

    2015-06-15

    In the United States, high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) testing is recommended for women with atypical squamous cells of unknown significance (ASC-US) cytology, and co-testing with cytology and HPV is a recommended option for screening women aged ?30 years. No population-based data are available to examine utilization of HPV testing in the United States. Using the New Mexico HPV Pap Registry data resource, we describe population trends (2007-2012) in utilization and positivity rates for HPV testing as a routine co-testing screening procedure and for triage of ASC-US and other cytologic outcomes. For women aged 30-65 years co-testing increased from 5.2% in 2007 to 19.1% in 2012 (p?testing also had an HPV test. HPV positivity was age and cytology result dependent but did not show time trends. For women with negative cytology, 64% received an additional screening test within 3 years if no co-test was done or if it was positive, but this was reduced to 47% with a negative co-test. Reflex HPV testing for ASC-US cytology is well established and occurs in most women. Evidence for reflex testing is also observed following other abnormal cytology outcomes. Co-testing in women aged 30-65 years has more than tripled from 2007 to 2012, but was still only used in 19.1% of women aged 30-65 years attending for screening in 2012. Women receiving co-testing had longer repeat screening intervals, but rescreening within 3 years is still very common even with co-testing. PMID:25447979

  5. Salinity tolerant mutant obtained from protons radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A breeding program to obtain salinity tolerant rice varieties using in vitro mutagenesis was development at the National Institute of Agricultural Science. Seeds from Jucarito-104 (J-104) rice variety were irradiated with different doses of protons (10, 20, 30, 40, 60, 90, 110 and 210 Gy) at the Phasotron of DUVNA. The irradiated seeds were cultured in vitro for callus induction and plant regeneration. It was carried out the bulk harvest in M1V1 population and promising lines were selected from M2V1 to M5V1 generations. It was evaluated the morphological and molecular difference between the mutant and the donor J-104. It was possible to release the mutant GINES that showing difference with the donor J-104 in cycle, yielding, grain quality, salinity tolerance as well as disease tolerance. The AFLP analysis showed differences between the mutant and the donor J-104. The rice variety GINES is the first mutant release from in vitro mutagenesis using protons. (author)

  6. Nanocrystalline magnetic materials obtained by flash annealing

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    R.K., Murakami; V., Villas-Boas.

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present work was to produce enhanced-remanence nanocrystalline magnetic material by crystallizing amorphous or partially amorphous Pr4.5Fe77B18.5 alloys by the flash annealing process, also known as the dc-Joule heating process, and to determine the optimal conditions for obtaining go [...] od magnetic coupling between the magnetic phases present in this material. Ribbons of Pr4.5Fe77B18.5 were produced by melt spinning and then annealed for 10-30 s at temperatures 500 - 640 °C by passing current through the sample to develop the enhanced-remanence nanocrystalline magnetic material. These materials were studied by X-ray diffraction, differential thermal analysis and magnetic measurements. Coercivity increases of up to 15% were systematically observed in relation to furnace-annealed material. Two different samples were carefully examined: (i) a sample annealed at 600 °C which showed the highest coercive field Hc and remanence ratio Mr/Ms and (ii) a sample annealed at 520 °C which showed phase separation in the second quadrant demagnetization curve. Our results are in agreement with other studies which show that flash annealing improves the magnetic properties of some amorphous ferromagnetic ribbons.

  7. Nanocrystalline magnetic materials obtained by flash annealing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.K. Murakami

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present work was to produce enhanced-remanence nanocrystalline magnetic material by crystallizing amorphous or partially amorphous Pr4.5Fe77B18.5 alloys by the flash annealing process, also known as the dc-Joule heating process, and to determine the optimal conditions for obtaining good magnetic coupling between the magnetic phases present in this material. Ribbons of Pr4.5Fe77B18.5 were produced by melt spinning and then annealed for 10-30 s at temperatures 500 - 640 °C by passing current through the sample to develop the enhanced-remanence nanocrystalline magnetic material. These materials were studied by X-ray diffraction, differential thermal analysis and magnetic measurements. Coercivity increases of up to 15% were systematically observed in relation to furnace-annealed material. Two different samples were carefully examined: (i a sample annealed at 600 °C which showed the highest coercive field Hc and remanence ratio Mr/Ms and (ii a sample annealed at 520 °C which showed phase separation in the second quadrant demagnetization curve. Our results are in agreement with other studies which show that flash annealing improves the magnetic properties of some amorphous ferromagnetic ribbons.

  8. Evaluation of biodiesel obtained from cottonseed oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rashid, Umer [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad-38040 (Pakistan); Department of Industrial Chemistry, Government College University, Faisalabad-38000 (Pakistan); Anwar, Farooq [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad-38040 (Pakistan); Knothe, Gerhard [United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, National Center for Agricultural Utilization Research, Peoria, IL 61604 (United States)

    2009-09-15

    Esters from vegetable oils have attracted a great deal of interest as substitutes for petrodiesel to reduce dependence on imported petroleum and provide a fuel with more benign environmental properties. In this work biodiesel was prepared from cottonseed oil by transesterification with methanol, using sodium hydroxide, potassium hydroxide, sodium methoxide and potassium methoxide as catalysts. A series of experiments were conducted in order to evaluate the effects of reaction variables such as methanol/oil molar ratio (3:1-15:1), catalyst concentration (0.25-1.50%), temperature (25-65 C), and stirring intensity (180-600 rpm) to achieve the maximum yield and quality. The optimized variables of 6:1 methanol/oil molar ratio (mol/mol), 0.75% sodium methoxide concentration (wt.%), 65 C reaction temperature, 600 rpm agitation speed and 90 min reaction time offered the maximum methyl ester yield (96.9%). The obtained fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) were analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) and {sup 1}H NMR spectroscopy. The fuel properties of cottonseed oil methyl esters (COME), cetane number, kinematic viscosity, oxidative stability, lubricity, cloud point, pour point, cold filter plugging point, flash point, ash content, sulfur content, acid value, copper strip corrosion value, density, higher heating value, methanol content, free and bound glycerol were determined and are discussed in the light of biodiesel standards such as ASTM D6751 and EN 14214. (author)

  9. HOW TO OBTAIN BOOKS FOR YOUR GROUP

    CERN Multimedia

    Head Librarian

    2000-01-01

    The wide variety of scientific and technical activity engaged in by people working at CERN means that the Library cannot always provide a deep on-site coverage in areas which are outside the core subjects of particle physics and accelerators. As many of you have already experienced, one way of solving this is to borrow books from other libraries. Our Inter-Library Loan (ILL) service currently obtains about 1000 books on loan per year for readers at CERN. However, there may be books which groups need on a more permanent basis, in which case a loan from either our own collection or via ILL is not the appropriate solution. Instead, groups might prefer to purchase such books from their own budgets. To facilitate this, the CERN Library has set up a procedure with the SPL Division, by which you can submit your purchase request to us and be charged via a TID when you receive the book. In addition, via our database interface WebLib, we can provide you with a private virtual catalogue of your group's collection, which...

  10. Nano hydroxyapatite crystals obtained by colloidal solution

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    D, Meza; I.A., Figueroa; C, Flores-Morales; M.C., Piña-Barba.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se presenta un proceso de síntesis por solución coloidal para obtener polvos nanocristalinos de hidroxiapatita usando nitrato de calcio tetrahidratado [Ca(NO3)2-4H2O] y pentoxido de fosforo [P2O5]. Los polvos obtenidos fueron lavados y calcinados a diferentes temperaturas para ser ca [...] racterizados empleando difracción de rayos X (DRX), microscopía electrónica de barrido (MEB) y microscopía electrónica de trasmisión (MET). El tamaño de los polvos se obtuvo comparando los resultados obtenidos por MET con los calculados por DRX usando la fórmula de Scherrer. Abstract in english A process for synthesising nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite powders using calcium nitrate tetrahydrated [Ca(NO3)2-4H2O] and phosphorous pentoxide [P2O5] by colloidal solution, is presented and discussed. The powders were washed and calcinated at different temperatures and then characterised by X-ray d [...] iffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The powder size was compared with the results obtained from TEM and the calculated with the Scherrer's formula.

  11. Obtaining Stokes Parameters from the SUMI Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayock, Brian; Winebarger, Amy; Cirtain, Jonathan; Kobayashi, Ken; West, Ed

    2014-01-01

    A sounding rocket experiment designed at the Marshall Space Flight Center, named the Solar Ultraviolet Magnetograph Investigation, had its second launch in July of 2012 to test the feasibility of measuring polarization signals of the ionized magnesium resonance doublet near 280 nm, originating from the transition region. The rocket housed a telescope at the front end and an imaging system at the rear end. Placed at the focal point of the self-filtering telescope, a wave plate rotated through 12 predefined angular orientations to restrict the measurements to specific combinations of circular and linear polarization. Coupled with a double Wollaston analyzer, the linearly polarized ordinary and extraordinary beams were measured for the 12 combinations, each containing different fractions of the Stokes parameters (I, Q, U, V). A thorough analysis of the data has allowed us to come to several conclusions regarding the design of the experiment. 1) We are confident that polarization can be measured. A sunspot region was determined to exhibit similar results over multiple pixels. 2) Measurements are limited by resolution, i.e. regions smaller than the angular resolution per pixel cannot be resolved with any certainty. 3) Temporal evolution of magnetic features must be considered in future experimental designs. Measurements need to be taken in repeated cycles as opposed to a single cycle over the duration of the experiment. In our presentation, we will provide a summary of the observations along with the methods of our analysis, including the limitations that we've encountered.

  12. Obtaining Spectra of Turbulent Velocity from Observations

    CERN Document Server

    Lazarian, A

    2008-01-01

    We discuss a long-standing problem of how turbulence can be studied using observations of Doppler broadened emission and absorption lines. The focus of the present review is on two new techniques, the Velocity-Channel Analysis (VCA), which makes use of the channel maps, and the Velocity Coordinate Spectrum (VCS), which utilizes the fluctuations measured along the velocity axis of the Position-Position Velocity (PPV) data cubes. Both techniques have solid theoretical foundations based on analytical calculations as well as on numerical testings. Among the two the VCS, which has been developed quite recently, has two unique features. First of all, it is applicable to turbulent volumes that are not spatially resolved. Second, it can be used with absorption lines that do not provide good spatial sampling of different lags over the image of the turbulent object. In fact, recent studies show that measurements of absorption line along less than 10 absorption directions are sufficient for a reliable recovering of the ...

  13. Biotransformations of lipoglycopeptides to obtain novel antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandolfi, Raffaella; Jovetic, Srdjan; Marinelli, Flavia; Molinari, Francesco

    2007-04-01

    The emergence of resistance among Gram-positive pathogens towards glycopeptide antibiotics has stimulated the research of second-generation molecules with improved activity and expanded antimicrobial spectrum. In this paper we investigate biotransformations as a way to generate novel teicoplanin- and A40926-like molecules. A range of commercial enzymes, fungi and actinomycetes were tested on A40926 and on its semi-synthetic derivatives (MDL 63,246 and dalbavancin). Oxidation of dalbavancin to MDL 63,246 was achieved by Nonomuraea sp. ATCC 39727 and Actinomadura parvosata ATCC 53463, while Actinoplanes sp. NRRL 3884, Actinoplanes missouriensis ATCC 23342 and Actinoplanes teichomyceticus ATCC 31121 deacylated MDL 63,246, dalbavancin and A40926. It is worth noting that the actinomycetes able to catalyze the deacylation of lipoglycopeptides are themselves producers of microbiologically active glycopeptides. Structurally related antibiotics (mideplanin and teicoplanin) were not transformed. Biotransformation conditions were optimised and scaled-up for the use of Actinoplanes sp. NRRL 3884 in the production of novel deacylated derivatives. PMID:17456978

  14. Obtaining Communities with a Fitness Growth Process

    CERN Document Server

    Beiró, Mariano G; Grynberg, Sebastian P; Alvarez-Hamelin, J Ignacio

    2015-01-01

    The study of community structure has been a hot topic of research over the last years. But, while successfully applied in several areas, the concept lacks of a general and precise notion. Facts like the hierarchical structure and heterogeneity of complex networks make it difficult to unify the idea of community and its evaluation. The global functional known as modularity is probably the most used technique in this area. Nevertheless, its limits have been deeply studied. Local techniques as the ones by Lancichinetti et al. and Palla et al. arose as an answer to the resolution limit and degeneracies that modularity has. Here we start from the algorithm by Lancichinetti et al. and propose a unique growth process for a fitness function that, while being local, finds a community partition that covers the whole network, updating the scale parameter dynamically. We test the quality of our results by using a set of benchmarks of heterogeneous graphs. We discuss alternative measures for evaluating the community struc...

  15. Elastic modulus evaluation of Titania nanotubes obtained by anodic oxidation

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Luciane S., Santos; Nilson T. C., Oliveira; Carlos M., Lepienski; Cláudia E. B., Marino; Neide K, Kuromoto.

    Full Text Available The use of titania (TiO2) nanotubes is becoming one of the most attractive techniques as surface treatment for implants due its combination of morphology (that accelerates osteoblast adhesion and proliferation), bioactivity and possibility of being use as a drug vehicle. Anodic oxidation is one of [...] the cheapest and simplest approaches to obtain highly ordered nanotubes. Parameters such as applied potential, reaction time and fluoride containing in the electrolyte define the nanotubes morphology. However, the mechanical properties of the nanotubes layer do not have been completely elucidated and they play a crucial role in the implant long term stability. The objective of this research was to obtain TiO2 nanotubes using anodic oxidation and to determine their elastic modulus and hardness. The TiO2 nanotubes layer was obtained in a fluoride containing electrolyte for 1 hour, one group at 15 V and another one at 25 V. The TiO2 nanotubes morphology was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The elastic modulus and hardness were evaluated by nanoindentation experiments using a spherical tip. SEM images showed highly ordered nanotubes on all titanium surfaces and it was observed that the nanotubes diameters are directly related with the applied potential. Nanotubes diameters are 66 ± 9 nm and 131 ± 22 nm for nanotubes obtained at 15 V and 25 V, respectively. Nanoindentation test results showed a decrease in the elastic modulus comparing with titanium reference and these values approach to cortical bone elastic modulus. These results demonstrate that it was possible to obtain a homogeneous TiO2 nanotubes layer that has mechanical properties adequate to improve implant long-term stability.

  16. Obtaining cementitious material from municipal solid waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Macías, A.

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The primary purpose of the present study was to determine the viability of using incinerator ash and slag from municipal solid waste as a secondary source of cementitious materials. The combustion products used were taken from two types of Spanish MSW incinerators, one located at Valdemingómez, in Madrid, and the other in Melilla, with different incineration systems: one with fluidised bed combustion and other with mass burn waterwall. The effect of temperature (from 800 to 1,200 ºC on washed and unwashed incinerator residue was studied, in particular with regard to phase formation in washed products with a high NaCl and KCl content. The solid phases obtained were characterized by X-ray diffraction and BET-N2 specific surface procedures.El principal objetivo del trabajo ha sido determinar la viabilidad del uso de las cenizas y escorias procedentes de la incineración de residuos sólidos urbanos, como materia prima secundaria para la obtención de fases cementantes. Para ello se han empleado los residuos generados en dos tipos de incineradoras españolas de residuos sólidos urbanos: la incineradora de Valdemingómez y la incineradora de Melilla. Se ha estudiado la transformación de los residuos, sin tratamiento previo, en función de la temperatura de calentamiento (desde 800 ºC hasta 1.200 ºC, así como la influencia del lavado de los residuos con alto contenido en NaCl y KCl en la formación de fases obtenidas a las diferentes temperaturas de calcinación. Las fases obtenidas fueron caracterizadas por difracción de rayos X y área superficial por el método BET-N2.

  17. Component Repair Times Obtained from MSPI Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steven Eide; Lee Cadwallader

    2015-05-01

    Information concerning times to repair or restore equipment to service given a failure is valuable to probabilistic risk assessments (PRAs). Examples of such uses in modern PRAs include estimation of the probability of failing to restore a failed component within a specified time period (typically tied to recovering a mitigating system before core damage occurs at nuclear power plants) and the determination of mission times for support system initiating event (SSIE) fault tree models. Information on equipment repair or restoration times applicable to PRA modeling is limited and dated for U.S. commercial nuclear power plants. However, the Mitigating Systems Performance Index (MSPI) program covering all U.S. commercial nuclear power plants provides up-to-date information on restoration times for a limited set of component types. This paper describes the MSPI program data available and analyzes the data to obtain median and mean component restoration times as well as non-restoration cumulative probability curves. The MSPI program provides guidance for monitoring both planned and unplanned outages of trains of selected mitigating systems deemed important to safety. For systems included within the MSPI program, plants monitor both train UA and component unreliability (UR) against baseline values. If the combined system UA and UR increases sufficiently above established baseline results (converted to an estimated change in core damage frequency or CDF), a “white” (or worse) indicator is generated for that system. That in turn results in increased oversight by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and can impact a plant’s insurance rating. Therefore, there is pressure to return MSPI program components to service as soon as possible after a failure occurs. Three sets of unplanned outages might be used to determine the component repair durations desired in this article: all unplanned outages for the train type that includes the component of interest, only unplanned outages associated with failures of the component of interest, and only unplanned outages associated with PRA failures of the component of interest. The paper will describe how component repair times can be generated from each set and which approach is most applicable. Repair time information will be summarized for MSPI pumps and diesel generators using data over 2003 – 2007. Also, trend information over 2003 – 2012 will be presented to indicate whether the 2003 – 2007 repair time information is still considered applicable. For certain types of pumps, mean repair times are significantly higher than the typically assumed 24 h duration.

  18. Flame temperature criteria tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the Lewis-Karlovitz flame temperature criteria had been based on data obtained from hydrogen flammability tests using hydrogen-air mixtures at room temperature and atmospheric pressure, a test program was conducted at Fenwal Incorporated to evaluate its applicability to a post-accident containment atmosphere at elevated temperature and pressure. Another objective of this test program was to obtain laminar burning velocities under post-accident containment atmospheric conditions. These velocities are needed for estimating the hydrogen burn time in containments. This paper presents the results obtained from this test program, which are then used to validate the Lewis-Karlovitz flame temperature criteria

  19. Factores asociados a la práctica de la citología de cuello uterino, en mujeres desplazadas y población receptora en un asentamiento en Antioquia, Colombia, 2011 / Factors associated with pap smear among displaced women and host population in a settlement in Antioquia, Colombia, 2011

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Sara M., Ramos J; Isabel C., Garcés P.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: caracterizar los factores socioeconómicos, demográficos y de aseguramiento en salud, asociados a la práctica de la citología de cuello uterino, en mujeres en situación de desplazamiento y población receptora en el asentamiento Altos de Oriente, Bello, Colombia en el año 2011. METODOLOGIA: [...] se realizó análisis secundario de datos del estudio transversal ''caracterización histórica y sociodemográfica del asentamiento Altos de Oriente''. En esta encuesta se indagó acerca de la fecha de la última citología de cuello uterino, aseguramiento en salud, y variables socioeconómicas y demográficas. Se realizó un análisis descriptivo y se construyeron modelos de regresión logística. RESULTADOS: las mujeres del asentamiento tienen bajo nivel educativo, bajo nivel de ingresos y en su mayoría son cabeza de hogar. Los factores que se asociaron a no tener citologías recientes fueron: tener entre 41 y 49 años, no utilizar métodos de planificación familiar, no trabajar y haber cursado hasta la primaria o no tener ningún nivel educativo. CONCLUSION: los esfuerzos para aumentar cobertura de citología cérvico-uterina en este grupo de población desplazada y receptora, deberían enfocarse en mujeres entre los 41 y 49 años de edad, amas de casa y con bajo nivel educativo. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: to identify socioeconomic, demographic and health insurance factors , associated with Pap smear among displaced and host population in the settlement ''Altos de Oriente'', Antioquia, Colombia in 2011. METHODOLOGY: we conducted secondary data analysis of the cross-sectional study ''Histori [...] cal and socio-demographic description of the settlement Altos de Oriente''. The survey looked at date of last Pap smear, health insurance, and socioeconomic and demographic variables. We performed descriptive analysis and fitted logistic regression models. RESULTS: women of the settlement have low education, low income, and are mostly single mothers. Factors associated with not having a recent Pap were: being between 41 and 49 years of age, not using family planning methods, not having a job, and having only elementary school education or not education. CONCLUSION: efforts to increase coverage of Pap smear in this group of displaced and host population, should focus on women between 41 and 49 years old, housewives and poorly educated.

  20. Method of obtaining metaphase cells for oyster karyotyping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Alves

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Currently, mariculture is growing on the coast of Santa Catarina and Florianópolis is the largest producer of oysters in Brazil, cultivating the Japanese oyster Crassostrea gigas (Thunberg, 1793. Regarding the native oyster, many types of study are needed, including those that help to elucidate the complex question of the number of species of the genus Crassostrea. Taxonomic studies of oysters have been based almost exclusively on the morphology of the shells of recent and fossil individuals, and they have not always been effective in differentiating between species. Cytogenetic information can be important, to provide additional features to aid in taxonomy. The aim of this study was to test and adapt methodologies traditionally applied in animal cytogenetics to obtain metaphase cells for oyster karyotyping. Specimens collected in Ponta do Sambaqui – Florianópolis/SC/Brazil. Were used the most effective method was obtained using gills from animals treated for 12h in a solution of 0.005% colchicine in seawater, plus treatment with hypotonic solution for 30min with deionized water 1:1. This paper presents a method to obtain a greater number of metaphases, with few overlapping chromosomes and well-defined chromosome morphology.

  1. Synthesis and characterization of carbon fibers obtained through plasma techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study of carbon, particularly the nano technology is a recent field, the one which has important implications in the science of new materials. It investigation is of great interest for industries producers of ceramic, metallurgy, electronic, energy storage, biomedicine, among others. The diverse application fields are a reason at national as international level, so that many works are focused in the production of nano fibers of carbon. The Thermal plasma applications laboratory (LAPT) of the National Institute of Nuclear Research (ININ), it is carrying out works about carbon nano technology. The present work has as purpose to carry out the synthesis and characterization of the carbon nano fibers which are obtained by electric arch of alternating current (CA) to high frequencies and by a plasma gun of non transferred arch, where are used hydrocarbons like benzene, methane, acetylene like carbon source and ferrocene, nickel, yttrium and cerium oxide like catalysts. For both techniques its were thought about a relationship among hydrocarbon-catalyst that it favored to the nano fibers production. The obtained product of each experiment outlined it was analyzed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD), analysis with those were obtained pictures and diffraction graphs, which were observed to arrive to one conclusion on the operation conditions, same analysis with those were characterized the tests carried out according to the nano structures formation of carbon. (Author)

  2. Predictive Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Predictive testing You are here Home Testing & Services Testing for genetic conditions Predictive testing Testing for genetic conditions Carrier ... you make the decision. What Is Predictive Genetic Testing Predictive genetic testing searches for genetic changes, or ...

  3. Pharmacogenomic Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pharmacogenomic testing You are here Home Testing & Services Testing for genetic conditions Pharmacogenomic testing Testing for genetic conditions Carrier ... to fit your genetic makeup What Is Pharmacogenomic Testing? Pharmacogenomic testing is done before your healthcare provider ...

  4. Aplicación de Seis Sigma y los Métodos Taguchi para el Incremento de la Resistencia a la Prueba de Jalón de un Diodo Emisor de Luz / Implementing Six Sigma and Taguchi Methods to Obtain an Increased Resistance on a Pull Test of a Light Emitting Diode

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Yolanda A, Báez; Jorge, Limón; Diego A, Tlapa; Manuel A, Rodríguez.

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo trata sobre la aplicación de la metodología de seis sigma (DMAMC), así como los métodos Taguchi para resolver el problema de baja resistencia a la prueba de jalón de un diodo emisor de luz (LED) de una compañía electrónica del noroeste de México, el cual es utilizado en el ensamb [...] le de teléfonos celulares. Al término de este proyecto se logró una mejora significativa al aumentar la capacidad del proceso de 0.56 a 1.45 y un impacto en la reducción de los costos, tan solo por eliminación de desperdicio, del orden de 130 mil dólares estadounidenses anuales. Para lo anterior no se requirió de inversión adicional, únicamente fue necesario controlar el ajuste de cada uno de los factores importantes del proceso. Abstract in english This paper deals with the application of six sigma methodology (DMAIC) and Taguchi methods to solve the problem of low resistance of the pulling test of a light emitting diode (LED), which is used in the assembly of cellular telephones in a northwest Mexican electronic company. After finishing this [...] project a significant improvement was achieved that made possible to increase process capability from 0.56 to 1.45 and the impact in cost reduction only by the elimination of waste was of 130 thousand US dollars in savings per year. This achievement did not require additional investment, it was only necessary to control each of the most important factors in the process.

  5. Aplicación de Seis Sigma y los Métodos Taguchi para el Incremento de la Resistencia a la Prueba de Jalón de un Diodo Emisor de Luz Implementing Six Sigma and Taguchi Methods to Obtain an Increased Resistance on a Pull Test of a Light Emitting Diode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yolanda A Báez

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo trata sobre la aplicación de la metodología de seis sigma (DMAMC, así como los métodos Taguchi para resolver el problema de baja resistencia a la prueba de jalón de un diodo emisor de luz (LED de una compañía electrónica del noroeste de México, el cual es utilizado en el ensamble de teléfonos celulares. Al término de este proyecto se logró una mejora significativa al aumentar la capacidad del proceso de 0.56 a 1.45 y un impacto en la reducción de los costos, tan solo por eliminación de desperdicio, del orden de 130 mil dólares estadounidenses anuales. Para lo anterior no se requirió de inversión adicional, únicamente fue necesario controlar el ajuste de cada uno de los factores importantes del proceso.This paper deals with the application of six sigma methodology (DMAIC and Taguchi methods to solve the problem of low resistance of the pulling test of a light emitting diode (LED, which is used in the assembly of cellular telephones in a northwest Mexican electronic company. After finishing this project a significant improvement was achieved that made possible to increase process capability from 0.56 to 1.45 and the impact in cost reduction only by the elimination of waste was of 130 thousand US dollars in savings per year. This achievement did not require additional investment, it was only necessary to control each of the most important factors in the process.

  6. Introducing PAP: a plasma apprentice program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mynick, H.E.

    1986-04-01

    Although current capabilities of symbolic computation and artificial intelligence are not adequate to do all the types of thinking a physicist does in solving physics problems, much of what the human theorist does can be effectively imitated by a computer. This paper describes an early stage of implementation of an apprentice program for aiding plasma theorists in developing plasma physics theory, by performing some of those tasks which the theorist normally must do, but which are now amenable to machine imitation. The apprentice has a ''knowledge base'' containing its understanding of plasma theory, which can be accessed by the human user for pedagogic purposes, as well as by the apprentice itself, and some ability to do the kinds of qualitative or heuristic reasoning necessary to the human theorist in solving problems. These facilities enable the apprentice itself to do plasma calculations, informing the user of the progress of the calculation, and prompting him when a decision is needed which the apprentice is not equipped to handle. Some extensions planned for the future are discussed.

  7. Introducing PAP: a plasma apprentice program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although current capabilities of symbolic computation and artificial intelligence are not adequate to do all the types of thinking a physicist does in solving physics problems, much of what the human theorist does can be effectively imitated by a computer. This paper describes an early stage of implementation of an apprentice program for aiding plasma theorists in developing plasma physics theory, by performing some of those tasks which the theorist normally must do, but which are now amenable to machine imitation. The apprentice has a ''knowledge base'' containing its understanding of plasma theory, which can be accessed by the human user for pedagogic purposes, as well as by the apprentice itself, and some ability to do the kinds of qualitative or heuristic reasoning necessary to the human theorist in solving problems. These facilities enable the apprentice itself to do plasma calculations, informing the user of the progress of the calculation, and prompting him when a decision is needed which the apprentice is not equipped to handle. Some extensions planned for the future are discussed

  8. 19 CFR 201.9 - Methods employed in obtaining information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...employed in obtaining information. 201.9 Section...Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION ...employed in obtaining information. In obtaining information...means authorized by law. In general, the...Commission obtains pertinent information from its own...

  9. Fatores associados à utilização do teste de Papanicolaou entre mulheres idosas no interior do Brasil Factors associated with the use of the Papanicolaou smear screening among older women in the interior of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica Cristina Marzullo de Freitas

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Verificar a cobertura, pelo teste de Papanicolaou, de idosas e os fatores associados. MÉTODOS: Foi desenvolvido um estudo de base populacional com inquérito domiciliar. Os critérios de inclusão foram mulheres com 60 anos de idade ou mais, com residência na zona norte do município de Juiz de Fora, com independência para responder ao questionário ou que dispusessem de informante. A entrevista foi composta por questões sociodemográficas, referentes ao estado geral de saúde das idosas, e sobre a prática preventiva em saúde da mulher. A seleção se deu por amostragem aleatória estratificada e conglomerada em múltiplos estágios. Para a análise dos fatores de associação, elaborou-se um modelo teórico com três blocos hierarquizados de variáveis, ajustadas entre si em cada um deles. As variáveis que obtiveram nível de significância menor ou igual a 0,2 foram incluídas no modelo de regressão de Poisson e ajustadas ao nível superior ao seu (pPURPOSE: To verify the coverage, by Pap testing, of older women and the associated factors. METHODS: A population-based study was conducted by home interviews. The inclusion criteria were women aged 60 and over, living on the north side of the city of Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais, Brazil, self-sufficient to answer the questionnaire or having someone to answer on their behalf. The interview consisted of sociodemographic questions, regarding the general health of the older women, and preventive practices in women's health. The selection was made by random sampling, stratified and clustered in multiple stages. To analyze associated factors, a theoretical model was formulated with three hierarchical blocks of variables, adjusted to each other in each block. The variables that had a level of significance of 0.2 or less were included in the Poisson regression model and adjusted to their next highest level (p<0.1. RESULTS: Pap testing occurred in 84.1% of cases (95%CI 79.0-88.4. Based on multivariate regression analysis, three variables remained significantly associated with access to Pap testing: the marital status "without partner" (older women who were single, widowed, separated or divorced, self-sufficiency to perform Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADLs and adherence to mammography. In the interblock analysis these variables remained significantly associated with the outcome variable, and self-sufficiency for IADLs had the highest association. CONCLUSIONS: Among the older women comprising the study sample, was observed variation in the use of Pap testing. An adjustment of public health policies towards the formulation of policies giving priority to universal preventive care may be an alternative to solve the disparities observed.

  10. Low carbon steel sheets obtained by reactive annealing

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    C. R., Oldani; A., Alija.

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the possibility of reducing carbon content by heat treatment in reactive atmospheres in order to improve plastic deformations properties of steel sheets. The heat treatment involves a decarburation annealing after a cold rolling, as opposed to the traditional process that perfo [...] rms the heat treatment in non-reactive atmospheres. Some of the most relevant variables were studied. For this, commercial hot rolling steel sheets were cold rolled with different grades of cold reduction (60%, 70% and 80%). The recrystallization temperature and the decarburation kinetics were determined by heat treatments performed at temperatures varying between 600 and 700ºC, for variable lengths of time up to 2 hours. The grain size evolution was monitored by metallography. In order to analyse the plastic properties of the treated sheets, the n and r coefficients were obtained by tension tests and the sheet texture was determined by X-ray diffraction.

  11. An antibacterial coating obtained through implantation of titanium ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delle Side, D.; Nassisi, V.; Giuffreda, E.; Velardi, L.; Alifano, P.; Talà, A.; Tredici, S. M.

    2014-04-01

    Everyday life is exposed to the risks of contracting severe diseases due to the diffusion of severe pathogens. For this reason, efficient antimicrobial surfaces becomes a need of primary importance. In this work we report the first evidences of a new technique to synthesize an antibacterial coating on Ultra High Molecular Weight Polyethylene (UHMWPE)samples, based on a non-stoichiometric, visible light responsive, titanium oxide. The coating was obtained through laser ablation of a titanium target, then the resulting ions were accelerated and implanted on the samples. The samples where tested against a Staphylococcus aureus strain, in order to assay their antimicrobial efficacy. Results show that this treatment strongly discourages bacterial adhesion to the treated surfaces.

  12. Obtaining and Estimating Low Noise Floors in Vibration Sensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brincker, Rune; Larsen, Jesper Abildgaard

    2007-01-01

    For some applications like seismic applications and measuring ambient vibrations in structures, it is essential that the noise floors of the sensors and other system components are low and known to the user. Some of the most important noise sources are reviewed and it is discussed how the sensor can be designed in order to obtain a low noise floor. Techniques to estimate the noise floors for sensors are reviewed and are demonstrated on a commercial commonly used sensor for  vibration testing. It is illustrated how the noise floor can be calculated using the coherence between simultaneous measurements on two channels, and it is illustrated how the singular values decomposition can be used for estimating noise floors and signals in multi-channel applications.

  13. Obtaining Oligopeptides from Whey: Use of Subtilisin and Pancreatin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane Dias Medeiros Silva

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The whey hydrolysis was optimized aiming the production of oligopeptides. The use of a subtilisin and a pancreatin as well as the effect of the substrate concentration (SC and enzyme:substrate ratio (E:S were tested. The whey hydrolysates were fractionated by size-exclusion-HPLC and the rapid Correct Fraction Area method was used for quantifying peptides and free amino acids. Both enzymes were efficient for producing oligopeptides and the values reached 41.42 and 37.12%, for subtilisin and pancreatin, respectively. For subtilisin, the best peptide profile was obtained for a SC of 15% with an E:S of 1:100, while for pancreatin this same result was observed for a SC of 10% with E:S of either 1:100 or 2:100, as well as for a SC of 15% with E:S of 1:100, 2:100 and 4:100.

  14. Efecto del alcance del potencial en el comportamiento presión-temperatura en la transición isotrópico-nemático del 4-4'-bis(etiloxi) azoxibenceno (p-azoxifenetol, pap), 4-pentil-4'-cianobifenilo (5cb), p-metoxibenciliden-p-n-butilanilina (mbba) y del p-etoxibenciliden-p-n-butilanilina (ebba) / Effect of Potential Range in Pressure-Temperature Behavior in Isotropic-Nematic Transition of 4-4'-Bis(Ethyloxy) Azoxybenzene (P-Azoxyphenetole, Pap), 4-Pentyl-4'-Cyanobiphenyl (5cb), P-Methoxybenzydidene-P-N-Butylaniline (Mbba) and P-Ethoxybenzylidene-P-N-Butylaniline (Ebba)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    E, García-Sánchez; C.H., Castañeda-Ramírez; J.M., Cervantes-Viramontes.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo utilizamos la teoría de los funcionales de la densidad (modelo IPCM) para calcular el volumen molecular y k, así como la teoría de perturbaciones propuesta por García-Sánchez et al. (2002) para predecir el diagrama de fase y el comportamiento experimental presión-temperatura para la [...] transición isotrópico-nemático del 4-4'-bis(etiloxi)azoxibenceno (p-azoxifenetol, PAP), 4-pentil-4'-cianobifenilo (5CB), p-metoxibenciliden-p-n-butilanilina (MBBA) y del p-etoxibenciliden-p-n-butilanilina (EBBA) a 1 atm. Si se consideran en la predicción teórica valores cada vez más grandes del alcance del potencial de pozo cuadrado (? > k) se tendrán mejores predicciones del comportamiento experimental. Lo antes mencionado está de acuerdo con el planteamiento teórico de la teoría de perturbaciones a segundo orden donde se incluye la aproximación de largo alcance de Ponce y Renon. Abstract in english In this work we employed the Density Functional Theory (IPCM model) to calculate molecular volume and k, and the perturbation theory proposed by García-Sánchez et al. (2002) to predict phase diagram and experimental behavior pressure-temperature for isotropic-nematic transition of 4-4'-bis(ethyloxy) [...] azoxybenzene (p-azoxyphenetole, PAP), 4-pentyl-4'-cyanobiphenyl (5CB), p-methoxybenzydidene-p-n-butylaniline (MBBA) and p-ethoxybenzylidene-p-n-butylaniline (EBBA) at 1 atm. If during the theoretical prediction bigger potential values of potential range of square well (? > k) are considered in the theoretical model, it is possible to get better prediction of the experimental behavior. The above mentioned is according with the theoretical formulation of the Second Order Perturbation Theory since Ponce-Renon approximation is included.

  15. STUDY OF PEROVSKITES OBTAINED BY THE SOL-GEL METHOD

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    LILIAN, BOUYSSIÉRES; RENÉ, SCHIFFERLI; LORETO, URBINA; PAULO, ARAYA; JOSÉ MARIA, PALACIOS.

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Perovskites are very thermally stable mixed oxides, frequently used as oxidation catalysts in spite of their relatively low surface area. In order to increase the area the sol-gel method has been used, with malic acid as complexing agent and pH adjustment of the starting solution, to prepare the LaC [...] oO3 perovskite, used as a reference, and other perovskites in which the La cation has been partially replaced (20% molar) by Ca, Sr or Ba cations. Additionally, the cooling rate of the fresh catalysts, from the calcination temperature to room temperature, has been used as a parameter in the method of preparation. The catalysts were characterized by BET area, DRX, TG, DTA, and SEM-EDX. Catalytic activity was tested in a fixed bed flow reactor using the oxidation of CO with O2 reaction. The DRX studies confirmed the presence of a single phase with perovskite structure in the catalysts calcined at 550 C, and the additional studies confirmed that very uniform catalysts with great thermal stability were obtained. Substitution of La by group II cations and the method of preparation make it possible to obtain perovskites with large surface area and excellent catalytic activity for CO oxidation, reaching maximum conversion values, close to 100%, at temperatures of about 200 C. Changes in post-calcination cooling rate did not produce significant changes in the surface area or in the catalytic activity of the catalysts, except when Ba-substituted catalysts were used

  16. STUDY OF PEROVSKITES OBTAINED BY THE SOL-GEL METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LILIAN BOUYSSIÉRES

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Perovskites are very thermally stable mixed oxides, frequently used as oxidation catalysts in spite of their relatively low surface area. In order to increase the area the sol-gel method has been used, with malic acid as complexing agent and pH adjustment of the starting solution, to prepare the LaCoO3 perovskite, used as a reference, and other perovskites in which the La cation has been partially replaced (20% molar by Ca, Sr or Ba cations. Additionally, the cooling rate of the fresh catalysts, from the calcination temperature to room temperature, has been used as a parameter in the method of preparation. The catalysts were characterized by BET area, DRX, TG, DTA, and SEM-EDX. Catalytic activity was tested in a fixed bed flow reactor using the oxidation of CO with O2 reaction. The DRX studies confirmed the presence of a single phase with perovskite structure in the catalysts calcined at 550 C, and the additional studies confirmed that very uniform catalysts with great thermal stability were obtained. Substitution of La by group II cations and the method of preparation make it possible to obtain perovskites with large surface area and excellent catalytic activity for CO oxidation, reaching maximum conversion values, close to 100%, at temperatures of about 200 C. Changes in post-calcination cooling rate did not produce significant changes in the surface area or in the catalytic activity of the catalysts, except when Ba-substituted catalysts were used

  17. PROBABILITY MODELS FOR OBTAINING NON-NUMERICAL DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlov A. I.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The statistics of objects of non-numerical nature (statistics of non-numerical objects, non-numerical data statistics, non-numeric statistics is the area of mathematical statistics, devoted to the analysis methods of non-numeric data. Basis of applying the results of mathematical statistics are probabilistic-statistical models of real phenomena and processes, the most important (and often only which are models for obtaining data. The simplest example of a model for obtaining data is the model of the sample as a set of independent identically distributed random variables. In this article we have considered the basic probabilistic models for obtaining non-numeric data. Namely, the models of dichotomous data, results of paired comparisons, binary relations, ranks, the objects of general nature. We have discussed the various options of probabilistic models and their practical use. For example, the basic probabilistic model of dichotomous data - Bernoulli vector (Lucian i.e. final sequence of independent Bernoulli trials, for which the probabilities of success may be different. The mathematical tools of solutions of various statistical problems associated with the Bernoulli vectors are useful for the analysis of random tolerances; random sets with independent elements; in processing the results of independent pairwise comparisons; statistical methods for analyzing the accuracy and stability of technological processes; in the analysis and synthesis of statistical quality control plans (for dichotomous characteristics; the processing of marketing and sociological questionnaires (with closed questions like "yes" - "no"; the processing of socio-psychological and medical data, in particular, the responses to psychological tests such as MMPI (used in particular in the problems of human resource management, and analysis of topographic maps (used for the analysis and prediction of the affected areas for technological disasters, distributing corrosion, propagation environmentally harmful pollutants, various diseases (including myocardial infarction, in other situations, etc.

  18. Titanium bioactivity surfaces obtained by chemical/electrochemical treatments

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Bruno Leandro, Pereira; Paola, Tummler; Cláudia E. B., Marino; Paulo César, Soares; Neide K., Kuromoto.

    Full Text Available There are various surface treatments used to modify titanium surfaces to render it bioactive. In this study commercially pure titanium surfaces (cp Ti), grade 2 were modified by acid etching (AE) and anodic oxidation (OA) in order to evaluate the bioactivity in vitro of these surfaces using the simu [...] lated body fluid (SBF). The AE was realized using a mixture of acids and AO using 1 mol.L-1 sulfuric acid. The anodic films were obtained under potentiostatic mode, during 60s using as anode a bar of titanium. All the surfaces that means cp Ti, AE and AO were analyzed concerning to morphology, rugosity, structural changes before in vitro bioactivity tests. It was observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) that all surfaces presented different morphologies: those with AE showed a surface with peaks and rounded valleys, with Ra = (564±80) nm, the oxidized surfaces with sulfuric acid showed a morphology with small pores uniformly distributed over the surface and Ra = (177±0,02) nm. X-rays diffraction results showed the presence of titanium hydride on the samples with AE and the anatase and rutile phases on the anodic films after heat treatment at 600°C/1h. Bioactivity tests in vitro using SBF at 37°C showed that small aggregates containing Ca and P were observed on surfaces with AE after 30 days soaked in SBF and the surfaces oxidized were fully coated with an apatite layer, identified by SEM.

  19. Obtaining membranes for alternative treatment hydrogels of cutaneous leishmaniasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polymeric Hydrogels formed by crosslinked polymeric chains were obtained by ionizing radiation process according to Rosiak technique. In the last 40 years the use of hydrogels has been investigated for various applications as curatives. In this work hydrogel membranes were synthesized with poly (N-2-pyrrolidone) (PVP), poly (vinyl alcohol) (PVA), chitosan and laponita clay for use as a vehicle for controlled glucantime release on the surface of skin tissues injured by leishmaniasis. Leishmaniasis is a disease caused by a protozoan parasite of the genus Leishmania transmitted by the bite of phlebotomies sandfly. The traditional treatment of patients infected by these parasites is done with pentavalent antimony in injectable form. However, these antimonates are highly toxic and cause side effects in these patients. In addition, patients with heart and kidney disease can not use this treatment. In treatment with drug delivery hydrogel membrane applied on the surface of leishmaniasis injured tissues the drug is released directly to the wound in a controlled manner, reducing the side effects. Membranes prepared in this study were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TG), swelling, gel fraction, infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The characterizations of cytotoxicity and drug release were made 'in vitro' and 'in vivo' with functional test according to ethical protocol of the Division of Infectious and Parasitic Diseases at the Hospital of Clinics, Sao Paulo University-School of Medicine, University. The 'in vivo' test of these membranes proved to be effective in controlled release of drugs directly into leishmaniasis damaged tissues. Results of 'in vivo' tests using PVP/PVAl / clay 1,5% and glucantime membrane showed remarkable contribution to wound reduction and cure in clinical therapy. (author)

  20. Obtaining and storage of ready-to-use segments from traditional orange obtained by enzymatic peeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Bel, P; Egea, I; Serrano, M; Romojaro, A; Pretel, M T

    2012-02-01

    The aim of this study was to optimize all parameters implied in the process of obtaining orange segments as minimally processed product by enzymatic peeling, from the method of segment obtaining to the storage conditions, and also to evaluate two films with different permeability. Enzymatic peeling was carried out by fruit infusion under vacuum conditions in a commercial preparation of pectinases and cellulases (Peelzym II). The best condition to obtain Cadenera segments by enzymatic peeling was 1?mL/L of Peelzym II applied at 53?kPa with three vacuum pulses of 2?min and a subsequent period of 30 min in the enzymatic solution at atmospheric pressure. The segments were packaged in two films with different permeability and they were stored for 10 days at 4?°C. Samplings were carried out after 4, 7 and 10 days of storage. The results showed that the concentration of CO(2) in the less permeable film (PA 120) ranged between 0.7 and 1.2?mL/100?mL, while in the most permeable one (PA 240) was around 0.2?mL/100?mL. Under these conditions, the weight loss was kept at low levels until day 7 of storage, showing a significant increase after 10 days. Colour (a/b) increased with the peeling process and it remained without significant changes during the whole storage period for both films. The antioxidant capacity slightly decreased after 10 days of storage. The microbial flora was reduced after the enzymatic peeling. Both the sensory and the microbiological quality were kept in adequate levels for consumption during 7 days. From this moment, they lost sweetness and aroma and the microbial development increased. Thus, the use of the most permeable film and a maximum storage time of 7 days are recommended to maintain the most quality of the segments. PMID:22328121

  1. Positional quality assessment of orthophotos obtained from sensors onboard multi-rotor UAV platforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesas-Carrascosa, Francisco Javier; Rumbao, Inmaculada Clavero; Berrocal, Juan Alberto Barrera; Porras, Alfonso García-Ferrer

    2014-01-01

    In this study we explored the positional quality of orthophotos obtained by an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). A multi-rotor UAV was used to obtain images using a vertically mounted digital camera. The flight was processed taking into account the photogrammetry workflow: perform the aerial triangulation, generate a digital surface model, orthorectify individual images and finally obtain a mosaic image or final orthophoto. The UAV orthophotos were assessed with various spatial quality tests used by national mapping agencies (NMAs). Results showed that the orthophotos satisfactorily passed the spatial quality tests and are therefore a useful tool for NMAs in their production flowchart. PMID:25587877

  2. Seismic testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This lecture deals with: qualification methods for seismic testing; objectives of seismic testing; seismic testing standards including examples; main content of standard; testing means; and some important elements of seismic testing

  3. Pinworm test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oxyuriasis test; Enterobiasis test; Tape test ... diagnose this infection is to do a tape test. The best time to do this is in ... to determine if there are eggs. The tape test may need to be done on 3 separate ...

  4. Ham test

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Ham test is a blood test done to diagnose paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH). The test checks whether red ... test can confirm the diagnosis of PNH. The Ham test can also be used to diagnose another ...

  5. Fatigue laws for Brazilians asphalt rubber mixtures obtained in 4 point bending tests

    OpenAIRE

    Fontes, Liseane P. T. L.; Trichês, Glicério; Pais, Jorge C.; Pereira, Paulo A. A.

    2009-01-01

    The majority of Brazilian roadpavements consistsof thin pavement structures unable to resist the damage caused by heavy loads and an increasing traffic demand. The main structural distress modes found in Brazilians asphalt layers is fatigue cracking. One of the prom-ising techniques to improve the pavement performance is through asphalt rubber mixtures, which make use of crumb rubber from scrap tires to modify and enhance the properties of the asphalt. The inexistence of fatigue laws for asph...

  6. Pap smear prevalence and that of pre-malignant and malignant cervical lesions amongst women living in the Carmen initiative demonstration area, Bucaramanga, Colombia / Prevalencia de uso de citología vaginal y de lesiones premalignas y malignas del cérvix entre las mujeres del área demostrativa Carmen, Bucaramanga, Colombia

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Claudia Janeth, Uribe-Pérez; Luis Alfonso, Díaz-Martínez; Ricardo, Ortiz-Serrano; Erika Eliana, Meza-Durán.

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Establecer la prevalencia de lesiones premalignas y malignas entre las mujeres que viven en el área demostrativa de la iniciativa CARMEN de Bucaramanga, Colombia. Metodología: Estudio trasversal de 8.015 mujeres seleccionadas al azar. Las pacientes con citología anormal fueron estudiadas y [...] tratadas de manera individualizada según un protocolo que incluía colposcopia, biopsia o conización. Se hizo correlación histopatológica con las variables sociodemográficas y la historia sexual y reproductiva Resultados: 8.071 mujeres contestaron la encuesta, pero solo 2.698 tenía una citología reciente (34,9%; IC 95% 17,2%-29,8%); 1.660 actualizaron su citología. 2,2% de estas fueron positivas, siendo más alta entre las mujeres que viven con otras mujeres adultas. La prevalencia de lesiones premalignas y malignas del cuello uterino fue 1,1% (IC 95% 0,8%-1,4%). Las mujeres con lesiones cervicales premalignas o malignas eran más jóvenes, habían iniciado relaciones sexuales más temprano y habían tenido más compañeros sexuales que las mujeres sanas. Conclusiones: La prevalencia de lesiones cervicales premalignas y malignas es superior a la que se informa en otras partes del mundo, mientras que la cobertura de citología cérvicovaginal es muy baja. Es necesario intensificar las actividades que buscan la detección temprana de cáncer cervical. Abstract in english Objective: Establishing the prevalence of premalignant and malignant cervical lesions amongst women living in the CARMEN initiative demonstration area, Bucaramanga, Colombia. Methodology: A cross-sectional study of 8,015 randomly selected women. Patients having abnormal cytology results received ind [...] ividualised diagnosis/treatment (colposcopy, biopsy, or conisation). Histopathological findings were correlated with demographical data and their sexual and reproductive history. Results: 8,071 women answered the survey but only 2,698 had up-to-date Pap smears (34.9%; 95%CI 17.2%-29.8%); 1,660 accepted updating their smears. 2.2% (95%CI 1.8%-2.6%) had Pap smears positive for cervical lesions, this being higher in those living with more mature women. Pre-malignant and malignant cervical lesion prevalence was 1.1% (95%CI 0.8%-1.4%). Women with pre-malignant or malignant cervical lesions were younger, had begun their sexual intercourse earlier and had had more sexual partners than healthy women. Conclusions: Pre-malignant and malignant cervical lesion prevalence is higher than in other parts of the world. Pap smear coverage is very low. Early detection of cervical cancer must be intensified.

  7. Pap smear prevalence and that of pre-malignant and malignant cervical lesions amongst women living in the Carmen initiative demonstration area, Bucaramanga, Colombia Prevalencia de uso de citología vaginal y de lesiones premalignas y malignas del cérvix entre las mujeres del área demostrativa Carmen, Bucaramanga, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Janeth Uribe-Pérez

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Establishing the prevalence of premalignant and malignant cervical lesions amongst women living in the CARMEN initiative demonstration area, Bucaramanga, Colombia. Methodology: A cross-sectional study of 8,015 randomly selected women. Patients having abnormal cytology results received individualised diagnosis/treatment (colposcopy, biopsy, or conisation. Histopathological findings were correlated with demographical data and their sexual and reproductive history. Results: 8,071 women answered the survey but only 2,698 had up-to-date Pap smears (34.9%; 95%CI 17.2%-29.8%; 1,660 accepted updating their smears. 2.2% (95%CI 1.8%-2.6% had Pap smears positive for cervical lesions, this being higher in those living with more mature women. Pre-malignant and malignant cervical lesion prevalence was 1.1% (95%CI 0.8%-1.4%. Women with pre-malignant or malignant cervical lesions were younger, had begun their sexual intercourse earlier and had had more sexual partners than healthy women. Conclusions: Pre-malignant and malignant cervical lesion prevalence is higher than in other parts of the world. Pap smear coverage is very low. Early detection of cervical cancer must be intensified.Objetivo: Establecer la prevalencia de lesiones premalignas y malignas entre las mujeres que viven en el área demostrativa de la iniciativa CARMEN de Bucaramanga, Colombia. Metodología: Estudio trasversal de 8.015 mujeres seleccionadas al azar. Las pacientes con citología anormal fueron estudiadas y tratadas de manera individualizada según un protocolo que incluía colposcopia, biopsia o conización. Se hizo correlación histopatológica con las variables sociodemográficas y la historia sexual y reproductiva Resultados: 8.071 mujeres contestaron la encuesta, pero solo 2.698 tenía una citología reciente (34,9%; IC 95% 17,2%-29,8%; 1.660 actualizaron su citología. 2,2% de estas fueron positivas, siendo más alta entre las mujeres que viven con otras mujeres adultas. La prevalencia de lesiones premalignas y malignas del cuello uterino fue 1,1% (IC 95% 0,8%-1,4%. Las mujeres con lesiones cervicales premalignas o malignas eran más jóvenes, habían iniciado relaciones sexuales más temprano y habían tenido más compañeros sexuales que las mujeres sanas. Conclusiones: La prevalencia de lesiones cervicales premalignas y malignas es superior a la que se informa en otras partes del mundo, mientras que la cobertura de citología cérvicovaginal es muy baja. Es necesario intensificar las actividades que buscan la detección temprana de cáncer cervical.

  8. The 14th quality control survey for radioisotope in vitro tests in Japan, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-11-01

    This report presents the results of the 14th quality control nationwide survey. Of 490 facilities performing RI in vitro tests as of December 1992, 261 (53.3%) participated in the present 1992 survey. Free testosterone and renin were added to the following conventional 37 test items: adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), growth hormone (GH), somatomedin C, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), prolactin, thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), triiodothyronine (T[sub 3]), free T[sub 3], thyroxine (T[sub 4]), free T[sub 4], T[sub 3] uptake, thyroglobulin, T[sub 3] binding globulin (TBG), parathyroid hormone (PTH), calcitonin, insulin, C-peptide, glucagon, gastrin, testosterone, estradiol, progesterone, 17[alpha]-hydroxyprogesterone, aldosterone, cortisol, immunoglobulin E (IgE), digoxin, [alpha]-fetoprotein, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), tissue polypeptide antigen (TPA), CA125, CA19-9, CA15-3, prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP), [beta][sub 2]-microglobulin, and ferritin. Measurement data for each kit were analyzed by a mean value of measurements, standard deviation, and coefficient of variation (CV). Both 'within kit variation' between facilities and 'between kit variation' showed a CV of 20% or less for GH, somatomedin C, TSH, T[sub 3], T[sub 4], T[sub 3] uptake, TBG, cortisol, IgE, CA125, PAP, and [beta][sub 2]-microglobulin, revealing satisfactory results. There was a great 'within kit variation' between facilities in ACTH, free T[sub 4], and calcitonin; and there was a great 'between kit variation' in ACTH, LH, free T[sub 4], thyroglobulin, PTH, calcitonin, and [alpha]-fetoprotein. (N.K.).

  9. Protein quantitation using dyes obtained from plant materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaac Olusanjo Adewale

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available We present a preliminary report on the use of plant dyes in the quantitation of proteins in solution. We have used ethanol, acid, alkali and water to extract dyes from some plant materials, including flowers of Jungle flame (Izora coccinea, China rose (Hibiscus rosa-sinensis and leaves of West African Indigo (Lonchocarpus cyanescens, Mimosa (Mimosa pudica, Roselle (Hibiscus sabdarifa, Jatropha (Jatropha curcas and Henna (Lawsonia inermis. The dyes obtained were used in the protein-dye binding studies. The colour of the protein-dye complex of the ethanolic extracts was stable and increased linearly with increase in protein concentration. The extracts achieved linearity up to the following amount of proteins in the test samples: Hibiscus rosa-sinensis (60 mg, Ixora coccinea (120 mg, Hibiscus sabdarifa (80 - 100 mg, Jatropha curcas (80 mg, and Lawsonia inermis (100 mg. The sensitivity of the dyes especially at low protein concentrations indicate that they can provide suitable alternatives to other well known standard methods of protein determination.

  10. Accuracy of stone casts obtained by different impression materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Cláudia Lapria Faria

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Several impression materials are available in the Brazilian marketplace to be used in oral rehabilitation. The aim of this study was to compare the accuracy of different impression materials used for fixed partial dentures following the manufacturers' instructions. A master model representing a partially edentulous mandibular right hemi-arch segment whose teeth were prepared to receive full crowns was used. Custom trays were prepared with auto-polymerizing acrylic resin and impressions were performed with a dental surveyor, standardizing the path of insertion and removal of the tray. Alginate and elastomeric materials were used and stone casts were obtained after the impressions. For the silicones, impression techniques were also compared. To determine the impression materials' accuracy, digital photographs of the master model and of the stone casts were taken and the discrepancies between them were measured. The data were subjected to analysis of variance and Duncan's complementary test. Polyether and addition silicone following the single-phase technique were statistically different from alginate, condensation silicone and addition silicone following the double-mix technique (p .05 to alginate and addition silicone following the double-mix technique, but different from polysulfide. The results led to the conclusion that different impression materials and techniques influenced the stone casts' accuracy in a way that polyether, polysulfide and addition silicone following the single-phase technique were more accurate than the other materials.

  11. Pregnancy Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of America Phone Number : 800-230-7526 Sources Medline Plus. (2012). Pregnancy Test . Medline Plus. (2012). Pregnancy Test . Medline Plus. (2012). Pregnancy Test . Medline Plus. (2012). Pregnancy ...

  12. Testing for Subcellular Randomness

    CERN Document Server

    Okunoye, Babatunde O

    2008-01-01

    Statistical tests were conducted on 1,000 numbers generated from the genome of Bacteriophage T4, obtained from GenBank with accession number AF158101.The numbers passed the non-parametric, distribution-free tests.Deoxyribonucleic acid was discovered to be a random number generator, existent in nature.

  13. Testing "Compatibility Testing."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robins, Elliot; Huston, Ted L.

    Most models of marital choice are attempts to explain choices within the field of available eligibles. The essence of compatibility testing is that people select their mates by evaluating the match between psychological characteristics after sorting the available field on the basis of social characteristics. A compatibility model seems to require…

  14. 49 CFR Appendix A to Part 665 - Tests To Be Performed at the Bus Testing Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...should be obtained during the bus durability test at the test track...twenty-five percent of the bus life should be simulated...should be performed at the Bus Testing Center, and the structural durability test should be...

  15. Effect of Potential Range in Pressure-Temperature Behavior in Isotropic-Nematic Transition of 4-4´-Bis(EthyloxyAzoxybenzene (P-Azoxyphenetole, Pap, 4-Pentyl-4´-Cyanobiphenyl (5cb, P-Methoxybenzydidene-P-N-Butylaniline (Mbba and P–Ethoxybenzylidene–P–N-Butylaniline (Ebba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García-Sánchez E.

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In this work we employed the Density Functional Theory (IPCM model to calculate molecular volume and k, and the perturbation theory proposed by García-Sánchez et al. (2002 to predict phase diagram and experimental behavior pressure-temperature for isotropic-nematic transition of 4-4´-bis(ethyloxyazoxybenzene (p-azoxyphenetole, PAP, 4-pentyl-4´-cyanobiphenyl (5CB, p-methoxybenzydidene-p-n-butylaniline (MBBA and p–ethoxybenzylidene–p–n-butylaniline (EBBA at 1 atm. If during the theoretical prediction bigger potential values of potential range of square well (l > k are considered in the theoretical model, it is possible to get better prediction of the experimental behavior. The above mentioned is according with the theoretical formulation of the Second Order Perturbation Theory since Ponce-Renon approximation is included.

  16. Obtainment, machining and wear of metal matrix composites processed by powder metallurgy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this investigation was the obtainment of metal matrix composites (MMC) by the route of powder metallurgy, and the valuation of these materials with relation to their machining and wear characteristics. Firstly, were obtained pure commercial aluminium matrix composites materials, with 5, 10 and 15% volumetric fraction of silicon carbide particles. Was also obtained a material without reinforcement particles in order to verify by comparison, the influence of addition of reinforcement particles. The obtained materials were characterized physics (hydrostatic density), mechanics (hardness and tensile tests) and microstructurally (optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy). The results showed a homogeneous distribution of reinforcement particles in the composite, and improvement in the mechanical properties, mainly tensile strength (UTS) in comparison to the unreinforced material. After, tests were made to verify the materials behavior during machining and to check the performance of several tool materials (cemented carbide, ceramics and polycrystalline diamond). In these tests, values of the cutting force were measured by instrumented tool-holders. Phenomena such as tool wear, built-up edge formation and mechanism of chip formation were also observed and evaluated. The results from the cemented carbide tool tests, were utilised for the machinability index determination of each material. These results were applied to the Taylor equation and the equation constants for each material and test conditions were determined. The results showed that the inclusion of silicon carbide particles made extremely difficult the machining of the composites, and only with diamond tool, satisfactory results were obtained. At last, wear tests were performed to verify the influence of the reinforcement particles in the characteristics of wear resistance of the materials. The results obtained were utilized in the wear coefficient determination for each material. The results showed an improvement in wear resistance, with the increase in volume fraction of reinforcement particles. (author)

  17. Coombs test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Direct antiglobulin test; Indirect antiglobulin test ... No special preparation is necessary for this test. ... There are two types of the Coombs test: Direct Indirect The ... that are stuck to the surface of red blood cells. Many diseases ...

  18. Iron Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Iron, serum Related tests: Ferritin ; TIBC, UIBC and Transferrin ; Hemoglobin ; Hematocrit ; Complete Blood Count ; Reticulocyte Count ; Zinc Protoporphyrin ; Iron Tests ; Soluble Transferrin Receptor At a Glance Test Sample The Test ...

  19. Test Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with their concentration or performance. What Is Test Anxiety? Test anxiety is actually a type of performance ... on the test. Who's Likely to Have Test Anxiety? People who worry a lot or who are ...

  20. Reactor Simulator Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenfeld, Michael P.; Webster, Kenny L.; Pearson, Boise J.

    2013-01-01

    As part of the Nuclear Systems Office Fission Surface Power Technology Demonstration Unit (TDU) project, a reactor simulator test loop (RxSim) was design & built to perform integrated testing of the TDU components. In particular, the objectives of RxSim testing was to verify the operation of the core simulator, the instrumentation and control system, and the ground support gas and vacuum test equipment. In addition, it was decided to include a thermal test of a cold trap purification design and a pump performance test at pump voltages up to 150 V since the targeted mass flow rate of 1.75 kg/s was not obtained in the RxSim at the originally constrained voltage of 120 V. This paper summarizes RxSim testing. The gas and vacuum ground support test equipment performed effectively in NaK fill, loop pressurization, and NaK drain operations. The instrumentation and control system effectively controlled loop temperature and flow rates or pump voltage to targeted settings. The cold trap design was able to obtain the targeted cold temperature of 480 K. An outlet temperature of 636 K was obtained which was lower than the predicted 750 K but 156 K higher than the cold temperature indicating the design provided some heat regeneration. The annular linear induction pump (ALIP) tested was able to produce a maximum flow rate of 1.53 kg/s at 800 K when operated at 150 V and 53 Hz.

  1. [Obtaining diagnostic fluorescent monoclonal immunoglobulins against the V. cholerae 0139-serovar].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alekseeva, L P; Mazrukho, B L; Markina, O V; Chemisova, O S; Sal'nikova, O I; Ishina, E V

    2002-12-01

    Below is given a procedure of the obtaining diagnostic fluorescent monoclonal immunoglobulin to detect cholera vibrios of O139 serovar. While obtaining preparations it was managed to determine optimal FTTS-MKA ratio, duration of their conjugation, series of fluorochrome. Test specimens of fluorescent monoclonal immunoglobulin provides intensive glow of V cholerae O139 cells in the working dilution 1:16-1:32. Tests of diagnostic FTTS-MKA on the great number of homologic and heterologic strains showed their strict specificity and high sensibility as to cholera vibrios of O139 serogroup. PMID:12587559

  2. Transient growth calculations obtained directly from the Orr-Sommerfeld matrices

    CERN Document Server

    O'Naraigh, Lennon

    2015-01-01

    We develop a method for computing the optimal disturbance based on the Orr--Sommerfeld--Squire matrices. The method is similar to the one employed elsewhere in the literature. The basic method compares well when compared to a benchmark case in single-phase flow. In contrast, for two-phase flows, the basic method needs to be modified in a substantial manner before agreement can be obtained with known test cases. These modifications are discussed and derived below and eventually, good agreement between the present case and the two-phase test cases is obtained.

  3. HPV DNA testing improves CIN2+ risk stratification and detection of CIN2+ in delayed triage of ASCUS and LSIL. A population-based follow-up study from Western Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Norway, Pap smears with atypical squamous cells of uncertain significance (ASCUS) and low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL) are triaged after 6 months. The aim of the study was to evaluate effects of implementing human papillomavirus (HPV) test (2005) in delayed triage of ASCUS and LSIL in a cohort of women from Western Norway. After a survey of 119,469 cervical Pap smears during 2005–2007, a total of 1055 women with an index ASCUS or LSIL were included in the study and followed up for 3–6 years with respect to progression into cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 or worse (CIN2+). Overall sensitivity for detection of CIN2+ with HPV testing and cytology was 96% and 72%, respectively. The sensitivity for detection of CIN2+ was not affected by age, but the specificity of the HPV test increased with age. Thus, for the age groups <34 years, 34–50 years, and >50 years, the specificity of a positive HPV test to detect CIN2+ was 47%, 71%, and 82%, respectively. Positive predictive values for CIN2+ in women with positive cytology, positive HPV test, negative cytology, negative HPV test, or negative HPV and cytology tests were 52%, 41%, 8%, 1.5%, and 0.4%, respectively. HPV testing resulted in a net 22% increased detection of CIN2+. Fifty-six percent of CIN2+ was detected at an earlier time point with HPV testing in triage. Implementation of HPV testing in delayed triage of ASCUS and LSIL improved the stratification of CIN2ed CIN2+ detection and at an earlier time point than with triage by cytology alone

  4. 14 CFR 377.5 - Procedure to obtain Board interpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... false Procedure to obtain Board interpretation. 377.5 Section 377.5 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY...APPLICATIONS FOR RENEWAL THEREOF General Provisions § 377.5 Procedure to obtain Board...

  5. Model-Based Testing: An Evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Nordholm, Johan

    2010-01-01

    Testing is a critical activity in the software development process in order to obtain systems of high quality. Tieto typically develops complex systems, which are currently tested through a large number of manually designed test cases. Recent development within software testing has resulted in methods and tools that can automate the test case design, the generation of test code and the test result evaluation based on a model of the system under test. This testing approach is called model-base...

  6. ELECTROCHEMICAL TECHNOLOGIES FOR OBTAINING MOULDS FOR SOLES OF SHOES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia LUCA

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents contributions in the designing of some electrochemical technologiesfor the manufacturing of the moulds used in the footwear soles obtaining. There are presented a fewmethods for the moulds obtaining, using electro-deposit processes. There are presented thetechnological phases of the obtaining process of the electrolytes and electrodes preparing and thetechnological stages of the moulds manufacturing.

  7. ELECTROCHEMICAL TECHNOLOGIES FOR OBTAINING MOULDS FOR SOLES OF SHOES

    OpenAIRE

    LUCA Cornelia; Rãzvan MOCANU

    2013-01-01

    The paper presents contributions in the designing of some electrochemical technologiesfor the manufacturing of the moulds used in the footwear soles obtaining. There are presented a fewmethods for the moulds obtaining, using electro-deposit processes. There are presented thetechnological phases of the obtaining process of the electrolytes and electrodes preparing and thetechnological stages of the moulds manufacturing.

  8. Testing of abrasion materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method of abrasion testing according to ASTM C 704-76 a is presented for steel fibre concrete mortar, fusion-cast basalt and a surface coating material and results of practical interest are mentioned. Due to the high technical demands on these materials and their specific fields of application, the very first test already supplied interesting findings. From the user's point of view, the method is an interesting alternative to the common test methods, e.g. according to DIN 52 108 (wheel test according to Boehme). In English-speaking countries, testing according to ASTM is often mandatory in the refractory industry in order to assure constant quality of refractory materials after setting. The method is characterized by good comparability and high accuracy of measurement. Only the test piece is exchanged while the test conditions remain constant, so that accurate information on the material studied is obtained. (orig.)

  9. Data Obtained from Prototype Wave Dragon in Nissum Bredning : October 2004 - January 2005

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tedd, James William; Curie, Marie

    2006-01-01

    This report is a product of the Project: Sea Testing and Optimisation of Power Production on a Scale 1:4.5 Test Rig of the Offshore Wave Energy Converter Wave Dragon. This report aims to provide access for the project partners to the raw data obtained from the testing period in Nissum Bredning. Between October 2004 and January 2005 much valuable data was gathered, this data has been cleaned and presented in a database, and in accessible time series. The theoretical background to that is also presented here. Lengths, forces and other dimensions are all presented in the Nissum Bredning Scale as they were actually measured.

  10. Construction and commissioning test report of the CEDM test facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The test facility for performance verification of the control element drive mechanism (CEDM) of next generation power plant was installed at the site of KAERI. The CEDM was featured a mechanism consisting of complicated mechanical parts and electromagnetic control system. Thus, a new CEDM design should go through performance verification tests prior to it's application in a reactor. The test facility can simulate the reactor operating conditions such as temperature, pressure and water quality and is equipped with a test chamber to accomodate a CEDM as installed in the power plant. This test facility can be used for the following tests; endurance test, coil cooling test, power measurement and reactivity rod drop test. The commissioning tests for the test facility were performed up to the CEDM test conditions of 320 C and 150 bar, and required water chemistry was obtained by operating the on-line water treatment system

  11. Factors Related to the Number of Fast Food Meals Obtained by College Meal Plan Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dingman, Deirdre A.; Schulz, Mark R.; Wyrick, David L.; Bibeau, Daniel L.; Gupta, Sat N.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: This study tested whether days on campus, financial access through a meal plan, and health consciousness were associated with number of meals that college students obtained from fast food restaurants. Participants and Methods: In April 2013, all students currently enrolled in a meal plan were invited to participate in an online survey…

  12. Parametric fitting of data obtained from detectors with finite resolution and limited acceptance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A goodness-of-fit test for fitting of a parametric model to data obtained from a detector with finite resolution and limited acceptance is proposed. The parameters of the model are found by minimization of a statistic that is used for comparing experimental data and simulated reconstructed data. Numerical examples are presented to illustrate and validate the fitting procedure.

  13. Phosphorus Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Inorganic Phosphate Related tests: Calcium ; Electrolytes ; Vitamin D ; PTH ; Magnesium At a Glance Test Sample The Test ... also affected by the interaction of parathyroid hormone (PTH) , calcium , and vitamin D . Phosphorus deficiencies (hypophosphatemia) may ...

  14. Calcium Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... collection such as a 24-hour urine sample Test Preparation Needed? Current practices do not require fasting. ... diuretics , and vitamin D supplements, among others. The Test Sample What is being tested? Calcium is the ...

  15. Procalcitonin Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Related tests: C-Reactive Protein , Complete Blood Count , Blood Culture , CSF Analysis At a Glance Test Sample The ... tests such as a C-reactive protein (CRP) , blood culture , complete blood count (CBC) , or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) ...

  16. Bilirubin Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ALT ; Hepatitis A ; Hepatitis B ; Hepatitis C ; CBC ; Urinalysis At a Glance Test Sample The Test Common ... the dipstick test that is part of a urinalysis . Bilirubin levels tend to be slightly higher in ...

  17. Stress Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is Stress Testing? Stress testing provides information about how your heart works during ... is working hard and beating fast. During stress testing, you exercise (walk or run on a treadmill ...

  18. HPV Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are several DNA HPV tests, some approved for marketing by the FDA, that can detect high-risk ... Clinical usefulness of HPV DNA testing and genotyping. Journal Watch Women's Health . FDA approved first DNA test ...

  19. Prenatal Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of pregnancy. What tests are done in the second trimester? As you get further along in your pregnancy, your provider may offer you these prenatal tests: Maternal blood screening . Tests your blood to see if your baby ...

  20. Machining tools in AISI M2 high-speed steel obtained by spray forming process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the present work was the obtention of AISI M2 high-speed steel by spray forming technique and the material evaluation when used as machining tool. The obtained material was hot rolled at 50% and 72% reduction ratios, and from which it was manufactured inserts for machining tests. The performance of inserts made of the spray formed material was compared to inserts obtained from conventional and powder metallurgy (MP) processed materials. The spray formed material was chemical, physical, mechanical and microstructural characterised. For further characterisation, the materials were submitted to machining tests for performance evaluation under real work condition. The results of material characterisation highlight the potential of the spray forming technique, in the obtention of materials with good characteristics and properties. Under the current processing, hot rolling and heat treatments condition, the analysis of the results of the machining tests revealed a very similar behaviour among the tested materials. Proceeding a criterious analysis of the machining results tests, it was verified that the performance presented by the powder metallurgy material (MP) was slight superior, followed by conventional obtained material (MConv), which presented a insignificant advantage over the spray formed and hot rolled (72% reduction ratio) material. The worst result was encountered for the spray forming and hot rolled (50% reduction ratio) material that presented the highest wear values. (author)

  1. Impossibility of obtaining split links from split links via twistings

    OpenAIRE

    Ozawa, Makoto

    2001-01-01

    We show that if a split link is obtained from a split link $L$ in $S^3$ by $1/n$-Dehn surgery along a trivial knot $C$, then the link $L\\cup C$ is splittable. That is to say, it is impossible to obtain a split link from a split link via a non-trivial twisting. As its corollary, we completely determine when a trivial link is obtained from a trivial link via a twisting.

  2. A fast route to obtain manganese spinel nanoparticles by reduction of K-birnessite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The K-birnessite (KxMnO2.yH2O) reduction reaction has been tested in order to obtain manganese spinel nanoparticles. The addition of 0.25 weight percent of hydrazine hydrate, the reducing agent, during 24 hours is efficient to transform the birnessite powder in a hausmanite Mn3O4 powder. Well crystallised square shape nanoparticles are obtained. Different birnessite precursors have been tested and the reaction kinetics is strongly correlated to the crystallinity and granulometry of the precursor. The effects of aging time and hydrazine hydrate amount have been studied. Well crystallised Mn3O4 is obtained in one hour. The presence of feitknechtite (MnO(OH)) and amorphous nanorods has been detected as an intermediate phase during birnessite conversion into hausmanite. The conversion mechanism is discussed. - Graphical abstract: TEM image showing Mn3O4 particle after treatment of birnessite with an addition of hydrazine during 24 hours.

  3. Automatic quality classification of entire electrocardiographic recordings obtained with a novel patch type recorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saadi, Dorthe Bodholt; Hoppe, Karsten

    2014-01-01

    Recently, new patch type electrocardiogram (ECG) recorders have reached the market. These new devices possess a number of advantages compared to the traditional Holter recorders. This forms the basis of questions related to benefits and drawbacks of different ambulatory ECG recording techniques. One of the important questions is the ability to obtain high clinical quality of the recordings during the entire monitoring period. It is thus desirable to be able to obtain an automatic estimate of the global quality of entire ECG recordings. The purpose of this pilot study is therefore to design an algorithm for automatic classification of entire ECG recordings into the groups “noisy” and “clean” recordings. This novel algorithm is based on three features and a simple Bayes classifier. The algorithm was tested on 40 ECG recordings in a five-fold cross validation scheme and it obtained an average accuracy of 90% on the test data.

  4. Application of Dosimetric Methods for Obtaining Diagnostic Reference Levels in Panoramic Dental Radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The goals of the present study were to verify the viability of using a kerma area product (PKA) meter and a pencil ionization chamber to evaluate the PKA and PKL (kerma length product) in a panoramic X ray unit as feasible methods to obtain dosimetric reference values for panoramic examinations. Two methods for obtaining PKA in panoramic devices have been tested in this study. The two methods evaluated found similar values, making it possible to include these tests in the quality control routine demanded by the regulations. Considering the results of this study, it is possible to conclude that both methods of measurement can be used simply and directly obtain diagnostic reference values for this practice. Using on dosimetric reference values in this type of examination is a better way to evaluate the exposition of patients. (author)

  5. Randomization tests

    CERN Document Server

    Edgington, Eugene

    2007-01-01

    Statistical Tests That Do Not Require Random Sampling Randomization Tests Numerical Examples Randomization Tests and Nonrandom Samples The Prevalence of Nonrandom Samples in Experiments The Irrelevance of Random Samples for the Typical Experiment Generalizing from Nonrandom Samples Intelligibility Respect for the Validity of Randomization Tests Versatility Practicality Precursors of Randomization Tests Other Applications of Permutation Tests Questions and Exercises Notes References Randomized Experiments Unique Benefits of Experiments Experimentation without Mani

  6. Diagnosis of Bacterial Vaginosis From Self-Obtained Vaginal Swabs

    OpenAIRE

    Thorp, John M.; Savitz, David A.; Barbara Eucker; Strauss, Robert A.

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the concordance between vaginal fluid Gram stains and pH obtained at speculum exam with similar stains and pH prepared from self-obtained vaginal swabs. METHODS: Using vaginal fluid Gram stain, 129 pregnant women were screened for bacterial vaginosis at 24 to 29 weeks' gestation. Two smears were collected from each woman during the same prenatal visit: the first was prepared from a self-obtained vaginal swab and the second from a physician-obtained speculum examination...

  7. Obtaining the Electron Angular Momentum Coupling Spectroscopic Terms, jj

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orofino, Hugo; Faria, Roberto B.

    2010-01-01

    A systematic procedure is developed to obtain the electron angular momentum coupling (jj) spectroscopic terms, which is based on building microstates in which each individual electron is placed in a different m[subscript j] "orbital". This approach is similar to that used to obtain the spectroscopic terms under the Russell-Saunders (LS) coupling…

  8. A New Method for Obtaining Russell-Saunders Terms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ying; Liu, Yue; Liu, Bihui

    2011-01-01

    A new method for obtaining Russell-Saunders terms of atomic configurations is reported. This new method is significantly different from, while at the same time complementary to, previously published methods for obtaining atomic terms. This novel procedure is elicited by the method used to determine the splitting of S, P, D terms in weak ligand…

  9. Microporous catalyst preparation process, materials obtained and specific catalytic applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aries, L.; Traverse, J.P.

    1988-06-24

    The surface of an iron alloy containing chromium is treated by an aqueous solution containing a chalcogen, for instance sulfur, to form a layer of fine particles composed of a mixture of oxides, chalcogenides and metals. The product obtained is a hydrogenation catalyst and high conversion ratio is obtained for coal liquefaction.

  10. 32 CFR 1662.5 - Inspection, copying, and obtaining copies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Inspection, copying, and obtaining copies. 1662.5 Section 1662.5 National...INFORMATION ACT (FOIA) PROCEDURES § 1662.5 Inspection, copying, and obtaining copies. When a request for information...

  11. The 13th quality control survey for radioisotopes in vitro tests in Japan, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-11-01

    This paper presents the results of the 13th quality control nationwide survey. Of 568 hospitals performing RI in vitro tests as of December 1991, 280 (49.3%) participated in this survey. The following 37 items were examined: ACTH, 17[alpha]-hydroxyprogesterone, [alpha]-fetoprotein, aldosterone, [beta]2-microglobulin, CA 125, CA 15-3, CA 19-9, calcitonin, CEA, cortisol, C-peptide, digoxin, esteradiol, ferritin, free triiodothyronine (T[sub 3]), free thyroxine (T[sub 4]), FSH, gastrin, GH, glucagon, IgE, insulin, LH, PAP, progesterone, prolactin, PTH, somatomedin C, T[sub 3], T[sub 4], T[sub 3] uptake, TBG, testosterone, thyroglobulin, tissue polypeptide antigen, and TSH. Reliability and safety of measurement values were evaluated based on protein components of serum samples, spontaneous reliability test, time-dependent reliability test, repeated freezing-dissolution test, and serial change test after freezing. 'Within kit variation' between facilities was great especially for ACTH, CA 15-3, CA 19-9, free T[sub 4], calcitonin, gastrin, and testosterone, and was favorable for [beta][sub 2]-microglobulin, CA 125, digoxin, cortisol, IgE, T[sub 3], T[sub 4], T[sub 3] uptake, and TBG. It was noted that there was a great difference in measurement values of free T[sub 3] and free-T[sub 4] between RIA kits and non-isotopic kits. (N.K.).

  12. SEC vidicon testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, D. S., Jr.; Olsen, A. A.

    1973-01-01

    Results obtained from several basic measurements of the performance of an SEC vidicon camera head are presented. The measurements or tests are patterned around the sensor requirements which exist for a rapid response coronagraph. Following a brief description of the SEC vidicon camera head, test set-up, and operating procedures, results are presented for five basic tests. These tests include: (1) Input-output, or transfer, characteristics; (2) modulation transfer function; (3) signal-to-noise ratio; (4) photocathode sensitivity; and (5) target gain. The input-output characteristics and photocathode sensitivity measurements were obtained for three bandpasses centered about 4000, 5250, and 6200 A. Results are also given for the variation of photocathode sensitivity with position on the cathode surface.

  13. Biased Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Donald Ross

    This paper is concerned with the accusations made by such groups as the Association of Black Psychologists in their call for a moratorium on testing, that standardized tests are biased. A biased test measures one trait in one group of people but a different trait in a second group. Evidence about the amount of bias in tests is thin. Bias must be…

  14. A new process to obtain palladium as metal powders from salts: thermodynamic an kinetic study

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    M., Villicaña; M. G., Garnica-Romo; J. F., Pérez-Robles; J. A., Cortes.

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work, a new process to obtain palladium powders from their salts by using a cementation process (in aqueous solution) through an iron electrode and a catalyst agent was studied. The process gives results that in practice can also be applied to obtain bulk metal from secondary sources. Nano a [...] nd micrometric particles could be obtained from this new process. The physicochemical and morphological characteristics of these powders are heavily dependent on the method used for their production. For the Palladium test and PdCl2 solution 0.093 M, a minimum quantity of catalyst agent was added to accelerate the reaction. In the palladium powders only small round particles were obtained, which can be easily suspended in solution. For the reaction, there is no considerable temperature dependence. Thus, the process can be carried out at room temperature resulting in considerable energy saving.

  15. Eddy current testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eddy current testing has been widely used for non destructive testing of steam generator tubes. In order to retain reliability in ECT, the following subjects were carried out in this study: numerical modeling and analysis of defects by using BC and RPC probes in SG tube, preparation of absolute coil impedance plane diagram by FEM. Signal interpretation of the eddy current signals obtained from nuclear power plants

  16. Patch test with preservatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kar Sumit

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available Of the 705 patients patch tested between March 88 to March 91, 317 were tested for sensitivity to preservatives with antigens obtained from Chemo technique AB, Sweden. Paraben was the commonest sensitizer (22.4% followed by Groton B K (8.1% and Triclosan (6.5%. We stress the need to consider these allergens as source of dermatitis and advocate complete labelling of topical preparations marketed.

  17. Software Testing

    OpenAIRE

    Sarbjeet Singh; Sukhvinder singh; Gurpreet Singh,

    2010-01-01

    Software goes through a cycle of software development stages. A software is envisioned, created, evaluated, fixed and then put to use. To run any software consistently without any failure/bug/error, the most important step is to test the software. This paper points various types of software testing(manual and automation), various software testing techniques like black box, white box, gray box, sanity, functional testing etc. and software test life cycle models (V-model and W-model). This pape...

  18. Leak testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The standard specifies overpressure and vacuum leak tests. Of the overpressure tests the following are listed: leak tests by liquid overpressure, liquid overpressure using a differential pressure gauge, gas overpressure, gas overpressure using a differential pressure gauge, bubble leak test, leak test using a solution of fluorescein and halogen and helium overpressure tests. For each test a diagram is given of the equipment used, the procedure of testing and the method of test evaluation. Vacuum leak tests are classified into halogen tests, halogen tests with auxiliary rotary air pump, halogen with compound necks, halogen with bypass, helium with auxiliary rotary air pump, helium with pumping by diffusion air pump, helium using a rotary and diffusion air pump, helium using two measuring paths, helium with compound necks and leak tests by measuring the increase of pressure in the vacuum and by measuring increased pressure in the vacuum with known leak. A diagram of the equipment used and the testing procedures are represented for each vacuum test. (E.S.)

  19. Irradiation effects test Series Scoping Test 1: test results report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report describes the results of the first scoping test in the Irradiation Effects Test Series conducted by the Thermal Fuels Behavior Program, which is part of the Water Reactor Research Program of EG and G Idaho, Inc. The research is sponsored by the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission. This test used an unirradiated, three-foot-long, PWR-type fuel rod. The objective of this test was to thoroughly evaluate the remote fabrication procedures to be used for irradiated rods in future tests, handling plans, and reactor operations. Additionally, selected fuel behavior data were obtained. The fuel rod was subjected to a series of preconditioning power cycles followed by a power increase which brought the fuel rod power to about 20.4 kW/ft peak linear heat rating at a coolant mass flux of 1.83 x 106 lb/hr-ft2. Film boiling occurred for a period of 4.8 minutes following flow reductions to 9.6 x 105 and 7.5 x 105 lb/hr-ft2. The test fuel rod failed following reactor shutdown as a result of heavy internal and external cladding oxidation and embrittlement which occurred during the film boiling operation

  20. Mathematical models for correction of images, obtained at radioisotope scan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The images, which obtained at radioisotope scintigraphy, contain distortions. Distortions appear as a result of absorption of radiation by patient's body's tissues. Two mathematical models for reducing of such distortions are proposed. Image obtained by only one gamma camera is used in the first mathematical model. Unfortunately, this model allows processing of the images only in case, when it can be assumed, that the investigated organ has a symmetric form. The images obtained by two gamma cameras are used in the second model. It gives possibility to assume that the investigated organ has non-symmetric form and to acquire more precise results. (authors)

  1. Generator for gallium-68 and compositions obtained therefrom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neirinckx, Rudi D. (Medfield, MA); Davis, Michael A. (Westwood, MA)

    1981-01-01

    A generator for obtaining radioactive gallium-68 from germanium-68 bound in a resin containing unsubstituted phenolic hydroxyl groups. The germanium-68 is loaded into the resin from an aqueous solution of the germanium-68. A physiologically acceptable solution of gallium-68 having an activity of 0.1 to 50 millicuries per milliliter of gallium-68 solution is obtained. The solution is obtained from the bound germanium-68 which forms gallium-68 in situ by eluting the column with a hydrochloric acid solution to form an acidic solution of gallium-68. The acidic solution of gallium-68 can be neutralized.

  2. Obtaining high thermally conductive materials by pressing from the granulate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ditts, A.; Revva, I.; Pautova, Y.; Pogrebenkov, V.; Nepochatov, Y.; Galashov, E.; Tarnovskiy, R.

    2015-01-01

    This work contains results of investigation of obtaining high thermally conductive ceramics from commercial powders of aluminum nitride and yttrium oxide by the method of monoaxial compaction of granulate. The principal scheme of preparation is proposed and technological properties of granulate are defined. Compaction conditions for simple items to use as heat removal in microelectronics and power electrical engineering have been established. Investigations of thermophysical properties of obtained ceramics and its structure by the XRD and SEM methods have been carried out. Ceramics with thermal conductivity from 172 to 174 W/m·K has been obtained as result of this work.

  3. A STUDY ON TEMPERATURE OPTIMIZATION OF QUINIZARINE OBTAINMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet ALICILAR

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, it was investigated the effect of temperature on obtainment of quinizarine, which is an important raw material for textile dystuffs based on anthraquinone. For this purpose, the experiment was performed at three different temperature in laboratory. Melting points of products obtained were observed and they were analyzed by IR spectrometer. In this way, optimum temperature conditions were determined. At the end of the work, it was observed that the highest yield was obtained at the experiment in which the temperature is gradually increased and then, maintained at 250 °C.

  4. 24 CFR 81.45 - Obtaining and disseminating information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... THE SECRETARY OF HUD'S REGULATION OF THE FEDERAL NATIONAL MORTGAGE ASSOCIATION (FANNIE MAE) AND THE FEDERAL HOME LOAN MORTGAGE CORPORATION (FREDDIE MAC) Fair Housing § 81.45 Obtaining and disseminating information....

  5. Process modifications of obtaining Tc-99m by solvent extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes a modification in the process to obtaining Tc-99m by the extraction method of solvent from Mo-99 produced by irradiation. Tc-99m is considered an ideal radionuclide for medical and biological applications

  6. 12 CFR 747.702 - Information obtained in investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... false Information obtained in investigations. 747.702 Section 747.702...RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE, AND INVESTIGATIONS Local Rules and Procedures Applicable to Investigations § 747.702 Information...

  7. OBTAINING MICROCRYSTALLINE CELLULOSE FROM SOFTWOOD AND HARDWOOD PULP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Chernyavskaya

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Conditions for obtaining microcrystalline cellulose (MCC by the thermocatalytic method from hardwood (birch, aspen and softwood (pine bleached sulphate pulp have been developed. After thermocatalytic treatment, cellulose polymerization degree has decreased to the so-called levelling-off degree of polymerization (LODP, which, in the case of birch, aspen and pine wood pulp, made up 450, 370 and 250 units, respectively. After grinding the destructed pulp in a ball mill, MCC powder samples were obtained with particles, the major part of which had sizes of 2-20 ?m. In terms of physico-chemical indices investigated in this work, the obtained samples conform to the pharmacopoeia requirements. Dispersing the destructed pulp in water medium, at a sufficiently high cellulose concentration (? 8%, MCC gel samples were prepared, with rheological properties typical for liquid crystalline polymers. The indices of the obtained hardwood and softwood MCC were compared.

  8. Process optimization for obtaining nano cellulose from curaua fiber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study focuses on the methodology for optimization to obtain nanocellulose from vegetal fibers. An experimental planning was carried out for the treatment of curaua fibers and parameters were estimated, having the concentration of H2SO4, hydrolysis time, reaction temperature and time of sonication applied as independent variables for further statistical analysis. According to the estimated parameters, the statistically significant effects were determined for the process of obtaining nanocellulose. According to the results obtained from the thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) it was observed that certain conditions led to cellulose with degradation temperatures near or even above that of untreated cellulose fibers. The crystallinity index (IC) obtained after fiber treatment (X-ray diffraction) were higher than that of the pure fiber. Treatments with high acid concentrations led to higher IC. (author)

  9. Software to obtain polynomial coefficients from gage to calibration data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This manual describes the software developed for use with the HP9845 desktop computer to obtain various order polynomial coefficients used in conversion algorithms by the WIPP MODCOMP data acquisition computer from gage calibrations

  10. Trials and tribulations of obtaining an N stamp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some of the difficulties encountered by a company manufacturing main steam isolation valves for a US nuclear power station, in their efforts to obtain an ASME N stamp for their quality assurance system are described. (U.K.)

  11. Comparison of different methodologies for obtaining nickel nanoferrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galindo, R.; Menendez, N.; Crespo, P.; Velasco, V.; Bomati-Miguel, O.; Díaz-Fernández, D.; Herrasti, P.

    2014-06-01

    Nickel nanoferrites were obtained by means of four different synthetic wet-routes: co-precipitation (CP), sonochemistry (SC), sonoelectrochemistry (SE) and electrochemistry (E). The influence of the synthesis method on the structural and magnetic properties of nickel ferrite nanoparticles is studied. Although similar experimental conditions such as temperature, pH and time of synthesis were used, a strong dependence of composition and microstructure on the synthesis procedure is found, as electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and Mössbauer spectroscopy studies reveal. Whereas by means of the CP and SC methods particles of a small size around 5-10 nm, respectively, and composed by different phases are obtained, the electrochemical routes (E and SE) allow obtaining monodisperse nanoparticles, with sizes ranging from 30 to 40 nm, and very close to stoichiometry. Magnetic characterization evidences a superparamagnetic behavior for samples obtained by CP and SC methods, whereas the electrochemical route leads to ferromagnetic ferrite nanoparticles.

  12. Tensile testing

    CERN Document Server

    2004-01-01

    A complete guide to the uniaxial tensile test, the cornerstone test for determining the mechanical properties of materials: Learn ways to predict material behavior through tensile testing. Learn how to test metals, alloys, composites, ceramics, and plastics to determine strength, ductility and elastic/plastic deformation. A must for laboratory managers, technicians, materials and design engineers, and students involved with uniaxial tensile testing. Tensile Testing , Second Edition begins with an introduction and overview of the test, with clear explanations of how materials properties are determined from test results. Subsequent sections illustrate how knowledge gained through tensile tests, such as tension properties to predict the behavior (including strength, ductility, elastic or plastic deformation, tensile and yield strengths) have resulted in improvements in materals applications. The Second Edition is completely revised and updated. It includes expanded coverage throughout the volume on a variety of ...

  13. Perovskite type nanopowders and thin films obtained by chemical methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktor Fruth

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The review presents the contribution of the authors, to the preparation of two types of perovskites, namely BiFeO3 and LaCoO3, by innovative methods. The studied perovskites were obtained as powders, films and sintered bodies. Their complex structural and morphological characterization is also presented. The obtained results have underlined the important influence of the method of preparation on the properties of the synthesized perovskites.

  14. Perovskite type nanopowders and thin films obtained by chemical methods

    OpenAIRE

    Viktor Fruth; Monica Popa; Jose Calderon-Moreno; Ecaterina Tenea; Mihai Anastasescu; Petre Osiceanu; Elena Anghel; Luminita Predoana; Barbara Malic; Maria Zaharescu

    2010-01-01

    The review presents the contribution of the authors, to the preparation of two types of perovskites, namely BiFeO3 and LaCoO3, by innovative methods. The studied perovskites were obtained as powders, films and sintered bodies. Their complex structural and morphological characterization is also presented. The obtained results have underlined the important influence of the method of preparation on the properties of the synthesized perovskites.

  15. Obtaining the pure vanadium by the aluminothermic reduction method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The technology of obtaining a pure vanadium by means of preliminary reduction of V2O5 and two-stage vacuum refining has been presented. The choice and calculation of the component composition taking part in the process, thermodynamic dependencies of the reduction process and the trial of the process thermal balance have been described. From the charge in the form of technical concentrate a pure vanadium has been obtained by means of the elaborated technology. (author)

  16. First donation of human skin obtained from corpse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first donation of human skin coming from a cadaverous donor was obtained in the State of Mexico. The skin was obtained of a 34 year-old multi organic donor, the extraction of the same was carried out in an operating theatre by medical personnel, supported by personal of the Radio sterilized Tissue Bank (BTR) of the ININ. The skin was transported to the BTR for it processing. (Author)

  17. How much information can be obtained by a quantum measurement?

    OpenAIRE

    Massar, S.; Popescu, S.

    1999-01-01

    How much information about an unknown quantum state can be obtained by a measurement? We propose a model independent answer: the information obtained is equal to the minimum entropy of the outputs of the measurement, where the minimum is taken over all measurements which measure the same ``property'' of the state. This minimization is necessary because the measurement outcomes can be redundant, and this redundancy must be eliminated. We show that this minimum entropy is less...

  18. Functionality of porous starch obtained by amylase or amyloglucosidase treatments

    OpenAIRE

    Dura?, A?ngela; B?aszczak, W.; Rosell, Cristina M.

    2013-01-01

    Porous starch is attracting very much attention for its absorption and shielding ability in many food applications. The effect of two different enzymes, fungal ?-amylase (AM) or amyloglucosidase (AMG), on corn starch at sub-gelatinization temperature was studied as an alternative to obtain porous starch. Biochemical features, thermal and structural analyses of treated starches were studied. Microscopic analysis of the granules confirmed the enzymatic modification of the starches obtaining po...

  19. Monocyte counting: discrepancies in results obtained with different automated instruments.

    OpenAIRE

    Goossens, W.; Hove, L.; Verwilghen, R. L.

    1991-01-01

    To determine the accuracy of several methods for measuring the monocyte count, the results obtained by a number of different automated cell counters were analysed. Considerable discrepancies occurred for monocyte counts obtained in normal blood among the counters. The results of a visual monocyte count on a total of 800 leucocytes were used as the reference method. The technique of measuring the monocyte count by using dual staining with monoclonal antibodies CD45 and CD14 provided the closes...

  20. Obtainment of bactericidal inkjet inks based on Ag-nanocomposites

    OpenAIRE

    Palacios, M. D.; Mestre Beltra?n, Sergio; Belda Pen?a, Adriana; Nos, V.; Cabedo, J.; Zaragoza, J.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, ceramic inks were formulated that are able to develop bactericidal properties and are appropriate for application by inkjet printing. These inks contain silver nanocomposites and are applied on to unfired glazed ceramic bodies, yielding single-fired tiles. Silver nanocomposites were obtained from different precursors, which were made to react in order to obtain more stable structures that, in addition to incorporating bactericidal components, were able to reduce their reacti...

  1. Thermoluminescence properties of zinc oxide obtained by solution combustion synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orante B, V. R.; Escobar O, F. M.; Cruz V, C. [Universidad de Sonora, Departamento de Investigacion en Polimeros y Materiales, Apdo. Postal 130, 83000 Hermosillo, Sonora (Mexico); Bernal, R., E-mail: victor.orante@polimeros.uson.mx [Universidad de Sonora, Departamento de Investigacion en Fisica, Apdo. Postal 5-088, 83190 Hermosillo, Sonora (Mexico)

    2014-08-15

    High-dose thermoluminescence dosimetry properties of novel zinc oxide obtained by solution combustion synthesis in a glycine-nitrate process, with a non-stoichiometric value of the elemental stoichiometric coefficient (?{sub c}) are presented in this work. Zn O powder samples obtained were annealed afterwards at 900 grades C during 2 h in air. Sintered particles of sizes between ? 0.5 and ? 2 ?m were obtained, according to scanning electron microscopy results. X-ray diffraction indicates the presence of the hexagonal phase of Zn O for the powder samples obtained, before and after thermal annealing, without any remaining nitrate peaks observed. Thermoluminescence glow curves of Zn O obtained after being exposed to beta radiation consists of two maxima; one located at ? 149 grades C and another at ? 308 grades C, being the latter the dosimetric component of the curve. Dosimetric characterization of non-stoichiometric zinc oxide provided experimental evidence like asymptotic behavior of the Tl signal fading for times greater than 16 h between irradiation and the corresponding Tl readout, as well as the linear behaviour of the dose response without saturation in the dose interval studied (from 12.5 up to 400 Gy). Such characteristics place Zn O phosphors obtained in this work as a promising material for high-dose radiation dosimetry applications (e.g., radiotherapy and food industry). (author)

  2. Molecular analysis of isolates of Salmonella typhi obtained from patients with fatal and nonfatal typhoid fever.

    OpenAIRE

    Thong, K. L.; Passey, M.; Clegg, A.; Combs, B. G.; Yassin, R. M.; Pang, T.

    1996-01-01

    Molecular characterization of a total of 52 human isolates of Salmonella typhi from Papua New Guinea was performed by using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) after digestion of chromosomal DNA with three restriction endonucleases, XbaI (5'-TCTAGA-3'), AvrII (5'-CCTAGG-3'), and SpeI (5'-ACTAGT-3'). Of the 52 isolates tested, 11 were obtained from patients with fatal typhoid fever and 41 were obtained from patients with nonfatal disease. The 52 isolates showed limited genetic diversity as...

  3. Biological investigations of Indian phaeophyceae: 17. Seasonal variation of antibacterial activity of total sterols obtained from frozen samples of Sargassum johnstonii Setchell et Gardner

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, P.P.S.

    1998-01-01

    From lipid fraction of frozen samples of Sargassum johnstonii unsaponifiable part was extracted with diethyl ether to isolate total sterols. The extracted sterols were obtained for a period of nine months and tested against test bacteria...

  4. Thermal Vacuum/Balance Test Results of Swift BAT with Loop Heat Pipe Thermal System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Michael K.

    2004-01-01

    The Swift Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) Detector Array is thermally well coupled to eight constant conductance heat pipes (CCHPs) embedded in the Detector Array Plate PAP), and two loop heat pipes (LHPs) transport heat from the CCHPs to a radiator. The CCHPs have ammonia as the working fluid and the LHPs have propylene as the working fluid. Precision heater controllers, which have adjustable set points in flight, are used to control the LHP compensation chamber and Detector Array xA1 ASIC temperatures. The radiator has AZ-Tek's AZW-LA-II low solar absorptance white paint as the thermal coating, and is located on the anti-sun side of the spacecraft. A thermal balance (T/B) test on the BAT was successfully completed. It validated that the thermal design satisfies the temperature requirements of the BAT in the flight thermal environments. Instrument level and observatory level thermal vacuum (TN) cycling tests of the BAT Detector Array by using the LHP thermal system were successfully completed. This paper presents the results of the T/B test and T N cycling tests.

  5. Test quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document discusses inservice testing of safety-related components at nuclear power plants which is performed under the American Society of Mechanical Engineers Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (the Code). Subsections IWP and IWV of Section XI of the Code state test method and frequency requirements for pumps and valves respectively. Tests vary greatly in quality and frequency. This paper explores the concept of test quality and its relationship with operational readiness and preventive maintenance. This paper also considers the frequencies of component testing. Test quality is related to a test's ability to detect degradation that can cause component failure. The quality of the test depends on several factors, including specific parameters measured, system or component conditions, and instrument accuracy. The quality of some currently required tests for check valves, motor-operated valves, and pumps is also discussed. Suggestions are made to improve test quality by measuring different parameters, testing valves under load, and testing positive displacement pumps at high pressure and centrifugal pumps at high flow rate conditions. These suggestions can help to improve the level of assurance of component operational readiness gained from testing

  6. 7 CFR 800.46 - Requirements for obtaining official services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...the Act. Before the malfunctioning scale or scale system can be used again for weighing...properly by the Service or approved scale testing and certification organization...Approved by the Office of Management and Budget under control number...

  7. Sensitivity analysis of the optimal solution obtained from the structural damage indentification process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Mo-How H.

    1990-01-01

    An identification procedure proposed by Shen and Taylor to determine the crack characteristics (location and size of the crack) from dynamic measurements is tested. This procedure was based on minimization of either the 'mean-square' measure of difference between measurement data (natural frequencies and mode shapes) and the corresponding predictions obtained from the computational model. The procedure is tested for simulated damage in the form of symmetric cracks in a simply-supported Bernoulli-Euler beam. The sensitivity of the solution of damage identification problems to the values of parameters that characterize damage is discussed. A sensitivity formula is derived.

  8. Metal-ceramic composite coatings obtained by new thermal spray technologies: Cold Gas Spray (CGS) and its wear resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, composite coatings composed by an aluminum bronze metal matrix and a hard ceramic alumina phase obtained by cold spray technique were obtained in order to increase the tribological properties of the pure bronze coatings. The different processes that occur during the coating formation (hardening of the metal particles, fragmentation of the ceramic particles, shot peening on the metal substrate, etc) are described and their effects on the coating properties are studied. Wear tests consisting on Ball-on-Disk tests, abrasion Rubber Wheel tests and erosion tests as well as microhardness and adhesion tests are carried out and the results are correlated with the ceramic phase content of the coatings. It can be concluded that the hard ceramic phase increases the tribological properties with relation of the initial bronze coating. Finally, main wear mechanisms during the tribological tests are described. (Author) 21 refs.

  9. Forming Tests for Laser Welded Blanks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger, Claus; Olsen, Flemming Ove

    1998-01-01

    In this paper different means for testing the formability of new material combinations used as tailored blanks in the automotive industry are presented. The following forming techniques will be described and their benefits and drawbacks presented :Limiting Dome Height test (LDH)Limiting Drawing Ratio test (LDR)Tensile testBulge testMarziniak testPractical examples obtained for laser welded blanks are shown. In combination, tensile tests and the Bulge test can form the so-called Forming Limiting Curves and examples of curves obtained from laser welded blanks are shown.

  10. The using of terephthalic acid for obtaining new organic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text.The process of preparation of tere phthalates of the elements of Groups I-II, as well as aluminium and zirconium tere phthalates is studied. Obtained tere phthalates were investigated using optical and electronic microscopy, thermogravimetry, IR spectroscopy, x-ray phase and chemical analysis. Besides, decomposition of aluminium and zirconium tere phthalates by means of hydrothermal, thermo vaporous and thermal treatment was studied. Commercial terephthalic and (TA) as well as TA, obtained from autoclave treatment of poly ethyleneterephthalate waste items were used. Synthesized ammonium terephthalate was successfully used in the preparation of materials with new characteristics. Other tere phthalates were obtained by the reaction of aqueous salt solutions of corresponding elements with ammonium terephthalate or tere phthalates of alkaline elements. for elements of I-II Groups individual compounds (tere phthalates) were prepared and identified. Obtained aluminium and zirconium tere phthalates have variable composition, and later decompose to corresponding oxides. After heating aluminium and zirconium tere phthalates at 600 celsius degree amorphous oxides of these elements are formed with particle size of 200-300 nm. further thermal treatment of these compounds up till 1000 celsius degree leads to the formation of crystalline forms of these oxides. In this case we obtain both gamma and particle size of 500-800 nm. for ZrO2 such treatment leads to thZrO2 such treatment leads to the formation of monoclinic crystals with particle size of 500 nm. the use of yttrium oxide in the synthesis of zirconium terephthalate enables us to obtain tetragonal zirconium oxide. From the above mentioned oxides, using the method of slip casting and pressing, we obtain ceramics with high durability. These results show the perspective of the usage of tere phthalates for the preparation of new materials of various purposes in general, and high quality ceramics in particular

  11. The postpartum Papanicolaou smear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, B D