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  1. Pap Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... female reproductive anatomy during a Pap test. A speculum is shown widening the opening of the vagina. ... and her feet in stirrups. Pap test. A speculum is inserted into the vagina to widen it. ...

  2. Pap and HPV Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer Prevention Cervical Cancer Screening Research Pap and HPV Testing On This Page What causes cervical cancer? ... are abnormal? For a woman receiving Pap and HPV cotesting: If a woman is found to have ...

  3. Pap Tests and Foreign-Born Women

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2007-11-26

    Foreign-born women living in the U.S. are less likely to have Pap tests to detect cervical cancer than women born in this country. The problem is worse for women from certain countries or regions. Find out why this is a disturbing trend, who these women are and why they are less likely to get a Pap test, and what CDC is doing about it.  Created: 11/26/2007 by National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program.   Date Released: 12/7/2007.

  4. Access to Adequate Healthcare for Hmong Women: A Patient Navigation Program to Increase Pap Test Screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moon S. Chen, Jr

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the development and implementation of a Hmong Cervical Cancer Intervention Program utilizing a patient navigation model to raise cervical cancer awareness for Hmong women through educational workshops and to assist Hmong women in obtaining a Pap test. Out of 402 women who participated in a baseline survey, the Patient Navigation Program was able to enroll 109 participants who had not had a Pap test in the past 3 years and had never had a Pap test. Through utilization of outreach, an awareness campaign and patient navigation support, at least 38 percent of 109 participants obtained a Pap test. Overall, 21 workshops and 43 outreach activities were conducted by the Hmong Womens Heritage Association, leading to 63 percent of those enrolled in the Patient Navigation Program who could be contacted to obtain a Pap test.

  5. Negative HPV screening test predicts low cervical cancer risk better than negative Pap test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Based on a study that included more than 1 million women, investigators at NCI have determined that a negative test for HPV infection compared to a negative Pap test provides greater safety, or assurance, against future risk of cervical cancer.

  6. How Often to Get a Pap Test (A Cup of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-01-10

    Cervical cancer has declined in the U.S., and the decline is largely due to Pap testing and follow-up. Screening recommendations have changed. In this podcast, Meg Watson discusses Pap testing.  Created: 1/10/2013 by MMWR.   Date Released: 1/10/2013.

  7. Negative HPV test result is better predictor of low cervical cancer risk than negative Pap test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Based on a study that included more than 1 million women, DCEG investigators and colleagues have determined that a negative test for human papillomavirus (HPV) infection compared to a negative Pap test provides greater safety, or assurance, against future risk of cervical cancer. That is, women who test negative on the HPV test have an extremely low risk of developing cervical cancer. The findings appeared online July 18, 2014, in the Journal of the National Cancer Institute.

  8. Abnormal Pap tests and human papillomavirus infections among HIV infected and uninfected women who have sex with women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massad, L. Stewart; Xie, Xianhong; Minkoff, Howard; Darragh, Teresa M.; DSouza, Gypsyamber; Sanchez-Keeland, Lorraine; Watts, D. Heather; Colie, Christine; Strickler, Howard D.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To estimate the frequency of abnormal Pap and human papillomavirus (HPV) positivity among HIV seropositive and seronegative women who have sex with women (WSW). Methods Pap and HPV DNA PCR tests were obtained every six months from women in a U.S. cohort of HIV seropositive and seronegative women. WSW were women reporting no male and at least one female sex partner over five years. WSW were frequency matched 1:5 to women reporting sex only with men (WSM) and assessed using multivariable generalized estimating equation logistic regression models. Results Paps at study entry were abnormal in 12 (21%) of 49 HIV seropositive WSW, 151 (64%) of 245 HIV seropositive WSM, 3 (9%) of 24 HIV seronegative WSW, and 16 (11%) of 120 seronegative WSM. HPV was found at entry in 18 (42%) HIV seropositive WSW, 109 (52%) HIV seropositive WSM, 6 (27%) HIV seronegative WSW and 13 (13%) HIV seronegative WSM. After controlling for HIV serostatus and CD4 count, WSW had marginally lower odds than WSM of Pap abnormality (O.R. 0.59, 95% C.I. 0.33, 1.03) and of HPV (O.R. 0.53, 95% C.I. 0.32, 0.89). After controlling for partner gender, HIV seropositivity and lower CD4 count were associated with any HPV, oncogenic HPV, any abnormal Pap result, and HSIL or worse (P < 0.0001 for all). Conclusion While risks for abnormal Pap and HPV are modestly lower in WSW than WSM, both are common in HIV seropositive women regardless of sexual preference. WSW and WSM should be screened similarly. PMID:23959300

  9. Rates and independent correlates of Pap smear testing among Korean-American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wismer, B A; Moskowitz, J M; Chen, A M; Kang, S H; Novotny, T E; Min, K; Lew, R; Tager, I B

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study reports population estimates of Pap smear testing among Korean-American women and evaluates correlates of testing. METHODS: Korean Americans in 2 California counties were surveyed by telephone. Frequencies were age-adjusted to the 1990 census to produce population estimates of testing. Logistic regression models were used to evaluate independent correlates of testing RESULTS: Only 50% of the Korean-American women surveyed had a Pap test in the previous 2 years. The strongest independent correlate was having had a regular check-up in the previous 2 years (odds ratio 7.2, 95% confidence interval 4.2, 12.1). CONCLUSIONS: Rates of Pap testing among Korean-American women are well below national objectives. Collaboration and community-sensitive research are essential to collect data and design programs to improve the health of ethnic minority communities. PMID:9551013

  10. A Shandon PapSpin liquid-based gynecological test: A split-sample and direct-to-vial test with histology follow-up study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rimiene J

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Studies for liquid-based Papanicolaou (Pap tests reveal that liquid-based cytology (LBC is a safe and effective alternative to the conventional Pap smear. Although there is research on ThinPrep and SurePath systems, information is lacking to evaluate the efficiency and effectiveness of systems based on cytocentrifugation. This study is designed to determine the sensitivity and specificity of the Shandon PapSpin (ThermoShandon, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA liquid-based gynecological system. We used split-sample and direct-to-vial study design. Materials and Methods: 2,945 women referred to prophylactic check-up were enrolled in this study. Split sample design was used in 1,500 women and residual cervical cytology specimen from all these cases was placed in fluid for PapSpin preparation after performing conventional smear. The direct-to-vial study was carried out in another cohort of 1,445 women in whom the entire cervical material was investigated using only the PapSpin technique. Follow up histological diagnoses for 141 women were obtained from both study arms following 189 abnormal cytology cases. 80 LBC cases from the split sample group and 61 LBC cases in the direct-to-vial group were correlated with the histology results. The sensitivity and secificity of the conventional smear and PapSpin tests in both study arms were compared. Results: In the split sample group, conventional smears showed a higher proportion of ASC-US (atypical cells undetermined significance: 31 (2.1% vs 10 (0.7% in PapSpin (P = 0.001. A higher proportion of unsatisfactory samples was found in the conventional smear group: 25 (1.7% vs 6 (0.4% cases (P = 0.001. In the split sample group, the sensitivity of the conventional and PapSpin tests was 68.7% vs 78.1%, and the specificity 93.8% vs 91.8%, respectively. In the direct to vial group PapSpin sensitivity was 75.9% and specificity 96.5%. The differences in sensitivity and specificity were not significant. The positive predictive values for the conventional and PapSpin methods were not different in the split sample group: 88.0% vs 86.2% and 95.7% in the direct-to-vial group. Also, no differences were found for negative predictive value (82.1, 86.8% and 80.0% respectively. Conclusions: PapSpin showed good qualitative results in both study arms, even after the material splitting in the first study arm, and is a good alternative to the conventional Pap smear. Additionally, the PapSpin method offers several advantages such as the opportunity to prepare duplicate slides, option for HPV DNA testing and cell block preparations from residual material. Microscopic evaluation of thinner cell preparations is less time consuming than the conventional Pap smears.

  11. La coloracin fluorescente con naranja de acridina y el PAP: validacin de ambas tcnicas para la deteccin de Trichomonas vaginalis FLUORESCENT STAINING WITH ACRIDINE ORANGE AND PAP SMEAR: VALIDATION TESTS OF BOTH TECNIQUES FOR THE DETECTION OF Trichomonas vaginalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SIXTO RAUL COSTAMAGNA

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available Se efectu la validacin de la coloracin de Papanicolaou, utilizada para citologa vaginal, frente a la coloracin fluorescente con naranja de acridina, a fin de evaluar el valor de un resultado negativo para Trichomonas vaginalis obtenido en un PAP. Se estudiaron 80 muestras de flujo vaginal de mujeres entre 18 y 45 aos, pacientes de consultorios externos de Ginecologa del Hospital Municipal de la ciudad de Baha Blanca, Provincia de Buenos Aires (Argentina. Las muestras se colorearon paralelamente por la tcnica de Papanicolaou y por la coloracin fluorescente con naranja de acridina. Los resultados mostraron que el PAP presenta una sensibilidad del 54,5% para la deteccin de T. vaginalis, validacin efectuada frente a la coloracin fluorescente con naranja de acridina, para una prevalencia de enfermedad en el grupo de mujeres estudiadas del 13,75% y un nivel de confianza del 95%. Para ensayos "en paralelo" con ambas coloraciones, el valor global de la prueba fue del 93,8%, con un valor predictivo del resultado negativo del 93,2%. Concluimos que si bien T. vaginalis es detectada en el PAP, ste no presenta sensibilidad significativamente elevada como para ser considerada como nica prueba, debindose complementar siempre con una coloracin fluorescente con naranja de acridina, u otra prueba de similar valorThe present study examined the validity of PAP staining, as used for vaginal cytology, against fluorescent staining with acridine orange in order to determine the value of a negative result of Trichomonas vaginalis obtained by a PAP smear. We examined eighty vaginal-secretion samples from 18- to 45-year-old female patients of the Hospital Municipal of the city of Baha Blanca, Province of Buenos Aires, Argentina. The samples were stained in parallel by the PAP smear technique and the fluorescent staining technique with acridine orange described by Fripp in 1975. The results of our validation tests demonstrated that, against fluorescent staining with acridine orange, the PAP smear has a 54.5% sensitivity for the detection of T. vaginalis for a 13.75% prevalence of disease among the females in the study with a 95% confidence level. In assays conducted "in parallel" for both stainings, the global value of the test was 93.8%, with a predictive negative value of 93.2%. We conclude that, although the PAP smear can detect T. vaginalis, its sensitivity is not high enough for the test to be used as the sole diagnostic means and the test must always be supplemented with fluorescent staining with acridine orange or another test of similar value. Otherwise, the diagnostic sensitivity would not be any higher than that of vaginal discharge exams in vitro.

  12. Frequency of Undergoing Mammogram and Pap Test Among Healthcare Providers in Hospitals of Hamadan

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    Nasrolahi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background The Mammograms and Papanicolaou (Pap test of women aged 25 to 64 years are Iran’s national strategy for breast and cervical cancer screening, respectively. Widespread primary care services are supplied through a network of primary health centers; nonetheless, little is known about breast and cervical cancer screening-related practices among healthcare workers in hospitals. Objectives The present study aimed to investigate the frequency of undergoing breast and cervical cancer screening among Iranian healthcare providers. Materials and Methods In this cross-sectional study, 460 female healthcare providers from four public hospitals in Hamadan were recruited. Data were collected using a questionnaire, which included socio-demographic characteristics, family history of breast and cervical cancers, and history of undergoing mammography and Pap smear test. Results The rate of positive family history of breast cancer was 15.6%. The mean age at undergoing the first mammogram was 40.7 ± 3.9 years and the mean number of lifetime mammographies was 1.12 ± 0.33. From 460 women in this study, 42.6% had undergone mammography. Specialist physicians had undergone mammography more frequently than other healthcare providers had done. Only 72 participants (15.6% had positive family history of breast cancer among which 15 (62.5 % had undergone mammography. The frequency of undergoing mammography was significantly different among different healthcare providers (χ 2 = 12.16; P = 0.007 and positive family history of breast cancer were significant. A total of 268 cases out of 420 had the positive history of undergoing Pap test. The mean age at undergoing the first screening was 27.9 ± 4.6 years and the mean number of lifetime Pap test was 1.64 ± 0.92. Most of the midwives (88.1% had undergone Pap test; the rate was 77.8% in specialist physicians, 61.8% in nurses, and 51.7% in general practitioner. Only 14 out of 420 respondents had positive family history of cervical cancer among which 13 (92.9% had undergone Pap rest. The frequency of undergoing Pap test was significantly different among different healthcare providers (χ2 = 12.16, P = 0.007 and positive family history of cervical cancer among those older than 40 years (χ2 = 7.24, P = 0.02 were significant. Conclusions Screening for gynecologic cancer is important in early diagnosis and women wellbeing. The acceptance of cancer screening test was low in most of the healthcare providers. The attitude and practice of healthcare provider can affect women’s acceptance of cancer screening test.

  13. How Often to Get a Pap Test (A Minute of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-01-10

    Cervical cancer has declined in the U.S., however every year over 12,000 women are diagnosed and 4,000 die. This podcast discusses the importance of Pap testing.  Created: 1/10/2013 by MMWR.   Date Released: 1/10/2013.

  14. Factors associated with Mexican women's familiarity with the purpose of the Pap test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Njera Aguilar, P; Lazcano Ponce, E C; de Ruz, P A; Ramrez Snchez, T; Cantoral Uriza, L; Hernndez Avila, M

    1996-12-01

    Use of health services is usually associated with a variety of factors, including the socioeconomic characteristics of the users, their familiarity with the usefulness of the services provided, and the acceptability and accessibility of those services. To study the factors associated with women's familiarity with the Pap test, a population-based study was carried out in Mexico City and two rural areas in the state of Oaxaca by means of household interviews. The sample consisted of 4208 women 15 to 49 years of age. Univariate, bivariate, and multivariate analyses were done using unconditional logistic regression; the independent variables were access to social security health services, age, education, housing quality, and place of residence (urban or rural); the dependent variable was the interview subject's familiarity with the purpose of the Pap test. The results were expressed as odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals. It was found that 41.5% of the women surveyed did not know the purpose of the Pap test, and that within this latter group, 97% had never had one. Factors found to be associated with not knowing the test's purpose were lack of access to the social security health services (OR = 1.9; 95% CI: 1.5-2.3); illiteracy (OR = 36.1; 95% CI: 17.9-72.7); and low socioeconomic level (OR = 2.9; 95% CI: 2.3-3.7). Also, rural dwellers had less familiarity with the Pap test than urban dwellers (OR = 0.5; 95% CI: 0.4-0.7). These results highlight the need to develop strategies for making the benefits of the Pap test known, bearing in mind the socioeconomic and cultural diversity of the populations involved. PMID:9041746

  15. [Factors associated with failure to take a Pap smear test among Quilombola women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Mrcio Vasconcelos; Guimares, Mark Drew Crosland; Frana, Elisabeth Barboza

    2014-11-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze factors associated with failure to take a Pap smear test among quilombola women living in Vitria da Conquista in the state of Bahia. A cross-sectional, population-based study was conducted with women aged 18 to 64. Descriptive analysis and univariate and multivariate analysis using a multinomial logistic model was applied. Women who had never performed the test or had not had one for over three years were compared separately from those who were examined within the preceding three years. Of the 348 women included in the analysis, 27.3%, reported never having a Pap smear test. The following factors were independently associated with never having taken the test: age of 18 to 29 years and 50 to 59 years; lack of education; not having a partner; seeking care in health-related units/establishments other than their place of residence; and having a clinical breast examination three or more years ago or never having one. The findings indicate a need for reflection in order to combat factors that are associated with not having a Pap smear test among quilombola women, since it is important to implement actions for the prevention of cervical cancer. PMID:25351319

  16. PAP TESTING AMONG VIETNAMESE WOMEN: HEALTH CARE SYSTEM AND PHYSICIAN FACTORS

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, Victoria M; Schwartz, Stephen M.; Yasui, Yutaka; Burke, Nancy; Shu, Jianfen; Lam, D. Hien; Jackson, J. Carey

    2004-01-01

    Cervical cancer occurs more frequently among Vietnamese Americans than women of any other race/ethnicity. In addition, previous studies in California have documented low Papanicolaou (Pap) testing rates in Vietnamese communities. This study focused on health care system factors and physician characteristics associated with recent cervical cancer screening among Vietnamese women. A population-based survey was conducted in Seattle during 2002. In-person interviews were conducted by bilingual, b...

  17. Pap Smear Screening Test and its Applications in Cervical Cancer Detection and Classification

    OpenAIRE

    S.Athinarayanan; Dr.M.V.Srinath

    2013-01-01

    A large group of women population, in the world is affected by the cervical cancer in their different age groups. Hence, most of the researchers, pathologists and also more number of collegiate have provided more number of solutions, to identify this cancer from the test images of pap smear screening test. But their results represent, only to an extent, whether the patient is affected by cancer or not, and do not specially identify the exact nature and severity of the cancer. In this paper, i...

  18. Cervical Cancer Prevention Knowledge and Abnormal Pap Test Experiences Among Women Living with HIV/AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wigfall, Lisa T; Bynum, Shalanda A; Brandt, Heather M; Friedman, Daniela B; Bond, Sharon M; Lazenby, Gweneth B; Richter, Donna L; Glover, Saundra H; Hbert, James R

    2015-06-01

    Cervical cancer prevention knowledge deficits persist among women living with HIV/AIDS (WLHA) despite increased risk of developing cervical dysplasia/cancer. We examined associations between WLHA's cervical cancer prevention knowledge and abnormal Pap test history. We recruited 145 urban and rural WLHA from Ryan White-funded clinics and AIDS service organizations located in the southeastern USA between March 2011 and April 2012. For this analysis, women who reported a history of cervical cancer (n?=?3) or had a complete hysterectomy (n?=?14) and observations with missing data (n?=?22) were excluded. Stata/IC 13 was used to perform cross-tabulations and chi-squared tests. Our sample included 106 predominantly non-Hispanic Black (92%) WLHA. Mean age was 46.3??10.9 years. Half (50%) had???high school education. One third (37%) had low health literacy. The majority (83 %) had a Pap test shared decisions about their cervical health, they need to be knowledgeable about cervical cancer care options across the cancer control continuum. Providing WLHA with prevention knowledge beyond screening recommendations seems warranted given their increased risk of developing cervical dysplasia/neoplasia. PMID:24928481

  19. Iodamoeba butschlii in an anal pap test confirmed by iodine stain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuetz, Audrey N; Pritt, Bobbi S; Schreiner, Andrew M

    2014-09-01

    We report the finding of Iodamoeba butschlii amebic cysts on a liquid-based anal Pap smear from an HIV-positive male. Iodine staining of the smear confirmed the diagnosis. It is important to distinguish I. butschlii from pathogenic ameobae and other organisms seen on anal Pap smears. PMID:24167099

  20. Mammography and Pap test screening among low-income foreign-born Hispanic women in the USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria E. Fernandez

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about the factors influencing screening among low-income Hispanic women particularly among recent immigrants. A sample of 148 low-income, low-literate, foreign-born Hispanic women residing in the Washington DC metropolitan area participated in the study. The mean age of the sample was 46.2 (SD = 11.5, 84% reported annual household incomes<=$15,000. All women were Spanish speakers and had low acculturation levels. Ninety six percent had reported having a Pap smear, but 24% were not in compliance with recommended screening (Pap test within the last 3 years. Among women 40 and older, 62% had received a mammogram, but only 33% were compliant with age appropriate recommended mammography screening guidelines. Women in this study had more misconceptions about cancer than Hispanics in other studies. Multivariate logistic models for correlates of Pap test and mammography screening behavior indicate that factors such as fear of the screening test, embarrassment, and lack of knowledge influenced screening behavior. In conclusion, women in this study had lower rates of mammography screening than non-Hispanic women and lower rates of compliance with recommended Mammography and Pap test screening guidelines.

  1. Cmo afecta el tipo de seguro de salud a la realizacin del Papanicolaou en Per? / How does type of health insurance affect receipt of Pap testing in Peru?

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Leslie, Barrionuevo-Rosas; Laia, Palncia; Carme, Borrell.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Describir la asociacin entre la realizacin de la citologa del cuello uterino y el tipo de seguro de salud en las mujeres peruanas, y determinar el papel de las variables sociodemogrficas y de salud sexual en esta relacin. MTODOS: Se realiz un estudio transversal que utiliza la infor [...] macin de la Encuesta Demogrfica y de Salud Familiar (ENDES), Per, 2005-2008, correspondiente a una seleccin de 12 272 mujeres de 30 a 49 aos de edad. La variable dependiente fue la realizacin de alguna prueba de Papanicolaou (PAP) en los ltimos 5 aos. Las variables independientes principales fueron el tipo de seguro de salud, el nivel educativo, el nivel socioeconmico del hogar, la etnia y el rea de residencia. La asociacin multivariada fue estimada a travs de la razn de prevalencias, utilizando la regresin Poisson con varianza robusta. RESULTADOS: Se encontr que 62,7% de las mujeres sexualmente activas se haban realizado algn PAP en los ltimos 5 aos. Este porcentaje de participacin variaba segn el tipo de seguro de salud, donde las mujeres con seguro pblico tenan 1,27 (intervalo de confianza de 95% [IC95%]: 1,24-1,31) y las que tenan seguro privado 1,52 (IC95%:1,46-1,58) veces mayor probabilidad de haberse realizado un PAP que aquellas sin seguro. Esta asociacin era explicada predominantemente por las variables de posicin socioeconmica. Asimismo las mujeres que tenan la participacin ms baja eran las analfabetas o con educacin primaria, de nivel socioeconmico bajo, con antecedente de lengua indgena y que vivan en la zonas rurales-siendo esta brecha an mayor cuando adems carecan de seguro de salud, llegando a ser hasta la tercera parte en relacin con los grupos sociales ms favorecidos. CONCLUSIONES: Se hallaron desigualdades segn el tipo de seguro de salud en la realizacin del PAP, siendo las mujeres sin seguro las que menos lo utilizaron, lo cual supone una barrera para el acceso al cribado de cncer de crvix en Per. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: Describe the association between receipt of cervical cytology and type of health insurance in Peruvian women, and determine the role of sociodemographic and sexual health variables in this relationship. METHODS: A cross-sectional study using information on a sample of 12 272 women aged 30 [...] to 49 years from the Demographic and Family Health Survey (ENDES), Peru, 2005-2008. The dependent variable was receipt of at least one Pap smear in the last five years. The primary independent variables were type of health insurance, educational level, household socioeconomic level, ethnicity, and place of residence. Prevalence ratio, obtained from Poisson regression with robust variance, was used to measure multivariate association. RESULTS: Among sexually active women, 62.7% had received at least one Pap test in the last five years. Percentage of women tested varied by type of health insurance. Women with public or private insurance had a greater probability of having received a Pap smear-1.27 (95% CI, 1.24-1.31) and 1.52 (95% CI, 1.46-1.58) times greater, respectively-than uninsured women. This association was primarily explained by socioeconomic status variables. In addition, women who participated the least in screening were characterized by illiteracy or only a primary education, low socioeconomic level, speaking an indigenous language, and living in a rural area. When they also lacked health insurance, the gap widened, rising to as much as one third compared to more advantaged social groups. CONCLUSIONS: Inequalities were found in receipt of Pap testing according to type of health insurance; women without insurance were least likely to be screened, implying existence of a barrier to cervical cancer screening in Peru.

  2. Estimation of Pap-test coverage in an area with an organised screening program: challenges for survey methods

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    Raggi Patrizio

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The cytological screening programme of Viterbo has completed the second round of invitations to the entire target population (age 25–64. From a public health perspective, it is important to know the Pap-test coverage rate and the use of opportunistic screening. The most commonly used study design is the survey, but the validity of self-reports and the assumptions made about non respondents are often questioned. Methods From the target population, 940 women were sampled, and responded to a telephone interview about Pap-test utilisation. The answers were compared with the screening program registry; comparing the dates of Pap-tests reported by both sources. Sensitivity analyses were performed for coverage over a 36-month period, according to various assumptions regarding non respondents. Results The response rate was 68%. The coverage over 36 months was 86.4% if we assume that non respondents had the same coverage as respondents, 66% if we assume they were not covered at all, and 74.6% if we adjust for screening compliance in the non respondents. The sensitivity and specificity of the question, "have you ever had a Pap test with the screening programme" were 84.5% and 82.2% respectively. The test dates reported in the interview tended to be more recent than those reported in the registry, but 68% were within 12 months of each other. Conclusion Surveys are useful tools to understand the effectiveness of a screening programme and women's self-report was sufficiently reliable in our setting, but the coverage estimates were strongly influenced by the assumptions we made regarding non respondents.

  3. HPV DNA and Pap smear test results in cases with and without cervical pathology

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    Sabit Sinan Özalp

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of the study was to determine the HPV prevalance and its relation to Pap smear, colposcopy and colposcopy directed biopsy in our region of Eskisehir, Turkey.Material and Methods: A total of 615 women who applied to the outpatient clinic between December 2009 and December 2010 constituted our study population. All patients underwent pelvic examination and Pap smear sampling. Patients who had pathological cervical appearance or Pap smear results of ASCUS, AGUS, LSIL or HSIL were referred to colposcopy. Cervical samples for HPV DNA were taken from the patients before Pap smear sampling during the routine examination or before the colposcopic evaluation. Results: Twenty six of 615 patients (4% were HPV positive. Of these 26 patients, 12 were positive for HPV type 16, 3 for type 18, 3 for type 51, 2 for type 6, 1 for type 52, 1 for type 33, 1 for type 16 and type 31, 1 for type 6 and 52, 1 for type 56 and 90, 1 for type 39 and 66. In 4 patients with cervical cancer, and in 3 of 4 CIN III cases both HPV DNA and Pap smear were positive. In the Pap smear examination of 615 patients, cytology revealed 35 ASCUS (5.6% 4 AGUS (0.6%, 2 CIN I (0.3% results who were negative for HPV DNA. These patients with abnormal cytology (n=41 underwent colposcopy directed biopsy, there were 3 CIN I and 1 CIN III and all the other cervical biopsy results of these patients were benign (inflammation, chronic cervicitis. Conclusion: HPV positivity in our hospital setting is low which is compatible with other studies in Turkey. In positive HPV cases there is a good correlation between HPV type and positive cervical biopsy results.

  4. The Effect of Education on Women's Practice Based on the Health Belief Model About Pap Smear Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirzadeh, Asiyeh; Mazaheri, Maryam Amidi

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Cervical cancer is the most common gynecological cancer in Iran. The single most effective tool in reducing death due to cervical cancer is the use of pap smear as a screening tool. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of education based on Health Belief Model about giving pap smear in women. Methods: This quasi-experimental study was performed on 70 women who referred to two health center in Kouhdasht (Lorestan- Iran). The samples were randomly divided in two groups (35 in intervention group and 35 in control group). The data were collected by a validated and reliable questionnaire. Interventions were run based on Health Belief Model during three sessions only for intervention group. Each educational session was for 4560 min. The independent t-test and paired t-test were used to analyze data. A two-tailed P value lower than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Result: According to results, the mean scores of knowledge were significantly different between two groups after intervention (P < 0.001). The mean scores of the model variables (perceived susceptibility and severity, perceived benefits, and barriers) had no significant difference in the two groups before intervention, but after intervention had significant difference between the two groups (P < 0.001). Conclusion: Designing and executing health education programs based on health belief model can promote the practice of women regarding to pap smear tests. PMID:22973490

  5. The frequency of having pap-smear tests among women between 15-64 years old and the evaluation of the level of their knowledge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To determine the frequency of Pap smear testing among women and to evaluate their level of knowledge about the test and other relevant factors. Methods: The study comprised women who presented to the Gynaecology and Obstetrics Polyclinic of Sakarya Training and Research Hospital, Turkey, between April 1 and 30, 2012. The questionnaire was developed in line with the objectives of the study. They were filled by the participants who were supervised during the process. Women who had had at least one Pap smear test in life were considered to have taken a Pap smear test, and those who had heard of the test were accepted as women who knew of the Pap smear test. Data was analysed using SPSS 15.0. Chi-square test was used for analyses, and statistical significance was set at p<0.05. Results: The age of 601 subjects ranged between 15 and 64 years, with a mean of 31.09+-10.49 years. Of the total, 115 (19.1%) had taken a Pap smear test before and 293 (48.8%) knew of the test. The proportion of the women who had had a Pap smear test was higher among those who were over 30 years of age (n=73; 63.47%), had post-high school educational degrees (n=68; 59.13%), had moderate familial income status (n=74; 64.34%), were married (n=109; 94.78%), had first sexual experience after 25 years of age(n=42; 36.52%), and were not using a contraceptive method (n=97; 84.34%) (p<0.05 for each). Besides, more women with previous knowledge of the test had taken the test (p<0.05). Conclusion: The subjects did not have sufficient information on Pap smear and the frequency of having a test was low. Raising awareness would prove beneficial. (author)

  6. Clinical application of the SurePath liquid-based Pap test in cytological screening of bronchial brushing for the diagnosis of lung cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Fan, Yi-Bo; Wang, Qing-shan; Ye, Lin; Wang, Tian-Yu; Wu, Guang-ping

    2010-01-01

    The SurePath liquid-based Pap test (LPT) is successfully and widely used to assess sputum cytology. This study aimed to compare the cytological findings and diagnostic sensitivity of LPT with those of the conventional Pap smear (CPS) method for diagnosing lung cancer. Bronchial brushing specimens from 204 patients diagnosed with lung cancer were studied. LPT slides showed decreased areas of cell monolayers, a clearer background and distinct, stereoscopic cytological features. The LPT had a si...

  7. The influence of the professionals gender in the periodicity of Pap Test - doi:10.5020/18061230.2010.p181

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Rafael Leite Sampaio

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Methods: A descriptive study, with a qualitative approach, held in the period of September to November, 2008 with 83 users of the Family Health Strategy of Caio Prado, Itapina-Cear, who had Pap test in delay. The data were collected through a semi-structured interview and organized according to the Content Analysis: (1 Professional gender and the periodicity of Pap test and (2 Test that causes pain and fear. Results: It was observed that 67 (80.72% were between 25 and 59 years, 52 (62.62% were married, 65 (78.31% had primary education, 45 (54.22% were farmers and 49 (59.04% earned less than minimum wage. Most users reported feelings of shame by male examiners as a reason for irregularity in the frequency of Pap test. On a smaller scale, the reason pointed out was to consider this a test that causes pain and fear. Final Considerations: The users reported that the presence of a male professional was a strong influence to irregularity in the frequency of Pap test in this health unit. Albeit to a lesser extent, prior negative experience with this exam and not the professionals gender issue has been implicated as a reason not to perform periodic cytology.

  8. PRECANCEROUS AND CANCEROUS LESIONS OF CERVIX DIAGNOSED BY PAPS SMEAR - A HOSPITAL BASED STUDY

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    Komal Singh

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cervical intra - epithelial neoplasia (CIN and cervical cancer remain important health problems for women worldwide. It is largely a preventable disease that is characterized by a long lead time. The objective of this study was to determine the frequency of precancerous lesions of cervix by Pap smear screening. METHODS : A retrospective hospital based study was conducted at Department of Pathology, in a Tertiary Care Institute and associated hospital, Bhopal. Data was collected from the records of Paps smear testing done on 388 patients in years 2011 & 2012. Analysis was done by entering data in SPSS software and Chi - square test was applied to find statistical significance. RESULTS: Most common lesions on Paps smear was Low grade squamous intraepithelial les ion (LSIL in 104 (26.8% of cases and High grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL in 15 (3.9% of cases. 44 (11.3% were senile Atopic Changes, parasitic Infection in 27 (7% of cases and 2 (0.5% were carcinoma cervix cases. All the cervical lesion s were most common in age of 31 - 40 yrs. and were significantly associated with age. CONCLUSIONS: Paps smear examination information should be spread in community apart from hospitals. Especially the young women should be motivated for regular Paps smear. Paps smear is the single most important screening method for early detection of precancerous & cancerous cervical lesions

  9. Knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding the Pap test among women in northeastern Brazil / Conhecimentos, atitudes e praticas sobre o exame de Papanicolaou em mulheres do nordeste brasileiro

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Carla Lorenna Ferreira de, Albuquerque; Marla da Paschoa, Costa; Felipe Moreira, Nunes; Roberto Wagner Junior Freire de, Freitas; Paulo Roberto Medeiros de, Azevedo; Jose Verissimo, Fernandes; Juciane Vaz, Rego; Humberto Medeiros, Barreto.

    Full Text Available CONTEXTO E OBJETIVO: O exame de Papanicolaou j mostrou efetividade na preveno de cncer do colo do tero. A literatura nacional e internacional tem mostrado que o exame de Papanicolaou no tem alcanado o ndice de cobertura desejado. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar os conhecimentos, atitud [...] es e prticas entre mulheres em relao ao exame de Papanicolaou e verificar se existe associao entre esses comportamentos e as caractersticas sociodemogrficas. TIPO DE ESTUDO E LOCAL: Estudo descritivo e transversal realizado em Floriano, Piau. MTODOS: O estudo foi conduzido com 493 mulheres no perodo de novembro de 2009 a dezembro de 2010. Utilizou-se m questionrio com perguntas precodificadas, cujas respostas foram analisadas quanto adequao dos comportamentos em relao ao exame. RESULTADOS: Os graus de adequao dos conhecimentos, atitudes e prticas em relao ao exame foram de 36,7%, 67,2% e 69,6%, respectivamente. Dentre as principais barreiras para a sua realizao, destacaram-se a ausncia de sintomas e a vergonha. CONCLUSO: As mulheres que realizam consultas periodicamente apresentam prtica mais adequada, porm com baixa adequao de conhecimentos frente ao procedimento, sugerindo que no estejam recebendo as informaes adequadas sobre os benefcios da realizao peridica do exame de Papanicolaou. Abstract in english CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: The Papanicolaou (Pap) test has been shown to be effective in preventing cervical cancer. However, both the national and international literature shows that Pap testing has not reached the level of coverage desired. The objective of this study was to assess women's knowledge [...] , attitudes and practices regarding the Pap test and to investigate whether there are any associations between these three factors and the women's sociodemographic characteristics. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional descriptive study conducted in Floriano, Piau. METHODS : The study was conducted among 493 women between November 2009 and December 2010. A questionnaire with precoded questions was sed, and the responses were analyzed in terms of appropriateness in relation to the Pap test. RESULTS : The degrees of adequacy of knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding the Pap test were 36.7%, 67.2% and 69.6%, respectively. Among the main barriers against testing, absence of symptoms and a sense of embarrassment were the most notable. CONCLUSIONS: Women who visit doctors periodically had the most appropriate practices regarding the Pap test, but their knowledge of the procedure was poor. This suggests that these women were not receiving adequate information about the benefits of periodic testing.

  10. Pap Smear

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the situation resolves on its own. Almost all cases of cervical cancer are caused by persistent infections with certain strains ... in some instances can be a risk for cervical cancer ; this test result may ... cases, cancer is evident and requires immediate attention. ^ Back ...

  11. Congress: 50 years of the Papanicolaou test. Istituto Superiore di Sanita`. Rome, March 30, 1995; Convegno: 50 anni di Pap test. Istituto Superiore di Sanita`. Roma, 30 marzo 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Branca, Margherita; Cedri, Sabina; Migliore, Giovanna [Istituto Superiore di Sanita`, Rome (Italy). Lab. di Epidemiologia e Biostatistica

    1997-12-01

    The Conference was organized to celebrate the 50th anniversary of the cervical smear test, commonly referred to as the `Pap test` after its creator, George Nicholas Papanicolaou. The reports present the development of the test, its worldwide application, and its performance as the screening test for the detection of cervical cancer. Pap smear screening for precursors of carcinoma of the cervix has led to dramatic decrease in the incidence and deaths from this cancer. The test represents one of the greatest achievements in preventive medicine.

  12. Screening for cervical neoplasia: a community-based trial comparing Pap staining, human papilloma virus testing, and the new bi-functional Celldetect stain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idelevich, Pavel; Kristt, Don; Schechter, Eduardo; Lew, Sylvia; Elkeles, Adi; Terkieltaub, Dov; Rivkin, Ilia; Bruchim, Ilan; Fishman, Ami

    2012-12-01

    Although cytological screening for cervical neoplasia has lowered mortality rates, current screening methods are plagued by sub-optimal sensitivity and/or specificity. The purpose of this study was to compare the performance of the new CellDetect staining technology as a potential screening tool. This initial, non-blinded study, utilized samples are taken at a community-based clinic. The diagnostic results using CellDetect were compared with the performance of Pap staining and human papilloma virus (HPV) testing on the same material, as well as the follow-up biopsies. These data were statistically analyzed in terms of sensitivity, specificity, predictive value (N.P.V and P.P.V), and inter-observer agreement. Bi-functional CellDetect staining revealed morphological details and tinctorial properties that permitted recognition of neoplasia even at low magnification. Performance-wise, CellDetect demonstrated non-inferiority for all statistical parameters to both Pap and HPV tests. Importantly, superior sensitivity compared with Pap staining was observed, as well as higher specificity than HPV testing with near equivalent sensitivity. We conclude that CellDetect is a promising approach to early detection of cervical cancer because of its bi-functional capabilities that afford high sensitivity and specificity. The data suggest that this new methodology warrants further and more extensive clinical evaluation. PMID:21630482

  13. ASC-H in Pap test- definitive categorization of cytomorphological spectrum

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    Chivukula Mamatha

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective The American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology (ASCCP guidelines for management of ASC-H is colposcopic examination followed by biopsy. HPV testing (HPVT is recommended after a negative biopsy result. More definitive interpretation of ASC-H could prevent discomfort and minimize the cost. The purpose of this study was to evaluate association of various cytomorphological patterns of ASC-H with various clinical scenarios. Methods We reviewed SurePath (TriPath Imaging, Inc. Burlington, NC, USA cervical smears interpreted as ASC-H in 161 women (mean age, 37 {15 to 78} years, over 24 months (2002 to 2003. HPVT (Digene, Hybrid Capture II HPV test, Digene Corporation, Gaithersburg, MD, USA was performed in 20% of cases (33/161 and biopsy results were available in 54 cases (19 with and 35 without HPVT. Results HPVT was positive in 64% (21/33 cases, and negative in 36% (12/33 cases. In the follow-up biopsies of 71% (15/21 of cases with positive HPVT, 27% showed HPV changes or CIN1, 27% showed CIN2-3, and 46% were negative for epithelial abnormality. Follow-up biopsies from cases with negative HPVT (33%, 4/12 cases, 8% showed CIN1 and 25% were negative for any epithelial abnormality. Six cytomorphological patterns of ASC-H correlated with different clinical categories in relation to HPVT and biopsy results. 35% (19 out of 54 ASC-H cases in which biopsy results were available could be interpreted definitively as HSIL by cytopathology, 11% (6/54 cases as LSIL with cyanophilic atypical parakeratotic pattern, and 31% (17/54 cases as reactive, with HPV status. The interpretation had to be continued as ASC-H in 22% (12/54 cases. Conclusion ASC-H demonstrated a spectrum of cytomorphological patterns. Some of these patterns in liquid-based cervical smears may be more specifically interpreted as LSIL, HSIL, or benign if HPV status is known.

  14. Compreenso de usurias de uma Unidade de Sade da Famlia sobre o exame Papanicolaou / The understanding of users of a Family Health Unit about the pap smear test

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Smalyanna Sgren da Costa, Andrade; Fernanda Maria Chianca da, Silva; Maria do Socorro Sousa e, Silva; Simone Helena dos Santos, Oliveira; Kamila Nethielly Souza, Leite; Merifane Janurio de, Sousa.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Na tentativa de prevenir o cncer de colo uterino, foram institudas vrias aes de preveno, dentre as quais, o Exame Papanicolaou que cumpre com a funo de deteco precoce de clulas cancerosas ou de seus precursores. Portanto, objetivou-se investigar o discurso sobre a compreenso, os sentime [...] ntos e as expectativas de mulheres em relao ao Exame Papanicolaou. Trata-se de um estudo do tipo exploratrio com abordagem qualitativa, realizado junto a dez usurias de uma Unidade Integrada de Sade da Famlia, no municpio de Joo Pessoa (PB). A coleta de dados se deu em abril de 2011, atravs de entrevista gravada. Foram identificadas oito ideias centrais: preveno de doenas; busca por conta prpria; busca por estmulo de outra pessoa; sentimento de vergonha e constrangimento; sensao de dor; sentimento de satisfao; conversas durante o exame e troca de conhecimentos acerca da sade da mulher. Frente aos relatos, muitas so as dificuldades a serem vencidas para proporcionar melhor adeso das mulheres ao exame Papanicolaou. Abstract in english In the attempt to prevent cervical cancer, various preventive measures have been instituted, notable among which is the pap smear test, which fulfills the function of early detection of cancer cells or their precursors. Therefore, the objective was to investigate the discourse on the knowledge, feel [...] ings and expectations of women regarding the pap smear test. This is an exploratory qualitative approach, conducted with ten users of a Integrated Family Health Unit in the city of Joo Pessoa in the State of Paraba. Data collection was conducted through recorded interviews in April 2011. Eight core ideas were identified: prevention of disease; self-motivated search, search recommended by another person; sense of shame and embarrassment, sensation of pain, feeling of satisfaction; conversations during the examination and exchange of knowledge about women's health. Based on the reports, there are many difficulties to be overcome to ensure greater adherence of women to the pap smear test.

  15. Cobertura do exame citopatolgico na cidade de Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil Pap test coverage in the city of Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juvenal Soares Dias-da-Costa

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available No Brasil, a avaliao da efetividade de programas de preveno e aes de sade pblica ainda so incipientes. Dessa forma, realizou-se um estudo transversal de base populacional envolvendo a sade da populao adulta residente na zona urbana da cidade de Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil, com o objetivo de verificar a evoluo nos nveis de cobertura do exame citopatolgico. Investigaram-se fatores associados com a no realizao do procedimento. Considerou-se exame citopatolgico atualizado aquele realizado nos ltimos trs anos. A amostra foi constituda por 1.122 mulheres entre 20 e 69 anos, sendo que 72,2% apresentavam exame citopatolgico atualizado, 16,6% atrasado e 11,2% nunca o haviam realizado. A no realizao do procedimento esteve associada com baixa insero social e idade avanada. A regresso logstica destacou o efeito independente de classe social, baixa renda familiar, idade, cor da pele, estado civil e ausncia de consultas mdicas no ltimo ano. Contudo, desapareceu o efeito detectado em mulheres com doenas crnicas. Comparando-se os resultados do estudo realizado em 1992 com o atual, observa-se que a cobertura do exame aumentou de 65,0% para 72,2% (1992 para 1999/2000, entretanto, no atingiu os nveis efetivos para evitar cncer de colo uterino.In Brazil, the effectiveness of preventive public heath programs and actions is rarely evaluated. A cross-sectional study was thus performed in a population-based sample focused on several health characteristics of adults living in Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The study aimed to measure temporal trends in coverage of Pap smear testing in the city. The authors studied the factors associated with failure of women to submit to a Pap smear. An updated Pap smear was defined as one performed in the previous 3 years. The sample consisted of 1,122 women ages 20 to 69 years, 72.2% of whom had an updated Pap smear, 16.6% of whom were behind schedule for testing, and 11.2% of whom had never had a Pap smear. Risk factors for never having a test were low socioeconomic status and old age. Logistic regression showed an independent effect of social class, low family income, age, skin color, marital status, and no medical appointment in the previous year. However, the effect of chronic diseases disappeared in logistic regression. The authors compare the results of the study conducted in 1992 with the present. Pap smear coverage increased from 65.0% to 72.2% (1992 to 1999/2000 in the city, yet such figures had still not ensured the effectiveness of the program for uterine cervical cancer prevention.

  16. Cobertura do exame citopatolgico na cidade de Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil / Pap test coverage in the city of Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Juvenal Soares, Dias-da-Costa; Maria Teresa Anselmo, Olinto; Denise Petrucci, Gigante; Ana Maria Baptista, Menezes; Silvia, Macedo; Andresa Thier de, Borba; Gledis Lisiane Silveira da, Motta; Sandra Costa, Fuchs.

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available No Brasil, a avaliao da efetividade de programas de preveno e aes de sade pblica ainda so incipientes. Dessa forma, realizou-se um estudo transversal de base populacional envolvendo a sade da populao adulta residente na zona urbana da cidade de Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil, com o o [...] bjetivo de verificar a evoluo nos nveis de cobertura do exame citopatolgico. Investigaram-se fatores associados com a no realizao do procedimento. Considerou-se exame citopatolgico atualizado aquele realizado nos ltimos trs anos. A amostra foi constituda por 1.122 mulheres entre 20 e 69 anos, sendo que 72,2% apresentavam exame citopatolgico atualizado, 16,6% atrasado e 11,2% nunca o haviam realizado. A no realizao do procedimento esteve associada com baixa insero social e idade avanada. A regresso logstica destacou o efeito independente de classe social, baixa renda familiar, idade, cor da pele, estado civil e ausncia de consultas mdicas no ltimo ano. Contudo, desapareceu o efeito detectado em mulheres com doenas crnicas. Comparando-se os resultados do estudo realizado em 1992 com o atual, observa-se que a cobertura do exame aumentou de 65,0% para 72,2% (1992 para 1999/2000), entretanto, no atingiu os nveis efetivos para evitar cncer de colo uterino. Abstract in english In Brazil, the effectiveness of preventive public heath programs and actions is rarely evaluated. A cross-sectional study was thus performed in a population-based sample focused on several health characteristics of adults living in Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The study aimed to measure tempo [...] ral trends in coverage of Pap smear testing in the city. The authors studied the factors associated with failure of women to submit to a Pap smear. An updated Pap smear was defined as one performed in the previous 3 years. The sample consisted of 1,122 women ages 20 to 69 years, 72.2% of whom had an updated Pap smear, 16.6% of whom were behind schedule for testing, and 11.2% of whom had never had a Pap smear. Risk factors for never having a test were low socioeconomic status and old age. Logistic regression showed an independent effect of social class, low family income, age, skin color, marital status, and no medical appointment in the previous year. However, the effect of chronic diseases disappeared in logistic regression. The authors compare the results of the study conducted in 1992 with the present. Pap smear coverage increased from 65.0% to 72.2% (1992 to 1999/2000) in the city, yet such figures had still not ensured the effectiveness of the program for uterine cervical cancer prevention.

  17. Fatores associados a no realizao de Papanicolau em mulheres quilombolas / Factors associated with failure to take a Pap smear test among Quilombola women

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Mrcio Vasconcelos, Oliveira; Mark Drew Crosland, Guimares; Elisabeth Barboza, Frana.

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar os fatores associados a no realizao do exame de Papanicolaou entre as mulheres quilombolas residentes em Vitria da Conquista, Bahia. Foi utilizado delineamento de estudo transversal de base populacional, com incluso de mulheres com idade de 18-64 anos. Foram [...] realizadas anlise descritiva e de associao univariada e multivariada utilizando modelo logstico multinomial. Mulheres que nunca realizaram o exame ou o realizaram h mais de trs anos foram comparadas separadamente com aquelas que realizaram o exame h menos de trs anos. De 348 mulheres includas na anlise, 27,3% afirmaram nunca ter realizado o Papanicolaou. Foram associados de forma independente com nunca ter feito o exame: faixa etria de 18 a 29 anos e 50 a 59 anos, no ter instruo, no ter companheiro, buscar atendimento relacionado sade em unidades/estabelecimentos diferentes de seu local de residncia e ter realizado exame clnico das mamas h trs ou mais anos ou nunca t-lo realizado. Os achados indicam uma necessidade de reflexo, com o objetivo de melhor enfrentamento dos fatores que se associam no realizao do exame Papanicolaou entre as mulheres quilombolas, sendo importante contemplar aes de preveno para o cncer de colo uterino. Abstract in english The objective of this study was to analyze factors associated with failure to take a Pap smear test among quilombola women living in Vitria da Conquista in the state of Bahia. A cross-sectional, population-based study was conducted with women aged 18 to 64. Descriptive analysis and univariate and m [...] ultivariate analysis using a multinomial logistic model was applied. Women who had never performed the test or had not had one for over three years were compared separately from those who were examined within the preceding three years. Of the 348 women included in the analysis, 27.3%, reported never having a Pap smear test. The following factors were independently associated with never having taken the test: age of 18 to 29 years and 50 to 59 years; lack of education; not having a partner; seeking care in health-related units/establishments other than their place of residence; and having a clinical breast examination three or more years ago or never having one. The findings indicate a need for reflection in order to combat factors that are associated with not having a Pap smear test among quilombola women, since it is important to implement actions for the prevention of cervical cancer.

  18. Evolution of Pap Stain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalyani Raju

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Pap stain was first developed by Dr GN Papanicoloau in 1947 and since then it has been used successfully to screen cervical cancer. In fact it has reduced the incidence of cervical cancer by 70% especially in developed countries having well planned screening programmes. However the stain has undergone various modifications from regressive conventional method to progressive rapid Pap staining where the time taken for staining was reduced. Further the stain was modified as ultrafast Papanocoloau stain and modified ultrafast Pap stain where air dried cervical smears were used and staining time was reduced. Later the other modifications were Enviro-Pap stain which was environmentally friendly with results similar to conventional method; REAP stain which was rapid and economical and Cytocolor developed by Merck where isopropyl alcohol is replaced by Propanol. Each method has advantages and disadvantages. Hence laboratories should develop their own protocol and standardize the staining technique. [Biomed Res Ther 2016; 3(2.000: 490-500

  19. Detection of Clostridium chauvoei in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues of sheep by the peroxidase-antiperoxidase (PAP) technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giraudo Conesa, L C; Vannelli, S A; Uzal, F A

    1995-01-01

    A peroxidase-antiperoxidase (PAP) technique was used to detect Clostridium chauvoei in tissue sections from sheep inoculated intramuscularly with a pure culture of this microorganism. Samples of various tissues were taken for bacteriology, histopathology and immunohistochemistry. A primary antiserum against C. chauvoei for use in the PAP technique was produced in rabbits. Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded sections of muscle samples were positively and specifically stained by the PAP technique. The results were consistent with those obtained by bacteriology, but the PAP test was simpler, quicker and less expensive than the bacteriological procedures. The use of the PAP technique would be appropriate for detecting clostridial infections without the constraints of conventional identification methods, especially where laboratory conditions for anaerobic procedures are not readily available. PMID:8619282

  20. Cobertura do exame citopatolgico na cidade de Pelotas, Brasil / Pap smear test coverage in the city of Pelotas (Rio Grande do Sul), Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Juvenal Soares Dias da, Costa; Paula Berenhauser, D' Elia; Patrcia, Manzolli; Mnica Regina, Moreira.

    1998-05-01

    Full Text Available Em 1995, o cncer de colo de tero foi a quarta causa de morte mais prevalente para o sexo feminino no estado do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. Tendo em vista que no existem estudos disponveis sobre a cobertura do exame citopatolgico na cidade de Pelotas -- a principal cidade da regio sul do estado [...] do Rio Grande do Sul -- , em 1992 realizou-se uma pesquisa transversal, de base populacional, entre mulheres de 20 a 69 anos residentes na zona urbana da cidade de Pelotas. O objetivo do estudo foi verificar a realizao do exame citopatolgico nos 3 anos anteriores pesquisa; determinar o ndice de cobertura deste exame na cidade de Pelotas; e identificar fatores associados realizao do exame. A classe social foi definida como varivel sobredeterminante. Na operacionalizao de classe social duas classificaes foram utilizadas: a classificao de Bronfman e a classificao preconizada pela Associao Brasileira de Institutos de Pesquisa de Mercado. Das 934 mulheres entrevistadas, 606 (65%) haviam feito o exame citopatolgico nos 3 anos que antecederam a pesquisa. A anlise multivariada revelou diferenas quanto realizao do exame citopatolgico em relao classe social, idade e freqncia anual de consultas. No foram encontradas diferenas em relao escolaridade, tipo de servio de sade utilizado e hospitalizaes no ano anterior pesquisa. O estudo conclui que a cobertura do exame citopatolgico para mulheres entre 20 e 69 anos em Pelotas superior cobertura encontrada em outras partes do pas e do mundo. No entanto, nas classes mais baixas, o ndice de cobertura ficou entre 52 e 56%. Estes dados podem contribuir para a elaborao de medidas que visem ao aumento da cobertura para setores especficos. Abstract in english In 1995, cervical cancer was the fourth most important cause of death among women in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. There are no available studies on Pap smear examination coverage in Pelotas, which is the largest city in the southern part of Rio Grande do Sul. Accordingly, in 1992 a popula [...] tion-based, cross-sectional study was carried out among 20 to 69 year-old women residing in urban areas of the city. The objectives of the study were to ascertain any Pap smear testing in the 3 years prior to the study, to determine the coverage of cervical cancer screening, and to identify any factors associated with the performance of Pap tests in Pelotas. Social class was chosen as the determining variable. To categorize social class, two classifications were used: Bronfman's classification and the classification used by the Brazilian Association of Market Research Institutes. Among the 934 women interviewed, 606 (65%) had had a Pap smear test in the 3 years before the study. The multivariate analysis revealed significant differences regarding performance of such tests in terms of social class, age, and frequency of medical consultations per year. No significant differences were found in terms of education, type of health service used, or hospitalizations during the year prior to the study. This study reveals that coverage of cervical cancer screening for women between 20 and 69 years of age in Pelotas is higher than the coverage found in other parts of the country or even of the world. However, for women in lower social classes, coverage was found to be between 52 and 56%. These data can contribute to the development of measures aimed at increasing cervical cancer screening among specific sectors of the population.

  1. Exame Papanicolaou: sentimentos relatados por profissionais de enfermagem ao se submeterem a esse exame / Pap smear screening: sensations reported by nursing professionals when submitted to this test

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Roberta Jeane Bezerra, Jorge; Maria Albertina Rocha, Digenes; Francisco Antonio da Cruz, Mendona; Lus Rafael Leite, Sampaio; Roberto, Jorge Jnior.

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se conhecer os sentimentos de auxiliares e tcnicas de enfermagem ao se submeterem ao exame Papanicolaou. Trata-se de um estudo descritivo com abordagem qualitativa realizado nos meses de setembro a outubro de 2006, com 35 servidoras de uma instituio governamental referncia em ginecolog [...] ia na cidade de Fortaleza (CE). Os dados foram coletados atravs de entrevista semiestruturada, contendo uma questo norteadora gravada e analisada de acordo com referencial terico metodolgico da fenomenologia social. Os relatos foram agrupados em trs temticas: um exame que causa incmodo, medo e vergonha; um exame que gera ansiedade quanto aos resultados; e um exame que "me deixa calma e tranquila". Apesar de as entrevistadas pertencerem a uma instituio que cuida de mulheres na preveno do cncer crvico-uterino, elas no deixaram de emitir sentimentos negativos relacionados ao exame. Concluiu-se a importncia de realizar projetos educativos, enfatizando a importncia do empoderamento das usurias a fim de minimizar essas questes. Abstract in english This work sought to record the impressions of nursing assistants and technicians after submitting to Pap smear screening. This is a descriptive study using a qualitative approach conducted in September and October of 2006 with 35 employees of a public institution, which is a benchmark in gynecology [...] in Fortaleza in the State of Cear (Brazil). The data was collected through semi-structured interviews containing a recorded leading question and analyzed according to the methodological-theoretical reference of social phenomenology. The testimonials were separated in three groups: an exam that causes discomfort, fear and shame; an exam that causes anxiety about the results; and an exam that "makes me calm and relaxed". Despite the interviewees being part of an institution that cares for the prevention of cervical-uterine cancer in women, negative feelings about the Pap smear test were nonetheless reported. The conclusion reached is that it is important to stage educational campaigns emphasizing the importance of empowerment of patients in order to minimize these aspects.

  2. Comparison of the Cobas 4800 HPV and HPV 9G DNA Chip Tests for Detection of High-Risk Human Papillomavirus in Cervical Specimens of Women with Consecutive Positive HPV Tests But Negative Pap Smears

    OpenAIRE

    Jun, Sun-young; Park, Eun Su; Kim, Jiyoung; Kang, Jun; Lee, Jae Jun; Bae, Yoonjin; Kim, Sang-Il; Maeng, Lee-So

    2015-01-01

    Detecting high-risk (HR) HPV is important for clinical management of women with persistent HPV-positive and Pap-negative results. The Cobas 4800 HPV test is the first FDA-approved HPV DNA test that can be used alone as a first-line screening tool. The HPV 9G DNA chip test is a PCR-based DNA microarray assay. We evaluated the patients of consecutive HPV-positivity on HPV 9G DNA chip test without cytologic abnormalities. We then compared the performances of HPV 9G DNA chip and the Cobas 4800 HP...

  3. Factores asociados a las Alteraciones del test de Papanicolaou Costa Rica, 2009 / Factors associated with changes in PAP Smears in a health center Costa Rica, 2009

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Leandra, Abarca Gmez; Maricela, Salas Estrada; Deyanira, Calvo Len; Julia, Freer Vargas; Paula, Cordero.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available El cncer cervicouterino es en el mundo y en Costa Rica una de las 3 primeras causas de cncer en las mujeres. La deteccin temprana de lesiones premalignas o malignas mejora el pronstico de las usuarias. Objetivo: Encontrar si hay factores asociados a las alteraciones de la citologa vaginal en un [...] rea de salud urbana de Costa Rica durante 2009. Metodologa: Estudio de casos y controles en usuarias de una rea de salud urbana de Costa Rica durante 2009. Se defini caso como toda mujer residente de esa rea que presentara una citologa vaginal alterada, displasia leve, moderada, severa o carcinoma durante 2009. Los controles se seleccionaron de forma aleatoria simple, tomando como marco muestral el registro de mujeres que se haban realizado citologas vaginales durante el 2009 en esa rea. La recoleccin de la informacin se hizo a travs de un cuestionario. Se calcularon medidas de frecuencia, de tendencia central y dispersin, OR, IC 95 %. Resultados: Se incluyeron 62 casos y 137 controles. La edad promedio de los casos fue 43 aos (DE17). El ASCUS fue la lesin ms frecuente 39 % (IC 95 %=22,43-51,93). Los factores asociados a la aparicin de lesiones fueron tabaco (OR=2.35; IC 95 %=1,26-4,31), inicio de actividad sexual antes de 18 aos (OR=2;I C 95 %=1,06-3,64) y haber tenido 3 o ms compaeros sexuales (OR=2, 10;IC 95 % 1,11-3,97). Discusin: Se encontr similitud entre lo descrito en la literatura y lo hallado en este estudio. Se recomend dar a conocer este estudio a las mujeres de esa rea de salud, ya que los factores encontrados son modificables y adems se plante a la direccin del rea realizar campaas de promocin y prevencin que fomenten conductas sexuales sanas. Abstract in english Cervical cancer is among the leading causes of cancer in women globally; in Costa Rica it is among the top three causes. Although the PAP smears is part of the guidelines of care for women, the coverage in some areas of health is low. Objective: Identify demographic and clinical factors associated w [...] ith abnormal Pap test results Methods: We conducted a health center-based case-control study. A case was defined as any woman seeking care in a health center during 2009, having a Pap test positive for either cells of undetermined significance (Atypical Squamous Cells of Undetermined Significance) mild, moderate or severe dysplasia. Controls were selected by simple random sampling using records of women seen at the same health centers in 2009 and having normal PAP smears. Odds ratios and 95 % confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated for associations between potential risk factors and abnormal PAP smears. Results: We identified 62 cases and 137 controls. The average age of cases was 43 was not significantly different from that of controls (Student t p = 0,90). ASCUS was the most frequent cause of abnormal cytology (39 %). Factors found to be significantly associated with abnormal cytology were: tobacco use (OR=2,35; 95 % CI=1,26-4,31), onset of sexual activity before age 18 (OR=2,0; 95 % CI=1,06-3,64) and having a history of > 3 sexual partners (OR=2,0; 95 % CI=1,11-3,97). Conclusions: There was similarity between risk factors we identified as described in the literature, like onset of sexual activity before age 18 and have history of 3 or more sexual parthers. These are common risk factors associated with HPV infection. Our study was limited by the failure to follow-up colposcopy results for definitive diagnoses and no HPV test. Considering these risk factors represent modifiable health behaviors, we recommended dissemination of our findings to local health authorities in order to generate intervention strategies to promote responsible, healthy sexual behaviors as how to reduce tobacco consumption and develop healthy sexual habits.

  4. Comparison of the Cobas 4800 HPV and HPV 9G DNA Chip Tests for Detection of High-Risk Human Papillomavirus in Cervical Specimens of Women with Consecutive Positive HPV Tests But Negative Pap Smears

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Sun-Young; Park, Eun Su; Kim, Jiyoung; Kang, Jun; Lee, Jae Jun; Bae, Yoonjin; Kim, Sang-Il; Maeng, Lee-So

    2015-01-01

    Detecting high-risk (HR) HPV is important for clinical management of women with persistent HPV-positive and Pap-negative results. The Cobas 4800 HPV test is the first FDA-approved HPV DNA test that can be used alone as a first-line screening tool. The HPV 9G DNA chip test is a PCR-based DNA microarray assay. We evaluated the patients of consecutive HPV-positivity on HPV 9G DNA chip test without cytologic abnormalities. We then compared the performances of HPV 9G DNA chip and the Cobas 4800 HPV tests for detecting HR HPV with each other and confirmed HPV genotyping using direct sequencing. All 214 liquid-based cytology specimens were collected from 100 women with consecutive HPV-positive and Pap-negative results on the HPV 9G DNA chip test between May 2012 and Dec 2013, but only 180 specimens were available for comparing HPV test results. The HPV 9G DNA chip and the Cobas 4800 HPV tests agreed with each other in 81.7% of the samples, and the concordance rate was greater than 97.2% for detecting HPV-16 or -18. For HR genotypes other than HPV types 16 and 18, the two tests agreed for 81.1% of the samples. The sensitivity of both assays for detecting HR HPV was 100%, regardless of HR genotypes. The HPV 9G DNA chip test may be as effective as the Cobas 4800 HPV test in detecting HR HPV, and has a similar ability to identify HPV-16 and -18. PMID:26469982

  5. Frequncia da colpocitologia onctica em jovens com antecedentes obsttricos em Teresina, Piau, Brasil / Frequency of Pap smear testing in young women with an obstetric history in Teresina, Piau, Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Michelina F., Barroso; Keila R. O., Gomes; Jesusmar Ximenes, Andrade.

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar a frequncia da colpocitologia onctica em jovens com pelo menos uma gravidez completa em Teresina, capital do Estado do Piau, Brasil. MTODOS: Estudo transversal realizado de maio a dezembro de 2008. Foram coletados dados de 464 jovens, selecionadas por amostragem acidental, que [...] finalizaram uma gravidez no primeiro quadrimestre de 2006 em seis maternidades da Cidade de Teresina. Investigou-se a frequncia da coleta de colpocitologia onctica. A frequncia inadequada foi definida como coleta em intervalos maiores do que 1 ano. RESULTADOS: A mdia de idade das participantes foi de 20 anos. A frequncia da colpocitologia foi semestral em 180 jovens (39,0%) e anual em 160 (34,5%). Quinze jovens (3,2%) nunca haviam feito a colpocitologia. A regresso logstica simples mostrou que o no uso de contraceptivo na primeira relao sexual e no poder optar por atendimento ginecolgico por homem ou mulher aumentou o risco em 48,0% (P = 0,049) e 49,0% (P = 0,044), respectivamente, para frequncia inadequada de coleta do exame. A regresso logstica mltipla mostrou que ter tido mais de uma gravidez elevou em 71,4% a chance de inadequao da frequncia de coleta em comparao com ter somente uma gestao (P = 0,011). CONCLUSES: O fato de muitas jovens realizarem o exame de colpocitologia onctica em intervalos menores do que 1 ano no melhora o rastreamento do cncer de colo uterino e pode onerar o servio pblico de sade. A multiparidade foi fator de risco para a frequncia inadequada de coleta do exame, devendo esse aspecto ser considerado na assistncia sade ginecolgica de jovens. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To analyze the frequency of Pap smear testing in young women with at least one pregnancy in Teresina, capital of the state of Piau, Brazil. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was undertaken from May to December 2008. A convenience sample of 464 young women was selected, and data were colle [...] cted using a pre-tested questionnaire. Women giving birth in the first four months of 2006, in six hospitals in Teresina, were included. Inadequate Pap smear frequency was defined as an interval of more than 1 year between tests. RESULTS: Mean age was 20 years. The frequency of Pap smear testing was every 6 months in 180 women (39.0%) and yearly in 160 (34.5%). Fifteen women (3.2%) had never had a Pap smear test. Simple logistic regression showed an increase of 48.0% in the risk of inadequate Pap smear frequency (P = 0.049) in women who did not use any contraceptive method at their first sexual intercourse, and 49.0% (P = 0.044) in those who were not able to choose between a male or female gynecologist when seeking health care services. On multivariate logistic regression, having more than one pregnancy increased the risk of inadequate Pap smear frequency by 71.4% in comparison to having only one pregnancy (P = 0.011). CONCLUSIONS: The fact that many young women had Pap smear testing at intervals shorter than 1 year does not improve cervical cancer screening and may burden the health care system. Multiparity was a risk factor for inadequate Pap smear frequency, an aspect that must be taken into account when providing gynecological care to young women.

  6. A "Pap" test for men? Male urethral smears as screening tool for detecting subclinical human papillomavirus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar, R; Choudhury, M; Fischer, J; Ezpeleta, C

    1991-02-01

    We have explored the potential of using immunoperoxidase staining and in situ DNA hybridization techniques to detect the HPV common antigen and HPV DNA (subtypes 6/11 and 16/18) in urethral smears obtained from men with no grossly visible urethral lesions, with or without HPV-related clinical history. A total of 91 such smears were studied of which 25 (27.5%) were positive for HPV antigen. Of the latter, 20 (80%) were positive for HPV 6/11 DNA, 3 (12%) were positive for HPV 16/18 DNA, one smear (4%) was positive for both, and one was negative for both. The technique of obtaining male urethral smears and immunostaining them for HPV antigen is simple, rapid, specific, and far more sensitive than conventional morphologic observations. Since antigen-positive cells are the source for spreading HPV infection, identifying individuals with such cells can help limit the spread of infection by alerting sexual partners, and also can be used to monitor the infectious status of the patient after therapy. DNA subtyping of HPV-positive patients may be useful in predicting the potential for malignant transformation which varies among the different HPV subtypes. PMID:1846989

  7. Collection of the BD SurePath Pap Test with a broom device plus endocervical brush improves disease detection when compared to the broom device alone or the spatula plus endocervical brush combination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davis-Devine Sharon

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Here we examine the diagnostic utility of the US Food And Drug Administration (FDA approved Spatula + endocervical brush combination for the BD SurePath Pap Test (SPPT and compare it to SPPT collection with the broom alone or to an off-label combination of broom + EC brush. This question is important due to lingering concerns over the value of EC detection to a satisfactory Pap test. Methods: 20,125 SPPT vials were examined for the collection devices contained. The SPPT collection device combinations allowed were: Rovers Cervex-Brush (broom, FDA approved, Medscand Pap Perfect Spatula + Medscand CytoBrush Plus GT (spatula + GT brush, FDA approved or Rovers Cervex-Brush + Surgipath C-E Brush (broom + CE brush, off label. Results: Examination of SPPT vials revealed 11,130 collected with the broom, 4,687 collected with the spatula + GT brush and 2,921 collected with the broom + CE brush. Absence of an endocervical/transformation zone was seen in 22.86% of broom cases, 13.10% of spatula + GT brush cases (p= 0.00005 vs broom and 10.17% of broom + CE brush cases (p= 0.00005 vs broom, p= 0.00005 vs spatula + GT brush. Importantly, LSIL detection was: broom 2.99%; spatula + GT brush 2.45% (p= 0.053 vs broom; broom + CE brush 4.18% (p= 0.034 vs broom, p= 0.0001 vs spatula + GT brush. Conclusion: When broom + brush combination is compared to broom alone or to spatula + GT brush, the broom + CE brush combination better sampled the endocervical/transformation zone and increased LSIL detection.

  8. Therapeutic effect of pilose antler polypeptides (PAP) on experimental fracture and its mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To test the therapeutic effect of PAP on experimental fracture and its mechanism. Methods: Effect of PAP on the incorporation of [3H]-TdR into DNA syntheses in the cells of rabbits costal cartilage and human embryonic joint as well as osteoblast precursor cells of embryonic chick calvaria in vitro and effect of PAP on the experimental radius fracture in rats in vivo were observed. Results: PAP of 10?50 ?gml-1 showed mitogenic activities and significant promotion of DNA syntheses for various cartilage cells in vitro. In vivo experimental results revealed that PAP 10 and 20 mgkg-1 could promote healing of radius fracture, accelerate osteotylus formation and increase contents of calcium and oxyproline. Conclusion: PAP accelerates fracture healing through promoting multiplications of cartilage and osteoblast precursor cells, collagen accumulation and calcium precipitation in osteotylus

  9. Relevance of HPV Screening for Triaging Equivocal Cytology Findings in the Pap II-p, Pap III and Pap IIID Groups Results of Two Long-Term Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luyten, A.; Petry, K. U.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The use of HPV screening for the triage of ASC-US (atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance) cytology results has been established as a sound standard by international trials whereas the data for other cytology findings are in part contradictory. There is a lack of long-term studies on the use of HPV triage in Germany. Materials and Methods: For the present study data from a primary HPV screening project involving women aged over 30 years, ongoing since 2006, and an epidemiological study on women aged between 20 and 27 years, ongoing since 2009, were used. Upon recruitment, all women underwent a smear test for cytology and screening for high-risk HPV using Hybrid Capture 2 (HC2). If both tests were positive or if there were persisting remarkable cytology findings or a positive HPV test, then clarification by colposcopy was performed. Results: Altogether, among 282 women with Pap II-p (ASC-US), Pap III (ASC-H) or Pap IIID (LSIL + CIN2) and negative HPV test there was no case of CIN3+. Among the women under 30 years of age, however, 69?% (ASC-US) to 85?% (LSIL + CIN2) of the remarkable findings were HPV positive, also among the older women with Pap IIID, the 71?% prevalence of HPV was too high for a triage and even without triage there was a 23?% risk for CIN3+. On the other hand, of the women over 30 years old with ASC-US (Pap II-p) findings, only 21?% were positive for HPV and the risk for CIN3+ in this group was high at 29?%. Also for ASC-H (Pap III) findings in the age group of over 30 years with an HPV prevalence of 56?% there was an efficient triage for CIN3+. Discussion: In summary, the HPV triage of ASC-US (Pap II-p) findings in women aged over 30 years was found to be efficient; in contrast, LSIL + CIN2 (Pap IIID) findings in this age group justified an immediate referral to colposcopy whereas cytology control appeared to be sufficient for younger women. PMID:26556908

  10. Significance of a diagnosis of microorganisms on pap smear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzhugh, Valerie A; Heller, Debra S

    2008-01-01

    The Pap smear has been in use for more than half a century as the primary screening test for preinvasive and invasive lesions of the uterine cervix. Although not the primary use and an imperfect test, it can be extremely useful in the diagnosis of some microorganisms. This review focuses on the use of the Pap smear in the diagnosis of several microorganisms including Actinomyces, Chlamydia trachomatis, Candida, Trichomonas vaginalis, Leptothrix vaginalis, Herpes Simplex Virus, the causative agents of bacterial vaginosis, and other rarer organisms. The accuracy of diagnosis using the smear varies among the different organisms in question. PMID:18162813

  11. TsPAP1 encodes a novel plant prolyl aminopeptidase whose expression is induced in response to suboptimal growth conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► A cDNA encoding a novel plant prolyl aminopeptidase, TsPAP1, was obtained from triticale. ► The cloned TsPAP1 cDNA is 1387 bp long and encodes a protein of 390 amino acids. ► The deduced TsPAP1 protein revealed characteristics of the monomeric bacterial PAPs. ► The TsPAP1 mRNA level increased under drought, salinity and in the presence of metal ions. -- Abstract: A triticale cDNA encoding a prolyl aminopeptidase (PAP) was obtained by RT-PCR and has been designated as TsPAP1. The cloned cDNA is 1387 bp long and encodes a protein of 390 amino acids with a calculated molecular mass of 43.9 kDa. The deduced TsPAP1 protein exhibits a considerable sequence identity with the biochemically characterized bacterial and fungal PAP proteins of small molecular masses (∼35 kDa). Moreover, the presence of conserved regions that are characteristic for bacterial monomeric PAP enzymes (the GGSWG motif, the localization of the catalytic triad residues and the segment involved in substrate binding) has also been noted. Primary structure analysis and phylogenetic analysis revealed that TsPAP1 encodes a novel plant PAP protein that is distinct from the multimeric proteins that have thus far been characterized in plants and whose counterparts have been recognized only in bacteria and fungi. A significant increase in the TsPAP1 transcript level in the shoots of triticale plants was observed under drought and saline conditions as well as in the presence of cadmium and aluminium ions in the nutrient medium. This paper is the first report describing changes in the transcript levels of any plant PAP in response to suboptimal growth conditions.

  12. TsPAP1 encodes a novel plant prolyl aminopeptidase whose expression is induced in response to suboptimal growth conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szawlowska, Urszula; Grabowska, Agnieszka [Department of Biochemistry, Warsaw University of Life Sciences - SGGW, Nowoursynowska 159, 02-776 Warsaw (Poland); Zdunek-Zastocka, Edyta, E-mail: edyta_zdunek_zastocka@sggw.pl [Department of Biochemistry, Warsaw University of Life Sciences - SGGW, Nowoursynowska 159, 02-776 Warsaw (Poland); Bielawski, Wieslaw [Department of Biochemistry, Warsaw University of Life Sciences - SGGW, Nowoursynowska 159, 02-776 Warsaw (Poland)

    2012-03-02

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A cDNA encoding a novel plant prolyl aminopeptidase, TsPAP1, was obtained from triticale. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The cloned TsPAP1 cDNA is 1387 bp long and encodes a protein of 390 amino acids. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The deduced TsPAP1 protein revealed characteristics of the monomeric bacterial PAPs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The TsPAP1 mRNA level increased under drought, salinity and in the presence of metal ions. -- Abstract: A triticale cDNA encoding a prolyl aminopeptidase (PAP) was obtained by RT-PCR and has been designated as TsPAP1. The cloned cDNA is 1387 bp long and encodes a protein of 390 amino acids with a calculated molecular mass of 43.9 kDa. The deduced TsPAP1 protein exhibits a considerable sequence identity with the biochemically characterized bacterial and fungal PAP proteins of small molecular masses ({approx}35 kDa). Moreover, the presence of conserved regions that are characteristic for bacterial monomeric PAP enzymes (the GGSWG motif, the localization of the catalytic triad residues and the segment involved in substrate binding) has also been noted. Primary structure analysis and phylogenetic analysis revealed that TsPAP1 encodes a novel plant PAP protein that is distinct from the multimeric proteins that have thus far been characterized in plants and whose counterparts have been recognized only in bacteria and fungi. A significant increase in the TsPAP1 transcript level in the shoots of triticale plants was observed under drought and saline conditions as well as in the presence of cadmium and aluminium ions in the nutrient medium. This paper is the first report describing changes in the transcript levels of any plant PAP in response to suboptimal growth conditions.

  13. The clinical value of serum PSA and PAP determinations in prostate cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To investigate the clinical value of serum PSA and PAP determinations in diagnosis of prostate cancer patients. Methods: The serum PSA and PAP levels of 98 prostate cancer patients, 45 prostate benign disease patients and 40 normal subjects were tested by IRMA. Results: The serum PSA and PAP levels of prostate cancer patients were significantly higher than those in prostate benign disease patients and normal controls (P < 0.01). The diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of serum PSA for prostate cancer were 93.9% and 93.3% respectively. The diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of serum PAP for prostate cancer were 71.4% and 91.1% respectively. Conclusion: The determination of serum PSA and PAP was of high clinical value for diagnosis of early prostate cancer. It could be used as an important reference parameter for the clinical staging, follow-up of treatment result and prediction of prognosis

  14. Modified PAP method to detect heteroresistance to vancomycin among methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates at a tertiary care hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iyer R

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was an attempt at developing, establishing, validating and comparing the modified PAP method for detection of hetero-vancomycin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (h-VRSA with the routine antimicrobial susceptibility testing (using the BSAC standardized disc diffusion method, minimum inhibitory concentrations of vancomycin using standard E-test methodology and the Hiramatsu?s screening method. A total of 50 methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus obtained from various clinical specimens, along with the Mu 3 and Mu 50 strains as controls, were studied. No VRSA isolates were obtained. However, four of the test strains were positive by the Hiramatsu?s screening method, of which only one isolate could be confirmed by the modified PAP analysis method. This isolate was a coloniser from the drain fluid of a liver transplant recipient. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and the overall efficiency of the Hiramatsu?s screening method with the modified PAP analysis as the gold standard were found to be 100, 93.8, 25 and 94%, respectively. It is very essential for clinical laboratories to screen for h-VRSA, given the increasing use of glycopeptide antibiotics in therapy and the potential for failed therapy in patients infected with these strains.

  15. Awareness and uptake of the Pap smear among market women in Lagos, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Francis A. Faduyile; Yetunde A. Kuyinu; Babalola Faseru; Wright, Kikelomo O

    2011-01-01

    Our study evaluates the effect of an educational programme on awareness and uptake of the cervical cancer screening test (Pap smear) by women in a model market in Lagos Nigeria. This was a quasi-experimental study using a multistage sampling technique. A total of 350 women were divided into two groups. A baseline survey on awareness of the Pap test and screening practices was carried out using pre-tested, interviewer administered, structured questionnaires. Participants in the intervention gr...

  16. Factors related to failure to attend the consultation to receive the results of the Pap smear test / Fatores relacionados ao no comparecimento consulta para receber o resultado do exame colpocitolgico

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Camila Teixeira Moreira, Vasconcelos; Denise de Ftima Fernandes, Cunha; Cssia Fernandes, Coelho; Ana Karina Bezerra, Pinheiro; Namie Okino, Sawada.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: identificar os fatores relacionados ao no comparecimento das mulheres consulta de retorno para receber o resultado do exame colpocitolgico. MTODO: estudo transversal, realizado com 775 pacientes que se submeteram ao exame colpocitolgico no Centro de Sade da Famlia de Fortalez [...] a, Cear, entre setembro de 2010 e fevereiro de 2011. RESULTADOS: a maioria das pesquisadas era jovem (?35 anos), de baixa escolaridade (?7 anos de estudo), com incio da vida sexual precoce (?20 anos) e 17,0% delas no retornaram para receber o resultado do exame. Resultados estatisticamente significantes para o no comparecimento ao retorno estiveram relacionados a: mulheres jovens (p=0,001), incio precoce da atividade sexual (p=0,047) e conhecimento inadequado sobre o exame colpocitolgico (p=0,029). CONCLUSO: o fato de a mulher no retornar para receber o resultado um problema para o controle do cncer cervicouterino e deve ser combatido por meio de estratgias educativas que reforcem a importncia do retorno para a deteco precoce desse cncer. Abstract in spanish OBJETIVO: identificar los factores relacionados a la no asistencia de las mujeres a la consulta de retorno para recibir el resultado de la prueba de Papanicolaou. MTODO: se trata de un estudio transversal, realizado con 775 pacientes que se sometieron a la prueba de Papanicolaou en el Centro [...] de Salud de la Familia de Fortaleza-CE, entre septiembre de 2010 y febrero de 2011. RESULTADOS: la mayora de las encuestadas eran jvenes (?35 aos), de baja escolaridad (?7 aos de estudio), iniciaron la vida sexual muy temprano (?20 aos) y 17,0% de ellas no retornaron para recibir el resultado del examen. Los resultados estadsticamente significativos por no retornar estuvieron relacionados a: mujeres jvenes (p=0,001); inicio precoz de la actividad sexual (p=0,047); y conocimiento inadecuado sobre la prueba de Papanicolaou (p=0,029). CONCLUSIN: el hecho de la mujer no retornar para recibir el resultado es un problema para el control del cncer de cuello uterino y debe ser combatido por medio de estrategias educativas que refuercen la importancia del retorno para la deteccin precoz de ese cncer. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: to identify the factors related to the failure of women to attend the follow-up consultation to receive the results of the Pap smear test. METHOD: a cross-sectional study, carried out with 775 patients who underwent the Pap smear test in the Centro de Sade da Famlia of Fortaleza, [...] between September 2010 and February 2011. RESULTS: the majority of the women studied were young (?35 years), had low levels of education (?7 years of study), and commenced sexual activity early (?20 years), with 17.0% of them failing to return to receive the test results. Statistically significant results for the failure to return were related to: young women (p=0.001); early onset of sexual activity (p=0.047); and inadequate knowledge about the Pap smear test (p=0.029). Conclusion the fact that the women failed to return for the result is a problem for the control of cervical cancer and must be addressed through educational strategies that reinforce the importance of the return for the early detection of this cancer.

  17. A Comparison of Three Pap Smear Collection Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Mesdaghinia

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Pap smear test is considered the best screening method for cervical disease, especially for malignant lesions. The crucial factor here is obtaining high-quality samples, as poorly-prepared ones cause a great deal of confusion for patients and physicians alike. Attempts to define an ideal sampling technique have been going on for many years, and in this study we compare three different sampling methods to determine which one provides the best quality. Materials and Methods: This interventional study was performed in a private obstetrics-gynecology clinic and involved 600 women who met the criteria for cervical screening. The Pap test was done by three different methods: "Swab spatula", "Cytobrush spatula" and "Spatula only". Results: Each method was performed on 200 randomly-selected patients. Cytopathologic examination was done by a single pathologist and in a blind fashion. For each specimen, a quality rating was reported as "satisfactory" or "unsatisfactory". Among the 200 samples obtained by the "Swabspatula method, 150 (75% were of satisfactory quality and the remaining 50 cases (25% were rated as unsatisfactory. As for the cytobrushspatula group, 88 samples (94% were satisfactory and 12 (6% were unsatisfactory. Finally, 179 samples (88% in Spatula-only group were satisfactory and 24 (12% were unsatisfactory. The difference in the proportion of good-quality samples was significant in pairwise comparisons between the three methods: swab-spatula versus spatula-only (P = 0.0013, swab-spatula versus cytobrush-spatula (P = 0.0001 and cytobrush-spatula versus spatula-only (P = 0.036. Conclusion: The study revealed that the cytobrush-spatula sampling method yielded the highest proportion of high-quality samples. Hence, it would be desirable to familiarize physicians, midwives and other health care workers in this country with the technique of cytobrush cervical sampling and its potential advantages. However, financial and cultural aspects must be taken into account before adopting the procedure for routine cervical screening in Iran.

  18. Knowledge Attitudes and Practice about Pap Smear among Women Reffering to A Public Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakineh Mohammad-Alizadeh- Charandabi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The Pap smear is a reliable, inexpensive and effective screening test for cervical cancer; the second most common cancer among women worldwide. We aimed to determine womens knowledge, attitudes and practice towards Pap smear and barriers for the screening in a public hospital.Materials and methods: This study, was carried out on 350 outpatient married women reffering for a visit at the clinics of the Alzahra educational hospital, Rasht- Iran, 2011. A questionnaire including demographic characteristics (24 questions, knowledge (14 questions, attitudes (11 statments and practice (10 questions towards Pap smear was completed by interview with the women. The data were analyzed using SPSS ver.13.Results: Mean age of participants was 32 (SD 12 years. Of the respondents, only 44.3% were aware of the Pap smear and 27.1% had had it at least once in their life. The most common reason for having the test was physicians or other health workers advise and for not having the test was no recommendation by health providers and lack of knowledge about Pap smear. Embarrassing, fear of the test result or economic problems mentioned by only 12 (4.2% as the main barrier. Mean (SD knowledge score of the women who had heard about the Pap smear was 59.4 (24.3 and attitudes score of all participants was 48.5 (11.6 from possible range score of 0-100. Women with a history of Pap smear had had higher awareness and attitudes score.Conclusion: The knowledge and practice of the women was inadequate and need to be promoted. Considering the main reason mentioned by the participants for not having the test, all health providers should educate and encourage women to do regular Pap smear.

  19. Cytological patterns of cervical pap smears with histopathological correlation

    OpenAIRE

    Bhagya Lakshmi Atla; Prasad Uma; M. Shamili; Satish Kumar, S.(Lorentz Institute, Leiden University, Niels Bohrweg 2, Leiden, Netherlands)

    2015-01-01

    Background: Cervical cancer is the most common, preventable cancer and does not develop suddenly from normal epithelium but is presented by a spectrum of intraepithelial neoplasia. Pap smear is an ideal screening and low cost effective test to detect intraepithelial neoplasia especially in developing countries but has limitations and needs confirmation by histopathology. The study aimed to determine the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and diagnos...

  20. Awareness and uptake of the Pap smear among market women in Lagos, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kikelomo O. Wright

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Our study evaluates the effect of an educational programme on awareness and uptake of the cervical cancer screening test (Pap smear by women in a model market in Lagos Nigeria. This was a quasi-experimental study using a multistage sampling technique. A total of 350 women were divided into two groups. A baseline survey on awareness of the Pap test and screening practices was carried out using pre-tested, interviewer administered, structured questionnaires. Participants in the intervention group received sessions of community based health information on cervical cancer screening tests while participants in the control group received health information on hypertension. Subsequently, participants in both groups were reassessed to evaluate the effect of the educational programme on the Pap test and cervical screening uptake. Data were analysed with the Epi-info version 6.04. Awareness about the Pap test was low at baseline; only 6.9% and 12.0% of participants in the intervention and control groups, respectively, had heard of Pap smears. Furthermore, less than 10% had correct information on the use of the Pap test. Post-intervention, there was a significant and proportional increase in the knowledge of the Pap test in the intervention group (p<0.05. However, uptake of the test was quite low in the intervention and control groups both pre- and post-intervention and there was no significant change in uptake. We concluded that essential schemes are required to enhance access to screening, as knowledge alone is insufficient to promote acceptance and use of cervical cytological screening tests.

  1. Women's understanding of the term 'Pap smear'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, David L; Hostetter, Sarah Smith; Hunter, Jennifer; Johnson, Nicole; Cooper, Saladin; Malnar, Gerard

    2015-07-01

    To assess the understanding of the term 'Pap smear' among women across the entire adult lifespan after recent changes to the guidelines on cervical cancer screening. Women attending the Obstetrics and Gynecology clinic at a large safety net teaching hospital in a Midwestern city were provided one of two versions of a confidential and anonymous survey to complete. The difference between the two versions was the way the primary research question was worded. There were 174 participants ranging in age from 15 to 69 (mean = 33.9) years. Of the 73 women who completed version A of the survey, 74 % were able to identify at least one correct descriptor for the term 'Pap smear.' Women who could identify at least one correct descriptor for the term 'Pap smear' were on average older than those who could not (mean = 36.9 vs. 28.7 years; p = 0.012). Of the 94 patients completing survey version B, 67 % could not differentiate a pelvic exam from a Pap smear. There was no association between age and ability to differentiate a pelvic exam from a Pap smear. The majority of women cannot distinguish a Pap smear from a pelvic exam. The unexpected finding of less understanding among younger women prompts a need for further research and invites discussion of whether more cervical cancer prevention education, with more emphasis on HPV vaccines in recent years, has neglected the importance of Pap smears-which is beginning to show up in knowledge of younger women. Both these findings suggest a need for increased patient education during female preventive health clinic visits. PMID:25630404

  2. Obtaining reliable likelihood ratio tests from simulated likelihood functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Laura Mrch

    2014-01-01

    likely to cause misleading test results for the number of draws usually used today. The paper illustrates that increasing the number of draws is a very inefficient solution strategy requiring very large numbers of draws to ensure against misleading test statistics. The main conclusion of this paper is...

  3. Obtaining reliable Likelihood Ratio tests from simulated likelihood functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Laura Mrch

    parameters this practice is very likely to cause misleading test results for the number of draws usually used today. The paper shows that increasing the number of draws is a very inefficient solution strategy requiring very large numbers of draws to ensure against misleading test statistics. The paper shows...

  4. Comparison Between Pap Smear and Via As Screening For Cervical Lesions

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    Harshini V 1, Amritha Bhandary 2, Suchithra Thunga 3

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: An important reason for higher cervical cancer incidence in developing countries is lack of effectivescreening programs like pap smear, aimed at detecting precancerous conditions before they progress to invasivecancer. The potential difficulties in implementing cervical cytology based screening in low-resource settings haveprompted the investigation of accuracy of alternative low technology tests such as Visual inspection with acetic acidapplication [VIA], Visual inspection with acetic acid application with magnification [VIAM], visual inspection onLugol’s Iodine application [VILI] in early detection of cervical neoplasia .In our study we compared pap smear withVIA to study the accurarcy of VIA as it is simpler and easier technique to be used as screening in low resourcesettings. Aim: This is a hospital based descriptive, prospective study to evaluate validity of pap smear and VIAtechniques as screening tests in identifying cervical lesions. Materials And Methods: After general and systemicexamination as a routine,visual local pelvic examination including visualisation of cervix and vagina per speculumand the findings are documented in the proforma .Then VIA and pap smear are done in that order, if any of thesetests are positive then cervical biopsy will be taken and further advise to the subject is given. Results: A total of 313women were involved in the study. The sensitivity of pap smear is 54.5% specificity is 98.9% while that of VIA95.4% and 97.9%respectively. We found that VIA accuracy was comparatively more than that of pap smear.Conclusion: In low resource settings, usefulness of VIA is more than that of pap smear. We suggest to perform VIAin all the women inspite of having pap smear facility to improve detection rate of cervical lesions and provide betterpatient councelling and treatment.

  5. Comparison of visual inspection of cervix and pap smear for cervical cancer screening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To evaluate the performance of visual inspection of cervix (VIA) after application of 3% acetic acid in cervical cancer screening in comparison with PAP smear. Results: Out of 540 subjects, 356 were negative with both screening techniques. One hundred and fifty-six subjects were positive with VIA (28.9%) while PAP smear was positive in seventy-eight subjects (14.4%). The sensitivity of VIA was 93.9% and of PAP smear was 46.9%. Corresponding specificities were 30.4% and 69.5%. There was no significant difference between the positive predictive value (PPV) of both test (p<0.05). The accuracy of VIA was 77.5% compared to 52.8% of PAP smear. The difference was highly significant (p < 0.01). Conclusion: These results indicate that VIA is more sensitive and has a higher accuracy as compared to PAP smear. It could, therefore, be valuable in detection of precancerous lesions of cervix. Low cost, easy applicability and immediate results make VIA a useful screening test in developing countries like Pakistan as compared to PAP smear. (author)

  6. COMPARISION AND CORRELATION OF PAP SMEAR WITH COLPOSCOPY AND HISTOPATHIOLOGY IN EVALUATION OF CERVIX

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    Zainab S

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available AIMS AND OBJECTIVES : Correlate pap smear findings wi th colposcopic findings, To localize the lesion by colposcopy and obtain biopsy and to provide appropriate treatment wherever possible. MATERIAL AND METHODS : This was a prospective comparative study of 104 patients who attended the Gynecology OPD of KIMS f rom may2012 to may 2014. INCLUSION CRITERIA : 1. Women of age between 20 - 65 years. 2. Women with symptoms like vaginal discharge, post coital bleeding, postmenopausal bleeding, intermenstrual bleeding and persistent leucorrhoea . 3. Women with normal looking cervix but symptomatic. EXCLUSION CRITERIA : 1. Women with bleeding at the time of examination . 2. Women with frank lesions . 3. Women with clinical evidence of acute pelvic infection . 4. Women who was previously treated for carcinoma cervix . 5. Pregnant wome n. RESULTS : Sensitivity of pap smear was found to be very low which was 31.25% compared to its specificity which was 94.44%. Which means pap smear shows higher no. of false negative smears Colposcopy showed a high sensitivity 96.57% and a good specificity 88.55% compared to pap smear . CONCLUSIOS: It is evident that colposcopy is definitely more sensitive and accurate than pap smear. By combining pap smear with colposcopy, we can maximize the sensitivity and specificity of cancer cervix screening.

  7. On obtaining material properties from the ring compression test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A simple theory for the large deformation of a tube compressed diametrically between rigid plates is described. This enables the load-deflection curve, maximum tensile strain in the tube wall and other features of the deformation to be deduced. The application of this theory to the ring compression test is described and its possible modification to account for more complex material behaviour than that assumed in the basic model is discussed. (Auth.)

  8. Intraoperative BiPAP in OSA Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Bhavna P; Ns, Kodandaram

    2015-04-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSA) is characterized by recurrent episodes of partial or complete upper airway obstructions during sleep. Severe OSA presents with a number of challenges to the anesthesiologist, the most life threatening being loss of the airway. We are reporting a case where we successfully used intraoperative bi level positive pressure ventilation (BiPAP) with moderate sedation and a regional technique in a patient with severe OSA posted for total knee replacement (TKR). A 55-year-old lady with osteoarthritis of right knee joint was posted for total knee replacement. She had severe OSA with an apnea-hypopnea index of 35. She also had moderate pulmonary hypertension due to her long standing OSA. We successfully used in her a combined spinal epidural technique with intraoperative BiPAP and sedation. She had no complications intraoperatively or post operatively and was discharged on day 5. Patients with OSA are vulnerable to sedatives, anaesthesia and analgesia which even in small doses can cause complete airway collapse. The problem, with regional techniques is that it requires excellent patient cooperation. We decided to put our patient on intraoperative BiPAP hoping that this would allow us to sedate her adequately for the surgery. As it happened we were able to successfully sedate her with slightly lesser doses of the commonly used sedatives without any episodes of desaturation, snoring or exacerbation of pulmonary hypertension. Many more trials are required before we can conclusively say that intraoperative BiPAP allows us to safely sedate OSA patients but we hope that our case report draws light on this possibility. Planning ahead and having a BiPAP machine available inside the operating may allow us to use sedatives in these patients to keep them comfortable under regional anaesthesia. PMID:26023625

  9. Intraoperative BiPAP in OSA Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Bhavna P

    2015-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSA) is characterized by recurrent episodes of partial or complete upper airway obstructions during sleep. Severe OSA presents with a number of challenges to the anesthesiologist, the most life threatening being loss of the airway. We are reporting a case where we successfully used intraoperative bi level positive pressure ventilation (BiPAP) with moderate sedation and a regional technique in a patient with severe OSA posted for total knee replacement (TKR). A 55-year-old lady with osteoarthritis of right knee joint was posted for total knee replacement. She had severe OSA with an apnea-hypopnea index of 35. She also had moderate pulmonary hypertension due to her long standing OSA. We successfully used in her a combined spinal epidural technique with intraoperative BiPAP and sedation. She had no complications intraoperatively or post operatively and was discharged on day 5. Patients with OSA are vulnerable to sedatives, anaesthesia and analgesia which even in small doses can cause complete airway collapse. The problem, with regional techniques is that it requires excellent patient cooperation. We decided to put our patient on intraoperative BiPAP hoping that this would allow us to sedate her adequately for the surgery. As it happened we were able to successfully sedate her with slightly lesser doses of the commonly used sedatives without any episodes of desaturation, snoring or exacerbation of pulmonary hypertension. Many more trials are required before we can conclusively say that intraoperative BiPAP allows us to safely sedate OSA patients but we hope that our case report draws light on this possibility. Planning ahead and having a BiPAP machine available inside the operating may allow us to use sedatives in these patients to keep them comfortable under regional anaesthesia. PMID:26023625

  10. Presencia de algunos factores de riesgo de cncer de crvix en mujeres con citologas normales / Presence of some risk factors for cervix uteri cancer in women with normal Pap's smear test results

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Yoimy, Daz Brito; Mara Margarita, Bez Pupo; Jorge Luis, Prez Rivero; Migdalia, Garca Placeres.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduccin: el cncer del cuello del tero es un problema de salud que afecta a las mujeres, son mltiples los factores que lo predisponen. Objetivo: identificar la presencia de algunos factores de riesgo de Cncer de cervix en mujeres de un Grupo Bsico de Trabajo con citologas normales. Mtodo: [...] se realiz un estudio observacional descriptivo, en mujeres pertenecientes al Grupo Bsico de Trabajo 1 del Policlnico Docente "Tula Aguilera", del municipio Camagey, desde septiembre a diciembre del ao 2011. De las 997 mujeres registradas en las Historias Clnicas de Salud Familiar, se seleccionaron 191 utilizando el Programa EPIDAT, por muestreo aleatorio simple. Se les aplic una encuesta y los datos recogidos fueron presentados en tablas de frecuencias. Resultados: se encontr que predomin el grupo de edades entre 35-39 aos con un 24,0 %, el 90,0 % comenzaron a tener relaciones antes de los 20 aos, el 64,3 % tuvieron tres y ms compaeros sexuales, 70,7 % padecieron de infeccin vaginal. Conclusiones : al concluir el estudio, se aprecia la presencia elevada de factores de riesgo de cncer del crvix en las fminas estudiadas. Abstract in english Introduction: the cervix uteri cancer is a health problem affecting women and the number of predisposing factors is large. Objective: to identify some risk factors for cervix uteri cancer in females cared for by a basic work team with normal results in their Pap's smear tests. Methods: an observatio [...] nal and descriptive study was conducted in women, who were cared for by the basic work team no. 1 of "Tula Aguilera" teaching polyclinics in Camaguey municipality from September to December, 2011. The medical records of family health registered 997 from whom 191 were selected through the simple random sampling based on EPIDAT software. They were surveyed and their data presented in frequency tables. Results: it was found that 35-39 y age group predominated with 24%; 90% of them began their sexual relationships prior to being 20 years-old; 64.3% had three or more sexual partners and 70.7% suffered from vaginal infection. Conclusions: at the end of the study, we noticed the significant presence of risk factors for cervix uteri cancer in the studied women.

  11. XMLComparison of Molecular (PCR and Pap Smear Methods in Diagnosis of Human Papiloma Virus (HPV in Women with Genital Warts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bashi zadeh Fakhar, H. (MSc

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Much research has shown that Human Papiloma Virus (HPV plays an important role in cervix cancer and it is the cause of 99% of cervix cancer worldwide. Lots of research has been done to find a proper method for HPV diagnosis and screening in patients with genital warts. This study aimed at comparing PCR method with Pap smear test in HPV screening. Material and Methods: Considering the presence of DNA of HPV, 45 vaginal and cervix swap samples of women with genital warts were tested by means of specific PCR and Pap smear from September 2010 to April 2011. Results: Out of 45 vaginal and cervix swap samples of women suffering genital warts, 37 samples (82.2% are positive. Of 45 Pap smear samples, 13 (29% are neoplasia and 32 (71% normal. Conclusion: The difference between the results of PCR and Pap smear is due to low specification and sensitivity of Pap smear. Thus it is recommended using diagnostic PCR method in addition to Pap smear in order to promote the quality of screening in individuals with genital warts. Keywords: Human Papiloma Virus (HPV; Genital Warts; Molecular (PCR; Pap Smear

  12. Associations Between Women's Perception of Their Husbands'/Partners' Social Support and Pap Screening in Pacific Islander Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouttapa, Michele; Park Tanjasiri, Sora; Wu Weiss, Jie; Sablan-Santos, Lola; DeGuzman Lacsamana, Jasmine; Quitugua, Lourdes; Flores, Preciosa; Flores, Peter; Paige, Ciara; Tui'one May, Vanessa; Tupua, Marina; Schmidt-Vaivao, Dorothy; Taito, Peniamina; Vaikona, Elenoa; Vunileva, Isileli

    2016-01-01

    Pacific Islanders experience high rates of cervical cancer incidence and mortality. This cross-sectional study examined the extent to which Samoan, Chamorro, and Tongan women's perceived receipt of social support from their husbands or male partners was associated with rates of routine cancer screening- specifically Pap testing. A total of 585 Pacific Islander women who live in the United States completed a self-report survey. Women who reported having a Pap test within the past 3 years had significantly higher scores on support from their husbands/male partners. Furthermore, the relationship of emotional support and informational support with increased Pap testing was significantly stronger for Tongan women. The findings suggest that men play an important role in promoting women's cancer prevention behaviors in Pacific Islander and potentially other collectivistic populations. Incorporating social support messages into interventions may be a simple yet effective strategy to increase women's Pap testing. PMID:26646422

  13. Van Mother-Child Health and Family Planning Center Pap Smear Clinics of Information, Evaluation of Applicants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebahat Gucuk

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In this study of women admitted to our center with information on pap smear test, to evaluate the attitudes and behavior. Materials and Methods: This descriptive study of Van Mother-Child Health and Family Planning Center on a voluntary basis, women aged 15-49 were admitted to the control. The education level of participants, age at first marriage, before the presence of vaginal infection, the story, and motivations pap smear level of information availability, and a family history of cancer, administered a questionnaire asking the state to have a regular income. Results: The study included 362 women with age and hear the pap smear test was significantly increased (p = 0.01. Working women and pap smear level of knowledge (p = 0.04 and pap smears than women not working for International rates significantly higher (p = 0.02. Treatment of vaginal infection at least once before to get there was a significant relationship between the pap smear motivations (p>0.05. Family history of gynecologic cancer or non-gynecologic cancer smears have significantly increased the level of motivations (p = 0.0001. Pap smear information, regular the economic income of those levels, significantly higher than those without regular income (p = 0.0001. Conclusion: We serve the region, with low socio-economic characteristics that are considered, gynecological examination by health workers or women from the home visits, pap smear test for what purpose and how often you get the work done and the importance of explaining and giving more space to this issue suggest that the written and visual media. Keywords: Pap smears, health care, education [TAF Prev Med Bull 2011; 10(5.000: 527-532

  14. Associations of demographic variables and the Health Belief Model constructs with Pap smear screening among urban women in Botswana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McFarl

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Ditsapelo M McFarland College of Nursing and Public Health, Adelphi University, Garden City, NY, USA Purpose: Papanicolaou (Pap smear services are available in most urban areas in Botswana. Yet most women in such areas do not screen regularly for cancer of the cervix. The purpose of this article is to present findings on the associations of demographic variables and Health Belief Model constructs with Pap smear screening among urban women in Botswana. Sample and methods: The study included a convenience sample of 353 asymptomatic women aged 30 years and older who were living in Gaborone, Botswana. Data were collected using a demographic questionnaire and items of the Health Belief Model. Data analysis included descriptive statistics for demographic variables and bivariate and ordinal (logit regression to determine the associations of demographic variables. Results: Having health insurance and having a regular health care provider were significant predictors of whether or not women had a Pap smear. Women with health insurance were more likely to have had a Pap smear test than women without health insurance (91% vs 36%. Similarly, women who had a regular health care provider were more likely to have had a Pap smear test than women without a regular health care provider (94% vs 42%. Major barriers to screening included what was described as "laziness" for women who had ever had a Pap smear (57% and limited information about Pap smear screening for women who had never had a Pap smear (44%. Conclusion: There is a need for more information about the importance of the Pap smear test and for increased access to screening services in Botswana. Keywords: cervical, screening, barriers, access, beliefs

  15. Pap-smear Benchmark Data For Pattern Classification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jantzen, Jan; Norup, Jonas

    2005-01-01

    This case study provides data and a baseline for comparing classification methods. The data consists of 917 images of Pap-smear cells, classified carefully by cyto-technicians and doctors. Each cell is described by 20 numerical features, and the cells fall into 7 classes. A basic data analysis includes scatter plots and linear classification results, in order to provide domain knowledge and lower bounds on the acceptable performance of future classifiers. Students and researchers can access the database on the Internet, and use it to test and compare their own classification methods.

  16. Preoperative serum PSA and PAP levels and survival in curative prostatic cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aim: It has been established that PSA and PAP are useful tumor markers in diagnosis and therapy follow-up of prostatic cancer. In this work we retrospectively evaluated whether there exists a relationship between preoperative PSA and PAP values and survival of patients following the transurethral resection of prostate. Material and Methods: It has been done a mainly simultaneous radioimmunoassay of PSA and PAP in 52 and 49 patients with carcinoma of prostate, respectively. Survival curves were computed by Kaplan-Meier method. Difference between 2 groups of patients were estimated by log rank test. Results: The values of PSA and PAP ranged 0,3-325,2 ng/ml (median 52,3) and 0,1-204,0 ng/ml (median 6,1), respectively. The mean survival time was 33,94,2 months (median 26,42,6). Based on optimal decision level in differentiation BPH and prostatic cancer, the patients were divided into 2 groups: PSA36,0ng/ml, PAP4,5ng/ml. No significant difference between survival curves was found concerning of PSA and PAP levels. However, in age groups70 years (age ratio 1,03) the mean survival was 45,056,23 (median 29,602,26) and 22,092,98(median 22,803,21 months, respectively. The difference is significant (p=0,002). The geometric mean values of PSA in 70 years group are 45,1 ng/ml and 24,1 ng/ml, respectively. The difference is significant (p70 years group are 7,8 ng/ml and 6,7 ng/ml, respectively. No significant difference. Conclusion: It couldn't be proved that preoperative PSA and PAP levels are prognostic indicators. Examination of age ranges reveals significant survival difference between age groups 70 years indicating age effect on survival

  17. Intraoperative BiPAP in OSA Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Bhavna P; NS, Kodandaram

    2015-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSA) is characterized by recurrent episodes of partial or complete upper airway obstructions during sleep. Severe OSA presents with a number of challenges to the anesthesiologist, the most life threatening being loss of the airway. We are reporting a case where we successfully used intraoperative bi level positive pressure ventilation (BiPAP) with moderate sedation and a regional technique in a patient with severe OSA posted for total knee replacement (TKR). ...

  18. Isolation and cloning of the Phytolacca americana anti-viral protein PAP-I gene

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Heba A, Mahfouze; Khalid A, El-Dougdoug; Badawi A, Othman; Mostafa A, Gomaa.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available La protena antiviral del ginseng (PAP), aislada de plantas de Phytolacca americana y Phytolacca acinosa, inhibe la traduccin proteica mediante la remocin cataltica de un residuo de adenina especfico, en la cadena mayor de la subunidad 60S del ARN ribosomal eucaritico. En este estudio se aisl [...] y secuenci el gen PAP-I de P. americana, y posteriormente se compar con los genes de otras protenas inactivadoras de ribosomas (RIP), reportadas en GenBank(r). Se extrajo el ADN total de las hojas tardas del verano de las plantas de P. americana y el fragmento de 868 pb correspondiente al ADN del gen se amplific con el uso de cebadores especficos, mediante reaccin en cadena de la polimerasa (PCR). El producto de la PCR eluido se purific, se clon en el vector pTZ57R/T, y se moviliz en clulas de Escherichia coli cepa DH5a. Tras la secuenciacin del producto de la PCR del gen PAP-I, la secuencia mostr una homologa nucleotdica de 98 a 82 % y aminoacdica de 94 a 26 %, con las RIP reportadas. El anlisis filogentico confirm que el gen amplificado corresponde a la RIP tipo I de simple cadena (PAP-I). Abstract in english The pokeweed antiviral protein (PAP) isolated from Phytolacca americana and Phytolacca acinosa plants, inhibits protein translation by catalytically removing a specific adenine residue from the large rRNA of the 60S subunit of eukaryotic ribosomes. In this study, the P. americana PAP-I gene was isol [...] ated and sequenced, and further compared to other ribosome-inactivating proteins (RIPs) genes previously reported in GenBank(r). Total DNA was extracted from the late summer leaves of P. americana. A polymerase chain reaction (PCR) 868 bp-long DNA product was obtained, using gene specific primers, based on the expected gene size. The eluted product was purified and cloned into the pTZ57R/T vector, and mobilized into the Escherichia coli strain DH5a. After sequencing, the analysis of the PAP-I PCR product showed 98 to 82 % nucleotide and amino acid 94 to 26 % homologies, respectively, compared to previously reported RIPs. A phylogenetic analysis confirmed that the amplified PAP-I gene corresponds to the single chain Type-I RIP (PAP-I).

  19. Comparison of PWR fuel assembly CHF tests obtained at three different test facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text of publication follows: Critical Heat Flux (CHF) is a key phenomenon in the heat transfer process in the nuclear core of pressurized water reactors (PWR). CHF limits the power capability of the nuclear plant and also the core design fuel management. Framatome Cogema Fuels (formerly Babcock and Wilcox), Siemens Power Corporation (SPC) in the US, Kraftwerk Union (KWU/Siemens) in Germany and Framatome in France have all been carrying out CHF tests for qualifying the thermal-hydraulic performance of their fuel assemblies in several test loops. With the merging of these companies within Framatome-ANP and the AREVA group, it was decided to utilize the same test facility for all regions. The Karlstein Thermal Hydraulic facility (KATHY) loop located at Karlstein, Germany has been selected to be the reference loop of Framatome ANP. The other loops previously used were the OMEGA loop of the French CEA and the Heat Transfer Research Facility (HTRF) loop of Columbia University. In order to be able to use results from tests obtained at any of the facilities interchangeably, a comparison of experimental measurements was necessary to demonstrate the equivalence of these loops. These experiments have been performed both using an axially uniform flux shape and using an axially nonuniform flux shape. In this paper a short description of the test facilities is presented after which the results of this comparison between KATHY, OMEGA and the HTRF are described. The method used in the comparison is presented in detail. The results obtained using only experimental conditions do not account for small differences in the rod bundle radial peaking and axial flux shape. Theses differences can be modeled using a subchannel thermal-hydraulic analysis code and a CHF correlation. Such a technique permits a much more precise comparison of the results. This comparison demonstrates an excellent consistency of the results between the different loops. This conclusion is valid over a large range of thermal hydraulic parameters (pressure, mass flow rate and local quality).. Therefore the continuity of the CHF test results used in within the AREVA group for product performance demonstrations is completely ensured. (authors)

  20. Bacillary haemoglobinuria diagnosis by the peroxidase-antiperoxidase (PAP) technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzal, F A; Belak, K; Rivera, E; Robles, C A; Feinstein, R E

    1992-10-01

    A peroxidase-antiperoxidase (PAP) technique was used to diagnose bacillary haemoglobinuria in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded liver tissues of cattle. The PAP method revealed Clostridium haemolyticum in the zone of liver necrosis characteristic of the disease and also in culture smears of this microorganism, but C. novyi type B, C. chauvoei, C. septicum and C. perfringens types B and C remained unstained by the PAP reaction. The PAP technique performed provides a specific, simple and rapid method to diagnose bacillary haemoglobinuria. PMID:1462725

  1. Nucleotide sequence of the papA gene encoding the Pap pilus subunit of human uropathogenic Escherichia coli.

    OpenAIRE

    Bga, M; Normark, S; Hardy, J.; O'Hanley, P.; Lark, D; Olsson, O.; Schoolnik, G; Falkow, S

    1984-01-01

    The papA gene of the uropathogenic strain Escherichia coli J96, coding for the Pap pili subunit, was subjected to DNA sequencing, and found to code for an 185-amino acid-long polypeptide with a 22-amino acid-long signal peptide. Here we present the primary sequence, the hydrophilicity profile, and the predicted polypeptide secondary structure of the Pap pili subunit.

  2. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF PAPANICOLAOU STAIN [PAP] WITH RAPID ECONOMIC ACETIC ACID PAPANICOLAOU STAIN (REAP IN CERVICAL CYTOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok Kumar

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The present comparative study of PAP and REAP stain was carried out to assess the quality of staining , duration of staining , cost effectiveness and preservation of staining. MATERIALS AND METHODS : A total of 200 samples were studied over a period of 2 years. The pap smears were obtained from the obstetrics and gynecology out - patient department , fixed in 95% ethyl alcohol and stained simultaneously by both the methods in the department of cytology. RESULTS : Pap stain showed 2 cases (1% of sub optimal cytoplasmic and nuclear staining whereas REAP stain showed 6 cases (3% of suboptimal cytoplasmic staining an d 4 cases (2% of suboptimal nuclear staining. A batch of ten slides each was stained by conventional PAP method and REAP method and the time taken was 35 min and 7 min respectively. The cost per slide worked out to be Rs. 40 in case of conventional PAP me thod and Rs. 10 in case of REAP method. Slides stained by both methods showed excellent preservation for 2 years. CONCLUSION S : The REAP staining method for study of cervical smears in cancer screening programmes is a simple and technician friendly protocol with minimum use of alcohol , that does not compromise on staining quality and diagnostic standards. It can be easily adapted as a viable alternative to conventional PAP method which is time consuming and expensive for mass screening of cervical cancer in limited resource setting like India. We recommend this procedure for all mass cervical cancer screening programmes.

  3. High Element Interactivity Information during Problem Solving May Lead to Failure to Obtain the Testing Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leahy, Wayne; Hanham, Jos; Sweller, John

    2015-01-01

    The testing effect occurs when learners who are tested rather than relearning material perform better on a final test than those who relearn. Based on cognitive load theory, it was predicted that the testing effect may not be obtained when the material being learned is high in element interactivity. Three experiments investigated conditions of the

  4. Who is getting Pap smears in urban Peru?

    OpenAIRE

    Paz Soldan, Valerie A; Lee, Frank H; Carcamo, Cesar; Holmes, King K; Garnett, Geoff P; Garcia, Patricia

    2008-01-01

    Background Cervical cancer, although usually preventable by Pap smear screening, remains the leading cause of cancer-related deaths among women in Peru. The percentages and characteristics of women in Peru who have or have not had a Pap smear have not been defined.

  5. CIEMAT interlaboratories comparison of the results obtained in the proficiency test run by IAEA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains the results obtained by two different laboratories from CIEMAT after participating in the Proficiency Test organised by IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency) in 1999. This test involves the analysis of fly ashes containing natural radionuclides and different amounts of added transuranics. The extraction techniques, counting methods and results obtained are detailed. This type of test are used for the labs to achieve their accreditation and check the reliability of the procedures routinely employed. (Author) 4 refs

  6. PAP SMEAR FOR SCREENING T. VAGINALIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sateesh. K

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Trichomonas vaginalis is sometimes seen in Papanico laou stained smears, but because emphasis is placed on malignant cells in Papanicolaou stained smears, not much is done to search for this parasite in smears. In this study, cervical and vaginal specimens were examined by conventional Papanicolaou method fo r the presence of Trichomonas vaginalis microscopically. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Five hundred high vaginal swabs collected from gynaecology OPD were stained with Papanicolaou stain. RESULTS: One hundred and fifty (30% out of 500 Papanicolaou stained smea rs screened, were positive for Trichomonas vaginalis. Out of them 76.67% of positiv e smears were from asymptomatic females. Presumptive diagnosis based on perinuclear halo and complete T. vaginalis had the highest sensitivity of 69.33%, while diagnosis base d on perinuclear halo alone was 50.66% and 41.33% for diagnosis based on identification of com plete organisms in Pap smear

  7. Transcriptional activation of a pap pilus virulence operon from uropathogenic Escherichia coli.

    OpenAIRE

    Bga, M; M. Gransson; Normark, S; Uhlin, B. E.

    1985-01-01

    A gene cluster mediating production of pili in uropathogenic Escherichia coli was analysed with respect to regulation of pili synthesis. Two cistrons, papB and papI, were localized upstream of the major pilus subunit gene, papA. The papI-papB-papA region was characterized by nucleotide sequencing and by transcriptional analysis. The papA gene was primarily represented by an 800 nucleotide long transcript but was also co-transcribed with papB as a less abundant 1300 nucleotide long mRNA. Both ...

  8. Comparison of Molecular (PCR and Pap Smear Methods in Diagnosis of Human Papiloma Virus (HPV in Women with Genit al Warts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bashi zadeh Fakhar, H . (M S c

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Much research has shown that Human Papiloma Virus (HPV plays an important role in cervix cancer and it is the cause of 99% of cervix cancer worldwide. Lots of research has been done to find a proper method for HPV diagnosis and screening in patients with genital warts. This study aimed at comparing PCR method with Pap smear test in HPV screening. Material and Methods: Considering the presence of DNA of HPV, 45 vaginal and cervix swap samples of women with genital warts were tested by means of specific PCR and Pap smear from September 2010 to April 2011. Results: Out of 45 vaginal and cervix swap samples of women suffering genital warts, 37 samples (82.2% are positive. Of 45 Pap smear samples, 13 (29% are neoplasia and 32 (71% normal. Conclusion: The difference between the results of PCR and Pap smear is due to low specification and sensitivity of Pap smear. Thus it is recommended using diagnostic PCR method in addition to Pap smear in order to promote the quality of screening in individuals with genital warts. Keywords: Human Papiloma Virus (HPV; Genital Warts; Molecular (PCR; Pap Smear

  9. Mammography and Pap test screening among low-income foreign-born Hispanic women in the USA / Mamografia e teste Papanicolau em mulheres latinas de baixa renda nos Estados Unidos

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Maria E., Fernandez; Guillermo, Tortolero-Luna; Robert S., Gold.

    Full Text Available Este estudo determinou os fatores que influenciam a conduta de mulheres latinas de baixa renda nos EUA, em face do monitoramento pela mamografia (MM) e por meio do teste de Papanicolau (TP), em uma amostra de 148 mulheres latinas, residentes na regio metropolitana de Washington DC. A idade mdia na [...] amostra foi de 46,2 anos (desvio padro 11,5), e 84% relatavam renda familiar anual menor que quinze mil dlares. Todas as mulheres falavam espanhol e apresentavam nveis reduzidos de aculturao; 96% destas informavam ter realizado TP, mas 24% no relatavam adeso s normas recomendadas de rastreamento. Entre aquelas com quarenta anos ou mais, 62% haviam realizado MM, mas somente 33% de acordo com as normas de rotina. A freqncia de conceitos equivocados sobre o cncer neste grupo de mulheres foi maior que a observada para mulheres latinas em outros estudos. Modelos logsticos multivariados para variveis correlacionadas conduta no rastreamento pelo TP e MM indicam que fatores como o medo do teste, vergonha e desconhecimento tiveram influncia. Concluiu-se que as mulheres nesse estudo apresentaram menor freqncia de rastreamento por MM que mulheres no latinas, alm de apresentarem tambm nveis mais reduzidos de adeso s normas de rastreamento por TP e MM. Abstract in english Little is known about the factors influencing screening among low-income Hispanic women particularly among recent immigrants. A sample of 148 low-income, low-literate, foreign-born Hispanic women residing in the Washington DC metropolitan area participated in the study. The mean age of the sample wa [...] s 46.2 (SD = 11.5), 84% reported annual household incomes

  10. Mammography and Pap test screening among low-income foreign-born Hispanic women in the USA Mamografia e teste Papanicolau em mulheres latinas de baixa renda nos Estados Unidos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria E. Fernandez

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about the factors influencing screening among low-income Hispanic women particularly among recent immigrants. A sample of 148 low-income, low-literate, foreign-born Hispanic women residing in the Washington DC metropolitan area participated in the study. The mean age of the sample was 46.2 (SD = 11.5, 84% reported annual household incomesEste estudo determinou os fatores que influenciam a conduta de mulheres latinas de baixa renda nos EUA, em face do monitoramento pela mamografia (MM e por meio do teste de Papanicolau (TP, em uma amostra de 148 mulheres latinas, residentes na regio metropolitana de Washington DC. A idade mdia na amostra foi de 46,2 anos (desvio padro 11,5, e 84% relatavam renda familiar anual menor que quinze mil dlares. Todas as mulheres falavam espanhol e apresentavam nveis reduzidos de aculturao; 96% destas informavam ter realizado TP, mas 24% no relatavam adeso s normas recomendadas de rastreamento. Entre aquelas com quarenta anos ou mais, 62% haviam realizado MM, mas somente 33% de acordo com as normas de rotina. A freqncia de conceitos equivocados sobre o cncer neste grupo de mulheres foi maior que a observada para mulheres latinas em outros estudos. Modelos logsticos multivariados para variveis correlacionadas conduta no rastreamento pelo TP e MM indicam que fatores como o medo do teste, vergonha e desconhecimento tiveram influncia. Concluiu-se que as mulheres nesse estudo apresentaram menor freqncia de rastreamento por MM que mulheres no latinas, alm de apresentarem tambm nveis mais reduzidos de adeso s normas de rastreamento por TP e MM.

  11. Biochemical and molecular characterization of AtPAP12 and AtPAP26: the predominant purple acid phosphatase isozymes secreted by phosphate-starved Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Hue T; Qian, Weiqiang; Hurley, Brenden A; She, Yi-Min; Wang, Daowen; Plaxton, William C

    2010-11-01

    Plant purple acid phosphatases (PAPs) belong to a large multigene family whose specific functions in Pi metabolism are poorly understood. Two PAP isozymes secreted by Pi-deficient (-Pi) Arabidopsis thaliana were purified from culture filtrates of -Pi suspension cells. They correspond to an AtPAP12 (At2g27190) homodimer and AtPAP26 (At5g34850) monomer composed of glycosylated 60 and 55?kDa subunit(s), respectively. Each PAP exhibited broad pH activity profiles centred at pH 5.6, and overlapping substrate specificities. Concanavalin-A chromatography resolved a pair of secreted AtPAP26 glycoforms. AtPAP26 is dual targeted during Pi stress because it is also the principal intracellular (vacuolar) PAP up-regulated by -Pi Arabidopsis. Differential glycosylation appears to influence the subcellular targeting and substrate selectivity of AtPAP26. The significant increase in secreted acid phosphatase activity of -Pi seedlings was correlated with the appearance of immunoreactive AtPAP12 and AtPAP26 polypeptides. Analysis of atpap12 and atpap26 T-DNA mutants verified that AtPAP12 and AtPAP26 account for most of the secreted acid phosphatase activity of -Pi wild-type seedlings. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR confirmed that transcriptional controls exert little influence on the up-regulation of AtPAP26 during Pi stress, whereas AtPAP12 transcripts correlate well with relative levels of secreted AtPAP12 polypeptides. We hypothesize that AtPAP12 and AtPAP26 facilitate Pi scavenging from soil-localized organophosphates during nutritional Pi deprivation. PMID:20545876

  12. Comparison of Visual Inspection with acetic acid and Pap smear in cervical cancer screening at a tertiary care hospital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To determine the accuracy of visual inspection with acetic acid in comparison with Pap smear against colposcopic directed biopsy, for detection of pre-cancerous lesion. Methods: The comparative cross-sectional study was conducted at the Maternal and Child Health Centre (MCHC), Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences (PIMS), Islamabad, from January to December 2010. Every married women with age range 19 to 51 years underwent conventional cytology and visual inspection with 5% acetic acid. Distinct acetowhite areas were taken as positive, while cervical intra-epithelial neoplasia on cytology was labelled as Pap smear positive. Colposcopic directed biopsy was taken as the gold standard. SPSS 13 was used for statistical analysis. Results: Of 519 subjects, 70(13.4%) were screened positive and 29(5.6%) were biopsy positive for cervical intra-epithelial neoplasia. Of these, 26(37.1 %) were positive on visual inspection; 14 (20 %) on cytology; and 30 (42.8%) on combined test. The sensitivity of visual inspection was 78.5% vs 61.1% for Pap smear (p<0.001). The specificity of visual inspection was 99.3% vs 99.4% for cytology (p<0.1). Significantly higher sensitivity and specificity was found for the combined test than either of the two alone; 93.1% and 99.1% respectively (p<0.001). The positive predictive value of visual inspection vs pap was 84.6% vs 78.5% (p<0.001) and negative predictive value was 98.6% vs 96.5% (p<0.1). Both values of combined test were significantly higher than either of the two tests alone (p<0.01). Conclusion: Visual inspection with acetic acid has significantly higher sensitivity than Pap smear and may replace pap smear as a primary screening tool for universal screening. Combined test with higher predictive accuracy may be used for opportunistic screening. (author)

  13. Papshop: Not a 'melon'choly Pap smear workshop!

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    C, Gordon.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available As Head of Undergraduate Education in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology at the University of Cape Town, South Africa, I have a particular interest in the competencies needed to perform primary care gynaecological procedures, one of which is the Pap smear. I was approached by a group of ke [...] en volunteer students to assist with Pap smear training to roll out a pilot screening programme at studentrun after-hours clinics in Cape Town and at volunteer rural health promotion clinics. This article describes a novel approach to teaching the Pap smear technique, using fruit and toilet rolls, which can easily be replicated in resource-constrained areas. Students branded the workshops as 'Papshops', and the name has stuck. Increasing numbers of students are now taught by peers already trained in prior Papshops, thereby expanding the teaching workforce. To date, during 2013 - 2014, Papshop students have performed almost 300 Pap smears for eligible women in under-resourced areas.

  14. Factors associated with obtaining health screening among women of reproductive age.

    OpenAIRE

    Wilcox, L S; Mosher, W D

    1993-01-01

    Death and disability associated with breast and cervical cancer and hypertension can be reduced by early detection and treatment. The authors examined the rates for having obtained a Papanicolaou (Pap) test or pelvic examination, a breast physical examination, and a blood pressure test within the last 12 months among women of reproductive age in the United States in 1988, as reported by the 8,450 women interviewed for the 1988 National Survey of Family Growth. Overall, the annual rates of scr...

  15. STUDY OF CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE OF PAP SMEAR IN STD CLINICS

    OpenAIRE

    Parvathi; Guru Prasad; Rashmi; Divya Lekha

    2015-01-01

    AIM The objective of this study is to analyse the association between sexually transmitted diseases and cervical cytology by doing Papanicolaou (Pap) smear in the female patients attending Sexually Transmitted Disease (STD) Clinics. MATERIALS AND METHODS The present study was carried out on 200 female patients attending STD clinic Outpatient Department (OPD) in King George Hospital (KGH) for a period of 2 years. For all the patients Pap smears were taken. RES...

  16. Cloning and characterization of a novel human phosphatidic acid phosphatase type 2, PAP2d, with two different transcripts PAP2d_v1 and PAP2d_v2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Liyun; Gu, Shaohua; Sun, Yaqiong; Zheng, Dan; Wu, Qihan; Li, Xin; Dai, Jianfeng; Dai, Jianliang; Ji, Chaoneng; Xie, Yi; Mao, Yumin

    2005-04-01

    This study reports the cloning and characterization of a novel human phosphatidic acid phosphatase type 2 isoform cDNAs (PAP2d) from the foetal brain cDNA library. The PAP2d gene is localized on chromosome 1p21.3. It contains six exons and spans 112 kb of the genomic DNA. By large-scale cDNA sequencing we found two splice variants of PAP2d, PAP2d_v1 and PAP2d_v2. The PAP2d_v1 cDNA is 1722 bp in length and spans an open reading frame from nucleotide 56 to 1021, encoding a 321aa protein. The PAP2d_v2 cDNA is 1707 bp in length encoding a 316aa protein from nucleotide 56-1006. The PAP2d_v1 cDNA is 15 bp longer than the PAP2d_v2 cDNA in the terminal of the fifth exon and it creates different ORF. Both of the proteins contain a well-conserved PAP2 motif. The PAP2d_v1 is mainly expressed in human brain, lung, kidney, testis and colon, while PAP2d_v2 is restricted to human placenta, skeletal muscle, and kidney. The two splice variants are co-expressed only in kidney. PMID:16010976

  17. Pap-smear Classification Using Efficient Second Order Neural Network Training Algorithms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ampazis, Nikolaos; Dounias, George; Jantzen, Jan

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we make use of two highly efficient second order neural network training algorithms, namely the LMAM (Levenberg-Marquardt with Adaptive Momentum) and OLMAM (Optimized Levenberg-Marquardt with Adaptive Momentum), for the construction of an efficient pap-smear test classifier. The algorithms are methodologically similar, and are based on iterations of the form employed in the Levenberg-Marquardt (LM) method for non-linear least squares problems with the inclusion of an additional ada...

  18. Comparison Between Pap Smear and Via As Screening For Cervical Lesions

    OpenAIRE

    Harshini V 1, Amritha Bhandary 2, Suchithra Thunga 3

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: An important reason for higher cervical cancer incidence in developing countries is lack of effectivescreening programs like pap smear, aimed at detecting precancerous conditions before they progress to invasivecancer. The potential difficulties in implementing cervical cytology based screening in low-resource settings haveprompted the investigation of accuracy of alternative low technology tests such as Visual inspection with acetic acidapplication [VIA], Visual inspection with...

  19. Comparative study of effectiveness of Pap smear versus visual inspection with acetic acid and visual inspection with Lugol?s iodine for mass screening of premalignant and malignant lesion of cervix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuchi Consul

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Cancer of the cervix is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality among women worldwide. Therefore, to curb the disease, there is a need to develop a screening test that has good sensitivity and specificity. The present study is aimed to compare the effectiveness of the Pap smear, visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA and visual inspection with Lugol?s iodine (VILI for mass screening of premalignant and malignant lesions of the cervix; to evaluate the usefulness of VIA and VILI as an adjunct to improve sensitivity of cervical cytology; and to evaluate the role of VILI as a parallel screening method with VIA to enhance its test performance. Design and Setting: This was a prospective, analytical study in which 210 patients of the reproductive age group attending the gynecology OPD were enrolled. Patients and Methods: Patients were first subjected to Pap smear followed by VIA, VILI, colposcopy and biopsy for confirmation of lesion, if needed. Data was obtained and statistically analyzed. Results: Of the 210 patients, 34 (16.27% had positive Pap test, 29 (13.87% had positive VIA and 24 (11.43% had positive VILI and 31 (14.75% showed features of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN on colposcopy. Of the total of 48 patients in whom either of the screening tests was positive and had undergone cervical biopsy, one had CIN-3, three had CIN-2, 12 had CIN-1, three had carcinoma in situ CIS and 29 reported normal. In our study, 40 patients were picked up as positive by combination of these tests, of which 19 (47.50% had CIN on biopsy. Conclusion: Our study showed that VIA and VILI had sensitivity comparable to Pap smear and can thus be a suitable potential alternative/adjunctive screening test not only in a resource-poor setting but in well-equipped centers also. And, use of a combination of tests (Pap+VIA+VILI had 100% sensitivity but at cost of low specificity and more false-positive results.

  20. CLINICAL ASSESSMENT AND CORRILATION OF PAP SMEAR AND LIQUID BASED CYTOLOGY IN BAD CERVIX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khushboo

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available AIM: Aim of our study to analyze the prevalence of premalignant lesion based on Pap smear and liquid based cytology in patients of bad cervix. OBJECTIVE: To compare sensitivity and specificity of two methods for screening of bad cervix and to know IDR (increase detection rate of cervical cancer by conventional Pap smear and liquid based cytology. MATERIAL AND METHOD: 200 women attending Gynaecology OPD were random selection on the basis of inclusion criteria. All 200 selected women were subjected for down staging through per speculum examination for identification of bad cervix. Pap smears of all 200 selected women were taken and ensured that no local douche, antiseptic cream and no local internal examination was done on the day of test. The prepared smears were then stained according to Papanicolaou's technique. Liquid based cytology smears preparing by using cervical brush 1-1.5cm were inserted into the cervical os until the large outer bristles of the brush touch ectocervix. Data collected for sociodemographic, parity, down staging clinical examination Pap smear and LBC was organised, interpreted and analysis on appropriate statistical software. P value < 0.05 is considered significant RESULT: Analysis revealed that the maximum number of women in our study are from middle age group(31-40yrs, low socioeconomic status, married before 18 yrs, multipara, do not use any contraceptive, uneducated, urban, Muslim population.in this study more abnormal smear is seen in LBC as compared to pap smear. Sensitivity and specificity for LBC is more as compare to pap smear. CONCLUSION: In low resource setting like ours were facilities for radiology, chemo- radiotherapy and supportive care are limited or unavailable. It is important to identify which resources fill healthcare need most effectively and to consider alternative approaches, LBC is strongly advocated in the best interest of public health, by improving the quality of the sample and reducing the likelihood of false negative cytology result. Thus it will significantly improve early detection and treatment of cervical lesions and reducing morbidity and mortality due to cancer cervix

  1. Cervix Cancer Diagnosis from Pap Smear Images Using Structure Based Segmentation and Shape Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lipi B. Mahanta

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available his work presents an approach for analysis of P AP s mear images of cervical region based on cell nuclei distribution and shape and size analysis. PAP smear test is an efficient and easy procedure to detect any abnor mality in cervical cells. But human observation is not always satisfying and it is a tedious task to manually analyze a large number of PAP smear images. The purpose of this study is to automate the screening process and to provide specific statistical data which will be helpful for detecting abnormalities in cervical region. The proposed approach is implemented in MATLAB, a high level, interactive environment for data visualization/analysis/computation. The MATLAB Image Processing Toolbox was used to segment the digital images and calculate various statistical data. By comparing cell nuclei distribution and taking into account the shape and size features MATLAB can be programmed to distinguish normal cervical cell to questionable ones.

  2. USING PARTIAL LEAST SQUARES REGRESSION TO OBTAIN COTTON FIBER LENGTH DISTRIBUTIONS FROM THE BEARD TESTING METHOD

    Science.gov (United States)

    The beard testing method for measuring cotton fiber length is based on the fibrogram theory. However, in the instrumental implementations, the engineering complexity alters the original fiber length distribution observed by the instrument. This causes challenges in obtaining the entire original le...

  3. Effect of test procedure on shear strength obtained using the Newcastle dilatometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new dilatometer for in-situ soil testing has been developed which uses a rigid piston to load the soil. The new dilatometer 'called the Newcastle Dilatometer (NDMT)' uses a Hall effect transducer and a magnet system to measure the penetration of the piston during loading of the soil. The pressure required to penetrate the piston is recorded using a pressure transducer. The two transducers together can produce applied pressure-displacement curves for obtaining soil parameters which can be more reliable than those obtained based on just one or two contact pressures values as in the Marchetti dilatometer. Since the NDMT allows more control during in-situ testing, the same was carried out employing two test procedures, 'the stress increment controlled' and 'the constant rate of stress' at a site consisting of firm to stiff clay. This paper presents a comparison of the data obtained from the two test procedures and the effect the test procedure has on the various soil properties, in general and the shear strength, in particular. (author)

  4. Designing for Dissemination: Lessons in Message Design From 1-2-3 Pap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Elisia L.; Head, Katharine J.; McGladrey, Margaret J.; Hoover, Anna G.; Vanderpool, Robin C.; Bridger, Colleen; Carman, Angela; Crosby, Richard A.; Darling, Elaine; Tucker-McLaughlin, Mary; Winterbauer, Nancy

    2016-01-01

    Despite a large number of evidence-based health communication interventions tested in private, public, and community health settings, there is a dearth of research on successful secondary dissemination of these interventions to other audiences. This article presents the case study of 1-2-3 Pap, a health communication intervention to improve human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination uptake and Pap testing outcomes in Eastern Kentucky, and explores strategies used to disseminate this intervention to other populations in Kentucky, North Carolina, and West Virginia. Through this dissemination project, we identified several health communication intervention design considerations that facilitated our successful dissemination to these other audiences; these intervention design considerations include (a) developing strategies for reaching other potential audiences, (b) identifying intervention message adaptations that might be needed, and (c) determining the most appropriate means or channels by which to reach these potential future audiences. Using 1-2-3 Pap as an illustrative case study, we describe how careful planning and partnership development early in the intervention development process can improve the potential success of enhancing the reach and effectiveness of an intervention to other audiences beyond the audience for whom the intervention messages were originally designed. PMID:25470444

  5. Significant pathologic findings in 41 Atypical Glandular Cell pap smears

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behtash N

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between atypical glandular cell (AGC on Pap smear and significant pathologic finding to tailor management protocols. Methods: Between 2002 and 2005, Among 26893 Pap smears 122 women with AGC Pap smears (prevalence=0.45% were referred to our colposcopy clinic. Forty one women underwent colposcopy directed biopsy, endocervical curettage, endometrial sampling and cervical conization to determine the cytologic and histologic correlations of AGC on pap smears. Results: A total of 122 women with AGC Pap smear were found. Only 41 women accepted to participate in the study and followed the workup procedures. The mean age of the patients was 46.92 11.48 years (range, 23-80 years. Of these patients 13 patients (31.7% were post menopause and 28 patients (68.2% were in reproductive age. We found 13 (31.7% significant pathologic findings including 4 (9.7% high grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HG-SIL, 3(7.3% low grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LG-SIL, 2(4.8% Endometrial hyperplasia, 1(2.4% Endometrial adenocarci-noma, 1(2.4% adenocarcinoma of cervix, 1(2.4% squamous cell carcinoma of cervix and 1(2.4% papillary serous tumor of ovary. There was not any significant difference in the prevalence of significant pathologic findings and subtype of squamous or adenomatous lesions between pre and postmenopausal group. Conclusion: AGC on Pap smear was associated with a clinically significant diagnosis in approximately one third of our cases. The women with a diagnosis of AGC on cervicovaginal smear are needed to be evaluated at least with colposcopy, endocervical and endometrial curettage. Clinicians should be careful about the significance of AGC in pap smears.

  6. Incontinncia urinria em mulheres que buscam exame preventivo de cncer de colo uterino: fatores sociodemogrficos e comportamentais / Urinary incontinence in women undergoing Pap smear test: socio-demographic and behavioral factors / Incontinencia urinaria en mujeres que solicitan un examen preventivo de cncer de cuello uterino: factores socio-demogrficos y de comportamiento

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Cinara, Sacomori; Nubia Berenice, Negri; Fernando Luiz, Cardoso.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo transversal objetivou investigar a associao entre, de um lado, fatores sociodemogrficos e comportamentais e, de outro, a presena de incontinncia urinria referida em 784 mulheres que buscam exame preventivo de cncer de colo uterino na Grande Florianpolis, Santa Catarina, Brasil. F [...] oram obtidos dados sociodemogrficos, estado de sade, atividade fsica, constipao e ndice de massa corporal, sendo utilizado o International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire-SF. A prevalncia de incontinncia urinria foi de 30,7% (16,5% perdiam urina uma vez por semana ou menos e 23,8% em pequena quantidade). Na regresso de Poisson bruta, estiveram associados incontinncia urinria os seguintes fatores: baixa escolaridade, renda por pessoa da famlia at um salrio mnimo, etnia no caucasiana, excesso de peso corporal, pior autoavaliao do estado de sade, constipao e idade. Aps ajuste, seguindo modelo hierarquizado, permaneceram associados: escolaridade, etnia, estado de sade e idade. A alta prevalncia de incontinncia urinria em mulheres que buscam exame de rastreamento do cncer de colo uterino justifica abordagens preventivas nesses espaos de atuao. Abstract in spanish Este estudio transversal tuvo como objetivo investigar la asociacin entre factores socio-demogrficos y de comportamiento con la presencia de incontinencia urinaria, informada por 784 mujeres que solicitaron un examen preventivo de cncer de cuello uterino en el rea metropolitana de Florianpolis, [...] Santa Catarina, Brasil. Se obtuvieron datos socio-demogrficos, estado de salud, actividad fsica, estreimiento e ndice de masa corporal, utilizndose el International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire-SF. La prevalencia de incontinencia urinaria fue de un 30,7% (16,5% perdan orina una vez por semana o menos y un 23,8% en pequea cantidad). En la regresin de Poisson bruta se asoci a la incontinencia urinaria: la baja escolaridad; renta por persona de la familia de hasta un salario mnimo; etnia no caucsica; exceso de peso corporal; peor autoevaluacin de estado de salud; estreimiento y edad. Tras los ajustes, siguiendo un modelo jerarquizado, permanecieron asociados: escolaridad; etnia; estado de salud y edad. La alta prevalencia de incontinencia urinaria de mujeres que solicitaron un examen de indicios de cncer de cuello uterino justifica aproximaciones preventivas en esos espacios. Abstract in english This cross-sectional study aimed to investigate the association between socio-demographic and behavioral factors and the presence of self-reported urinary incontinence in 784 women undergoing cervical cancer screening in Greater Florianpolis, Santa Catarina State, Brazil. Socio-demographic data, he [...] alth status, physical activity, constipation, and body mass index were obtained, and the International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire-SF was used. Prevalence of urinary incontinence was 30.7% (16.5% reported leakage once a week or less and 23.8% losses in small volumes). Poisson univariate regression showed the following factors associated with urinary incontinence: lower education, lower income, non-white skin color, overweight, worse health status, constipation, and older age. After adjustment, according to a hierarchical model, schooling, ethnicity, health status, and age remained significantly associated. The high prevalence of urinary incontinence in women seeking Pap smear tests justifies preventive approaches in these areas of intervention.

  7. A SEMI - AUTOMATED MORPHOMETRIC ASSESSMENT OF NUCLEI IN PAP SMEARS USING IMAGEJ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijayashree

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Carcinoma of cervix is the fourth commonest malignancy in women. Its incidence is progressively falling due to the routine use of Pap smears to detect precancerous lesions. However, routine Pap smear examination is time consuming and, as it is based on de scriptive morphological assessment, false positive or negative reports are likely to occur. Using morphometric techniques, several attempts have been made to improve the accuracy of reports. In the present study, we have used Image morphometric software an d some of its plugins to create a macro to analyse large number of cells at a time . MATERIALS AND METHODS: Using Image and three of its plugins, namely, BEEPS, Kuwahara filter and Mexican Hat filter, we created a macro to morphometrically analyse normal, r eactive and neoplastic Pap smears. We also compared the macro measurements with manual measurements. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Results obtained with macro showed strong positive correlation with manual measurement. Although the neoplastic nuclei were on an average larger than reactive/normal nuclei, there was considerable overlap. More than the enlargement, anisonucleosis (variability in the size appeared to be a better indicator of neoplasia. The macro that we developed works rapidly and gives results comp arable to manual measurements provided the smears and the photographs are technically acceptable.

  8. Results obtained from the inspection of test plates 1 and 2 of the defects detection trials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first phase of the UKAEA defect detection trials (DDT) (described previously) was aimed at determining the ability of selected non-destructive testing (NDT) techniques to detect and correctly classify defects throughout the thickness of an RPV circumferential weld. The techniques were tested on two specially prepared test plates. Each was 1500 x 1500 x 250 mm and contained a central butt weld. These have been designated plates 1 and 2. On completion of the inspections the plates were sectioned at Ispra and in this report the results obtained by the various inspectors are compared with the results of the destructive examination. The plates were scanned ultrasonically from both the clad and the unclad face. The results from the clad face were analysed first. The times required for the initial search and the subsequent analyses were noted, although in this context it is accepted that compared with an RPV inspection the defect population in these test plates is unrealistically high. (author)

  9. Test of irradiation of tellurium oxide for obtaining iodine-131 by dry distillation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the purpose of optimizing to the maximum independently the work of the reactor of those mathematical calculations of irradiation that are already optimized, now it corresponds to carry out irradiation tests in the different positions with their respective neutron fluxes that it counts the reactor for samples irradiation. Then, it is necessary to carry out the irradiation of the tellurium dioxide through cycles, with the purpose of observing the activity that it goes accumulating in each cycle and this way to obtain an activity of the Iodine-131 obtained when finishing the last cycle. (Author)

  10. Testing for HPV

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... HPV test, what does it mean? Testing for HPV What’s the difference between a Pap test and an HPV test? A Pap test is used to find ... HPV is found. Should I be tested for HPV? If you are a woman under age 30 ...

  11. Strategies for obtaining long constant-pressure test times in shock tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, M. F.; Parise, T.; Tulgestke, A. M.; Spearrin, R. M.; Davidson, D. F.; Hanson, R. K.

    2015-11-01

    Several techniques have been developed for obtaining long, constant-pressure test times in reflected shock wave experiments in a shock tube, including the use of driver inserts, driver gas tailoring, helium gas diaphragm interfaces, driver extensions, and staged driver gas filling. These techniques are detailed here, including discussion on the most recent strategy, staged driver gas filling. Experiments indicate that this staged filling strategy increases available test time by roughly 20 % relative to single-stage filling of tailored driver gas mixtures, while simultaneously reducing the helium required per shock by up to 85 %. This filling scheme involves firstly mixing a tailored helium-nitrogen mixture in the driver section as in conventional driver filling and, secondly, backfilling a low-speed-of-sound gas such as nitrogen or carbon dioxide from a port close to the end cap of the driver section. Using this staged driver gas filling, in addition to the other techniques listed above, post-reflected shock test times of up to 0.102 s (102 ms) at 524 K and 1.6 atm have been obtained. Spectroscopically based temperature measurements in non-reactive mixtures have confirmed that temperature and pressure conditions remain constant throughout the length of these long test duration trials. Finally, these strategies have been used to measure low-temperature n-heptane ignition delay times.

  12. Elastic modulus measurementobtaining reliable data from the tensile test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lord, J. D.; Morrell, R. M.

    2010-04-01

    Elastic modulus is an intrinsic material property and a key parameter in engineering design and materials development. A wide range of test methods is available for measuring modulus, but there is currently some uncertainty within parts of the user community about the reliability of modulus data, particularly from the tensile test, to the extent that many use standard handbook values in their calculations and designs. This is not recommended and can be addressed through good experimental practice and careful measurement. The paper discusses some of the key practical issues associated with the tensile test that need to be considered to obtain reliable values for Young's modulus such as strain measurement, alignment, data analysis methods, software validation, uncertainty budgets and the use of reference materials.

  13. Study on prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP) immunoradiometric assay kit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This coat-antibody-count PAP IRMA is a solid-phase immunoradiometric assay based on two strains of monoclonal antibodies, designed for the quantitative measurement of prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP) in serum. The minimal detectable concentration is 0.1 ?g/L. The intra and inter coefficients of variation are 8.8%-9.6% and 7.7%-12.3%, respectively. The recovery is 96.3%-105.0% and the range of detection is 2.5-200.0 ?g/L

  14. Report of test and research results on atomic energy obtained in national institutes in fiscal 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the budget was appropriated in 1954 fiscal year for the first time, many valuable results of research have been obtained regarding the peaceful use of atomic energy, and these have played important role for the promotion of the peaceful use of atomic energy in Japan. In this report, the outline of the test and research results on the peaceful use of atomic energy obtained in national institutes in fiscal 1981 is summarized. The first volume of this report was published in 1961, and this report is Volume 22. With this report, it is hoped to advance the understanding more about the recent trend and the accomplishment of the test and research on atomic energy utilization. 7 reports on nuclear fusion, 11 reports on technological safety, 6 reports on environmental radioactivity safety, 5 reports on food irradiation, 4 reports on the countermeasures against cancer, 31 reports on agriculture, forestry and fishery, 36 reports on medicine, 6 reports on mining and industry, 5 reports on power utilization, 1 report on construction engineering, 3 reports on radioactivation analysis and 1 report on injury prevention by about 60 national institutes are collected. Also the subjects of the test and research carried out in four other institutes are shown. (Kako, I.)

  15. Analysis of data obtained in two-phase flow tests of primary heat transport pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report analyzes data obtained in two-phase flow tests of primary heat transport pumps performed during the period 1980-1983. Phenomena which have been known to cause pump-induced flow oscillations in pressurized piping systems under two-phase conditions are reviewed and the data analyzed to determine whether any of the identified phenomena could have been responsible for the instabilities observed in those tests. Tentative explanations for the most severe instabilities are given based on those analyses. It is shown that suction pipe geometry probably plays an important role in promoting instabilities, so additional experiments to investigate the effect of suction pipe geometry on the stability of flow in a closed pipe loop under two-phase conditions are recommended

  16. Molecular testing of human papillomavirus in cervical specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective was to improve the diagnosis of cervical neoplasia by early detection of human papillomavirus (HPV) in uterine cervix, by adding molecular testing of HPV using hybrid capture 2 (HC2) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) tests to Papanicoalou (Pap) test. One hundred women were enrolled in this study. The mean age (mean+-SD) was 41.97+- 8.76 years and range was 27-65 years. All women had undergone cervical cytological screening with cervical cytology, HPV DNA testing by HC2 and PCR, during the period from January to December 2006, at King Abdul-Aziz University Hospital (KAAUH) and King Fahd research Center, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. The results were obtained by HC2 for detection of HPV were 5(5%) high-risk HPV, one low-risk HPV (1%) and 94(94%) negative cases. The PCR detected only 4(4%) cases. Using the HC2 test as a reference, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive, negative predictive values and accuracy of base line Pap were 50, 85, 17.7, 96.4 and 83%; of final Pap smear were 100, 96.8, 66.7, 100, and 97% and for PCR were 66.7, 100, 100, 97.9 and 98%. The Pap test was repeated within a year for patients with abnormal Pap test with positive HPV DNA. Combined screening by cytology and HPV testing using both HC2 and PCR sensitively detects women with existing disease. The absence of HPV DNA provides reassurance that patients are unlikely to develop cancer for several years. We suggest using Pap with HC2 and PCR in screening programs to ensure that women with the double negative result at baseline might safely be screened at longer intervals. (author)

  17. Cervical cancer screening in primary health care setting in Sudan : a comparative study of visual inspection with acetic acid and Pap smear

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibrahim, Ahmed; Aro, Arja R.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the feasibility of visual inspection with the use of acetic acid (VIA) as a screening method for cervical cancer, an alternative to the Pap smear used in primary health care setting in Sudan, and to compare sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, and histological diagnosis of positive cases of both tests. METHODS: A cross-sectional study of 934 asymptomatic women living in Khartoum, Sudan, was conducted during 2009-2010. A semi-structured questionnaire containing socio-economic and reproductive variables was used to collect data from each participant. Methods of screening used were VIA and conventional Pap smear, followed by colposcopy and biopsy for confirmation of the positive results of both screening tests. RESULTS: The tests identified altogether 119 (12.7%) positive women. VIA detected significantly more positive women than Pap smear (7.6% versus 5.1%; P = 0.004), with an overlap between the two screening tests in 19% of positive results. There was nosignificant difference between VIA and Pap smear findings and sociodemographic and reproductive factors among screened women. Use of colposcopy and biopsy for positive women confirmed that 88/119 (73.9%) were positive for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. VIA had higher sensitivity than Pap smear (74.2% versus 72.9%; P = 0.05) respectively. Out of 88 confirmed positive cases, 22 (25.0%) cases were invasive cervical cancer in stage 1, of which 19 versus three were detected by VIA and Pap smear respectively (P = 0.001). VIA had higher sensitivity and lower specificity than Pap smear (60.2% versus 47.7%) and (41.9% versus 83.8%) respectively. The combination of VIA/Pap has better sensitivity and specificity than each independent test (82.6% and 92.2%). CONCLUSION: The findings of this study showed that VIA has higher sensitivity and lower specificity compared to Pap smear, but a combination of both tests has greater sensitivity and specificity than each test independently. It indicates that VIA is useful forscreening of cervical cancer in the primary health care setting in Sudan, but positive results need to be confirmed by colposcopy and biopsy.

  18. Continuous stress-induced dopamine dysregulation augments PAP-I and PAP-II expression in melanotrophs of the pituitary gland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konishi, Hiroyuki, E-mail: konishi@med.osaka-cu.ac.jp [Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka (Japan); The 21st Century COE Program ' Base to Overcome Fatigue' , Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka (Japan); Department of Anatomy and Neuroscience, Nagoya University, Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya (Japan); Ogawa, Tokiko, E-mail: togawa@med.osaka-cu.ac.jp [Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka (Japan); The 21st Century COE Program ' Base to Overcome Fatigue' , Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka (Japan); Kawahara, Shinichi, E-mail: kawahara@med.osaka-cu.ac.jp [Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka (Japan); Matsumoto, Sakiko, E-mail: s-matsumoto@med.osaka-cu.ac.jp [Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka (Japan); Department of Anatomy and Neuroscience, Nagoya University, Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya (Japan); Kiyama, Hiroshi, E-mail: kiyama@med.osaka-cu.ac.jp [Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka (Japan); The 21st Century COE Program ' Base to Overcome Fatigue' , Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka (Japan); Department of Anatomy and Neuroscience, Nagoya University, Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya (Japan)

    2011-04-01

    Research highlights: {yields} We focused on the rat pituitary intermediate lobe (IL) under continuous stress (CS). {yields} CS induced PAP-I and PAP-II expression in melanotrophs of the IL. {yields} This gene induction was triggered by CS-related dopamine dysregulation. {yields} PAP-I and PAP-II may sustain homeostasis of the IL under CS. -- Abstract: Under continuous stress (CS) in rats, melanotrophs, the predominant cell-type in the intermediate lobe (IL) of the pituitary, are hyperactivated to secrete {alpha}-melanocyte-stimulating hormone and thereafter degenerate. Although these phenomena are drastic, the molecular mechanisms underlying the cellular changes are mostly unknown. In this study, we focused on the pancreatitis-associated protein (PAP) family members of the secretory lectins and characterized their expression in the IL of CS model rats because we had identified two members of this family as up-regulated genes in our previous microarray analysis. RT-PCR and histological studies demonstrated that prominent PAP-I and PAP-II expression was induced in melanotrophs in the early stages of CS, while another family member, PAP-III, was not expressed. We further examined the regulatory mechanisms of PAP-I and PAP-II expression and revealed that both were induced by the decreased dopamine levels in the IL under CS. Because the PAP family members are implicated in cell survival and proliferation, PAP-I and PAP-II secreted from melanotrophs may function to sustain homeostasis of the IL under CS conditions in an autocrine or a paracrine manner.

  19. Continuous stress-induced dopamine dysregulation augments PAP-I and PAP-II expression in melanotrophs of the pituitary gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research highlights: ? We focused on the rat pituitary intermediate lobe (IL) under continuous stress (CS). ? CS induced PAP-I and PAP-II expression in melanotrophs of the IL. ? This gene induction was triggered by CS-related dopamine dysregulation. ? PAP-I and PAP-II may sustain homeostasis of the IL under CS. -- Abstract: Under continuous stress (CS) in rats, melanotrophs, the predominant cell-type in the intermediate lobe (IL) of the pituitary, are hyperactivated to secrete ?-melanocyte-stimulating hormone and thereafter degenerate. Although these phenomena are drastic, the molecular mechanisms underlying the cellular changes are mostly unknown. In this study, we focused on the pancreatitis-associated protein (PAP) family members of the secretory lectins and characterized their expression in the IL of CS model rats because we had identified two members of this family as up-regulated genes in our previous microarray analysis. RT-PCR and histological studies demonstrated that prominent PAP-I and PAP-II expression was induced in melanotrophs in the early stages of CS, while another family member, PAP-III, was not expressed. We further examined the regulatory mechanisms of PAP-I and PAP-II expression and revealed that both were induced by the decreased dopamine levels in the IL under CS. Because the PAP family members are implicated in cell survival and proliferation, PAP-I and PAP-II secreted from melanotrophs may function to sustain homeostasis of the IL under CS conditions in an autocrine or a paracrine manner.

  20. Test plan: Air intake shaft performance test -- Addendum for obtaining cores in the Culebra for radionuclide retardation studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Core samples are needed for obtaining data on radionuclide retardation. The cores will be used to first determine local basic properties of Culebra rock such as permeability, structural integrity, fracture spacing, and fracture size. These quantities will then be used to design a laboratory experimental program to determine radionuclide retardation in a column flow apparatus using the cores obtained in this project. This addendum covers only the coring activities necessary to retrieve Culebra cores. The laboratory work will be documented in a separate test plan. It is anticipated that Culebra rock samples will be highly fractured, with a fracture spacing on the order of 2 to 3 inches To obtain representative core samples that are intact, horizontal cores about 6 inches in diameter and several feet long will be needed. These cores will provide a good indication of Culebra rock fracturing and provide several samples needed to conduct column flow experiments. If the rock is so fractured that only rubble is obtained, then the rubble will be used in the column experiments. In addition, as a byproduct of the coring operation, natural groundwater collected from the holes will be used to develop a synthetic brine for the laboratory experiments

  1. Missed Opportunities for Health Education on Pap Smears in Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayer, Angela M.; Nussbaum, Lauren; Cabrera, Lilia; Paz-Soldan, Valerie A.

    2011-01-01

    Despite cervical cancer being one of the leading causes of cancer-related deaths among women in Peru, cervical Pap smear coverage is low. This article uses findings from 185 direct clinician observations in four cities of Peru (representing the capital and each of the three main geographic regions of the country) to assess missed opportunities for

  2. Cytological patterns of cervical pap smears with histopathological correlation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhagya Lakshmi Atla

    2015-08-01

    Conclusion: Pap smear is simple, inexpensive and can be performed in the outpatient department. Hence, it should be recommended routinely as a method of improving reproductive health, early detection of premalignant and malignant cervical lesions. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(8.000: 1911-1916

  3. Tests with Inconel 600 to obtain quantitative stress-corrosion cracking data for evaluating service performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inconel 600 tubes in pressurized water reactor (PWR) steam generators form a pressure boundary between radioactive primary water and secondary water which is converted to steam and used for generating electricity. Under operating conditions the performance of alloy 600 has been good, but with some occasional small leaks resulting from stress corrosion cracking (SCC), related to the presence of unusually high residual or operating stresses. The suspected high stresses can result from either the deformation of tubes during manufacture, or distortion during abnormal conditions such as denting. The present experimental program addresses two specific conditions, i.e., (1) where deformation occurs but is no longer active, such as when denting is stopped and (2) where plastic deformation of the metal continues, as would occur during denting. Laboratory media consist of pure water as well as solutions to simulate environments that would apply in service; tubing from actual production is used in carrying out these tests. The environments include both normal and off chemistries for primary and secondary water. The results reported here were obtained in several different tests. The main ones are (1) split tube reverse U-bends, (2) constant extension rate tests (CERT), and (3) constant load. The temperature range covered is 290 to 3650C

  4. Comparison of Hybrid Capture II, Linear Array, and a Bead-Based Multiplex Genotyping Assay for Detection of Human Papillomavirus in Women with Negative Pap Test Results and Atypical Squamous Cells of Undetermined Significance

    OpenAIRE

    Comar, Manola; Iannacone, Michelle R.; Casalicchio, Giorgia; McKay-Chopin, Sandrine; Tommasino, Massimo; Gheit, Tarik

    2012-01-01

    Many methods with different levels of analytical sensitivity and clinical specificity have been developed to detect the presence of high-risk (HR) types of the human papillomavirus (HPV) in cervical samples. The Hybrid Capture II (HC-II) assay is broadly used for primary screening. In addition, several HPV genotyping assays, based on PCR methods, display higher sensitivity than the HC-II and are also used in screening programs. We evaluated the performance of three HPV DNA tests, namely, the ...

  5. 14 CFR 61.307 - What tests do I have to take to obtain a sport pilot certificate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...What tests do I have to take to obtain a sport pilot certificate? 61.307 Section...FLIGHT INSTRUCTORS, AND GROUND INSTRUCTORS Sport Pilots 61.307 What tests do I have to take to obtain a sport pilot certificate? To obtain a...

  6. Trace element analysis - some tried and tested procedures for obtaining good quality data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Using modern XRF spectrometers, detection limits of <1ppm are easily attainable for many elements. But good quality trace element analysis requires software that will produce accurate, spectrally clean, net peak intensities and accurate corrections for inter-element matrix effects. Some of the procedures available in modern software are not capable of consistently producing high quality trace element data. This paper will present some tried and tested procedures for making accurate background corrections, intensity-based spectral overlap corrections from matrix elements, corrections for tube spectral impurities, and methods for correcting for inter-element matrix effects (absorption and enhancement). Most of the procedures have been used in the Geology Department, University of Cape Town for more than thirty years, and have been applied to trace element analyses of the NASA Apollo lunar samples, meteorites, rocks and soils of every description, river, estuarine and marine sediments, deep ocean ferromanganese nodules, environmental and plant samples, and to a number of the GEOPT proficiency test samples. The quality of the data obtainable will be demonstrated using inter-laboratory results from lunar soil analyses and from the GEOPT program. Copyright (2002) Australian X-ray Analytical Association Inc

  7. 14 CFR 61.307 - What tests do I have to take to obtain a sport pilot certificate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... sport pilot certificate? 61.307 Section 61.307 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... INSTRUCTORS Sport Pilots § 61.307 What tests do I have to take to obtain a sport pilot certificate? To obtain a sport pilot certificate, you must pass the following tests: (a) Knowledge test. You must pass...

  8. Serum and urinary measurements of prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP) and prostatic specific antigen (PSA) in dogs Mensuraes srica e urinria de fosfatase cida prosttica e antgeno prosttico especfico em ces

    OpenAIRE

    R.L. Amorim; V.M.B.D. De Moura; G.W. Di Santis; Bandarra, E P; Padovani, C.

    2004-01-01

    Serum and urinary prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP) and prostatic specific antigen (PSA) from 20 dogs were measured. PAP and PSA tests were carried out in authomatized equipment with commercial kits used for humans. Mean PAP serum value was 0.7U/l and urinary 0.1U/l. Mean serum and urinary PSA were 0.005ng/dl and 0.004ng/dl, respectively. In vivo determination of these two biomarkers in dogs is a new form of diagnosis in veterinary medicine and these values should be correlated with the morpho...

  9. Pap-smear Benchmark Data For Pattern Classification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jantzen, Jan; Norup, Jonas; Dounias, Georgios; Bjerregaard, Beth

    2005-01-01

    This case study provides data and a baseline for comparing classification methods. The data consists of 917 images of Pap-smear cells, classified carefully by cyto-technicians and doctors. Each cell is described by 20 numerical features, and the cells fall into 7 classes. A basic data analysis includes scatter plots and linear classification results, in order to provide domain knowledge and lower bounds on the acceptable performance of future classifiers. Students and researchers can access the ...

  10. Making Sense of Your Pap and HPV Test Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to skin) contact, most often during vaginal or anal sex. HPV may also be passed on during oral ... file Microsoft Word file Microsoft Excel file Audio/Video file Apple Quicktime file RealPlayer file Text file ...

  11. Cervical and Vaginal Cancer Screening (Pap Test and Pelvic Exam)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov Medicare forms Advance directives & long-term care Electronic prescribing Electronic Health Records (EHRs) Download claims with Medicares Blue ... HHS.gov USA.gov Inspector General Plain language Archive Downloadable databases Medicare & You Handbook Help with file ...

  12. STUDY OF CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE OF PAP SMEAR IN STD CLINICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parvathi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available AIM The objective of this study is to analyse the association between sexually transmitted diseases and cervical cytology by doing Papanicolaou (Pap smear in the female patients attending Sexually Transmitted Disease (STD Clinics. MATERIALS AND METHODS The present study was carried out on 200 female patients attending STD clinic Outpatient Department (OPD in King George Hospital (KGH for a period of 2 years. For all the patients Pap smears were taken. RESULTS A 39% of the cases had normal cytology, 26% had inflammatory cytology, 16% had mild dysplasia, 13.5% had moderate dysplasia, 5.5% had severe dysplasia. Higher incidence of cervical dysplasia was seen in patients with Genital Herpes and Genital warts. Higher incidence of cervical dysplasia (42.6% in 20 to 30 years age group women in comparsion with diminished incidence in (28.7% in 30 to 40 years age group. A 44.6% in Commercial Sex workers and women with history of sexual promiscuity had cervical dysplasia and 28.7% women having normal marital life had cervical dysplasia. We found higher number of cervical dysplasia in lower income group (37.8% and (42.6% in illiterates. CONCLUSIONS Pap smear should be done as a routine screening procedure in all female patients attending STD Clinics to detect early cervical neoplasia, which will help to reduce morbidity and mortality due to cancer cervix in sexually active reproductive age group women

  13. Genetic tests obtainable through pharmacies: the good, the bad, and the ugly

    OpenAIRE

    George P. Patrinos; Baker, Darrol J; Al-Mulla, Fahd; VASILIOU, VASILIS; Cooper, David N.

    2013-01-01

    Genomic medicine seeks to exploit an individuals genomic information in the context of guiding the clinical decision-making process. In the post-genomic era, a range of novel molecular genetic testing methodologies have emerged, allowing the genetic testing industry to grow at a very rapid pace. As a consequence, a considerable number of different private diagnostic testing laboratories now provide a wide variety of genetic testing services, often employing a direct-to-consumer (DTC) busines...

  14. Rationale and design of the iPap trial: a randomized controlled trial of home-based HPV self-sampling for improving participation in cervical screening by never- and under-screened women in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Organized screening based on Pap tests has substantially reduced deaths from cervical cancer in many countries, including Australia. However, the impact of the program depends upon the degree to which women participate. A new method of screening, testing for human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA to detect the virus that causes cervical cancer, has recently become available. Because women can collect their own samples for this test at home, it has the potential to overcome some of the barriers to Pap tests. The iPap trial will evaluate whether mailing an HPV self-sampling kit increases participation by never- and under-screened women within a cervical screening program. The iPap trial is a parallel randomized controlled, open label, trial. Participants will be Victorian women age 30–69 years, for whom there is either no record on the Victorian Cervical Cytology Registry (VCCR) of a Pap test (never-screened) or the last recorded Pap test was between five to fifteen years ago (under-screened). Enrolment information from the Victorian Electoral Commission will be linked to the VCCR to determine the never-screened women. Variables that will be used for record linkage include full name, address and date of birth. Never- and under-screened women will be randomly allocated to either receive an invitation letter with an HPV self-sampling kit or a reminder letter to attend for a Pap test, which is standard practice for women overdue for a test in Victoria. All resources have been focus group tested. The primary outcome will be the proportion of women who participate, by returning an HPV self-sampling kit for women in the self-sampling arm, and notification of a Pap test result to the Registry for women in the Pap test arm at 3 and 6 months after mailout. The most important secondary outcome is the proportion of test-positive women who undergo further investigations at 6 and 12 months after mailout of results. The iPap trial will provide strong evidence about whether HPV self-sampling could be used in Australia to improve participation in cervical screening for never-and under-screened women. ANZCTR Identifier: https://www.anzctr.org.au/Trial/Registration/TrialReview.aspx?id; UTN: U1111-1148-3885

  15. Phosphorylation regulates the Star-PAP-PIPKI? interaction and directs specificity toward mRNA targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, Nimmy; Sudheesh, A P; Francis, Nimmy; Anderson, Richard; Laishram, Rakesh S

    2015-08-18

    Star-PAP is a nuclear non-canonical poly(A) polymerase (PAP) that shows specificity toward mRNA targets. Star-PAP activity is stimulated by lipid messenger phosphatidyl inositol 4,5 bisphoshate (PI4,5P2) and is regulated by the associated Type I phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate 5-kinase that synthesizes PI4,5P2 as well as protein kinases. These associated kinases act as coactivators of Star-PAP that regulates its activity and specificity toward mRNAs, yet the mechanism of control of these interactions are not defined. We identified a phosphorylated residue (serine 6, S6) on Star-PAP in the zinc finger region, the domain required for PIPKI? interaction. We show that S6 is phosphorylated by CKI? within the nucleus which is required for Star-PAP nuclear retention and interaction with PIPKI?. Unlike the CKI? mediated phosphorylation at the catalytic domain, Star-PAP S6 phosphorylation is insensitive to oxidative stress suggesting a signal mediated regulation of CKI? activity. S6 phosphorylation together with coactivator PIPKI? controlled select subset of Star-PAP target messages by regulating Star-PAP-mRNA association. Our results establish a novel role for phosphorylation in determining Star-PAP target mRNA specificity and regulation of 3'-end processing. PMID:26138484

  16. OTTO-PAP: An alternative option to the PBMR fuelling philosophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Once Through Then Out, Power Adjusted by Poison (OTTO-PAP) fuelling of a high temperature pebble-bed reactor offers a simple alternative to the MEDUL (Mehrfachdurchlauf = German for multi-pass) fuelling regime followed in pebble bed reactor designs to date. The prerequisite for a modular reactor unit of maximum power output, subject to observing passive safety characteristics is a sufficiently flat axial neutron flux profile. This is achieved by introducing B4C coated particles of pre-calculated size and packing density within the fuel spheres. In accordance with AVR operating practise the temperature profile is radially equalised by introducing a 2-zone core loading. Adding pure graphite spheres loosely into the centre column area of the core effectively reduced the maximum power in the middle. Increasing the reactor diameter is enabled by the introduction of noses. A 3-D geometric modeller developed in cylindrical co-ordinates enables a given flow description of the pebbles adjacent to the nose boundaries and in the vicinity of the shut down/control rods. After translation of the geometric data the neutronic behaviour of the reactor is followed in 3-D by the CITATION code. This study is aimed towards achieving an optimal core layout with a LEU (Low Enriched Uranium) fuel cycle. Physical properties of the OTTO-PAP, 150 MWt reference design is reported, while computations performed observe results obtained by the reference HTR-MODUL design. (author)

  17. Genetic tests obtainable through pharmacies: the good, the bad, and the ugly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrinos, George P; Baker, Darrol J; Al-Mulla, Fahd; Vasiliou, Vasilis; Cooper, David N

    2013-01-01

    Genomic medicine seeks to exploit an individual's genomic information in the context of guiding the clinical decision-making process. In the post-genomic era, a range of novel molecular genetic testing methodologies have emerged, allowing the genetic testing industry to grow at a very rapid pace. As a consequence, a considerable number of different private diagnostic testing laboratories now provide a wide variety of genetic testing services, often employing a direct-to-consumer (DTC) business model to identify mutations underlying (or associated with) common Mendelian disorders, to individualize drug response, to attempt to determine an individual's risk of a multitude of complex (multifactorial) diseases, or even to determine a person's identity. Recently, we have noted a novel trend in the provision of private molecular genetic testing services, namely saliva and buccal swab collection kits (for deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) isolation) being offered for sale over the counter by pharmacies. This situation is somewhat different from the standard DTC genetic testing model, since pharmacists are healthcare professionals who are supposedly qualified to give appropriate advice to their clients. There are, however, a number of issues to be addressed in relation to the marketing of DNA collection kits for genetic testing through pharmacies, namely a requirement for regulatory clearance, the comparative lack of appropriate genetics education of the healthcare professionals involved, and most importantly, the lack of awareness on the part of both the patients and the general public with respect to the potential benefits or otherwise of the various types of genetic test offered, which may result in confusion as to which test could be beneficial in their own particular case. We believe that some form of genetic counseling should ideally be integrated into, and made inseparable from, the genetic testing process, while pharmacists should be obliged to receive some basic training about the genetic tests that they offer for sale. PMID:23835256

  18. DETECTION OF ABNORMAL CERVICAL CYTOLOGY BY PAPS SMEAR AND COMPARISON BETWEEN RURAL AND URBAN WOMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neelam

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT : BACKGROUND: This study was carried out in department of ob stetrics and gynaecology G.R. Medical College Gwalior (MP. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To study the incidence of malignant and pre malignant cases of cancer cervix in women attending outdoor patient department of G R medical college Gwalior. To find out the role of PAP's smear in early detection of premalignant and early carcinoma cervix and to compare the results between urban and rural women. MATERIAL AND METHOD: a total of 400 subjects were selected attending outdoor patient department of G R medical college G walior with equal number of urban and rural areas. Information about age, parity, age at marriage, complaints, clinical findings, Paps smears were prepared and histological interpretations were recorded. RESULTS : Maximum number of patients was in the age group of 31 - 40 years. Mean age at marriage was 17.5 years for woman of rural areas and that for urban woman was 21.5 years. In the rural patients highest number were P2 - P4 (53% followed by > P4 (46.5%. In urban patients too maximum number of patients had parity between P2 - P4 (69.5% followed by > P4 (28.5%. Grand multiparity was seen in 20.5% among rural women as compared to 1.5 % among urban women. Among the rural patients use of barrier method of contraception was only 12% while in urban areas it was 3 0%. Percentage of couples who were not using any contraception was 47.5% in rural area and 33% in urban area. The most common presenting complaint was white discharge among both rural and urban groups (75% vs. 72%. The most common clinical finding was cer vical erosion (57.5% Histopathological interpretation of Paps smear revealed cervical squamous epithelial lesions (LSIL and HSIL in 10.5% smears of rural and 4.5% smears of urban women. A total of 4% smears were found positive for malignancy in rural wo men as compared to 1.5% smears in urban women

  19. Comparison of Gram stain and Pap smear procedures in the diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis.

    OpenAIRE

    Hakan Postaci; Funda Tasli; zgl zgder; Murat Inal; Izzet Maral; Enver Vardar

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to examine the characteristics of Gram stain versus Pap smear in diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis (BV). METHODS: One-thousand and sixty women were enrolled in this study. All cases with symptoms of BV were determined by Amsel's criteria, which were accepted as the gold standard for diagnosis of BV. Pap smear and Gram stain evaluations were compared according to Amsel's criteria, without viewing the clinical results of the patients. Gram stain and Pap s...

  20. Comparison of fracture energy values obtained from 3PB, WST and CT test configurations.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Holuov, T?a; Seitl, Stanislav; Canteli, A.

    Zurich : Trans Tech Publications, 2014 - (Kotrasov, K.; Kormanikova, E.), s. 89-92 ISBN 978-3-03835-147-4. ISSN 1022-6680. - (Advanced Materials Research. 969). [SPACE 2013 - International Conference on Structural and Physical Aspects of Civil Engineering /2./. trbsk Pleso (SK), 27.11.2013-29.11.2013] R&D Projects: GA ?R(CZ) GAP104/11/0833 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : Fracture energy * Compact tension * Three-point bending test * Wedge-splitting test * Cement-based composite Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics

  1. An autoregulatory feedback loop involving PAP1 and TAS4 in response to sugars in Arabidopsis

    OpenAIRE

    Luo, Qing-Jun; Mittal, Amandeep; Jia, Fan; Rock, Christopher D.

    2011-01-01

    miR828 in Arabidopsis triggers the cleavage of Trans-Acting SiRNA Gene 4 (TAS4) transcripts and production of small interfering RNAs (ta-siRNAs). One siRNA, TAS4-siRNA81(?), targets a set of MYB transcription factors including PAP1, PAP2, and MYB113 which regulate the anthocyanin biosynthesis pathway. Interestingly, miR828 also targets MYB113, suggesting a close relationship between these MYBs, miR828, and TAS4, but their evolutionary origins are unknown. We found that PAP1, PAP2, and TAS4 ex...

  2. Combined surgical treatment for severe sleep apnoea, to improve BiPAP compliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ba?al, Ye?im; Aky?ld?z, Utku O?an; Eryilmaz, Aylin

    2015-01-01

    Positive airway pressure (PAP) devices are used in the treatment of obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS). In cases of PAP failure, many different surgical methods can be used for the treatment. The authors present an unusual case of a patient with Bi-level PAP (BiPAP)-intolerant severe OSAS who was treated with combined surgical methods. A 55-year-old man was treated with BiPAP due to OSAS; he was admitted to the clinic with nose stuffiness, respiratory distress and BiPAP adherence with tolerance and compliance problems. Septal deviation, concha hypertrophy, lateral pharyngeal band hypertrophy and Thornwaldt cyst were determined in the examination. Combined surgical methods were administered. The patient's apnoea hypopnoea index (AHI) was 72.8 in diagnostic polysomnography. Preoperative AHI was 7.3 and postoperative AHI was 2.3 while using BiPAP and, after the surgery, the BiPAP intolerance was eliminated. The authors suggest that a combination of different surgical methods would be an adjuvant treatment to increase BiPAP compliance. PMID:26546622

  3. Small punch test - the way how to obtain material mechanical properties from very small volumes.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dym?ek, Petr; Dobe, Ferdinand

    Brno : stav fyziky materil? AV ?R, v.v , 2015 - (Dlouh, A.; Kunz, L.). s. 186-186 ISBN 978-80-87434-07-9. [ICSMA-17 International Conference on the Strength of Materials /17./. 09.08.2015-14.08.2015, Brno] Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : small punch test Subject RIV: JG - Metallurgy

  4. Intensity-interferometric test of nuclear collision geometries obtained from the Boltzmann-Uehling-Uhlenbeck equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two-proton correlation functions measured for the 14N+27Al reaction at E/A=75 MeV are compared to correlation functions predicted for collision geometries obtained from numerical solutions of the Boltzmann-Uehling-Uhlenbeck (BUU) equation. The calculations are in rather good agreement with the experimental correlation function, indicating that the BUU equation gives a reasonable description of the space-time evolution of the reaction

  5. Complementary testing techniques applied to obtain the freeze-thaw resistance of concrete

    OpenAIRE

    Romero, H. L.; Enfedaque, A.; Gálvez, J. C.; Casati, M. J.

    2015-01-01

    Most of the standards that evaluate the resistance of concrete against freeze-thaw cycles (FTC) are based on the loss of weight due to scaling. Such procedures are useful but do not provide information about the microstructural deterioration of the concrete. The test procedure needs to be stopped after several FTCs for weighing the loss of material by scaling. This paper proposes the use of mercury-intrusion-porosimetry and thermogravimetric analysis for assessing the microstructural damage o...

  6. The secreted purple acid phosphatase isozymes AtPAP12 and AtPAP26 play a pivotal role in extracellular phosphate-scavenging by Arabidopsis thaliana

    OpenAIRE

    Robinson, Whitney D.; Park, Joonho; Tran, Hue T.; Del Vecchio, Hernan A.; Ying, Sheng; Zins, Jacqui L.; Patel, Ketan; McKnight, Thomas D.; Plaxton, William C.

    2012-01-01

    Orthophosphate (Pi) is an essential but limiting macronutrient for plant growth. Extensive soil P reserves exist in the form of organic P (Po), which is unavailable for root uptake until hydrolysed by secretory acid phosphatases (APases). The predominant purple APase (PAP) isozymes secreted by roots of Pi-deficient (Pi) Arabidopsis thaliana were recently identified as AtPAP12 (At2g27190) and AtPAP26 (At5g34850). The present study demonstrated that exogenous Po compounds such as glycerol-3-ph...

  7. Report of test and research results on atomic energy obtained in national institutes in fiscal 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The test and research regarding the utilization of atomic energy carried out in national institutions have produced many valuable results in diverse fields so far, such as nuclear fusion, safety research, food irradiation and medicine, since the budget had been appropriated for the first time in 1956. It has accomplished large role in the promotion of atomic energy utilization in Japan. This report is Volume 25, in which the results of the test and research on atomic energy utilization carried out by national institutions in fiscal year 1984 are summarized. It is hoped that the understanding about the recent trend and the results of the test and research on atomic energy utilization is further promoted by this report. The contents of this report are nuclear fusion; the research on engineering safety and environmental radioactivity safety; food irradiation; the countermeasures against cancer; fertilized soil, the improvement of quality, the protection of plants and the improvement of breeding in agriculture and fishery fields; diagnosis and medical treatment, pharmaceuticals, environmental hygiene and the application to physiology and pathology in medical field; radiation chemistry and radiation measurement in mining and industry fields; nuclear reactor materials and nuclear-powered ships; civil engineering; radioactivation analysis; and the research on the prevention of injuries. (Kako, I.)

  8. Report of test and research results on atomic energy obtained in national institutes in fiscal 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The test and research regarding the utilization of atomic energy carried out in national institutions have produced many valuable results in diverse fields so far, such as nuclear fusion, safety research, food irradiation and medicine, since the budget had been appropriated for the first time in 1956. It has accomplished large role in the promotion of atomic energy utilization in Japan. This report is volume 27, in which the results of the test and research on atomic energy utilization carried out by national institutions in fiscal year 1986 are summarized. It is hoped that the understanding about the recent trend and the results of the test and research on atomic energy utilization is further promoted by this report. The contents of this report are nuclear fusion; the research on engineering safety and environmental radioactivity safety; food irradiation; the countermeasures against cancer; fertilized soil, the improvement of quality, the protection of plants and the improvement of breeding in agriculture and fishery fields; diagnosis and medical treatment, pharmaceuticals, environmental hygiene and the application to physiology and pathology in medical field; radiation chemistry and radiation measurement in mining and industry fields; nuclear reactor materials and nuclear-powered ships; civil engineering; radioactivation analysis; and the research on the prevention of injuries. (Kako, I.)

  9. Report of test and research results on atomic energy obtained in national institutes in fiscal 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The test and research on atomic energy utilization in national institutions were begun in 1956, and valuable results have been produced in the fields of nuclear fusion, safety research, food irradiation, medicine and others, thus those have accomplished great roles for the promotion of atomic energy utilization in Japan. Atomic energy technology synthesizes various advanced technologies over wide technical domains, therefore at the time of its research and development, it is important to place emphasis on the creative and innovative regions which cause large technical innovation and in which the effect spreading to general science and technology can be expected. In addition to the test and research according to such recognition, also the basic technology of atomic energy field has been studied. At present foreign countries request Japan to contribute to the development of the world by creating the new technology and knowledge on atomic energy, and national institutions must meet the request. This is the report No.29, in which the results of the test and research in the fields of nuclear fusion, safety research, food irradiation, the countermeasures to cancer, agriculture, forestry and fishery, medicine, mining and industry, power utilization, construction, radioactivation analysis and advanced basic research, carried out in 1988 are summarized. (K.I.)

  10. Report of test and research results on atomic energy obtained in national institutes in fiscal 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The test and research regarding the utilization of atomic energy carried out in national institutions have produced many valuable results in diverse fields so far, such as nuclear fusion, safety research, food irradiation and medicine, since the budget had been appropriated for the first time in 1956. It has accomplished large role in the promotion of atomic energy utilization in Japan. This report is volume 28, in which the results of the test and research on atomic energy utilization carried out by national institutions in fiscal year 1987 are summarized. It is hoped that the understanding about the recent trend and the results of the test and research on atomic energy utilization is further promoted by this report. The contents of this report are nuclear fusion; the research on engineering safety and environmental radioactivity safety; food irradiation; the countermeasures against cancer; fertilized soil, the improvement of quality, the protection of plants and the improvement of breeding in agriculture and fishery fields; diagnosis and medical treatment, pharmaceuticals, environmental hygiene and the application to physiology and pathology in medical field; radiation measurement and process analysis in mining and industry fields; nuclear reactor materials and nuclear-powered ships; civil engineering; radioactivation analysis; the research on the prevention of injuries; and the basic researches on materials and acessment and reduction of irradiation risk. (J.P.N.)

  11. Report of test and research results on atomic energy obtained in national institutes in fiscal 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As for the test and research on the utilization of atomic energy by national organizations, the budget was appropriated for the first time in fiscal year 1956. Since then, many valuable results of research have been produced in the diverse fields of nuclear fusion, safety research, food irradiation, medicine and others, in this way, the test and research have played large roles in the promotion of the utilization of atomic energy in Japan. This is the 24th report, in which the results of the test and research on the utilization of atomic energy carried out in fiscal year 1983 by national organizations are summarized. 5 researches on nuclear fusion, 19 researches on engineering safety and environmental radioactivity safety, 3 researches on food irradiation, 6 researches on the countermeasures to cancer, 19 researches on agriculture, forestry and fishery, 30 researches on medicine, pharmaceuticals and environmental hygiene, 6 researches on mining and industry, 6 researches on power reactors and nuclear ships, 1 research on agricultural water, 7 researches on activation analysis and 4 researches on injury prevention are reported. (Kako, I.)

  12. Report of test and research results on atomic energy obtained in national institutes in fiscal 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As for the test and research on the utilization of atomic energy by national organizations, the budget was appropriated for the first time in fiscal year 1956. Since then, many valuable results of research have been produced in the diverse fields of nuclear fusion, safety research, food irradiation, medicine and others, in this way, the test and research have played large roles in the promotion of the utilization of atomic energy in Japan. This is the 23rd report, in which the results of the test and research on the utilization of atomic energy carried out in fiscal year 1982 by national organizations are summarized. 5 researches on nuclear fusion, 12 researches on engineering safety, 5 researches on environmental radioactivity safety, 3 researches on food irradiation, 5 researches on the countermeasures to cancer, 8 researches on soil fertilization, 4 researches on quality improvement, 7 researches on crop protection, 5 researches on the improvement of breeding, 8 researches on diagnosis and treatment, 8 researches on pharmaceuticals, 10 researches on the application to pathology, 6 researches on mining and industry, 6 researches on power reactors and nuclear ships, 1 research on underground water, 6 researches on activation analysis and 3 researches on injury prevention are reported. (Kako, I.)

  13. Reliability and validity of pendulum test measures of spasticity obtained with the Polhemus tracking system from patients with chronic stroke

    OpenAIRE

    Harrison Steven; Bohannon Richard W; Kinsella-Shaw Jeffrey

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Spasticity is a common impairment accompanying stroke. Spasticity of the quadriceps femoris muscle can be quantified using the pendulum test. The measurement properties of pendular kinematics captured using a magnetic tracking system has not been studied among patients who have experienced a stroke. Therefore, this study describes the test-retest reliability and known groups and convergent validity of the pendulum test measures obtained with the Polhemus tracking system. M...

  14. Report of test and research results on atomic energy obtained in national institutes in fiscal 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The tests and researches on the development and utilization of atomic energy in national laboratories were begun in 1956, and have accomplished the great role for the advance of the development and utilization of atomic energy in Japan by having produced many valuable results so far. Atomic energy has been utilized not only in the field of nuclear power but also in diverse fields, and in national laboratories, the research for expanding the development and utilization of atomic energy in medicine, agriculture, forestry, fishery, radioactivation analysis and others in addition the basic research on nuclear fusion have been advanced. Further expecting the pervasive effect to general science and technology, the development of integrated research are promoted from the viewpoint of new technical innovation and creative technology. The safety research of nuclear facilities have been carried out to keep them high level on the basis of the yearly program enacted by Nuclear Safety Commission. This is the report No. 33, in which the results of the test and research in the fields of nuclear fusion safety research, food irradiation, cancer countermeasures, agriculture, forestry, fishery, medicine, mining and manufacture, power utilization, construction, radioactivation analysis carried on in fiscal 1992 are summarized. (J.P.N.)

  15. Report of test and research results on atomic energy obtained in national institutes in fiscal 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The tests and researches on the development and utilization of atomic energy in national laboratories were begun in 1956, and have accomplished the great role for the advance of the development and utilization of atomic energy in Japan by having produced many valuable results so far. Atomic energy has been utilized in diverse fields, and also in national laboratories, the research for expanding the development and utilization of atomic energy in food irradiation, medicine, agriculture, forestry, fishery and others in addition to the basic research on nuclear fusion and safety have been advanced. Further expecting the pervasive effect to general science and technology, the development of basic technology and integrated research are promoted from the viewpoint of new techical innovation and creative technology. This is 31st report in which the results of the tests and researches carried out by national laboratories in fiscal year 1990 are summarized. Nuclear fusion, safety research, food irradiation, cancer countermeasures, agriculture, forestry, fishery, medicine, mining and manufacture, power utilization, construction, radioactivation analysis and so on were the main subjects. (K.I.)

  16. Simulation of spectroscopic patterns obtained in W/C test-limiter sputtering experiment at TEXTOR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On the TEXTOR tokamak various experiments aimed at investigation of tungsten erosion and transport are performed. In one experiment a spherical W/C twin limiter positioned close to the last-closed flux surface in the near scrape-off layer was exposed to a number of comparable plasma discharges with stepwise variations of edge plasma parameters. Spatial distribution of tungsten and carbon light emission was recorded with two dimensional CCD cameras and spectrometer systems with high spectral and spatial resolution. Penetration depths, tungsten sputtering fluxes and erosion yields were measured. Comparison between experimental data and the results of modelling with the 3D Monte-Carlo code ERO is performed. The main objective of this study was to test the adequacy of the existing atomic data for neutral tungsten. The modelled penetration depths of the light emission of tungsten are a factor of 23 smaller than in experiment, which may indicate the overestimation of ionization rates

  17. Simulation of spectroscopic patterns obtained in W/C test-limiter sputtering experiment at TEXTOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kondratyev, D., E-mail: d.kondratyev@fz-juelich.de [Institute of Energy and Climate Research Plasma Physics, Forschungszentrum Jlich GmbH, Association EURATOM-FZJ, Partner in the Trilateral Euregio Cluster, 52425 Jlich (Germany); Borodin, D.; Kirschner, A.; Brezinsek, S.; Coenen, J.W.; Laengner, M. [Institute of Energy and Climate Research Plasma Physics, Forschungszentrum Jlich GmbH, Association EURATOM-FZJ, Partner in the Trilateral Euregio Cluster, 52425 Jlich (Germany); Stoschus, H. [Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education, Oak Ridge, TN 37830 (United States); Vainshtein, L. [P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute RAS, Leninsky prospect 53, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Pospieszczyk, A.; Samm, U. [Institute of Energy and Climate Research Plasma Physics, Forschungszentrum Jlich GmbH, Association EURATOM-FZJ, Partner in the Trilateral Euregio Cluster, 52425 Jlich (Germany)

    2013-07-15

    On the TEXTOR tokamak various experiments aimed at investigation of tungsten erosion and transport are performed. In one experiment a spherical W/C twin limiter positioned close to the last-closed flux surface in the near scrape-off layer was exposed to a number of comparable plasma discharges with stepwise variations of edge plasma parameters. Spatial distribution of tungsten and carbon light emission was recorded with two dimensional CCD cameras and spectrometer systems with high spectral and spatial resolution. Penetration depths, tungsten sputtering fluxes and erosion yields were measured. Comparison between experimental data and the results of modelling with the 3D Monte-Carlo code ERO is performed. The main objective of this study was to test the adequacy of the existing atomic data for neutral tungsten. The modelled penetration depths of the light emission of tungsten are a factor of 23 smaller than in experiment, which may indicate the overestimation of ionization rates.

  18. Statistical evaluation of the heat transfer data obtained in the HDR containment tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The containment tests conducted at the HDR facility have greatly expanded the experimental data base for energy transfer in large, complex geometry volumes. This data has been made available in a sequence of experimental reports, and its affect on heat-transfer modeling has been analyzed in several studies. Two categories of energy transfer data are provided by the experiments: 1) Integral energy transfer rate, either overall or compartment dependent, has to be inferred from appropriate energy balances utilizing experimental pressure, temperature and blow down rate measurements; 2) Local energy transfer rate is measured directly at up to 12 locations within the containment. The HDR heat-transfer measurements have become the fundamental data-base for benchmarking containment heat transfer modeling. The approaches taken in the modeling are discussed in detail

  19. How to obtain J-R curve from one test on one sample

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Operational definition of J concept is first examined. Then it is shown that conventional methods of experimental determination of J values are based on the following assumption: if the load-deflexion curve is known for one value of the crack length it is possible to know the load-deflexion curve for any value of the crack length. This assumption is generalized with the help of scale functions and formula giving J are deduced. Attention is given to the effect of crack propagation on J values. The same assumption is used to extract the crack length from the load-deflexion curve. As the real crack lengths are known before propagation occurs and at the end of the test, it is possible to achieve a good calibration of the material characteristic

  20. Friction and wear in liquid-metal systems: comparability problems of test results obtained from different test facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Operational induced relative movements take place between contacting components in the core region of sodium cooled reactors. To ensure reliable long term functioning of such friction loaded components, materials are needed with good sliding properties and high wear resistance. Therefore, tribological properties of material combinations in liquid metal have been investigated experimentally for many years at various research establishments. However, despite identical boundary conditions, the comparison of results published does not yield a satisfactory agreement. The cause must be seen in the individual design and concept of the test sections used. This discrepancy was investigated. The results show that the elasticity, mass movement, and relative motion characteristic to the system prove to be the most important criteria influencing the test results

  1. Complementary testing techniques applied to obtain the freeze-thaw resistance of concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romero, H. L.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Most of the standards that evaluate the resistance of concrete against freeze-thaw cycles (FTC are based on the loss of weight due to scaling. Such procedures are useful but do not provide information about the microstructural deterioration of the concrete. The test procedure needs to be stopped after several FTCs for weighing the loss of material by scaling. This paper proposes the use of mercury-intrusion-porosimetry and thermogravimetric analysis for assessing the microstructural damage of concrete during FTCs. Continuous strain measurement can be performed without stopping the FTCs. The combination of the above techniques with the freeze-thaw resistance standards provides better and more precise information about concrete damage. The proposed procedure is applied to an ordinary concrete, a concrete with silica fume addition and one with an air-entraining agent. The test results showed that the three techniques used are suitable and useful to be employed as complementary to the standards.Las normas para evaluar la resistencia del hormigón a los ciclos hielo-deshielo (CHD se basan habitualmente en la pérdida de peso por descascarillamiento. Son útiles, pero no proporcionan información sobre el deterioro microestructural del hormigón. Además, exigen detener el ensayo para pesar el material desprendido. Se propone el uso complementario de la porosimetría por intrusión de mercurio y el análisis termogravimétrico para evaluar el daño microestructural del hormigón durante los CHDs. La medida continua de las deformaciones puede hacerse sin detener los CHDs. La combinación de las técnicas enumeradas con las normas de ensayo proporciona información más completa sobre el daño del hormigón. El procedimiento propuesto se aplica a un hormigón convencional, a un hormigón con adición de humo de sílice y a otro con aireante. Los resultados de los ensayos mostraron que las tres técnicas usadas son útiles y adecuadas como complemento a las establecidas en las normas.

  2. Roles of phagocytosis activating protein (PAP) in Aeromonas hydrophila infected Cyprinus carpio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wonglapsuwan, Monwadee; Kongmee, Pataraporn; Suanyuk, Naraid; Chotigeat, Wilaiwan

    2016-06-01

    Cyprinus carpio (koi) is one of the most popular ornamental fish. A major problem for C. carpio farming is bacterial infections especially by Aeromonas hydrophila. Previously studies had shown that the Phagocytosis Activating Protein (PAP) gene was involved in the innate immune response of animals. Therefore, we attempted to identify a role for the PAP gene in the immunology of C. carpio. The expression of the PAP was found in C. carpio whole blood and increased when the fish were stimulated by inactivated A. hydrophila. In addition, PAP-phMGFP DNA was injected as an immunostimulant. The survival rate and the phagocytic index were significantly increased in the A. hydrophila infected fish that received the PAP-phMGFP DNA immunostimulant. A chitosan-PAP-phMGFP nanoparticle was then developed and feeded into fish which infected with A. hydrophila. These fish had a significantly lower mortality rate than the control. Therefore, this research confirmed a key role for PAP in protection fish from bacterial infection and the chitosan-PAP-phMGFP nanoparticle could be a good prototype for fish immunostimulant in the future. PMID:26748248

  3. World-Wide Indoor Exposure to Polyfluoroalkyl Phosphate Esters (PAPs) and other PFASs in Household Dust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, Ulrika; Krrman, Anna

    2015-12-15

    Human exposure to perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and other per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) is ongoing and in some cases increasing, despite efforts made to reduce emissions. The role of precursor compounds such as polyfluorinated phosphate esters (PAPs) has received increasing attention, but there are knowledge gaps regarding their occurrence and impact on human exposure. In this study, mono-, di-, and triPAPs, perfluorinated alkyl acids (PFAAs), saturated, and unsaturated fluorotelomer carboxylic acids (FTCA/FTUCAs), perfluoroalkane sulfonamides, and sulfonamidethanols (FOSA/FOSEs), and one fluorotelomer sulfonic acid (FTSA)) were compared in household dust samples from Canada, the Faroe Islands, Sweden, Greece, Spain, Nepal, Japan, and Australia. Mono-, di-, and triPAPs, including several diPAP homologues, were frequently detected in dust from all countries, revealing an ubiquitous spread in private households from diverse geographic areas, with significant differences between countries. The median levels of monoPAPs and diPAPs ranged from 3.7 ng/g to 1 023 ng/g and 3.6 ng/g to 692 ng/g, respectively, with the lowest levels found in Nepal and the highest in Japan. The levels of PAPs exceeded those of the other PFAS classes. These findings reveal the importance of PAPs as a source of PFAS exposure worldwide. PMID:26000882

  4. Determining the interobserver reproducibility of Pap smears in the diagnosis of epithelial cell abnormalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izadi-Mood N

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available "n 800x600 Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";} Background: Cancer of uterine cervix is the second cause of death in women in the world and the most common cause in developing countries. Because the majority of women with invasive cervical cancer of the uterine have not previously undergone screening, many clinicians assume that Pap smear has a high degree of accuracy; but problems such as false positive and false negative interpretations, as well as interobserver variability have questioned its validity."n"nMethods : We retrieved 162 positive cervical smears that had been originally interpreted as ASC-US, ASC-H, LSIL, HSIL, SCC, AGC and adenocarcinoma from the cytology archives of Women's Hospital in Tehran, Iran. The slides were rescreened by an experienced pathologist and reclassified in the mentioned categories. All the 162 slides were reviewed by three more pathologists in a blind study using interpretative criteria utilized in their daily routine to evaluate interobserver reproducibility. To increase the level of interobserver agreement, the diagnostic categories were reduced to squamous Vs. glandular abnormalities and invasive (SCC and adenocarcinoma Vs. non-invasive abnormalities."n"nResults : The results obtained in this study indicated slight interobserver agreement (k=0.26. The most reproducible category was the invasive category (SCC in addition to adenocarcinoma and the least agreement was seen for HSIL (k=0.19. "n"nConclusion: This study showed that reproducibility of cytological interpretation of conventional Pap smears varies among interpretive categories and the overall interobserver agreement is slight. Since convening on the reduction of interobserver discrepancy in Pap smear interpretations necessitates more reliable information of interpretative variability, larger studies need to be undertaken.

  5. Relation between serum PAP (prostate acid phosphatase) and bone scintigraphy in prostatic cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seventy-seven patients with prostatic cancer were treated at our department in the last 5 years. Of these patients 30 cases were followed by bone scintigraphy and serum PAP. In 27 follow-up scintigraphy procedures changes of bone scintigraphy corresponded to changes in serum PAP levels. Changes of PAP levels did not always correspond to changes of scintigraphy, but almost all cases in which the level of PAP increased in a short period showed progression of bone metastasis. A 3-month interval between bone scintigraphy procedure in stage D2 prostatic cancer patients is generally recommended. However, we think that in prostatic cancer patients follow-up bone scintigraphy at regular short intervals is unnecessary if there is no change in serum PAP levels, symptoms or physical condition. Bone scintigraphy should be performed when the tumor marker changes rapidly or when any physical symptom appears. (author)

  6. Intention to Obtain Genetic Testing for Melanoma among Individuals at Low to Moderate Risk for Hereditary Melanoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadaparampil, Susan T.; Azzarello, Lora; Pickard, Jennifer; Jacobsen, Paul B.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Melanoma is a serious skin cancer that has been on the rise in the United States. Some genetic component is apparent. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to identify demographic, clinical, attitudinal, and health belief factors associated with intention to obtain genetic testing for hereditary melanoma among unaffected first-degree

  7. The frequency of herpes simplex virus changes in anal Pap smear and its association with squamous intraepithelial lesions in high-risk male patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greebon, Leslie J; Avery, Diane L; Prihoda, Thomas J; Valente, Philip T; Policarpio-Nicolas, Maria Luisa C

    2014-06-01

    While there are studies postulating a model of synergism between human papillomavirus (HPV) and herpes simplex virus (HSV) in cervical carcinogenesis, the frequency of anal herpes as well as its association with anal squamous intraepithelial lesions (ASILs) has been understudied in men. This study evaluates the frequency of HSV changes in anal Pap smears and its association with ASILs in a high-risk population. A computerized search for specimens associated with anal cytology that had positive findings of HSV was performed. The electronic medical records were examined for past diagnosis of herpes, HSV serology prior to or after cytology, and if the patient received treatment after cytologic diagnosis of HSV. Of the 470 anal Pap smears (Thin-prep) examined, seven had cellular changes consistent with HSV infection. All patients were asymptomatic human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) positive males with no prior HSV serology tests. Two patients had prior diagnoses of HSV infection. Cytologic abnormalities were identified in 86% ranging from atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance to high grade squamous intraepithelial lesion. Three patients were treated after the HSV cytologic diagnosis. The frequency of HSV changes in anal Pap smear is low (1.48%), but the presence of concomitant cytologic abnormalities is high (86%). While our findings suggest the possible role of HSV as a HPV co-factor in ASILs, larger studies are needed to support this. Identification of HSV infection on anal Pap smear is important for institution of patient treatment and subsequent reduction of transmission. PMID:24692314

  8. Pap smears for men: a vision of the future?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Oon, S F

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN) rarely receives as much publicity as its neighbouring orifice, the cervix. As in the cervix, intraepithelial neoplasias are precursors to cancer in the anal canal. AIN and cervical interstitial neoplasia (CIN) undergo dysplasia as a consequence of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. Since the advent of screening with the Pap smear in CIN, cervical cancer has plummeted to a fifth of its initial incidence. Anal cancer, however, has been rising, with a predilection for human immunodeficiency virus-infected men. HPV causes a squamous epithelial dysplasia and converts healthy tissue into AINs of increasing severity until anal cancer manifests. CLINICAL CASE: This article describes a clinical case of anogenital HPV infection refractory to medical and surgical therapy. It also describes an effective surgical excision technique associated with a good cosmetic outcome. CONCLUSIONS: The paper concludes by briefly discussing the implications of a national screening programme against AIN in the future.

  9. Web based Farmers Bulletin for agricultural development using PAP Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.Manikandan

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present era entire world is focusing on agricultural development because of increased population and decreased agricultural production. Reason for decrease in production of agricultural products differs from place to place. The main aim here is to support the farmers in their decision making on which mechanism to choose best for a better productivity at their arms reach. The proposed system focused to increase the profit of the farmer by increasing the efficiency of agricultural input and reducing the cost and risk of production. This can be achieved by providing timely advice to the farmer like, dynamic weather forecasting and use of knowledge engineering to extract best suitable Agricultural information from various source. The PAP (Preprocess Associate and Predict architecture is used for performing knowledge extraction and prediction process. This technique can handle all type of information.

  10. The secreted purple acid phosphatase isozymes AtPAP12 and AtPAP26 play a pivotal role in extracellular phosphate-scavenging by Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Whitney D; Park, Joonho; Tran, Hue T; Del Vecchio, Hernan A; Ying, Sheng; Zins, Jacqui L; Patel, Ketan; McKnight, Thomas D; Plaxton, William C

    2012-11-01

    Orthophosphate (P(i)) is an essential but limiting macronutrient for plant growth. Extensive soil P reserves exist in the form of organic P (P(o)), which is unavailable for root uptake until hydrolysed by secretory acid phosphatases (APases). The predominant purple APase (PAP) isozymes secreted by roots of P(i)-deficient (-P(i)) Arabidopsis thaliana were recently identified as AtPAP12 (At2g27190) and AtPAP26 (At5g34850). The present study demonstrated that exogenous P(o) compounds such as glycerol-3-phosphate or herring sperm DNA: (i) effectively substituted for P(i) in supporting the P nutrition of Arabidopsis seedlings, and (ii) caused upregulation and secretion of AtPAP12 and AtPAP26 into the growth medium. When cultivated under -P(i) conditions or supplied with P(o) as its sole source of P nutrition, an atpap26/atpap12 T-DNA double insertion mutant exhibited impaired growth coupled with >60 and >30% decreases in root secretory APase activity and rosette total P(i) concentration, respectively. Development of the atpap12/atpap26 mutant was unaffected during growth on P(i)-replete medium but was completely arrested when 7-day-old P(i)-sufficient seedlings were transplanted into a -P(i), P(o)-containing soil mix. Both PAPs were also strongly upregulated on root surfaces and in shoot cell-wall extracts of -P(i) seedlings. It is hypothesized that secreted AtPAP12 and AtPAP26 facilitate the acclimation of Arabidopsis to nutritional Pi deficiency by: (i) functioning in the rhizosphere to scavenge P(i) from the soil's accessible P(o) pool, while (ii) recycling P(i) from endogenous phosphomonoesters that have been leaked into cell walls from the cytoplasm. Thus, AtPAP12 and AtPAP26 are promising targets for improving crop P-use efficiency. PMID:23125358

  11. Molecular and biochemical characterization of AtPAP15, a purple acid phosphatase with phytase activity, in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuang, Ruibin; Chan, Kam-Ho; Yeung, Edward; Lim, Boon Leong

    2009-09-01

    Purple acid phosphatase (PAP) catalyzes the hydrolysis of phosphate monoesters and anhydrides to release phosphate within an acidic pH range. Among the 29 PAP-like proteins in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), AtPAP15 (At3g07130) displays a greater degree of amino acid identity with soybean (Glycine max; GmPHY) and tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) PAP (NtPAP) with phytase activity than the other AtPAPs. In this study, transgenic Arabidopsis that expressed an AtPAP15 promoterbeta-glucuronidase (GUS) fusion protein showed that AtPAP15 expression was developmentally and temporally regulated, with strong GUS staining at the early stages of seedling growth and pollen germination. The expression was also organ/tissue specific, with strongest GUS staining in the vasculature, pollen grains, and roots. The recombinant AtPAP purified from transgenic tobacco exhibited broad substrate specificity with moderate phytase activity. AtPAP15 T-DNA insertion lines exhibited a lower phytase and phosphatase activity in seedling and germinating pollen and lower pollen germination rate compared with the wild type and their complementation lines. Therefore, AtPAP15 likely mobilizes phosphorus reserves in plants, particularly during seed and pollen germination. Since AtPAP15 is not expressed in the root hair or in the epidermal cells, it is unlikely to play any role in external phosphorus assimilation. PMID:19633233

  12. Histria prvia de realizao de teste de Papanicolaou e cncer do colo do tero: estudo caso-controle na Baixada Fluminense, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil Previous history of Pap smears and cervical cancer: a case-control study in the Baixada Fluminense, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Isabel do Nascimento

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo caso-controle hospitalar foi realizado de 2007 a 2010 para estimar a associao de histria prvia de colpocitologia e cncer do colo do tero na Baixada Fluminense, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. A amostra consistiu de 152 casos histologicamente confirmados e 169 controles selecionados no mesmo hospital dos casos. A anlise foi feita de acordo com um modelo em trs nveis hierrquicos; considerando as variveis sociodemogrficas (nvel distal, sexual/reprodutivas e de estilo de vida (nvel intermedirio e a histria prvia de colpocitologia (nvel proximal. Odds ratios (OR e respectivos intervalos de 95% de confiana (IC95% foram calculados pela regresso logstica no condicional. Ter histria prvia de trs ou mais colpocitologias conferiu uma proteo de 84% (OR = 0,16; IC95%: 0,074; 0,384 aps ajuste pelas variveis selecionadas. Os resultados acentuam a importncia do exame preventivo ginecolgico no risco desse cncer e fortalecem a necessidade de aumentar a aderncia s normas do programa brasileiro, bem como de identificar e capturar mulheres relutantes para o rastreamento da doena.This hospital-based case-control study (2007-2010 aimed to estimate the association between previous Pap smear and cervical cancer diagnosis in the Baixada Fluminense, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. The sample consisted of 152 histologically confirmed cases and 169 controls from the same hospital as the cases. The analysis was conducted according to a model in three hierarchical levels considering sociodemographic characteristics (distal, sexual/reproductive and lifestyle factors (intermediate, and previous Pap smear (proximal. Odds ratios (OR and respective 95% confidence intervals (95%CI were calculated using unconditional logistic regression. History of three or more Pap smears was associated with an 84% reduction in cervical cancer risk (OR = 0.16; 95%CI: 0.074; 0.384 after adjusting for selected variables. The results highlight the importance of preventive gynecological examination for reducing the risk of cervical cancer and emphasize the need to increase adherence to the guidelines of the Brazilian program, besides identifying and scheduling women that have proven reluctant to submit to cervical cancer screening.

  13. Histria prvia de realizao de teste de Papanicolaou e cncer do colo do tero: estudo caso-controle na Baixada Fluminense, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil / Previous history of Pap smears and cervical cancer: a case-control study in the Baixada Fluminense, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Maria Isabel do, Nascimento; Gulnar Azevedo e, Silva; Gina Torres Rego, Monteiro.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo caso-controle hospitalar foi realizado de 2007 a 2010 para estimar a associao de histria prvia de colpocitologia e cncer do colo do tero na Baixada Fluminense, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. A amostra consistiu de 152 casos histologicamente confirmados e 169 controles selecionados no mesm [...] o hospital dos casos. A anlise foi feita de acordo com um modelo em trs nveis hierrquicos; considerando as variveis sociodemogrficas (nvel distal), sexual/reprodutivas e de estilo de vida (nvel intermedirio) e a histria prvia de colpocitologia (nvel proximal). Odds ratios (OR) e respectivos intervalos de 95% de confiana (IC95%) foram calculados pela regresso logstica no condicional. Ter histria prvia de trs ou mais colpocitologias conferiu uma proteo de 84% (OR = 0,16; IC95%: 0,074; 0,384) aps ajuste pelas variveis selecionadas. Os resultados acentuam a importncia do exame preventivo ginecolgico no risco desse cncer e fortalecem a necessidade de aumentar a aderncia s normas do programa brasileiro, bem como de identificar e capturar mulheres relutantes para o rastreamento da doena. Abstract in english This hospital-based case-control study (2007-2010) aimed to estimate the association between previous Pap smear and cervical cancer diagnosis in the Baixada Fluminense, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. The sample consisted of 152 histologically confirmed cases and 169 controls from the same hospital as [...] the cases. The analysis was conducted according to a model in three hierarchical levels considering sociodemographic characteristics (distal), sexual/reproductive and lifestyle factors (intermediate), and previous Pap smear (proximal). Odds ratios (OR) and respective 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) were calculated using unconditional logistic regression. History of three or more Pap smears was associated with an 84% reduction in cervical cancer risk (OR = 0.16; 95%CI: 0.074; 0.384) after adjusting for selected variables. The results highlight the importance of preventive gynecological examination for reducing the risk of cervical cancer and emphasize the need to increase adherence to the guidelines of the Brazilian program, besides identifying and scheduling women that have proven reluctant to submit to cervical cancer screening.

  14. Viscoplastic-dynamic analyses of small-scale fracture tests to obtain crack arrest toughness values for PTS conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reliable predictions of crack arrest at the high upper shelf toughness conditions involved in postulated pressurized thermal shock (PTS) events require procedures beyond those utilized in conventional fracture mechanics treatments. To develop such a procedure, viscoplastic-dynamic fracture mechanics finite element analyses, viscoplastic material characterization testing, and small-scale crack propagation and arrest experimentation are being combines in this research. The approach couples SwRI's viscoplastic-dynamic fracture mechanics finite element code VISCRK with experiments using duplex 4340/A533B steel compact specimens. The experiments are simulated by VISCRK computations employing the Bodner-Partom viscoplastic constitutive relation and the nonlinear fracture mechanics parameter T. The goal is to develop temperature-dependent crack arrest toughness values for A533B steel. While only room temperature KIa values have been obtained so far, these have been found to agree closely with those obtained from wide plate tests. (author)

  15. An iterative method to obtain the specimen-independent three-parameter Weibull distribution of strength from bending tests

    OpenAIRE

    Przybilla, Constanza Ariste; Fernndez Canteli, Alfonso Carlos; Castillo Ron, Enrique

    2011-01-01

    Brittle materials, such as glass and ceramics, usually present a large strength scatter. Among other probability distributions, the Weibull distribution is widely used to characterize their resistance. Often the two-parameter model is employed, omitting the consideration of a threshold stress, leading to a simplified estimation method. For the sake of generality the present work uses fracture data from bending tests to obtain a three-parameter Weibull distribution function valid for a uni-axi...

  16. A Method for Obtaining the Nonlinear Aerodynamic Stability Characteristics of Bodies of Revolution from Free-Flight Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, Donn B.

    1961-01-01

    A method is presented for obtaining the nonlinear aerodynamic stability characteristics of bodies of revolution from free-flight test.s The necessary conditions for the application of this method are: (1) that the roll rate and damping encountered in a single cycle of oscillation be small, and (2) that the resulting motion be reasonably planar. Four approximations to the nonlinear restoring moment are considered and solutions are obtained in closed form: 1. A single-term polynomial in an arbitrary power of the angle of attack. 2. A two-term polynomial having linear and cubic terms. 3. A three-term polynomial having linear, quadratic, and cubic terms. 4. A three-term polynomial having linear, quadratic, and cubic terms. An iteration procedure is formulated to allow the use of each of these approximations for obtaining the aerodynamic coefficients of bodies of revolution from free-flight test data. It is found that although the equations that are solved pertain strictly to planar motion, the solutions are applicable to motions that deviate to a fairly large degree from planar motion.

  17. Correlation between extent of metastatic lesions in whole body bone scintigraphy of patients with prostatic cancer and prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP) in blood by PAP RIA kit 'Eiken'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whole body bone scintigraphy of thirteen patients who were pathohistologically confirmed prostatic cancer was processed by four colors, and then the extent of bone metastases was estimated quantitatively. On the basis of this estimation, the grade of the expansion of bone metastases was classified into 4 grades (0, 1, 2, and 3 grades). And then, correlations of the expantion of bone metastases with PAP, AcP and AlP levels in blood were investigated. The results are as follows: 1) Correlation between the extent of bone metastases and PAP levels was relatively high (r = 0.81). 2) As for the relation between the expansion grade of bone metastases and PAP levels, the levels did not increase in 0 and 1 grades, but markedly increased in 2 and 3 grades. AcP also showed a little similar tendency. 3) In the correlation of PAP with AcP and with AlP, AcP (r = 0.78) was higher than AlP (r = 0.42). 4) Therefore, PAP levels seem to be a good index of the extent of bone metastases in prostatic cancer. (author)

  18. Clinical Implications of the Cervical Papanicolaou Test Results in the Management of Anal Warts in HIV-Infected Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luu, Hung N.; Amirian, E. Susan; Piller, Linda; Chan, Wenyaw; Scheurer, Michael E.

    2013-01-01

    The Papanicolaou test (or Pap test) has long been used as a screening tool to detect cervical precancerous/cancerous lesions. However, studies on the use of this test to predict both the presence and change in size of genital warts are limited. We examined whether cervical Papanicolaou test results are associated with the size of the largest anal wart over time in HIV-infected women in an on-going cohort study in the US. A sample of 976 HIV-infected women included in a public dataset obtained from the Womens Interagency HIV Study (WIHS) was selected for analysis. A linear mixed model was performed to determine the relationship between the size of anal warts and cervical Pap test results. About 32% of participants had abnormal cervical Pap test results at baseline. In the adjusted model, a woman with a result of Atypia Squamous Cell Undetermined Significance/Low-grade Squamous Intraepithelial Lesion (ASCUS/LSIL) had an anal wart, on average, 12.81 mm2 larger than a woman with normal cervical cytology. The growth rate of the largest anal wart after each visit in a woman with ASCUS/LSIL was 1.56 mm2 slower than that of a woman with normal cervical results. However, they were not significant (P = 0.54 and P = 0.82, respectively). This is the first study to examine the relationship between cervical Pap test results and anal wart development in HIV-infected women. Even though no association between the size of anal wart and cervical Pap test results was found, a screening program using anal cytology testing in HIV-infected women should be considered. Further studies in cost-effectiveness and efficacy of an anal cytology test screening program are warranted. PMID:24312348

  19. Clinical implications of the cervical Papanicolaou test results in the management of anal warts in HIV-infected women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luu, Hung N; Amirian, E Susan; Beasley, R Palmer; Piller, Linda; Chan, Wenyaw; Scheurer, Michael E

    2013-01-01

    The Papanicolaou test (or Pap test) has long been used as a screening tool to detect cervical precancerous/cancerous lesions. However, studies on the use of this test to predict both the presence and change in size of genital warts are limited. We examined whether cervical Papanicolaou test results are associated with the size of the largest anal wart over time in HIV-infected women in an on-going cohort study in the US. A sample of 976 HIV-infected women included in a public dataset obtained from the Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS) was selected for analysis. A linear mixed model was performed to determine the relationship between the size of anal warts and cervical Pap test results. About 32% of participants had abnormal cervical Pap test results at baseline. In the adjusted model, a woman with a result of Atypia Squamous Cell Undetermined Significance/Low-grade Squamous Intraepithelial Lesion (ASCUS/LSIL) had an anal wart, on average, 12.81 mm(2) larger than a woman with normal cervical cytology. The growth rate of the largest anal wart after each visit in a woman with ASCUS/LSIL was 1.56 mm(2) slower than that of a woman with normal cervical results. However, they were not significant (P = 0.54 and P = 0.82, respectively). This is the first study to examine the relationship between cervical Pap test results and anal wart development in HIV-infected women. Even though no association between the size of anal wart and cervical Pap test results was found, a screening program using anal cytology testing in HIV-infected women should be considered. Further studies in cost-effectiveness and efficacy of an anal cytology test screening program are warranted. PMID:24312348

  20. Cardiac output obtained from test bolus injections as a factor in contrast injection rate revision of following coronary CT angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background.. Optimal contrast enhancement is crucial for the detection of coronary artery stenoses and atherosclerotic changes in coronary CT angiography (CTA). Purpose To demonstrate the feasibility of using the cardiac output (CO) obtained from the test bolus injection data-set (CO test) as a factor in contrast injection rate revision of the following coronary CTA. Material and Methods. The test bolus injection data-sets of 52 consecutive coronary CTAs were examined. CO test was calculated from the test bolus data-set. Aortic peak enhancement (APE) was measured on the following coronary CTA. We simulated the APE at a fixed contrast injection rate of 4 mL/s (simAPE) in each patient. Results. The ranges of COtest and simAPE were 2.82-7.56 L/min and 194-527 Hounsfield Units, respectively. There was a significant negative correlation (R = -0.802, P < 0.001) between simAPE and COtest. Conclusion. COtest can be used for injection rate revision on coronary CTA

  1. PAP-1, the mutated gene underlying the RP9 form of dominant retinitis pigmentosa, is a splicing factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PAP-1 is an in vitro phosphorylation target of the Pim-1 oncogene. Although PAP-1 binds to Pim-1, it is not a substrate for phosphorylation by Pim-1 in vivo. PAP-1 has recently been implicated as the defective gene in RP9, one type of autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa (adRP). However, RP9 is a rare disease and only two missense mutations have been described, so the report of a link between PAP-1 and RP9 was tentative. The precise cellular role of PAP-1 was also unknown at that time. We now report that PAP-1 localizes in nuclear speckles containing the splicing factor SC35 and interacts directly with another splicing factor, U2AF35. Furthermore, we used in vitro and in vivo splicing assays to show that PAP-1 has an activity, which alters the pattern of pre-mRNA splicing and that this activity is dependent on the phosphorylation state of PAP-1. We used the same splicing assay to examine the activities of two mutant forms of PAP-1 found in RP9 patients. The results showed that while one of the mutations, H137L, had no effect on splicing activity compared with that of wild-type PAP-1, the other, D170G, resulted in both a defect in splicing activity and a decreased proportion of phosphorylated PAP-1. The D170G mutation may therefore cause RP by altering splicing of retinal genes through a decrease in PAP-1 phosphorylation. These results demonstrate that PAP-1 has a role in pre-mRNA splicing and, given that three other splicing factors have been implicated in adRP, this finding provides compelling further evidence that PAP-1 is indeed the RP9 gene

  2. The evaluation of clinical application for measurement of serum PSA and PAP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The serum PSA and PAP were measured in 23 cases of prostatic carcinoma, 42 cases of benign prostatic hypertrophy and 21 cases of non-prostatic disease. Significant differences were found between prostatic carcinoma and benign prostatic hypertrophy or control group. According to the Decision Matrix for general clinical evaluation, the diagnostic index and availability of serum PSA and PAP were 135.8%, 138.3% and 0.36, 0.40, respectively. The study showed that the measurement of the serum PSA and PAP should be complementary each other for the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of prostatic carcinoma. Finally, it was considered that the measurement of the serum PSA is superior to that of PAP for therapeutic follow-up in patients with prostatic carcinoma

  3. Pap, gruel, and panada: early approaches to artificial infant feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obladen, Michael

    2014-01-01

    This paper collects information on artificial infant feeding published before 1860, the year when commercial formula became available. We have extensive artifactual evidence of thousands of feeding vessels since the Bronze Age. Special museum collections can be found in London, Paris, Cologne, Fcamp, Toronto, New Mexico, and elsewhere. The literature on the use of animal milk for infant feeding begins with Soranus in the 2nd century CE. Literature evidence from the very first printed books in the 15th century proves that physicians, surgeons, midwives, and the laity were aware of the opportunities and risks of artificial infant feeding. Most 17th to 19th century books on infant care contained detailed recipes for one or several of the following infant foods: pap, a semisolid food made of flour or bread crumbs cooked in water with or without milk; gruel, a thin porridge resulting from boiling cereal in water or milk, and panada, a preparation of various cereals or bread cooked in broth. During the 18th century, the published opinion on artificial feeding evolved from health concerns to a moral ideology. This view ignored the social and economic pressures which forced many mothers to forego or shorten breast-feeding. Bottle-feeding has been common practice throughout history. PMID:24577423

  4. ABNORMAL FINDINGS IN PAP SMEARS: ISFAHAN PROVIENCE 1997-1998

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.H SADRI

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Background. Cervical cancer is a common female malignancy in developing countries. In our health care system, the screening program is performed by doing pap smears with the interval of three years. This study was designed to determine the prevalence and frequency disturbation of abnormal smears. Methods. This is a cross sectional study was done in 1997-1998. Sample group were all the under coverage married women aged 20-65 years who have a factor of referal criteria. Papsmears samples were interpreted by a pathologist. Papsmear results were documented by colposcopy and biopsy. Results. The prevalence of abnormal smears in under coverage women is 0.05 percent. Results of abnormal papsmears due to more investigations (colposcopy and biopsy were: Normal 25 percent, ASCUS 57 percent, CIN 14 percent, CIN 2 1 percent, CIN 3 1 percent invasive cancer 2 percent. Conclusion. Refering of women with abnormal signs such as leukoplakia, cervical erosion, and history of contact bleeding is necessary. The number of false positive results in cytotechnologlsts diagtlosfs is high. This result shows that on-job-training for cytotechnologists is important.

  5. Aero thermal test results obtained on the n. C 5 EL 4 Cluster in the atmospheric pressure cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the framework of thermal studies on the EL-4 cluster, the full-scale tests at atmospheric pressure are designed to permit measurement of local values of the wall temperature, of the velocity and of the temperature in the fluid. The experimental results, obtained with the help of an original measuring apparatus, make it possible to follow the changes in these values along the cluster and to predict in much detail the in-pile thermal behaviour. In particular it is shown that changes in the wall temperature along the cluster are greatly influenced by disruption of the flow caused by grids and supports. (author)

  6. Selective indication for positive airway pressure (PAP in sleep-related breathing disorders with obstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stasche, Norbert

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Positive airway pressure (PAP is the therapy of choice for most sleep-related breathing disorders (SRBD. A variety of PAP devices using positive airway pressure (CPAP, BiPAP, APAP, ASV must be carefully considered before application. This overview aims to provide criteria for choosing the optimal PAP device according to severity and type of sleep-related breathing disorder. In addition, the range of therapeutic applications, constraints and side effects as well as alternative methods to PAP will be discussed. This review is based on an analysis of current literature and clinical experience. The data is presented from an ENT-sleep-laboratory perspective and is designed to help the ENT practitioner initiate treatment and provide support. Different titration methods, current devices and possible applications will be described. In addition to constant pressure devices (CPAP, most commonly used for symptomatic obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA without complicating conditions, BiPAP models will be introduced. These allow two different positive pressure settings and are thus especially suitable for patients with cardiopulmonary diseases or patients with pressure intolerance, increasing compliance in this subgroup considerably. Compliance can also be increased in patients during first night of therapy, patients with highly variable pressure demands or position-dependent OSA, by using self-regulating Auto-adjust PAP devices (Automatic positive airway pressure, APAP. Patients with Cheyne-Stokes breathing, a subtype of central sleep apnoea, benefit from adaptive servo-ventilation (ASV, which analyzes breathing patterns continually and adjusts the actual ventilation pressure accordingly. This not only reduces daytime sleepiness, but can also influence heart disease positively. Therapy with positive airway pressure is very effective in eliminating obstruction-related sleep diseases and symptoms. However, because therapy is generally applied for life, the optimal PAP device must be carefully selected, taking into account side effects that influence compliance.

  7. Crystal Structure of the P Pilus Rod Subunit PapA

    OpenAIRE

    Verger, Denis; Bullitt, Esther; Hultgren, Scott J.; Waksman, Gabriel

    2007-01-01

    P pili are important adhesive fibres involved in kidney infection by uropathogenic Escherichia coli strains. P pili are assembled by the conserved chaperoneusher pathway, which involves the PapD chaperone and the PapC usher. During pilus assembly, subunits are incorporated into the growing fiber via the donorstrand exchange (DSE) mechanism, whereby the chaperone's G1 ?-strand that complements the incomplete immunoglobulin-fold of each subunit is displaced by the N-terminal extension (Nte) o...

  8. Inhibitory effects of a peptide-fusion protein (Latarcin-PAP1-Thanatin) against chikungunya virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothan, Hussin A; Bahrani, Hirbod; Shankar, Esaki M; Rahman, Noorsaadah Abd; Yusof, Rohana

    2014-08-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) outbreaks have led to a serious economic burden, as the available treatment strategies can only alleviate disease symptoms, and no effective therapeutics or vaccines are currently available for human use. Here, we report the use of a new cost-effective approach involving production of a recombinant antiviral peptide-fusion protein that is scalable for the treatment of CHIKV infection. A peptide-fusion recombinant protein LATA-PAP1-THAN that was generated by joining Latarcin (LATA) peptide with the N-terminus of the PAP1 antiviral protein, and the Thanatin (THAN) peptide to the C-terminus, was produced in Escherichia coli as inclusion bodies. The antiviral LATA-PAP1-THAN protein showed 89.0% reduction of viral plaque formation compared with PAP1 (46.0%), LATA (67.0%) or THAN (79.3%) peptides alone. The LATA-PAP1-THAN protein reduced the viral RNA load that was 0.89-fold compared with the untreated control cells. We also showed that PAP1 resulted in 0.44-fold reduction, and THAN and LATA resulting in 0.78-fold and 0.73-fold reductions, respectively. The LATA-PAP1-THAN protein inhibited CHIKV replication in the Vero cells at an EC50 of 11.2?g/ml, which is approximately half of the EC50 of PAP1 (23.7?g/ml) and protected the CHIKV-infected mice at the dose of 0.75mg/ml. We concluded that production of antiviral peptide-fusion protein in E. coli as inclusion bodies could accentuate antiviral activities, enhance cellular internalisation, and could reduce product toxicity to host cells and is scalable to epidemic response quantities. PMID:24929084

  9. The Pap smear screening as an occasion for smoking cessation and physical activity counselling: effectiveness of the SPRINT randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Gorini Giuseppe; Carreras Giulia; Giordano Livia; Anghinoni Emanuela; Iossa Anna; Coppo Alessandro; Talassi Fiorella; Galavotti Maurizio; Chellini Elisabetta

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background The organized Cervical Cancer Screening Programme (CCSP) in Italy might represent an occasion to deliver smoking cessation (SC) counselling to women attending the Pap test examination. Evidence of effectiveness of physical activity (PA) promotion and intervention in adjunct to SC counselling is not strong. Objective of the SPRINT trial was to evaluate the effectiveness of a standard SC counselling intervention delivered by trained midwives in the CCSP, and whether the adju...

  10. Nutritional Composition of Five Varieties of Pap Commonly Consumed in Maroua (Far-North, Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ponka Roger

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the nutritional composition of five varieties of pap (cereal product commonly consumed in Maroua, city of the Far-North Region of Cameroon. The proximate composition (moisture, ash, protein, lipid, and crude fibre was determined by standard AOAC methods. Minerals (calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, iron, zinc, copper and manganese were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry and phosphorus was determined colorimetrically. Amino acid composition was determined by ion-exchange chromatography. All the pap varieties had a very high carbohydrate content (79.47-85.29 g/100 g dry matter. Appreciable levels of phosphorus and potassium were recorded in all the pap varieties (137.5-231.0 mg/100 g dry matter and 198.20-322.22 mg/100 g dry matter, respectively. Consumption of each pap (100 g by children 1-2 year old would meet 9.86-17.46% and 0.08-19.51% of their daily recommended intake respectively for protein and minerals. Leucine and glutamic acid were the most abundant essential amino acids and non-essential amino acids respectively in the pap. Essential amino acids in most of the pap samples met the recommended children requirement of the FAO/WHO/UNU for 1-2 year old children except methionine+cysteine and lysine.

  11. To Test or Not to Test? The Role of Attitudes, Knowledge, and Religious Involvement among U.s. Adults on Intent-to-Obtain Adult Genetic Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botoseneanu, Anda; Alexander, Jeffrey A.; Banaszak-Holl, Jane

    2011-01-01

    Genetic testing can advance cancer prevention if current screening behaviors improve. Increased prevalence of high-risk genotypes within specific religious groups, use of religious venues for recruiting to genetic screening, and ethical-religious considerations argue for exploring the role of religiosity in forming genetic testing decisions. This

  12. Fracture characteristics obtained from the instrumented impact test of A533B steel for reactor pressure vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Analyses of the date obtained from the instrumented impact test and of its correlation with static and dynamic J integral values and various tensile properties are made in this study. It is shown that a dynamic bending yield load recorded in the instrumented Charpy V test can be easily converted to a dynamic tensile yield stress using Server's equation. It is also possible to estimate a true fracture strain, COD value, and SZW easily if the load point displacement is recorded. Temperature dependency of Charpy V energy and J integral values is rather well simulated by a curve fitting method. However, a half value transition temperture obtained in that method has no physical meaning. Dynamic J sub(ID) is larger than a static J sub(IC) in the ductile fracture range in this study. This rise is proportional to the yield stress ratio ?sub(yd)/?sub(y)(--1.2-1.3). It is found, therefore, that the following relation exists in the both cases; J sub(I)/?sub(y) = 1.6GOD. Gorrelation between the fracture toughness and tensile properties proposed by Hahn and Rosenfield shows a good result, but ROLFE-NOVAK'S equation on the impact value gives a poor one. (author)

  13. Citologia oncolgica, captura de hbridos II e inspeo visual no rastreamento de leses cervicais / Pap smear, hybrid capture II, and visual inspection in screening for uterine cervical lesions

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Renata Clementino, Gontijo; Sophie Franoise Mauricette, Derchain; Eliana Borin Lopes, Montemor; Luis Otvio Zanatta, Sarian; Mrcia Milena Pivatto, Serra; Luiz Carlos, Zeferino; Kari Juhani, Syrjanen.

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Avaliar as alteraes na citologia oncolgica, na captura hbrida II e na inspeo visual com cido actico (IVA) a 5% em 684 mulheres atendidas em uma unidade de sade, e avaliar o desempenho e a concordncia entre os exames. Procurar descrever as caractersticas scio-demogrficas e reprodutivas ( [...] SDR) destas mulheres e sua associao com a presena de doena. As mulheres foram submetidas coleta de citologia, captura e IVA, e as com exame positivo foram submetidas colposcopia com biopsia, se necessrio. Foi calculado o desempenho dos testes e a associao dos fatores SDR com o diagnstico histolgico foi avaliada por intermdio do clculo do odds ratio. Embora 198 mulheres apresentassem pelo menos um teste alterado, apenas 21 apresentaram leso histolgica. A sensibilidade dos testes foi semelhante enquanto as especificidades da IVA e da citologia foram maiores que a da captura hbrida II. Apenas a ausncia de citologia esteve associada presena de doena. O desempenho da citologia foi maior que o da IVA, que foi maior que o da captura. A ausncia de citologia foi associada com doena histolgica. Abstract in english The objective of this study was to evaluate alterations in Pap smear, hybrid capture II (HCII), and visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA) in 684 women treated at a primary health care unit. The performance and agreement of the exams were evaluated. The study also described social, demographic, an [...] d reproductive factors and their association with uterine cervical lesions. Women had specimens taken for Pap smear, HCII, and VIA. When at least one of the tests was positive, colposcopy was performed and targeted biopsies were taken from any suspicious lesions. Performance of tests was evaluated. Women's distribution in relation to social, demographic, and reproductive factors and histological diagnosis was evaluated using the odds ratio. Among 198 women with at least one positive screening test, only 21 showed histological disease. Sensitivities of the tests were similar. VIA and Pap smear presented higher specificity than HCII. Only absence of a previous Pap smear was associated with the presence of histological disease. Pap smear performed better than VIA and HC II. Absence of previous cytology was associated with histological disease.

  14. IFPE/CAGR-UOX-SWELL, Fuel swelling Data Obtained from the AGR/Halden Ramp Test Programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Description: An extensive study of fuel swelling in oxide fuel has been performed on fuel which has been ramp-tested in the Halden Heavy Boiling Water Reactor. The ramp-tests were performed to study the mechanisms of P CI in Advanced Gas-cooled Reactor fuel (AGR) but the initial clad deformation measurements were later supplemented by the use of Transmission Electron Microscopy (Tem) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (Sem). The driving force for P CI arises from a combination of pellet thermal expansion and the creation of fission gas porosity during a temperature/rating transient. Fuel specimens from thirteen ramped rods and two control-reference rods have been examined using Tem and Sem. Swelling measurements have been made at four or five radial locations in the fuel. At least six full grain boundaries were used for the inter-granular study at each location and three complete trans-granular fractures employed for the intra-granular bubbles. In the latter case, the trans-granular regions were examined under very high magnifications to reveal pores as small as 20-25 nm diameter. The Sem study comprises nearly three thousand micrographs. The microscope study was augmented by use of the Enigma fuel modelling code to obtain estimates of the local temperatures and conditions from which the Sem/Tem samples were obtained. Nea-1705/02: The analysis from the 4135, 4136 and 4140 data has been incorporated. Data 4000, 4004, 4064, 4065, 4162, and 4163 have been revised. Many of the tables have been improved. The main report has been extensively modified from the earlier version

  15. Total sleep time obtained from actigraphy versus sleep logs in an academic sleep center and impact on further sleep testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Auger RR

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available R Robert Auger,1,2 Ranji Varghese,1 Michael H Silber,1,3 Nancy L Slocumb1 1Center for Sleep Medicine, 2Department of Psychiatry and Psychology, 3Department of Neurology, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Rochester, MN, USA Background: While actigraphy has been deemed ideal for the longitudinal assessment of total sleep time (TST by select groups, endorsement has not been universal and reimbursement is lacking, preventing its widespread use in clinical practice. This study compares longitudinal TST data obtained by actigraphy and logs preceding a clinical evaluation, and secondarily ascertains whether longitudinal TST impacts clinicians' decisions to proceed with further sleep testing. Methods: This was a retrospective, consecutive chart review spanning about 4 months in an academic sleep center. Eighty-four patients wore actigraphs in anticipation of clinical evaluations. Concomitant completion of sleep logs is routinely requested in this setting. Longitudinal TST data available in complete form was reviewed in a blinded fashion among a subset of these patients. A review of text from clinical notes of an expanded cohort with complete actigraphy data (regardless of the degree of completion of logs enabled determination of the frequency and rationale for cancellation of prescheduled sleep testing. Results: Of 84 actigraphy recordings, 90% produced complete data, and 30% produced fully completed logs. Among the subset with both available in complete form, significant mean TST differences were observed on weekends (7.06 2.18 hours versus 8.30 1.93 hours, P = 0.009, but not on weekdays (7.38 1.97 hours versus 7.72 1.62 hours, P = 0.450 for actigraphy and logs, respectively. Further analyses revealed poor agreement between the two measures, with predominantly increased TST estimation with logs. Among those with complete actigraphy data (logs, testing was cancelled in 11 (15%, eight of whom (73% presented with hypersomnia and three of whom (27% presented with insomnia. Determination of insufficient sleep time was cited as the primary reason for cancellation (64%. Conclusion: Actigraphy and sleep logs provided discrepant mean TST data on weekends only, and the latter predominantly estimated increased TST. Actigraphy was completed more reliably than logs. Longitudinal TST information influenced clinicians' decisions to proceed with further testing, particularly among patients presenting with hypersomnia. Keywords: sleep diaries, polysomnography, multiple sleep latency testing

  16. Pokeweed antiviral protein (PAP) mutations which permit E.coli growth do not eliminate catalytic activity towards prokaryotic ribosomes.

    OpenAIRE

    Chaddock, J A; Lord, J M; Hartley, M R; Roberts, L M

    1994-01-01

    Pokeweed antiviral protein (PAP) has N-glycosidase activity towards both eukaryotic and prokaryotic ribosomes. This is in marked contrast with the A chains of type 2 ribosome inactivating proteins (RIPs) such as ricin and abrin, which inactivate only eukaryotic ribosomes. A recent report described spontaneous mutations in PAP that implicated specific amino acids to be involved in determining the activity of PAP towards prokaryotic ribosomes. As part of an ongoing study into RIP--ribosome inte...

  17. DNA sequences of three papA genes from uropathogenic Escherichia coli strains: evidence of structural and serological conservation.

    OpenAIRE

    Denich, K; Blyn, L B; Craiu, A; Braaten, B. A.; Hardy, J.; Low, D. A.; O'Hanley, P D

    1991-01-01

    Pyelonephritis-associated pili (Pap) are important in the pathogenesis of ascending, unobstructive Escherichia coli-caused renal infections because these surface bacterial organelles mediate digalactoside-specific binding to host uroepithelial cells. Pap are composed of many different polypeptides, of which only the tip proteins mediate specific binding. The PapA moiety polymerizes to form the bulk of the pilus structure and has been employed in vaccines despite its lack of Gal alpha(1-4)Gal ...

  18. Adoption of Evidence-Based Interventions in Local Health Departments: "1-2-3 Pap NC".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winterbauer, Nancy L; Bridger, Colleen M; Tucker, Ashley; Rafferty, Ann P; Luo, Huabin

    2015-08-01

    Descriptions of barriers and facilitators to adoption of evidence-based interventions in local health departments (LHDs) are limited. This study was conducted by the North Carolina Public Health Practice-Based Research Network to identify factors associated with adoption of an evidence-based human papillomavirus video intervention, "1-2-3 Pap NC," in North Carolina LHDs. A sequential mixed-method study design was used. Data from the 2013 National Profile of Local Health Departments were used to test associations between LHD characteristics and adoption of the intervention. Qualitative, key stakeholder interviews with LHD directors provided the context for quantitative data. Data collection and analysis continued from March 3, 2014, to September 15, 2014. Overall, 28% of North Carolina health jurisdictions (33 of 100 counties) implemented the intervention. Of the three channels used to deliver the intervention to clients, most LHDs opted to show the video in the exam room (42%), followed by website/other social media (36%) and video loop in the lobby/waiting room (22%). In logistic regression, gender of the director (female) was significantly and positively associated with adoption of the intervention (AOR=4.44, pcommunication (awareness and positive attitudes) and agency directors' evaluation of resources, balanced against intervention complexity and flexibility, competing priorities, and mandates, influenced adoption. Adoption of evidence-based interventions by LHDs is critical to improve population health. Practice-based research can contribute to understanding facilitators and modifying barriers to this process. PMID:26190805

  19. CYTOLOGY OF UTERINE CERVIX BY PAP SMEAR: A STUDY FROM SOUTH INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preetha

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cervical cancer is the most common form of cancer in women in developing countries and the second most common form of cancer in women in the world as a whole. Three quarters of these women who develop CA Cervix live in developing countries. The dramatic reduction in the incidence of cervical cancer in developed countries is because of wide use of an effective cytological screening test, the Papanicolaou smear which can identify the pre-invasive forms of cervical neoplasia. OBJECTIVE: A prospective study to find out the prevalence of cervical intra epithelial lesion in women of reproductive age group. SETTINGS: 1000 women attending a teaching hospital in South India are studied for a period of one & half years. Pap smear was taken from them and were reported as per the Bethesda System of classification. RESULTS: Papanicolaou smear of 1000 patients were reported. Normal smears were seen in 39.9%, inflammatory smears in 53.1%.Intra epithelial lesions were found to be 3.5%. Low grade squamous intra epithelial lesions in 2%, High grade squamous Intra epithelial lesion in 0.9%. ASCUS 0.3% AGCUS 0.3%, Squamous cell carcinoma 0.3% Adeno Carcinoma 0.1%.

  20. Importance of a 5? Stem-Loop for Longevity of papA mRNA in Escherichia coli

    OpenAIRE

    Bricker, Angela L.; Belasco, Joel G.

    1999-01-01

    High-level expression of the major pilus subunit (PapA) of uropathogenic strains of Escherichia coli results in part from the unusually long lifetime of the mRNA that encodes this protein. Here we report that the longevity of papA mRNA derives in large measure from the protection afforded by its 5? untranslated region. This papA RNA segment can prolong the lifetime of an otherwise short-lived mRNA to which it is fused. In vivo alkylation studies indicate that, in its natural milieu, the papA ...

  1. Predictive permeability model of faults in crystalline rocks; verification by joint hydraulic factor (JH) obtained from water pressure tests

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Hamidreza Rostami Barani; Gholamreza Lashkaripour; Mohammad Ghafoori

    2014-08-01

    In the present study, a new model is proposed to predict the permeability per fracture in the fault zones by a new parameter named joint hydraulic factor (JH). JH is obtained from Water Pressure Test WPT) and modified by the degree of fracturing. The results of JH correspond with quantitative fault zone descriptions, qualitative fracture, and fault rock properties. In this respect, a case study was done based on the data collected from Seyahoo dam site located in the east of Iran to provide the permeability prediction model of fault zone structures. Datasets including scan-lines, drill cores, and water pressure tests in the terrain of Andesite and Basalt rocks were used to analyse the variability of in-site relative permeability of a range from fault zones to host rocks. The rock mass joint permeability quality, therefore, is defined by the JH. JH data analysis showed that the background sub-zone had commonly > 3 Lu (less of 5 × 10−5 m3/s) per fracture, whereas the fault core had permeability characteristics nearly as low as the outer damage zone, represented by 8 Lu (1.3 × 10−4 m3/s) per fracture, with occasional peaks towards 12 Lu (2 × 10−4 m3/s) per fracture. The maximum JH value belongs to the inner damage zone, marginal to the fault core, with 14–22 Lu (2.3 × 10−4 –3.6 × 10−4 m3/s) per fracture, locally exceeding 25 Lu (4.1 × 10−4 m3/s) per fracture. This gives a proportional relationship for JH approximately 1:4:2 between the fault core, inner damage zone, and outer damage zone of extensional fault zones in crystalline rocks. The results of the verification exercise revealed that the new approach would be efficient and that the JH parameter is a reliable scale for the fracture permeability change. It can be concluded that using short duration hydraulic tests (WPTs) and fracture frequency (FF) to calculate the JH parameter provides a possibility to describe a complex situation and compare, discuss, and weigh the hydraulic quality to make predictions as to the permeability models and permeation amounts of different zone structures.

  2. Analysis of data obtained in combined tests of an electromagnetic liquid argon calorimeter with a hadronic scintillating tile calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The future ATLAS experiment at LHC-CERN will include in the central region a calorimeter system composed of two separate units, the Liquid Argon (LAr) electromagnetic calorimeter with hermetic accordion geometry and a scintillating tile hadronic calorimeter, using iron as absorber, in which the tile are placed perpendicular to the colliding beams. This system must be able to identify electrons, photons and jets and to reconstruct their energies and angles as well as to measure the missing transverse energy in the events. Three algorithm, employed to reconstruct the hadron energy, are described. A special interest was devoted to the study of energy deposition in various depth samples of the test calorimeter stack to obtain the longitudinal and transverse shower shapes. The longitudinal profiles in the electromagnetic and hadronic calorimeters for pions with different energies were compared with the Monte Carlo predictions. The GEANT simulations reproduces reasonably well the shape of the data in hadronic compartment, while a difference is observed in the electromagnetic part. We intend to study in more details the problems connected with the energy leakage which cause a degradation of the energy resolution as well as tails in the energy distributions

  3. Crystal structure of the P pilus rod subunit PapA

    OpenAIRE

    Verger, D.; Bullitt, E; Hultgren, S.J.; Waksman, G.

    2007-01-01

    P pili are important adhesive fibres involved in kidney infection by uropathogenic Escherichia coli strains. P pili are assembled by the conserved chaperone-usher pathway, which involves the PapD chaperone and the PapC usher. During pilus assembly, subunits are incorporated into the growing fiber via the donor-strand exchange (DSE) mechanism, whereby the chaperone's G(1) beta-strand that complements the incomplete immunoglobulin-fold of each subunit is displaced by the N-terminal extension (N...

  4. In silico Comparative Modeling of PapA1 and PapA2 Proteins Involved in Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Sulfolipid-1 Biosynthesis Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rana Adnan Tahir

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis is one of the most serious health problems, as globally; around 2 billion or one third of the world's total population has been infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a unique among bacterial pathogens in that it displays a wide array of complex lipids and lipoglycans on its cell surface. One such glycolipid, sulfolipid-1 (SL-1, is the most sulfatide, consists of a trehalose core, four fatty acyl groups, and a sulfate ester. Several proteins involved in SL-1 biosynthesis have been identified, the enzymes that acylate the T2S core to form SL1278 and SL-1, and the biosynthetic order of these acylation reactions, are unknown. Here we studied the in silico identification of PapA2 and PapA1, proteins responsible for the sequential acylation of T2S to form SL1278 and are essential for SL-1 biosynthesis, by applying different bioinformatics tools. Benchmark, of 3 different homology modeling programs Modeller, Swiss-Model (Deep View, and ESyPred3D, has been performed used to transform the alignment to a 3D model. The 3D structures of targeted proteins were evaluated by evaluation tools, ANOLEA and Verify3D. It is concluded that in SL-1 biosynthesis pathway, PapA1 and PapA2 proteins could be used as drug target, drug lead design and to find out the other proteins involved in this pathway that not yet have been identified and may be used to the cure of tuberculosis infection.

  5. 14 CFR 61.405 - What tests do I have to take to obtain a flight instructor certificate with a sport pilot rating?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...obtain a flight instructor certificate with a sport pilot rating? 61.405 Section 61...INSTRUCTORS Flight Instructors With a Sport Pilot Rating 61.405 What tests...obtain a flight instructor certificate with a sport pilot rating? To obtain a flight...

  6. Get Tested for Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Print This Topic En espaol Get Tested for Cervical Cancer Browse Sections The Basics Overview Cervical Cancer Pap ... Cervical Cancer 1 of 7 sections The Basics: Cervical Cancer What is cervical cancer? Cervical cancer is cancer ...

  7. Potential application of electronic nose in processed animal proteins (PAP detection in feedstuffs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dell'Orto V.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Electronic nose and olfactometry techniques represent a modern analytical approach in food industry since they could potentially improve quality and safety of food processing. The aim of this study was to evaluate possible application of electronic nose in PA P detection and recognition in feed. For this purpose 6 reference feedstuffs (CRA-W / UE STRAT F E E D Project were used. The basis of the test samples was a compound feed for bovine fortified with processed animal proteins ( PAP consisting of meat and bone meal (MBM and/or fish meal at different concentrations. Each feed sample was tested in glass vials and the odour profile was determined by the ten MOS (metal oxide semi-conductor sensors of the electronic nose. Ten different descriptors, representing each ten sensors of electronic nose, were used to characterise the odour of each sample. In the present study, electronic nose was able to discriminate the blank sample from all other samples containing PA P ( M B M , fish meal or both. Samples containing either 0.5% of MBM or 5% of fish meal were identified, while samples containing a high fish meal content (5% associated with a low MBM content (0.5% were not discriminated from samples containing solely fish meal at that same high level (5%. This latter indicates that probably the high fish meal level, in samples containing both MBM and fish meal, tended to mask MBM odour. It was also evident that two odour descriptors were enough to explain 72.12% of total variability in odour pattern. In view of these results, it could be suggested that electronic nose and olfactometry techniques can provide an interesting approach for screening raw materials in feed industry, even though further studies using a wider set of samples are needed.

  8. Comparison of ViraPap, Southern hybridization, and polymerase chain reaction methods for human papillomavirus identification in an epidemiological investigation of cervical cancer.

    OpenAIRE

    Guerrero, E. (Enrique); Daniel, R W; Bosch, F.X.; Castellsagu, X; Muoz, N.; Gili, M.; Viladiu, P; Navarro, C.; Zubiri, M L; Ascunce, N.

    1992-01-01

    In order to provide a reliable diagnosis for the presence and type of human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA in a case-control study of cervical cancer in Colombia and Spain, 926 cervical scrapes from female subjects were examined by ViraPap (VP) and Southern hybridization (SH), and 510 of these (263 cases and 247 controls) were also tested by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using the HPV L1 consensus primers. HPV DNA prevalence was much higher in cases than in controls by each of the three tests. Th...

  9. Design of PAP-1, a selective small molecule Kv1.3 blocker, for the suppression of effector memory T cells in autoimmune diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, Alexander; Sankaranarayanan, Ananthakrishnan; Azam, Philippe; Schmidt-Lassen, Kristina; Homerick, Daniel; Hnsel, Wolfram; Wulff, Heike

    2005-11-01

    The lymphocyte K+ channel Kv1.3 constitutes an attractive pharmacological target for the selective suppression of terminally differentiated effector memory T (TEM) cells in T cell-mediated autoimmune diseases, such as multiple sclerosis and type 1 diabetes. Unfortunately, none of the existing small-molecule Kv1.3 blockers is selective, and many of them, such as correolide, 4-phenyl-4-[3-(methoxyphenyl)-3-oxo-2-azapropyl]cyclohexanone, and our own compound Psora-4 inhibit the cardiac K+ channel Kv1.5. By further exploring the structure-activity relationship around Psora-4 through a combination of traditional medicinal chemistry and whole-cell patch-clamp, we identified a series of new phenoxyalkoxypsoralens that exhibit 2- to 50-fold selectivity for Kv1.3 over Kv1.5, depending on their exact substitution pattern. The most potent and "drug-like" compound of this series, 5-(4-phenoxybutoxy)psoralen (PAP-1), blocks Kv1.3 in a use-dependent manner, with a Hill coefficient of 2 and an EC50 of 2 nM, by preferentially binding to the C-type inactivated state of the channel. PAP-1 is 23-fold selective over Kv1.5, 33- to 125-fold selective over other Kv1-family channels, and 500- to 7500-fold selective over Kv2.1, Kv3.1, Kv3.2, Kv4.2, HERG, calcium-activated K+ channels, Na+,Ca2+, and Cl- channels. PAP-1 does not exhibit cytotoxic or phototoxic effects, is negative in the Ames test, and affects cytochrome P450-dependent enzymes only at micromolar concentrations. PAP-1 potently inhibits the proliferation of human TEM cells and suppresses delayed type hypersensitivity, a TEM cell-mediated reaction, in rats. PAP-1 and several of its derivatives therefore constitute excellent new tools to further explore Kv1.3 as a target for immunosuppression and could potentially be developed into orally available immunomodulators. PMID:16099841

  10. Assessing the impact of common forensic presumptive tests on the ability to obtain results using a novel rapid DNA platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donachie, Gillian E; Dawnay, Nick; Ahmed, Romana; Naif, Sarah; Duxbury, Nicola J; Tribble, Nicholas D

    2015-07-01

    The rise of DNA evidence to the forefront of forensic science has led to high sample numbers being submitted for profiling by investigators to casework laboratories: bottleneck effects are often seen resulting in slow turnaround times and sample backlog. The ParaDNA() Screening and Intelligence Tests have been designed to guide investigators on the viability of potential sources of DNA allowing them to determine which samples should be sent for full DNA analysis. Both tests are designed to augment the arsenal of available forensic tests for end users and be used concurrently to those commonly available. Therefore, assessing the impact that common forensic tests have on such novel technology is important to measure. The systems were tested against various potential inhibitors to which samples may be exposed as part of the investigative process. Presumptive test agents for biological materials (blood, semen and saliva) and those used as fingerprint enhancement agents were both used. The Screening Test showed a drop in performance following application of aluminium powder and cyanoacrylate (CNA) on fingerprints samples; however this drop in performance was not replicated with high template DNA. No significant effect was observed for any agent using the Intelligence Test. Therefore, both tests stand up well to the chemical agents applied and can be used by investigators with confidence that system performance will be maintained. PMID:25864157

  11. The cell wall-targeted purple acid phosphatase AtPAP25 is critical for acclimation of Arabidopsis thaliana to nutritional phosphorus deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Vecchio, Hernan A; Ying, Sheng; Park, Joonho; Knowles, Vicki L; Kanno, Satomi; Tanoi, Keitaro; She, Yi-Min; Plaxton, William C

    2014-11-01

    Plant purple acid phosphatases (PAPs) belong to a relatively large gene family whose individual functions are poorly understood. Three PAP isozymes that are up-regulated in the cell walls of phosphate (Pi)-starved (-Pi) Arabidopsis thaliana suspension cells were purified and identified by MS as AtPAP12 (At2g27190), AtPAP25 (At4g36350) and AtPAP26 (At5g34850). AtPAP12 and AtPAP26 were previously isolated from the culture medium of -Pi cell cultures, and shown to be secreted by roots of Arabidopsis seedlings to facilitate Pi scavenging from soil-localized organophosphates. AtPAP25 exists as a 55 kDa monomer containing complex NX(S/T) glycosylation motifs at Asn172, Asn367 and Asn424. Transcript profiling and immunoblotting with anti-AtPAP25 immune serum indicated that AtPAP25 is exclusively synthesized under -Pi conditions. Coupled with potent mixed-type inhibition of AtPAP25 by Pi (I50 = 50 ?m), this indicates a tight feedback control by Pi that prevents AtPAP25 from being synthesized or functioning as a phosphatase except when Pi levels are quite low. Promoter-GUS reporter assays revealed AtPAP25 expression in shoot vascular tissue of -Pi plants. Development of an atpap25 T-DNA insertion mutant was arrested during cultivation on soil lacking soluble Pi, but rescued upon Pi fertilization or complementation with AtPAP25. Transcript profiling by quantitative RT-PCR indicated that Pi starvation signaling was attenuated in the atpap25 mutant. AtPAP25 exhibited near-optimal phosphatase activity with several phosphoproteins and phosphoamino acids as substrates. We hypothesize that AtPAP25 plays a key signaling role during Pi deprivation by functioning as a phosphoprotein phosphatase rather than as a non-specific scavenger of Pi from extracellular P-monoesters. PMID:25270985

  12. Expression Pattern of Class B Gene PAP3 in Flower Development of Pepper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Li

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Class B gene APETALA3 (AP3 plays a key role in the development of petals and stamens. Here, we investigated the expression pattern of PAP3 gene (genbank accession number: HM104635 in the buds of cytoplasmic male sterility line 121A and its near-isogenic restorer line 121C at four developmental stages and analyzed the possible association between Class B genes and cytoplasmic male sterility of pepper. Semi-quantitative PCR and quantitative real-time RT-PCR (qRT-PCR as well as RNA in situ hybridization showed increased expression of PAP3 at late phase of anther development and its higher expression in restorer line compared with sterility line indicating PAP3’s role at late developmental stage of anther and suppressed expression in sterility line. RNA in situ hybridization showed Class B gene features: high abundance in stamen and petal; lower expression in pistil; no expression in sepal. Results of transient expression in onion epidermal cells also showed PAP3 localized in the nucleus, which is consistent with the expression pattern of transcription factors of MADS-box gene family.

  13. Global Transcriptomic Analysis of Interactions between Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Bacteriophage PaP3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xia; Chen, Canhuang; Shen, Wei; Huang, Guangtao; Le, Shuai; Lu, Shuguang; Li, Ming; Zhao, Yan; Wang, Jing; Rao, Xiancai; Li, Gang; Shen, Mengyu; Guo, Keke; Yang, Yuhui; Tan, Yinling; Hu, Fuquan

    2016-01-01

    The interactions between Bacteriophage (phage) and host bacteria are widespread in nature and influences of phage replication on the host cells are complex and extensive. Here, we investigate genome-wide interactions of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) and its temperate phage PaP3 at five time points during phage infection. Compared to the uninfected host, 38% (2160/5633) genes of phage-infected host were identified as differentially expressed genes (DEGs). Functional analysis of the repressed DEGs revealed infection-stage-dependent pathway communications. Based on gene co-expression analysis, most PaP3 middle genes were predicted to have negative impact on host transcriptional regulators. Sub-network enrichment analysis revealed that adjacent genes of PaP3 interacted with the same host genes and might possess similar functions. Finally, our results suggested that during the whole infection stage, the early genes of PaP3 had stronger regulatory role in host gene expression than middle and late genes, while the host genes involved amino acid metabolism were the most vulnerable targets of these phage genes. This work provides the basis for understanding survival mechanisms of parasites and host, and seeking phage gene products that could potentially be used in anti-bacterial infection. PMID:26750429

  14. Comparative study of visual inspection of the cervix by 3% acetic acid (VIA versus Pap smear by Bethesda method in sexually active women aged 25-50 years as an equally or more effective cervical cancer screening method in a low resource setup

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohit Rajendra Saraogi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cervical cancer is the most common cancer in Indian women and is a preventable cancer. Pap smear being an expensive screening test, increased emphasis is being laid on the development of a reliable and cost effective screening method for cervical cancer. This study aims at early detection of cervical dysplastic lesions using a simple and cost-effective screening test like visual inspection of cervix with 3% acetic acid (VIA and comparing its diagnostic efficacy with the more expensive Pap screening by Bethesda method. Methods: Ours was a prospective study carried out on a 100 sexually active women aged 25-50 years, coming to our OPD. The women were subjected to both a VIA and Pap smear. All Pap and VIA positive women were subjected to a cervical biopsy, whose histopathological report was taken as the gold standard. Results: In our study the sensitivity of VIA was more than that of cytology (100% versus 66.67% but the specificity was significantly lesser (47.83% compared to the 73.91%. The negative predictive value of VIA was comparable with Pap smear (100% and 85% respectively as was the positive predictive value (42.86% and 50%. However the diagnostic accuracy of VIA was lower than that of Pap smear (66.67% and 81.25% in our study. Conclusions: In this study VIA was found to have efficacy comparable to Pap smear in screening cervical cancer. Thus we recommend that VIA could be used as an alternative screening tool to detect early cervical dysplasia - especially in poor resource settings. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2014; 3(3.000: 688-691

  15. CIR, a corepressor of CBF1, binds to PAP-1 and effects alternative splicing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have reported that PAP-1, a product of a causative gene for autosomal retinitis pigmentosa, plays a role in splicing. In this study, CIR, a protein originally identified as a CBF1-interacting protein and reported to act as a transcriptional corepressor, was identified as a PAP-1 binding protein and its function as a splicing factor was investigated. In addition to a basic lysine and acidic serine-rich (BA) domain and a zinc knuckle-like motif, CIR has an arginine/serine dipeptide repeat (RS) domain in its C terminal region. The RS domain has been reported to be present in the superfamily of SR proteins, which are involved in splicing reactions. We generated CIR mutants with deletions of each BA and RS domain and studied their subcellular localizations and interactions with PAP-1 and other SR proteins, including SC35, SF2/ASF, and U2AF35. CIR was found to interact with U2AF35 through the BA domain, with SC35 and SF2/ASF through the RS domain, and with PAP-1 outside the BA domain in vivo and in vitro. CIR was found to be colocalized with SC35 and PAP-1 in nuclear speckles. Then the effect of CIR on splicing was investigated using the E1a minigene as a reporter in HeLa cells. Ectopic expression of CIR with the E1a minigene changed the ratio of spliced isoforms of E1a that were produced by alternative selection of 5'-splice sites. These results indicate that CIR is a member of the family of SR-related proteins and that CIR plays a role in splicing regulation

  16. Physical Activity and Cervical Cancer Testing among American Indian Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muus, Kyle J.; Baker-Demaray, Twyla B.; Bogart, T. Andy; Duncan, Glen E.; Jacobsen, Clemma; Buchwald, Dedra S.; Henderson, Jeffrey A.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Studies have shown that women who engage in high levels of physical activity have higher rates of cancer screening, including Papanicalaou (Pap) tests. Because American Indian (AI) women are at high risk for cervical cancer morbidity and mortality, we examined Pap screening prevalence and assessed whether physical activity was associated

  17. 14 CFR 61.405 - What tests do I have to take to obtain a flight instructor certificate with a sport pilot rating?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... flight instructor certificate with a sport pilot rating? 61.405 Section 61.405 Aeronautics and Space..., FLIGHT INSTRUCTORS, AND GROUND INSTRUCTORS Flight Instructors With a Sport Pilot Rating § 61.405 What tests do I have to take to obtain a flight instructor certificate with a sport pilot rating? To obtain...

  18. Problems in obtaining sufficient anaesthesia with propofol and remifentanil : three cases, a test infusion, and a review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bache, Stefan Holst; Stendell, Line

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: /st>Over a 5 yr period, we have encountered three patients in whom remifentanil appeared to have no clinical effect during general anaesthesia (GA). We describe seven anaesthetics in these three patients. METHODS: /st>We reviewed the literature on this subject. A simple reproducible test to explore this response was designed. This involved a controlled infusion of increasing doses of remifentanil while observing respiratory variables, pain threshold, pupil size, and Glasgow coma scale score. In addition, blood was sampled for genotyping. RESULTS: /st>No description of this impaired response was found in the review of the literature. Two of the patients agreed to participate in the test. In both patients, we found a seemingly normal analgesic response but a lack of respiratory depression and almost no depression of consciousness, even at doses well above the recommended level for clinical use. The genotyping did not explain the results of the test. CONCLUSIONS: /st>The potential causes of this effect are discussed. We advise clinicians to be aware of this unusual response to remifentanil. If such a response is suspected, we recommend the use of another opioid. If this is suspected before GA, we propose the use of our test as a diagnostic tool.

  19. Time of Incubation for Antifungal Susceptibility Testing of Aspergillus fumigatus: Can MIC Values Be Obtained at 24 Hours??

    OpenAIRE

    Rodriguez-Tudela, Juan Luis; Alcazar-Fuoli, Laura; Alastruey-Izquierdo, Ana; Monzon, Araceli; Mellado, Emilia; Cuenca-Estrella, Manuel

    2007-01-01

    A collection of Aspergillus fumigatus isolates was used to check if MICs can be read at 24 h. At 24 h, the geometric mean MIC of itraconazole for resistant isolates was determined to be 5.11 mg/liter, but the MIC was read as 16 mg/liter at 48 h. At 24 h, MICs for 51.5% of resistant strains were determined to be ?2 mg/liter. MICs must be obtained at 48 h.

  20. Procedures for obtaining stress-strain curve including post-necking strain (applicability of testing method (IFD method) and estimation method (K-fit method) for stainless steels)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Testing and estimation procedures for obtaining true stress-strain curves of stainless steels were discussed in order to calculate load carrying capacity of nuclear power plant components by elastic-plastic finite element analyses. Type 316 stainless steel specimens of various degrees of cold working were subjected to tensile tests with different test speeds. It was shown that faster test speed reduced elongation and ultimate strength of the specimens. The strain on the specimen surface measured by the digital image correlation (DIC) technique exhibited an inhomogeneous strain distribution even when the strain was less than the uniform elongation (necking strain). The strain was elevated locally at the center of the specimen and its magnitude was about 1.2 times the nominal strain measured by an extensometer. A testing method (IFD method) has been developed to obtain the true stress-strain curve including post-necking strain by using an hourglass type specimen. In this study, the IFD method was improved so that it was applicable to the round-bar smooth specimens used for the tensile tests. Then, the stress-strain curves were estimated from the 0.2% proof and ultimate strengths by the K-fit method, which has been proposed by the current author. It was shown that K-fit method could estimate the stress-strain curves including the post-necking strain. Finally, a tensile test was carried out using a plate specimen with round notches. Elastic-plastic finite element analyses using the stress-strain curves estimated by the improved IFD method and K-fit method could simulate the deformation and strain distribution. The load carrying capacity obtained by the finite element analyses were almost equivalent to that obtained by the tensile test. However, the yielding load obtained by the finite element analyses were slightly higher than that obtained by the test due to the strain rate dependency of the stress-strain curve. (author)

  1. Comparison of durability indicators obtained by Non Destructive Testing methods to monitor the durability of concrete structures

    OpenAIRE

    VILLAIN, Géraldine; Balayssac, Jean-Paul; Garnier, Vincent; Piwakowski, Bogdan; SALIN, Jean; Fardeau, Vincent; Dérobert, Xavier; COFFEC, Odile; Joubert, Anaëlle

    2014-01-01

    This paper deals with the use of non destructive testing methods (NDT) to assess indicators of concrete durability and mechanical properties of reinforced concrete structures. On site, NDT methods based on electromagnetic or ultrasonic wave propagation (such as radar, impact echo, ultrasonic transmission deviceÉ) are used because they are more or less sensitive to water content and mechanical properties depending on the method. It has been shown, in a former project [1, 2], that the NDT resul...

  2. Constructing kinetics fatigue diagrams using testing results obtained on a machine with rigid loading for specimens of various thickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bending tests of 40KhS steel specimens, tempered at 200 and 500 deg C, are conducted to investigate the possible effects of specimen thickness on fatigue crack growth. Kinetic fatigue diagrams are constructed using the investigation results. An increase in crack growth with thickness is observed only in high-tempered specimens. Changes in specimen thickness do not affect crack growth in 40KhS low-tempered steel

  3. Cantilever beam test in Zr-2.5%Nb: Comparative study between pipe material obtained by laminating and wire drawing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Zr-2.5Nb alloy is used in the manufacture of pressure tubes for the CANDU nuclear power reactors. These tubes are subjected to severe service conditions: one o f them, the heavy water corrosion due to the coolant generates release of hydrogen, part of which ingress in the material raising its initial concentration and exposing them to a phenomena referred as delay hydrogen cracking. The results presented in this paper show the performance of a pressure tube of domestic manufacture under conditions of tension and hydrogen content in order to be compared with the behavior of a standard pressure tube in operation in the nuclear power plant. To do this is, cantilever notched and pre cracked samples were hydrided from both kinds of tubes. Each one of these samples was subjected to the cantilever beam test, which consists in a bending test performed in a furnace at 250oC. Starting from a stress intensity factor Ki which determines the propagation start of the crack, the growth is followed by the acoustic emission technique up to the arrest of the crack by controlling the bending load. This work presents the comparative data such as critical voltages, behavior of hydrides, and DHC parameters from both trials. Although the number of tests is reduced; results show a good performance of the tubes of domestic manufacture (author)

  4. Test of a numerical optimization algorithm for obtaining cross sections for multiple collision processes from electron swarm data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A numerical optimization technique is used to obtain low-energy momentum transfer, j = 0 ? 2 rotational and v = 0 ? vibrational sections from measured electron swarm data for parahydrogen. The downhill simplex algorithm is used to find cross sections that represent the best numerical fit to the measured electron drift velocity and characteristic energy over a range of E/N. These results, which are in excellent agreement with published cross sections derived using traditional swarm analysis techniques, demonstrates the feasibility of using automated computational algorithms for swarm analysis involving the estimation of multiple cross sections. (Author)

  5. Comparison of visual field test results obtained through Humphrey matrix frequency doubling technology perimetry versus standard automated perimetry in healthy children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibel Kocabeyoglu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims : The aim of this study was to compare the visual field test results in healthy children obtained via the Humphrey matrix 24-2 threshold program and standard automated perimetry (SAP using the Swedish interactive threshold algorithm (SITA-Standard 24-2 test. Materials and Methods: This prospective study included 55 healthy children without ocular or systemic disorders who underwent both SAP and frequency doubling technology (FDT perimetry visual field testing. Visual field test reliability indices, test duration, global indices (mean deviation [MD], and pattern standard deviation [PSD] were compared between the 2 tests using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test and paired t-test. The performance of the Humphrey field analyzer (HFA 24-2 SITA-standard and frequency-doubling technology Matrix 24-2 tests between genders were compared with Mann-Whitney U-test. Results: Fifty-five healthy children with a mean age of 12.2 1.9 years (range from 8 years to 16 years were included in this prospective study. The test durations of SAP and FDT were similar (5.2 0.5 and 5.1 0.2 min, respectively, P = 0.651. MD and the PSD values obtained via FDT Matrix were significantly higher than those obtained via SAP (P < 0.001, and fixation losses and false negative errors were significantly less with SAP (P < 0.05. A weak positive correlation between the two tests in terms of MD (r = 0.352, P = 0.008 and PSD (r = 0.329, P = 0.014 was observed. Conclusion: Children were able to complete both the visual test algorithms successfully within 6 min. However, SAP testing appears to be associated with less depression of the visual field indices of healthy children. FDT Matrix and SAP should not be used interchangeably in the follow-up of children.

  6. Pap pili as a vector system for surface exposition of an immunoglobulin G-binding domain of protein A of Staphylococcus aureus in Escherichia coli.

    OpenAIRE

    Steidler, L; Remaut, E; Fiers, W.

    1993-01-01

    Fusion genes between papA, the gene coding for the major Pap pilus subunit, and fragments coding for an immunoglobulin G-binding domain of the Staphylococcus aureus protein A were constructed in such a way that the spa fragments were inserted following either codon 7 or 68 of the coding sequence for the mature portion of PapA. Peptides in the area of amino acids 7 and 68 of PapA are localized at the external side of the pilus. A set of pL expression plasmids containing papA and derivatives su...

  7. Frequency and organization of papA homologous DNA sequences among uropathogenic digalactoside-binding Escherichia coli strains.

    OpenAIRE

    Denich, K; Craiu, A; Rugo, H; Muralidhar, G; O'Hanley, P.

    1991-01-01

    The frequency of selected papA DNA sequences among 89 digalactoside-binding, uropathogenic Escherichia coli strains was evaluated with 12 different synthetic 15-base probes corresponding to papA genes from four digalactoside-binding piliated recombinant strains (HU849, 201B, and 200A). The papA probes encode amino acids which are common at the carboxy terminus of all strains, adjacent to the proximal portion of the intramolecular disulfide loop of strain 210B, or predicted to constitute the t...

  8. Hydrological processes obtained on the plot scale under four simulated rainfall tests during the cycle of different crop systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ildegardis Bertol

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The cropping system influences the interception of water by plants, water storage in depressions on the soil surface, water infiltration into the soil and runoff. The aim of this study was to quantify some hydrological processes under no tillage cropping systems at the edge of a slope, in 2009 and 2010, in a Humic Dystrudept soil, with the following treatments: corn, soybeans, and common beans alone; and intercropped corn and common bean. Treatments consisted of four simulated rainfall tests at different times, with a planned intensity of 64 mm h-1 and 90 min duration. The first test was applied 18 days after sowing, and the others at 39, 75 and 120 days after the first test. Different times of the simulated rainfall and stages of the crop cycle affected soil water content prior to the rain, and the time runoff began and its peak flow and, thus, the surface hydrological processes. The depth of the runoff and the depth of the water intercepted by the crop + soil infiltration + soil surface storage were affected by the crop systems and the rainfall applied at different times. The corn crop was the most effective treatment for controlling runoff, with a water loss ratio of 0.38, equivalent to 75 % of the water loss ratio exhibited by common bean (0.51, the least effective treatment in relation to the others. Total water loss by runoff decreased linearly with an increase in the time that runoff began, regardless of the treatment; however, soil water content on the gravimetric basis increased linearly from the beginning to the end of the rainfall.

  9. Reliability Criteria for Testing the Goodness of the Activation Energy Values Obtained by the Peak Shape Methods in Thermoluminescence Experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Kitis

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to give some expressions able to give a criteria of acceptance for the activation energy values determined through the so called peak shape methods. The expressions are derived for both first and second order kinetics. Furthermore, using approximations concerning the peak temperature parameters, the reliability expressions are simplified for getting a more quickly criteria of acceptance. A table lists several data, from literature, concerning the activation energy determined for various Thermoluminescence materials; the experimental values are then tested using the criteria of acceptance showing the goodness of the method here presented in this research.

  10. RELIABILITY AND VALIDITY OF PHYSIOLOGICAL DATA OBTAINED WITHIN A CYCLE-RUN TRANSITION TEST IN AGE-GROUP TRIATHLETES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica Vleck

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the validity and reliability of a sequential "Run-Bike-Run" test (RBR in age-group triathletes. Eight Olympic distance (OD specialists (age 30.0 2.0 years, mass 75.6 1.6 kg, run VO2max 63.8 1.9 mlkg-1min-1, cycle VO2peak 56.7 5.1 mlkg-1min-1 performed four trials over 10 days. Trial 1 (TRVO2max was an incremental treadmill running test. Trials 2 and 3 (RBR1 and RBR2 involved: 1 a 7-min run at 15 kmh-1 (R1 plus a 1-min transition to 2 cycling to fatigue (2 Wkg-1 body mass then 30 W each 3 min; 3 10-min cycling at 3 Wkg-1 (Bsubmax; another 1-min transition and 4 a second 7-min run at 15 kmh-1 (R2. Trial 4 (TT was a 30-min cycle - 20-min run time trial. No significant differences in absolute oxygen uptake (VO2, heart rate (HR, or blood lactate concentration ([BLA] were evidenced between RBR1 and RBR2. For all measured physiological variables, the limits of agreement were similar, and the mean differences were physiologically unimportant, between trials. Low levels of test-retest error (i.e. ICC <0.8, CV<10% were observed for most (logged measurements. However [BLA] post R1 (ICC 0.87, CV 25.1%, [BLA] post Bsubmax (ICC 0.99, CV 16.31 and [BLA] post R2 (ICC 0.51, CV 22.9% were least reliable. These error ranges may help coaches detect real changes in training status over time. Moreover, RBR test variables can be used to predict discipline specific and overall TT performance. Cycle VO2peak, cycle peak power output, and the change between R1 and R2 (deltaR1R2 in [BLA] were most highly related to overall TT distance (r = 0.89, p < 0. 01; r = 0.94, p < 0.02; r = 0.86, p < 0.05, respectively. The percentage of TR VO2max at 15 kmh-1, and deltaR1R2 HR, were also related to run TT distance (r = -0.83 and 0.86, both p < 0.05

  11. Thermal isocreep curves obtained during multi-axial creep tests on recrystallized Zircaloy-4 and M5 alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rautenberg, M., E-mail: mrautenb@gmail.com [AREVA, AREVA NP, 10 rue Juliette Rcamier, 69456 Lyon (France); CIRIMAT, CNRS/UPS/INPT, 4 alle Emile Monso, 31030 Toulouse (France); Poquillon, D. [CIRIMAT, CNRS/UPS/INPT, 4 alle Emile Monso, 31030 Toulouse (France); Pilvin, P. [LIMATB, University Bretagne-Sud, rue de Saint-Maud, 56321 Lorient (France); Grosjean, C. [AREVA, AREVA NP, 10 rue Juliette Rcamier, 69456 Lyon (France); CIRIMAT, CNRS/UPS/INPT, 4 alle Emile Monso, 31030 Toulouse (France); Clou, J.M. [AREVA, AREVA NP, 10 rue Juliette Rcamier, 69456 Lyon (France); Feaugas, X. [LEMMA, Universit de La Rochelle, Avenue Michel Crpeau, 17042 La Rochelle (France)

    2014-04-01

    Zirconium alloys are widely used in the nuclear industry. Several components, such as cladding or guide tubes, undergo strong mechanical loading during and after their use inside the pressurized water reactors. The current requirements on higher fuel performances lead to the developing on new Zr based alloys exhibiting better mechanical properties. In this framework, creep behaviors of recrystallized Zircaloy-4 and M5, have been investigated and then compared. In order to give a better understanding of the thermal creep anisotropy of Zr-based alloys, multi-axial creep tests have been carried out at 673 K. Using a specific device, creep conditions have been set using different values of ? = ?{sub zz}/?{sub ??}, ?{sub zz} and ?{sub ??} being respectively the axial and hoop creep stresses. Both axial and hoop strains are measured during each test which is carried out until stationary creep is stabilized. The steady-state strain rates are then used to build isocreep curves. Considering the isocreep curves, the M5 alloy shows a largely improved creep resistance compared to the recrystallized Zircaloy-4, especially for tubes under high hoop loadings (0 < ? < 1). The isocreep curves are then compared with simulations performed using two different mechanical models. Model 1 uses a von Mises yield criterion, the model 2 is based on a Hill yield criterion. For both models, a coefficient derived from Norton law is used to assess the stress dependence.

  12. New experimental limits on violations of the Pauli exclusion principle obtained with the Borexino Counting Test Facility

    CERN Document Server

    Back, H O; De Bari, A; De Bellefon, A; Bellini, G; Benziger, J; Bonetti, S; Buck, C; Caccianiga, B; Cadonati, L; Calaprice, F; Cecchet, G; Chen, M; Di Credico, A; Dadoun, O; D'Angelo, D; Derbin, A; Deutsch, M; Etenko, A; Von Feilitzsch, F; Fernholz, R; Ford, R; Franco, D; Freudiger, B; Galbiati, C; Gazzana, S; Giammarchi, M G; Goeger-Neff, M; Goretti, A; Grieb, C; Hampel, W; Harding, E; Hartmann, F X; Heusser, G; Ianni, A; Ianni, A M; De Kerret, H; Kiko, J; Kirsten, T; Kobychev, V V; Korga, G; Korschinek, G; Kozlov, Y; Kryn, D; Laubenstein, M; Lendvai, C; Leung, M; Litvinovich, E; Lombardi, P; Machulin, I; Malvezzi, S; Maneira, J; Manno, I; Manuzio, D; Manuzio, G; Masetti, F; Martemianov, A; Mazzucato, U; McCarty, K; Meroni, E; Mention, G; Miramonti, L; Monzani, M E; Muratova, V; Musico, P; Niedermeier, L; Oberauer, L; Obolensky, M; Ortica, F; Pallavicini, M; Papp, L; Perasso, L; Peiffer, P; Pocar, A; Raghavan, R S; Ranucci, G; Razeto, A; Sabelnikov, A; Salvo, C; Scardaoni, R; Schimizzi, D; Schnert, S; Simgen, H; Shutt, T A; Skorokhvatov, M; Smirnov, O; Sonnenschein, A; Sotnikov, A; Sukhotin, S; Suvorov, Y; Tarasenkov, V; Tartaglia, R; Testera, G; Vignaud, D; Vogelaar, R B; Vyrodov, V N; Wjcik, M; Zaimidoroga, O A; Zuzel, G

    2004-01-01

    The Pauli exclusion principle (PEP) has been tested for nucleons ($n,p$) in $^{12}C$ and $^{16}O$ nuclei, using the results of background measurements with the prototype of the Borexino detector, the Counting Test Facility (CTF). The approach consisted of a search for $\\gamma$, $n$, $p$ and/or $\\alpha$'s emitted in a non-Paulian transition of 1$P$- shell nucleons to the filled 1$S_{1/2}$ shell in nuclei. Similarly, the Pauli-forbidden $\\beta^{\\pm}$ decay processes were searched for. Due to the extremely low background and the large mass (4.2 tons) of the CTF detector, the following most stringent up-to-date experimental bounds on PEP violating transitions of nucleons have been established: $\\tau(^{12}C\\to^{12}\\widetilde{C}+\\gamma) > 2.1\\cdot10^{27}$ y, $\\tau(^{12}C\\to^{11}\\widetilde{B}+ p) > 5.0\\cdot10^{26}$ y, $\\tau(^{12}C(^{16}O)\\to^{11}\\widetilde{C}(^{15}\\widetilde{O})+ n) > 3.7 \\cdot 10^{26}$ y, $\\tau(^{12}C\\to^{8}\\widetilde{Be}+\\alpha) > 6.1 \\cdot 10^{23}$ y, $\\tau(^{12}C\\to^{12}\\widetilde{N}+ e^- + \\wid...

  13. First In-Core Measurement Results Obtained with the Innovative Mobile Calorimeter CALMOS inside the OSIRIS Material Testing Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear heating rate inside an MTR has to be known in order to design and to run irradiation experiments which have to fulfill target temperature constraints. This measurement is usually carried out by calorimetry [1, 2]. An innovative calorimetric system, CALMOS, has been studied and built in 2011 for the 70 MWth OSIRIS reactor operated by CEA. Thanks to a new calorimetric probe, associated to a specific displacement system, it provides measurements along the fissile height and above the core. The development of the calorimetric probe required the manufacturing and the irradiation of mock-ups in the ex-core area, where nuclear heating rate does not exceed 2 W.g-1. The calorimeter working mode, the different measurement procedures allowed with such a new probe and main modeling and experimental results have been already presented [3, 4]. In this paper, we present the first results obtained during several measurement campaigns carried out in 2012 and 2013 inside the OSIRIS core with the final device. For the first time, this new experimental measurement system was operated in nominal in-core thermo hydraulic conditions with nominal neutron and gamma fluxes (up to 6 W.g-1) in several experimental locations. After a brief presentation of the displacement system specificities, first nuclear heating distributions are presented and discussed. Experimental data were also used to upgrade the Finite Element model of the calorimeter in order to match measured temperatures with calculated ones. This model allowed to estimate a Kc correction factor which takes into account small nonlinearities when the heating rate is deduced from the calibration method. A comparison is made between nuclear heating rates determined from the probe calibration and from the zero method. In addition, an evaluation of the global uncertainty associated to the measurements is detailed. Finally, a global comparison is made with available measurements obtained from previous calorimeters. (authors)

  14. Microspores irradiation in anther culture: testing a new technique to obtain mutations immediatly detected and fixed (Application to Nicotiana tabacum)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to consider the effects of microspores irradiation on embryo development, and in order to observe the morphological responses of haploid plantlets derived from androgenetic anthers to ionizing irradiation, 1000, 1500 and 2000r of gamma rays were delivered on anthers of Nicotiana tabacum (DL50 range calculated: 1500r). The cytological studies of embryo development revealed an apparent increase in irradiated microspores: cell division is stimulated but followed by an early mortality. A sharp rise in lethality effects was observed when gamma rays were applied beyond the seventh day of culture, when the proembryo contains an average of 4 cells. Morphological aberrations and colour changes in the Mo progeny derived from irradiated microspores are diverse. But after chromosome doubling and mutation checking out, all the plants were not recorded to have transmitted their aberrant characters. Thus, heritable character 'mutations) and not heritable character (variations) were obtained. The variations characters include dwarfing, excessive branching, fasciation and dichotomy of the stems, altered flower form, especially of petals. As to the leaves, they usually show induced changes in their colour (chlorotic areas, mosaic-colour changes, or an over-all colour changes), in their form (irregularity in outline) and in their texture (thickening, hairless leaf). Among the mutants, a monster tobacco, with excrescences on the leaves and the flowers is certainly the most conspicuous. But mutants also include altered leaf colour (over-all pale green) and altered flower colour, (dark red, clear pink, white)

  15. Psychological impact, support and information needs for women with an abnormal Pap smear: comparative results of a questionnaire in three European countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Anna

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Extensive information on cervical cancer is currently available. Its effectiveness in reducing anxiety in women receiving abnormal Pap tests is not clear. We investigated current practices of communicating abnormal Pap results to evaluate women's reactions and determine the sources of information they use subsequently. Methods A self-administered questionnaire-based study was performed in 1475 women in France, Spain and Portugal who had received an abnormal Pap smear result in the 12 months prior to completing the questionnaire. Questions covered methods of communication of the result, emotional reactions, support received (from the physician and entourage, and information sources, using pre-specified check box options and rating scales. Data were analyzed by country. Results Pap test results were mostly communicated by phone to Spanish women (76%, while physician letters were common in France (59% and Portugal (36%. Frequent reactions were anxiety, panic and stress, which were less common in Spanish women than their French and Portuguese counterparts. After discussing with their physician, half of the participants were worried, despite rating highly the psychological support received. Over 90% of women in each country discussed their results with family or friends. Partners provided a high level of support. Overall, the abnormal diagnosis and consequences had a low to medium impact on daily, professional and family life and their relationships with their partner. Impact was higher in Spanish women than the French or Portuguese. Information on the diagnosis and its treatment was rated average, and nearly 80% of participants wanted more information, notably French women. Preferred sources were the physician and the Internet. Conclusions Women expressed a strong wish for more information about cervical cancer and other HPV-related diseases, and that their physician play a major role in its provision and in support. There was a heavy reliance on the close entourage and the Internet for information, highlighting the need for dissemination of accurate material. Differences between countries suggest information management strategies may need to be tailored to different geographical regions.

  16. Outline of test and research results obtained with research commissioning expense for peaceful use of atomic energy in fiscal 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report was compiled by the Atomic Energy Bureau, Science and Technology Agency. Six reports on radiation injury prevention, six reports on radiation utilization, and three reports on nuclear fuel cycle are collected, and the outline of respective tests and research is described. In radiation injury prevention, the scattering of radioisotopes, the evaluation of gaseous radioactive nuclides, the distribution and the behavior of natural and artificial radioactive nuclides, the risk estimation of delayed injuries and hereditary injuries due to low dose radiation, and the epidemiologic study of the group repeatedly exposed to low dose for radiation risk estimation were taken up. In radiation utilization, the hereditary safety of irradiated foods, the automation of the production of short life, RI-labeled compounds, the safety of radioisotope-using facilities in earthquakes, the techniques of treating radioactive wastes in RI utilization, the cleaning of radioactivity-contaminated things with organic solvent, and the facility for treating radioactive liquid using a new filter were studied. In nuclear fuel cycle, the behavior of uranium hexafluoride in fire, the dynamic concentrated management system for the information on safeguard measures and the low level radioactive wastes produced in fuel fabrication establishments were researched. (Kako, I.)

  17. Obese womens barriers to mammography and Pap smear: The possible role of personality

    OpenAIRE

    Friedman, Asia M.; Hemler, Jennifer R.; Rossetti, Elisa; Clemow, Lynn P.; Ferrante, Jeanne M.

    2012-01-01

    Obese women are at increased risk of developing and dying from cancer, but are less likely than non-obese women to receive cancer screening examinations. Our qualitative study explores obese womens barriers to Pap smears and mammograms in greater depth than previous research. We also seek to understand why some obese women undergo screening while others do not. A purposive sample of moderately to severely obese women over age 40 was recruited from community-based organizations, health clinic...

  18. No increased risk for cervical cancer after a broader definition of a negative pap smear

    OpenAIRE

    Rebolj, Matejka; Van Ballegooijen, Marjolein; van Kemenade, Folkert; Looman, Caspar; Boer, Rob; Habbema, Dik

    2008-01-01

    The definition of minimal relevant Pap smear abnormality is crucial for balancing the beneficial effects of screening (prevented mortality) with negative side-effects (the high positivity rate). After inflammation ceased to be defined as a borderline abnormal smear outcome in The Netherlands in 1996, the proportion of these smears dropped from 10% to less than 2%. Because this may have caused a loss in smear sensitivity, we analysed the changes in the incidence of cervical cancer after a nega...

  19. Abnormal Pap Smear and Diagnosis of High-Grade Vaginal Intraepithelial Neoplasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sopracordevole, Francesco; Mancioli, Francesca; Clemente, Nicol; De Piero, Giovanni; Buttignol, Monica; Giorda, Giorgio; Ciavattini, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to analyze the correlation between the first diagnosis of high-grade Vaginal Intraepithelial Neoplasia (HG-VaIN: VaIN 2VaIN 3) and the cytological abnormalities on the referral pap smear. All the women with histological diagnosis of HG-VaIN consecutively referred to the Gynecological Oncology Unit of the Aviano National Cancer Institute (Aviano, Italy) from January 1991 to April 2014 and with a pap smear performed in the 3 months before the diagnosis were considered, and an observational cohort study was performed. A total of 87 women with diagnosis of HG-VaIN were identified. Major cytological abnormalities (HSIL and ASC-H) on the referral pap smear were significantly more frequent than lesser abnormalities (ASC-US and LSIL) in postmenopausal women (64.9% vs 36.7%, P?=?0.02) and in women with a previous diagnosis of HPV-related cervical preinvasive or invasive lesions (70.5% vs 39.5%, P?=?0.01). Diagnosis of VaIN 3 was preceded by major cytological abnormalities in most of the cases (72.7% vs 27.3%, P?HPV-related disease. However, ASC-US or LSIL do not exclude HG-VaIN, especially VaIN2. An accurate examination of the whole vaginal walls (or vaginal vault) must be performed in all the women who underwent colposcopy for an abnormal pap smear, and a biopsy of all suspicious areas is mandatory. PMID:26496321

  20. Abnormal Pap Smear and Diagnosis of High-Grade Vaginal Intraepithelial Neoplasia: A Retrospective Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sopracordevole, Francesco; Mancioli, Francesca; Clemente, Nicol; De Piero, Giovanni; Buttignol, Monica; Giorda, Giorgio; Ciavattini, Andrea

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the correlation between the first diagnosis of high-grade Vaginal Intraepithelial Neoplasia (HG-VaIN: VaIN 2-VaIN 3) and the cytological abnormalities on the referral pap smear.All the women with histological diagnosis of HG-VaIN consecutively referred to the Gynecological Oncology Unit of the Aviano National Cancer Institute (Aviano, Italy) from January 1991 to April 2014 and with a pap smear performed in the 3 months before the diagnosis were considered, and an observational cohort study was performed.A total of 87 women with diagnosis of HG-VaIN were identified. Major cytological abnormalities (HSIL and ASC-H) on the referral pap smear were significantly more frequent than lesser abnormalities (ASC-US and LSIL) in postmenopausal women (64.9% vs 36.7%, P?=?0.02) and in women with a previous diagnosis of HPV-related cervical preinvasive or invasive lesions (70.5% vs 39.5%, P?=?0.01). Diagnosis of VaIN 3 was preceded by major cytological abnormalities in most of the cases (72.7% vs 27.3%, P?HPV-related disease. However, ASC-US or LSIL do not exclude HG-VaIN, especially VaIN2. An accurate examination of the whole vaginal walls (or vaginal vault) must be performed in all the women who underwent colposcopy for an abnormal pap smear, and a biopsy of all suspicious areas is mandatory. PMID:26496321

  1. Deoxygenation and the blood volume signals in the flexor carpi ulnaris and radialis muscles obtained during the execution of the Mirallas's test of judo athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdaguer-Codina, Joan; Mirallas, Jaume A.

    1996-12-01

    The technique of execution of any movement in Judo is extremely important. The coaches want tests and tools easy to use and cheaper, to evaluate the progress of a judoist in the tatame. In this paper we present a test developed by Mirallas, which has his name 'Test of Mirallas' to evaluate the maximal power capacity of the judoist. The near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) signals were obtained to have a measurement of the metabolic work of the flexor carpi ulnaris and radialis muscles, during the execution of the ippon-seoi-nage movement, allowing this measurement to assess by NIRS the maximal oxygen uptake. Also obtained were tympanic, skin forehead, and biceps brachii temperatures during the test time and recovery phase to study the effects of ambient conditions and the post-exercise oxygen consumption. The deoxygenation and blood volume signals obtained gave different results, demonstrating the hypothesis of the coaches that some judoist do the execution of the ippon-seoi-nage movement correctly and the rest didn't. The heart rate frequency obtained in the group of judoist was between 190-207 bpm, and in the minute five of post-exercise was 114-137 bpm; the time employed in the MIrallas's test were from 7 feet 14 inches to 13 feet 49 inches, and the total of movements were from 199 to 409. The data obtained in the skin forehead, and skin biceps brachii confirms previous works that the oxygen consumption remains after exercise in the muscle studied. According to the results, the test developed by Mirallas is a good tool to evaluate the performance of judoist any time, giving better results compared with standard tests.

  2. The Anal Pap Smear: Cytomorphology of squamous intraepithelial lesions

    OpenAIRE

    Arain Shehla; Walts Ann; Thomas Premi; Bose Shikha

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Background Anal smears are increasingly being used as a screening test for anal squamous intraepithelial lesions (ASILs). This study was undertaken to assess the usefulness and limitations of anal smears in screening for ASILs. Methods The cytomorphological features of 200 consecutive anal smears collected in liquid medium from 198 patients were studied and findings were correlated with results of surgical biopsies and/or repeat smears that became available for 71 patients within six...

  3. Associations of demographic variables and the Health Belief Model constructs with Pap smear screening among urban women in Botswana

    OpenAIRE

    McFarl; DM.

    2013-01-01

    Ditsapelo M McFarland College of Nursing and Public Health, Adelphi University, Garden City, NY, USA Purpose: Papanicolaou (Pap) smear services are available in most urban areas in Botswana. Yet most women in such areas do not screen regularly for cancer of the cervix. The purpose of this article is to present findings on the associations of demographic variables and Health Belief Model constructs with Pap smear screening among urban women in Botswana. Sample and methods: The study included a...

  4. The Pap smear screening as an occasion for smoking cessation and physical activity counselling: effectiveness of the SPRINT randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorini Giuseppe

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The organized Cervical Cancer Screening Programme (CCSP in Italy might represent an occasion to deliver smoking cessation (SC counselling to women attending the Pap test examination. Evidence of effectiveness of physical activity (PA promotion and intervention in adjunct to SC counselling is not strong. Objective of the SPRINT trial was to evaluate the effectiveness of a standard SC counselling intervention delivered by trained midwives in the CCSP, and whether the adjunct of a PA counselling to the SC counselling might increase quit rates. Methods/Design We undertook a randomized controlled trial of 1,100 women undergoing the Pap examination in the three study centres Florence, Turin, and Mantua: 363 were randomly assigned to the SC counselling arm, 366 to the SC?+?PA counselling arm, and 371 to the control group. The intervention was a standard brief SC counselling combined with a brief counselling on increasing PA, and was tailored according to the Di Clemente-Prochaska motivational stages of change for SC and/or PA. Primary outcomes were quit rates, improvement in the motivational stages of change for SC, and reduced daily cigarette consumption. Analysis was by intention to treat. Results Participants randomized in both intervention arms and in the preparation stage of change for SC doubled their likelihood of quitting at 6-month follow-up in comparison to controls (odds ratio [OR]=2.1, 95% confidence interval [95% CI]:1.0-4.6. Moreover, participants in the intervention arms and in the contemplation stage were more likely to reduce their daily cigarette consumption after the intervention (OR=1.8, 95% CI:1.1-3.0. Our study did not show any effect of PA counselling on various outcomes. Conclusions Smoking cessation counselling delivered by midwives to smokers in preparation and contemplation stages of change during the Pap-smear screening was effective and should be recommended, given the high number of women attending the cervical cancer screening programme in Italy. Moreover, the daily number of women invited for the Pap-smear examination should be slightly lowered, in order to let midwives deliver SC counselling to smokers. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN52660565

  5. Ten years of sodium cooled steam generator tests on the C.G.V.S. Synthesis of the results obtained on these equipments and operation experiments of an industrial size test facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From 1970 to 1980, Electricite de France carried out tests on four steam generators of the fast neutron reactor series on an industrial size testing equipment, the C.G.V.S. (large power testing Circuit for Steam Generators heated by Sodium). After a presentation of the testing installation, types of tests carried out and tested apparatus, a balance of lessons drawn from the circuit exploitation, and from the main results obtained on the tested equipments and on the means of calculation COPI and SICLE codes developed or adopted to simulate steam generator operation. 33 figs., 50 refs

  6. [Trials to obtain conjugates for the passive hemagglutination test with chromium chloride and their use in studying foot-and-mouth disease viruses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekerlekov, P; Nikolova, E

    1984-01-01

    Experiments were carried out to produce conjugates for the hemagglutination-inhibition reaction with the aid of chromic chloride. Studies with reference F.M.D. viruses and with CFT revealed that the antibody erythrocyte diagnostic agents were highly specific, and were stable in storage at +4 degrees C and in freeze-drying. It was found that the conjugates obtained with F.M.D. antigens possessed high specificity, however, were not stable and 7 to 10 days later lost their activity. Tests with the hemagglutination-reaction showed that immunity itself could be studied in cattle treated with F.M.D. vaccines. A correlation was found between the results obtained via the hemagglutination reaction and those obtained with the aid of the virus-neutralization test. PMID:6209849

  7. The Anal Pap Smear: Cytomorphology of squamous intraepithelial lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arain Shehla

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anal smears are increasingly being used as a screening test for anal squamous intraepithelial lesions (ASILs. This study was undertaken to assess the usefulness and limitations of anal smears in screening for ASILs. Methods The cytomorphological features of 200 consecutive anal smears collected in liquid medium from 198 patients were studied and findings were correlated with results of surgical biopsies and/or repeat smears that became available for 71 patients within six months. Results Adequate cellularity was defined as an average of 6 or more nucleated squamous cells/hpf. A glandular/transitional component was not required for adequacy. Dysplastic cells, atypical parakeratotic cells and bi/multinucleated cells were frequent findings in ASIL while koilocytes were infrequent. Smears from LSIL cases most frequently showed mildly dysplastic and bi/multinucleate squamous cells followed by parakeratotic cells (PK, atypical parakeratotic cells (APK, and koilocytes. HSIL smears contained squamous cells with features of moderate/severe dysplasia and many APKs. Features of LSIL were also found in most HSIL smears. Conclusions In this study liquid based anal smears had a high sensitivity (98% for detection of ASIL but a low specificity (50% for predicting the severity of the abnormality in subsequent biopsy. Patients with cytologic diagnoses of ASC-US and LSIL had a significant risk (4656% of HSIL at biopsy. We suggest that all patients with a diagnosis of ASC-US and above be recommended for high resolution anoscopy with biopsy.

  8. Cloning, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction studies of Escherichia coli PapD-like protein (EcpD)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Escherichia coli PapD-like protein (EcpD), from uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC), which is a periplasmic chaperon of Yad fimbriae was cloned, overexpressed, purified and crystallized. The crystals obtained diffracted X-rays to 1.67 Å resolution and belonged to space group C2221. Many Gram-negative bacteria are characterized by hair-like proteinaceous appendages on their surface known as fimbriae. In uropathogenic strains of Escherichia coli, fimbriae mediate attachment by binding to receptors on the host cell, often contributing to virulence and disease. E. coli PapD-like protein (EcpD) is a periplasmic chaperone that plays an important role in the proper folding and guiding of Yad fimbrial proteins to the outer membrane usher protein in a process known as pilus biogenesis. EcpD is essential for pilus biogenesis in uropathogenic E. coli and plays an important role in virulence. In the present study, EcpD was cloned, overexpressed, purified and crystallized by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. The crystals diffracted to 1.67 Å resolution and belonged to the orthorhombic space group C2221, with unit-cell parameters a = 100.3, b = 127.6, c = 45.9 Å. There was a single molecule in the asymmetric unit and the corresponding Matthews coefficient was calculated to be 3.02 Å3 Da−1, with 59% solvent content. Initial phases were determined by molecular replacement

  9. Citopatolgico de colo uterino entre gestantes no Sul do Brasil: um estudo transversal de base populacional / Pap smears among pregnant women in Southern Brazil: a representative cross-sectional survey

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Juraci Almeida, Cesar; Gabriela Breitembach dos, Santos; Andrea Tomais, Sutil; Carolina Fischer, Cunha; Samuel de Carvalho, Dumith.

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar a prevalncia e identificar fatores associados ao no rastreamento voluntrio para citopatolgico (CP) de colo uterino entre purperas em Rio Grande (RS). MTODOS: Entrevistadores previamente treinados aplicaram questionrio padronizado, ainda na maternidade, em busca de informa [...] es sobre caractersticas demogrficas da gestante, nvel socioeconmico da famlia e tipo de assistncia recebida durante o pr-natal para todas aquelas residentes nesse municpio que tiveram filhos entre 1 de janeiro e 31 de dezembro de 2010. Foram utilizados o teste do ? para comparar propores e a regresso de Poisson com ajuste robusto da varincia na anlise multivarivel. RESULTADOS: Dentre as 2.288 entrevistadas, 33% no se submeteram ao CP de colo uterino. Destas, dois teros disseram desconhecer a necessidade de realiz-lo, 18% no fizeram este exame por medo ou vergonha e as demais por outras razes. Aps ajuste para diversos fatores de confuso, as maiores razes de prevalncia (RP) para no buscar por CP ocorreram entre aquelas de menor idade (RP=1,5; IC95% 1,25 - 1,80) e escolaridade (RP=1,5; IC95% 1,12 - 2,12), que viviam sem companheiro (RP=1,4; IC95% 1,24 - 1,62), fumantes (RP=1,2; IC95% 1,07 - 1,39), que no planejaram a gravidez (RP=1,3; IC95% 1,21 - 1,61), que completaram menos de seis consultas durante pr-natal (RP=1,4; IC95% 1,32 - 1,69) e usurias de contraceptivo oral (RP=1,2; IC95% 1,04 - 1,38). CONCLUSES: Quanto maior o risco para cncer de colo uterino, menor a probabilidade de a gestante se submeter ao CP de colo uterino. Isso, certamente, tem contribudo para o aumento da morbimortalidade por esta doena nesta localidade. Abstract in english PURPOSE: To determine the prevalence and risk factors associated with failure of voluntary screening for cervical cancer during the gestational period in Rio Grande, Rio Grande do Sul State, Southern Brazil. METHODS: Previously trained interviewers applied a standardized questionnaire in the materni [...] ty to all mothers from this municipality who had delivered from January 1st to December 31st 2010 to obtain information about the demographic characteristics of the pregnant women, family socioeconomic status, and prenatal care received. The ? test was used to compare proportions and Poisson regression with robust adjustment of variance was used in the multivariate analysis. RESULTS: Among the 2,288 respondents, 33% were not submitted to the Pap smear during pregnancy. Two thirds of these women stated that they were not aware of the need to perform it, 18% were not screened out of fear or shame, and the rest for other reasons. After adjustment, the highest prevalence ratios (PR) for noncompliance with the Pap smear occurred among young women (PR=1.5; 95%CI 1.25 - 1.80), with lower educational level (PR=1.5; 95%CI 1.12 - 2.12), who were living without a partner (PR=1.4; 95%CI 1.24 - 1.62), smokers (PR=1.2; 95%CI 1.07 - 1.39), who did not plan the current pregnancy (PR=1.3; 95%CI 1,21 - 1.61), who had attended less than six medical visits during the prenatal period (PR=1.4; 95%CI 1.32 - 1.69) and among users of oral contraceptives (PR=1.2; 95%CI 1.04 - 1.38). CONCLUSIONS: The higher the risk for uterine cervical cancer, the less likely a pregnant woman is to undergo a Pap smear. This definitely contributed to the increased morbidity and mortality from this disease in this setting.

  10. Charging and discharging tests for obtaining an accurate dynamic electro-thermal model of high power lithium-ion pack system for hybrid and EV applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mihet-Popa, Lucian; Camacho, Oscar Mauricio Forero; Nrgrd, Per Bromand

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a battery test platform including two Li-ion battery designed for hybrid and EV applications, and charging/discharging tests under different operating conditions carried out for developing an accurate dynamic electro-thermal model of a high power Li-ion battery pack system. The...... aim of the tests has been to study the impact of the battery degradation and to find out the dynamic characteristics of the cells including nonlinear open circuit voltage, series resistance and parallel transient circuit at different charge/discharge currents and cell temperature. An equivalent...... circuit model, based on the runtime battery model and the Thevenin circuit model, with parameters obtained from the tests and depending on SOC, current and temperature has been implemented in MATLAB/Simulink and Power Factory. A good alignment between simulations and measurements has been found....

  11. Charging and discharging tests for obtaining an accurate dynamic electro-thermal model of high power lithium-ion pack system for hybrid and EV applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mihet-Popa, Lucian; Camacho, Oscar Mauricio Forero

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a battery test platform including two Li-ion battery designed for hybrid and EV applications, and charging/discharging tests under different operating conditions carried out for developing an accurate dynamic electro-thermal model of a high power Li-ion battery pack system. The aim of the tests has been to study the impact of the battery degradation and to find out the dynamic characteristics of the cells including nonlinear open circuit voltage, series resistance and parallel transient circuit at different charge/discharge currents and cell temperature. An equivalent circuit model, based on the runtime battery model and the Thevenin circuit model, with parameters obtained from the tests and depending on SOC, current and temperature has been implemented in MATLAB/Simulink and Power Factory. A good alignment between simulations and measurements has been found.

  12. Test of irradiation of tellurium oxide for obtaining iodine-131 by dry distillation; Prueba de irradiacion de dioxido de telurio para obtener yodo-131 por destilacion seca

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alanis M, J. [ININ, Departamento de Materiales Radiactivos, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2003-07-15

    With the purpose of optimizing to the maximum independently the work of the reactor of those mathematical calculations of irradiation that are already optimized, now it corresponds to carry out irradiation tests in the different positions with their respective neutron fluxes that it counts the reactor for samples irradiation. Then, it is necessary to carry out the irradiation of the tellurium dioxide through cycles, with the purpose of observing the activity that it goes accumulating in each cycle and this way to obtain an activity of the Iodine-131 obtained when finishing the last cycle. (Author)

  13. Clinical Implications of the Cervical Papanicolaou Test Results in the Management of Anal Warts in HIV-Infected Women

    OpenAIRE

    Hung N. Luu; Amirian, E. Susan; Beasley, R. Palmer; Piller, Linda; CHAN, WENYAW; Scheurer, Michael E.

    2013-01-01

    The Papanicolaou test (or Pap test) has long been used as a screening tool to detect cervical precancerous/cancerous lesions. However, studies on the use of this test to predict both the presence and change in size of genital warts are limited. We examined whether cervical Papanicolaou test results are associated with the size of the largest anal wart over time in HIV-infected women in an on-going cohort study in the US. A sample of 976 HIV-infected women included in a public dataset obtained...

  14. Technique for determination of the number of PapA units in an E. Coli P pilus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Magnus; Fllman, Erik; Uhlin, Bernt E.; Axner, Ove

    2006-02-01

    Optical tweezers have previously been used to characterize the force-vs.-elongation dependence of the PapA rod of uropathogenic E. coli P pili. It was found that the PapA rod elongates in several elongation regions. In the two first, the elongation originates from an elastic stretching and a sequential unfolding of the layer-to-layer bonds (and thereby of the helical structure). Region III is characterized by an elongation that originates from an elastic stretching and an opening of the head-to-tail bonds in the linearized PapA rod. The opening of these bonds takes place in a random order, wherefore the response in this region is affected by entropy. Since the entropic softening of a macromolecule depends on the number of units, the shape of this region can be used to assess the number of PapA units. We provide in this work a recipe for how this can be done solely from the form of region III. An advantage with this technique is that it does not require a continuous monitoring of the elongation of a single PapA rod from unstretched conditions, which often is difficult because of simultaneous multi-pili binding; it suffices to detect it in the third region at which binding often is mediated by only one pilus. Another advantage is that it does not require any prior knowledge about (or assessment of) any physical entity of the PapA rod; the number of PapA units can be assessed solely from the shape of the curve in the third elongation region.

  15. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate rapidly remodels PAP85-120, SEM1(45-107), and SEM2(49-107) seminal amyloid fibrils

    OpenAIRE

    Castellano, Laura M.; Hammond, Rebecca M.; Holmes, Veronica M; Weissman, Drew; Shorter, James

    2015-01-01

    Semen harbors amyloid fibrils formed by proteolytic fragments of prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP248-286 and PAP85-120) and semenogelins (SEM1 and SEM2) that potently enhance HIV infectivity. Amyloid but not soluble forms of these peptides enhance HIV infection. Thus, agents that remodel these amyloid fibrils could prevent HIV transmission. Here, we confirm that the green tea polyphenol, epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), slowly remodels fibrils formed by PAP248-286 termed SEVI (semen derived ...

  16. Wirkung eines synthetisch hergestellten Pheromonanalogs (PAP) auf das Wohlbefinden von Mastschweinen beim Transport zum Schlachthof

    OpenAIRE

    Maier, Christophe

    2005-01-01

    The effect of a synthetically produced pheromone (PAP) on the well-being of pigs during transport to the slaughter house Even though numerous attempts to reduce stress during the transport of slaughter pigs, the losses due to transportation induced stress are between 0.03% and 0.5% in the EU and 0.4% in Germany. PSE is seen in 10 to 20% of the animals. A naturally occurring pheromone is secreted by the mammary glands of the sow, which have a calming and stress reducing effect on the pigl...

  17. Pap Smears

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... quickly. What Happens? The doctor will use a speculum to gently widen the vagina. A speculum is a thin piece of plastic or metal ... allows it to open and close. If the speculum is metal, the doctor or nurse will warm ...

  18. Combined Hierarchical Watershed Segmentation and SVM Classification for Pap Smear Cell Nucleus Extraction / Extraccin de ncleos de clulas en imgenes de la prueba de Papanicolaou usando watershed jerrquico y mquinas de vectores soporte

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Maykel, Orozco-Monteagudo; Cosmin, Mihai; Hichem, Sahli; Alberto, Taboada-Crispi.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se presenta un mtodo en dos etapas para la segmentacin y clasificacin de ncleos de clulas en imgenes tomadas de la prueba de Papanicolaou. La primera etapa, la etapa de segmentacin, est formada por un algoritmo morfolgico (watershed o marcas de agua) y un algoritmo je [...] rrquico de mezclado (waterfall o salto de agua). Para realizar el mezclado de regiones, waterfall usa informacin espectral, de forma y de las regiones que se separarn. En la segunda etapa, la etapa de clasificacin, el objetivo es obtener los ncleos a partir de las clasificaciones de las regiones obtenidas en la primera etapa. Antes de realizar la clasificacin, fueron probadas tres medidas no supervisadas de calidad de la segmentacin para determinar el mejor resultado de la mezcla de regiones. La clasificacin de las regiones se realiz usando Mquinas de Vector Soporte. Los resultados fueron comparados con las segmentaciones realizadas por patlogos demostrndose la eficacia del mtodo propuesto. Abstract in english In this paper, we propose a two-phase approach to nuclei segmentation/classification in Pap smear test images. The first phase, the segmentation phase, includes a morphological algorithm (watershed) and a hierarchical merging algorithm (waterfall). In the merging step, waterfall uses spectral and sh [...] ape information as well as the class information. In the second phase, classification, the goal is to obtain nucleus regions and cytoplasm areas by classifying the regions resulting from the first phase based on their spectral and shape features, merging of the adjacent regions belonging to the same class. Between the two phases, three unsupervised segmentation quality criteria were tested in order to determine the best one selecting the best level after merging. The classification of individual regions is obtained using a Support Vector Machine (SVM) classifier. The segmentation and classification results are compared to the segmentation provided by expert pathologists and demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed method.

  19. Prevalence of abnormal Pap smear during pregnancy in a teaching hospital in South India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varsha Mishra

    2015-10-01

    Results: Among the 316 women studied the mean (SD age at marriage was 22 (3 years. The mean period of gestation was 30 weeks. Only one participant (0.3% reported high risk behaviour. The speculum examination was found to be normal in 99.7% women. There was one abnormal Pap smear report. Specific infection with Candida was reported in 14.6%; in none of these the speculum examination showed a characteristic discharge of candidiasis. Further a significantly higher prevalence of Candida infection was found in rural compared to urban population (Chi square 3.7, p=0.046. Conclusions: The prevalence of abnormal Pap smear is particularly low at 0.3% in our study group. However the prevalence of asymptomatic Candida infection which was missed on speculum exam because of lack of the characteristic discharge was high at 14.6%. Thus the authors recommend routine prenatal microbiological examination to detect candida infection. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2015; 4(5.000: 1296-1299

  20. No increased risk for cervical cancer after a broader definition of a negative Pap smear

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rebolj, Matejka; van Ballegooijen, Marjolein; van Kemenade, Folkert; Looman, Caspar; Boer, Rob; Habbema, J Dik F

    2008-01-01

    The definition of minimal relevant Pap smear abnormality is crucial for balancing the beneficial effects of screening (prevented mortality) with negative side-effects (the high positivity rate). After inflammation ceased to be defined as a borderline abnormal smear outcome in The Netherlands in...... 100,000 (95% CI: 43-54), p = 0.59. The hazard ratio for 1998-2006 compared to 1990-1995 adjusted for age, number of previous negative smears and history of abnormalities was 0.90 (95% CI: 0.78-1.03). In The Netherlands, a setting with high-quality cytological screening, treating smears with only signs...... 1996, the proportion of these smears dropped from 10% to less than 2%. Because this may have caused a loss in smear sensitivity, we analysed the changes in the incidence of cervical cancer after a negative Pap smear. All negative smears made at ages 30-64 in 1990-1995 (n = 1,546,252) and 1998-2006 (n...

  1. An Approach to More Accurate Model Systems for Purple Acid Phosphatases (PAPs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernhardt, Paul V; Bosch, Simone; Comba, Peter; Gahan, Lawrence R; Hanson, Graeme R; Mereacre, Valeriu; Noble, Christopher J; Powell, Annie K; Schenk, Gerhard; Wadepohl, Hubert

    2015-08-01

    The active site of mammalian purple acid phosphatases (PAPs) have a dinuclear iron site in two accessible oxidation states (Fe(III)2 and Fe(III)Fe(II)), and the heterovalent is the active form, involved in the regulation of phosphate and phosphorylated metabolite levels in a wide range of organisms. Therefore, two sites with different coordination geometries to stabilize the heterovalent active form and, in addition, with hydrogen bond donors to enable the fixation of the substrate and release of the product, are believed to be required for catalytically competent model systems. Two ligands and their dinuclear iron complexes have been studied in detail. The solid-state structures and properties, studied by X-ray crystallography, magnetism, and Mssbauer spectroscopy, and the solution structural and electronic properties, investigated by mass spectrometry, electronic, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), and Mssbauer spectroscopies and electrochemistry, are discussed in detail in order to understand the structures and relative stabilities in solution. In particular, with one of the ligands, a heterovalent Fe(III)Fe(II) species has been produced by chemical oxidation of the Fe(II)2 precursor. The phosphatase reactivities of the complexes, in particular, also of the heterovalent complex, are reported. These studies include pH-dependent as well as substrate concentration dependent studies, leading to pH profiles, catalytic efficiencies and turnover numbers, and indicate that the heterovalent diiron complex discussed here is an accurate PAP model system. PMID:26196255

  2. Fdevareemballager af trykt papir og pap : Udvikling og validering af analysekoncept

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Jens Hjslev; Jensen, Lisbeth Krger

    2013-01-01

    Der er i dette projekt udviklet et analysekoncept der kan anvendes som et led i trykkeriernes vurdering af om fdevareemballager af trykt pap og papir lever op til lovgivningens krav. Der er arbejdet med vurderinger baseret p svel worst-case ekstraktion af de trykte materialer som p migrationstest foretaget med fdevaresimulatoren for trre fdevarer. Fdevaresimulatoren er en adsorbent (polymeren Tenax) som effektivt optager stoffer der via gasfasen afgives fra tryksagen. Der er valideret og sammenlignet analysemetoder baseret p ekstraktioner af bde tryksagerne og Tenax med henholdsvis ethanol og superkritisk kuldioxid. I alle tilflde er slutbestemmelsen sket ved gaskromatografi med massespektrometrisk detektion (GC-MS). Med det anvendte udstyr kunne vi i nogle tilflde detektere kendte stoffer i koncentrationer svarende til 10 ?g/kg fdevare. Flsomheden i en screeningsanalyse for ukendte stoffer ligger desvrre en del hjere. P baggrund af flere fdevareskandaler de senere r, stilles der fra forbrugere, fdevareproducenter og myndighederne stadig strre krav til trykkerier af emballager af pap og papir om at levere produkter af hj og dokumenteret kvalitet. I rapporten gennemgs derfor summarisk de gldende europiske regler p omrdet som trykkerierne skal leve op til og der henvises til relevante vejledninger fra myndigheder og brancheforeninger. Det er vsentligt at trykkerierne arbejder efter god fremstillingsmssig praksis (GMP) og det beskrives hvordan dette kan organiseres. Ved fremstillingen af en tryksag indgr mange processer, materialer og kemikalier. Det er derfor fundet ndvendigt at give en oversigt over de forskellige trykteknikker som er relevante for pap og papir ligesom rvarerne, fra forskellige papkvaliteter over trykfarverne til det fugtevand som indgr i produktionen af en tryksag bliver gennemget. Som et led i trykkeriernes GMP vil det vre naturligt at indsamle informationer om rvarenes eventuelle indhold af sundhedsskadelige stoffer. Trykfarve- og lakproducenternes manglende vilje til at oplyse om deres produkters sammenstning vanskeliggr desvrre trykkeriernes opgave med at dokumentere, at den frdige emballage er i overensstemmelse med lovgivningen. Det ville derfor vre nskeligt, at man havde en generel kemisk analysemetode som kunne sikre at en tryksag er i orden. Men der findes desvrre ikke en metode der kan sikre at bare migrationsgrnserne bliver overholdt for de mere end 6000 stoffer, der eksempelvis str opfrt i den svejtsiske lovgivning om trykfarver. Men jo mere trykkerierne ved om rvarernes sammenstning, jo simplere metoder kan man bruge til at dokumentere overensstemmelse med reglerne. Ved analyse af en rkke tryksager gennem projektforlbet fandt vi flere problematiske forhold. Eksempelvis frte anvendelsen af de skaldt UV-hybrid-farver til en for hj migration af to fotoinitiatorer. Trykkeriet har derfor valgt at lade disse farver udg af sortimentet. Selv om projektet handlede om trykfarver er kvaliteten af materialet der trykkes p meget vsentligt for slutproduktet. Det skal derfor nvnes at pap og papir ofte fremstilles helt eller delvis af genbrugsfibre som potentielt indeholder forureninger der kan give anledning til forurening af fdevarerne. I afsnit 9 opsummeres en samling anbefalinger til trykkerierne om GMP, valg af egnet pap og trykfarver og en strategi for arbejdet med analytisk at sikre overensstemmelse med reglerne.

  3. NMR Structure in a Membrane Environment Reveals Putative Amyloidogenic Regions of the SEVI Precursor Peptide PAP248286

    OpenAIRE

    Nanga, Ravi P.; Jeffrey R. Brender; Vivekanandan, Subramanian; Popovych, Nataliya; Ramamoorthy, Ayyalusamy

    2009-01-01

    Semen is the main vector for HIV transmission worldwide. Recently, a peptide fragment (PAP248286) has been isolated from seminal fluid that dramatically enhances HIV infectivity by up to four to five orders of magnitude. PAP248286 appears to enhance HIV infection by forming amyloid fibers known as SEVI, which are believed to enhance the attachment of the virus by bridging interactions between virion and host-cell membranes. We have solved the atomic-level resolution structure of the SEVI pr...

  4. Pap Smear Diagnosis Using a Hybrid Intelligent Scheme Focusing on Genetic Algorithm Based Feature Selection and Nearest Neighbor Classification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marinakis, Yannis; Dounias, Georgios; Jantzen, Jan

    2009-01-01

    The term pap-smear refers to samples of human cells stained by the so-called Papanicolaou method. The purpose of the Papanicolaou method is to diagnose pre-cancerous cell changes before they progress to invasive carcinoma. In this paper a metaheuristic algorithm is proposed in order to classify t...... other previously applied intelligent approaches....

  5. A heterodimer of human 3'-phospho-adenosine-5'-phosphosulphate (PAPS) synthases is a new sulphate activating complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    3'-Phospho-adenosine-5'-phosphosulphate (PAPS) synthases are fundamental to mammalian sulphate metabolism. These enzymes have recently been linked to a rising number of human diseases. Despite many studies, it is not yet understood how the mammalian PAPS synthases 1 and 2 interact with each other. We provide first evidence for heterodimerisation of these two enzymes by pull-down assays and Foerster resonance energy transfer (FRET) measurements. Kinetics of dimer dissociation/association indicates that these heterodimers form as soon as PAPSS1 and -S2 encounter each other in solution. Affinity of the homo- and heterodimers were found to be in the low nanomolar range using anisotropy measurements employing proteins labelled with the fluorescent dye IAEDANS that - in spite of its low quantum yield - is well suited for anisotropy due to its large Stokes shift. Within its kinase domain, the PAPS synthase heterodimer displays similar substrate inhibition by adenosine-5'-phosphosulphate (APS) as the homodimers. Due to divergent catalytic efficacies of PAPSS1 and -S2, the heterodimer might be a way of regulating PAPS synthase function within mammalian cells.

  6. Determination of crack arrest toughness in A508 CL.3 forging steel from ASTM E1221-88 procedure. Comparison with the values obtained from thermal loading tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A crack arrest study is under way at Electricite de France as part of the analysis of the risk of fast fracture of PWR vessels in emergency conditions. The first objective of this study is to evaluate the toughness which characterizes crack arrest through tests on reduced-size specimens. Some of the tests on a forging steel (A508 Cl.3) were conducted in conformity with two experimental methods. One method recommended by the ASTM calls for the use of an imposed-displacement mechanical loading on specimens kept under homogeneous temperature. Since the stress intensity factor K applied to the outside loading decreases along the crack growth, we can observe the arrest of the crack. In order to obtain brittle crack initiations in cleavage in the whole studied range of temperature and crack propagation of a sufficient length, the application of a weld point at the top of the notch is done. The other experimental method is based on a thermal loading. It requires the use of a disk or a cylinder with a longitudinal initial crack of the external surface. We dip this specimen in liquid nitrogen and we heat its internal surface with inducing current. There is a temperature gradient in the thickness of the specimen which produces a stress field which tends to open the crack. When the value of K is reached the crack initiation takes place. Several phenomena act to oppose the crack growth, they even go as far as stopping it. First the value of K, after increasing, gets steady then decreases, then, the rate of energy dissipated by plasticity at the top of the crack increases because the crack meets warmer and warmer areas on its way. The arrest toughness values which were obtained were then analyzed and compared to one another and with values proposed by RCC-m code. (authors). 12 refs., 11 figs., 3 tabs

  7. Tamizaje en cncer cervical: conocimiento de la utilidad y uso de citologa cervical en Mxico Cervical cancer screening: knowledge of Pap smear benefits and utilization in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jos A Aguilar-Prez

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Identificar y evaluar los factores que predisponen a la utilizacin de la prueba de Papanicolaou en la poblacin que usa el servicio del Programa Nacional de Deteccin Oportuna de Cncer en Mxico. MTODOS: Se realiz un estudio del tipo transversal de enero de 1997 a diciembre de 1998, en la Ciudad de Mxico; se incluyeron a 2.107 mujeres en edad reproductiva que acudieron a un servicio de planificacin familiar, las cules respondieron a un cuestionario con preguntas sobre caractersticas: sociodemogrficas, factores de riesgo reproductivo asociados a cncer cervical, historia de vida sexual, uso de mtodos anticonceptivos, conocimiento de la utilidad y utilizacin del Papanicolaou. Para el anlisis de los datos se construyeron modelos multivariados de regresin logstica no condicional. RESULTADOS: Los predisponentes de utilizacin del programa de deteccin oportuna de cncer en esta poblacin fueron: el conocimiento de la utilidad del Papanicolaou increment en seis veces ms la posibilidad de utilizacin (IC 95% 4,70-7,67; el antecedente de utilizacin de dos o ms mtodos de planificacin familiar (OR=2,38; IC 95% 1,75-3,24; el antecedente de historia de infeccin vaginal (OR=2,18; IC 95% 1,73-2,75, y la aceptacin del esposo para la realizacin de exploraciones ginecolgicas (OR=1,56; IC 95% 1,07-2,29. CONCLUSIONES: La implementacin de programas educativos en la prevencin de cncer, debern incluir la utilidad de las pruebas de deteccin. En Mxico, en mujeres en edad reproductiva utilizacin de la prueba de Papanicolaou se ofrece predominantemente en forma oportunista, por lo que el antecedente de utilizacin de los Servicios de Salud es un determinante para la utilizacin del Programa de Deteccin Oportuna de Cncer Cervical. Estos resultados muestran la necesidad de ampliar la promocin a la salud de este programa a las mujeres de alto riesgo, incluyendo a sus parejas sexuales.OBJECTIVE: To identify and evaluate the predisposing factors regarding the utilization of the Pap smears in the population seen in the Cervical Cancer Screening Program in Mexico METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted from January 1997 through December 1998 in Mexico city. A questionnaire was applied to a total of 2,107 women of reproductive age who attended a family planning program and data was collected regarding the following topics: social-demographics, reproductive risk factors associated with cervical cancer, sexual behavior and partner history, birth control, knowledge about Pap smear' benefits, and its utilization. Statistic analysis was conducted using Students test and non-conditional multiple logistic regression model for determining significance. RESULTS: The predisposing factors were: knowledge about Pap smear's benefits (OR=6.00, CI 95% 4.70-7.67, history of using at least two birth control methods (OR=2.38, CI 95% 1.75-3.24, previous history of vaginal infection (OR=2.18, CI 95% 1.73-2.75, sexual partner's approval of gynecological examinations (OR=1.56, CI 95% 1.07-2.29. CONCLUSIONS: Educational programs on cancer prevention in this population should include the benefits of screening tests. Pap smears for Mexican women of reproductive age are mostly offered opportunely. The previous use of health services is a determinant factor for the utilization of the Cervical Cancer Screening Program. These results show the need to strengthen health promotion programs to women at high risk of cervical cancer and their sexual partners.

  8. Diacyltransferase Activity and Chain Length Specificity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis PapA5 in the Synthesis of Alkyl ?-Diol Lipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touchette, Megan H; Bommineni, Gopal R; Delle Bovi, Richard J; Gadbery, John E; Nicora, Carrie D; Shukla, Anil K; Kyle, Jennifer E; Metz, Thomas O; Martin, Dwight W; Sampson, Nicole S; Miller, W Todd; Tonge, Peter J; Seeliger, Jessica C

    2015-09-01

    Although they are classified as Gram-positive bacteria, Corynebacterineae possess an asymmetric outer membrane that imparts structural and thereby physiological similarity to more distantly related Gram-negative bacteria. Like lipopolysaccharide in Gram-negative bacteria, lipids in the outer membrane of Corynebacterineae have been associated with the virulence of pathogenic species such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). For example, Mtb strains that lack long, branched-chain alkyl esters known as dimycocerosates (DIMs) are significantly attenuated in model infections. The resultant interest in the biosynthetic pathway of these unusual virulence factors has led to the elucidation of many of the steps leading to the final esterification of the alkyl ?-diol, phthiocerol, with branched-chain fatty acids known as mycocerosates. PapA5 is an acyltransferase implicated in these final reactions. Here, we show that PapA5 is indeed the terminal enzyme in DIM biosynthesis by demonstrating its dual esterification activity and chain-length preference using synthetic alkyl ?-diol substrate analogues. By applying these analogues to a series of PapA5 mutants, we also revise a model for the substrate binding within PapA5. Finally, we demonstrate that the Mtb Ser/Thr kinases PknB and PknE modify PapA5 on three overlapping Thr residues and that a fourth Thr is unique to PknE phosphorylation. These results clarify the DIM biosynthetic pathway and indicate post-translational modifications that warrant further elucidation for their roles in the regulation of DIM biosynthesis. PMID:26271001

  9. Evaluation of two transport aircraft and several ground test vehicle friction measurements obtained for various runway surface types and conditions. A summary of test results from joint FAA/NASA Runway Friction Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yager, Thomas J.; Vogler, William A.; Baldasare, Paul

    1990-01-01

    Tests with specially instrumented NASA Boeing 737 and 727 aircraft together with several different ground friction measuring devices were conducted for a variety of runway surface types and conditions. These tests are part of joint FAA/NASA Aircraft/Ground Vehicle Runway Friction Program aimed at obtaining a better understanding of aircraft ground handling performance under adverse weather conditions and defining relationships between aircraft and ground vehicle tire friction measurements. Aircraft braking performance on dry, wet, snow and ice-covered runway conditions is discussed as well as ground vehicle friction data obtained under similar runway conditions. For a given contaminated runway surface condition, the correlation between ground vehicles and aircraft friction data is identified. The influence of major test parameters on friction measurements such as speed, test tire characteristics, type and amount of surface contaminant, and ambient temperature are discussed. The effect of surface type on wet friction levels is also evaluated from comparative data collected on grooved and ungrooved concrete and asphalt surfaces.

  10. The effect of a 10-week complex training programme, utilising optimal PAP recovery duration, on the sprint, power and agility capabilities of elite academy footballers

    OpenAIRE

    Harsley, Paul; Bishop, Daniel; Gee, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Complex training alternates a high-load strength exercise (85%> of 1RM) with an explosive or plyometric exercise, set-to-set, in the same session. This method is supported by the assumption of a post-activation-potentiation (PAP) of the neuromuscular system. Acute PAP has been shown to occur at 8-min following the performance of high-load exercise (Kilduff et al., 2008). However, the effect of the implementation of this practice (8-min PAP recovery period) within a prolonged training...

  11. Preliminary interpretations of geologic results obtained from boreholes UE25a-4, -5, -6, and -7, Yucca Mountain, Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since 1978, the USGS (US Geological Survey) has been providing technical assistance in characterizing suitable rock masses at or contiguous to the NTS (Nevada Test Site) for long-term storage of high-level nuclear waste. Current efforts have been focused on investigating Yucca Mountain, a volcanic highland situated along the western boundary of NTS in southern Nevada. Detailed stratigraphic and structural studies have been in progress along a northeastern segment of the highland in a wedge-shaped area bounded by Basin and Range faults, most of which trend north-northeast. A series of four locally steep-walled, nearly parallel, linear washes transect the northeastern half of the area of interest and display trends similar to major faults to the northeast. Prior to the present study, drill hole UE25a-1, located about 1600 feet southeast of the edge of the area of interest, was cored to a depth of 2500 feet. Subsurface information derived from the upper 500 feet of this drill hole is included in this report to compare with recently acquired data. Surface electrical surveys have been conducted by both the University of Utah and the USGS perpendicular to the trend of the washes in an attempt to better understand factors that have influenced the present drainage pattern. Preliminary data of both pole-dipole and dipole-dipole resistivity/IP electrical methods indicate numerous vertical and horizontal discontinuities between adjacent resistive bodies that strongly suggest a broad zone of faulting, fracturing, and (or) brecciation. To verify the existence of structural discontinuities suggested by the linear washes and electrical anomalies, a drilling program was initiated in June 1979, to obtain geologic information within the southernmost of four northwest-trending washes

  12. Pap Smear Diagnosis Using a Hybrid Intelligent Scheme Focusing on Genetic Algorithm Based Feature Selection and Nearest Neighbor Classification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marinakis, Yannis; Dounias, Georgios

    2009-01-01

    The term pap-smear refers to samples of human cells stained by the so-called Papanicolaou method. The purpose of the Papanicolaou method is to diagnose pre-cancerous cell changes before they progress to invasive carcinoma. In this paper a metaheuristic algorithm is proposed in order to classify the cells. Two databases are used, constructed in different times by expert MDs, consisting of 917 and 500 images of pap smear cells, respectively. Each cell is described by 20 numerical features, and the cells fall into 7 classes but a minimal requirement is to separate normal from abnormal cells, which is a 2 class problem. For finding the best possible performing feature subset selection problem, an effective genetic algorithm scheme is proposed. This algorithmic scheme is combined with a number of nearest neighbor based classifiers. Results show that classification accuracy generally outperforms other previously applied intelligent approaches.

  13. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate rapidly remodels PAP85-120, SEM1(45-107), and SEM2(49-107) seminal amyloid fibrils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellano, Laura M.; Hammond, Rebecca M.; Holmes, Veronica M.; Weissman, Drew; Shorter, James

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Semen harbors amyloid fibrils formed by proteolytic fragments of prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP248-286 and PAP85-120) and semenogelins (SEM1 and SEM2) that potently enhance HIV infectivity. Amyloid but not soluble forms of these peptides enhance HIV infection. Thus, agents that remodel these amyloid fibrils could prevent HIV transmission. Here, we confirm that the green tea polyphenol, epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), slowly remodels fibrils formed by PAP248-286 termed SEVI (semen derived enhancer of viral infection) and also exerts a direct anti-viral effect. We elucidate for the first time that EGCG remodels PAP85-120, SEM1(45-107), and SEM2(49-107) fibrils more rapidly than SEVI fibrils. We establish EGCG as the first small molecule that can remodel all four classes of seminal amyloid. The combined anti-amyloid and anti-viral properties of EGCG could have utility in preventing HIV transmission. PMID:26319581

  14. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate rapidly remodels PAP85-120, SEM1(45-107), and SEM2(49-107) seminal amyloid fibrils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellano, Laura M; Hammond, Rebecca M; Holmes, Veronica M; Weissman, Drew; Shorter, James

    2015-01-01

    Semen harbors amyloid fibrils formed by proteolytic fragments of prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP248-286 and PAP85-120) and semenogelins (SEM1 and SEM2) that potently enhance HIV infectivity. Amyloid but not soluble forms of these peptides enhance HIV infection. Thus, agents that remodel these amyloid fibrils could prevent HIV transmission. Here, we confirm that the green tea polyphenol, epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), slowly remodels fibrils formed by PAP248-286 termed SEVI (semen derived enhancer of viral infection) and also exerts a direct anti-viral effect. We elucidate for the first time that EGCG remodels PAP85-120, SEM1(45-107), and SEM2(49-107) fibrils more rapidly than SEVI fibrils. We establish EGCG as the first small molecule that can remodel all four classes of seminal amyloid. The combined anti-amyloid and anti-viral properties of EGCG could have utility in preventing HIV transmission. PMID:26319581

  15. Comparison of two procedures for routine IUD exchange in women with positive Pap smears for actinomyces-like organisms

    OpenAIRE

    Merki-Feld, G S; Rosselli, M; Imthurn, B

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In the female genital tract, up to 30% of Papanicolaou (Pap)-stained cervicovaginal smears of intrauterine device (IUD) users are positive for actinomyces-like organisms (ALOs). Many clinicians believe that no therapeutic intervention is necessary if women with ALOs are without symptoms. However, there are no recommendations for the procedure in ALO-positive women with need for a routine IUD exchange. STUDY DESIGN: In this retrospective study, the incidence of ALOs was compared in...

  16. Group B Streptococcal Septic Arthritis of the Shoulder and Potential Association with Pelvic Examination and PAP Smear

    OpenAIRE

    Daner, William E.III; Brett D. Meeks; Foster, William C.; Boardman, Norman D.III

    2016-01-01

    Group B streptococcal (GBS) infection of a native joint in a nonpregnant adult is uncommon. While many women are colonized with this flora, it rarely becomes pathogenic in its adult host. GBS associated joint infections have been reported, most of which have been related to hematogenous seeding from unknown sources. To our knowledge, there are no published case reports of a GBS joint infection in association with a pelvic exam and Papanicolaou (PAP) smear. In this case report, we present a ca...

  17. Estrogen staining in breast carcinoma by PAP methods compared to CEA and ferritin staining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osamu, K; Takashi, M; Yohichi, T; Yasuo, U; Tetsuro, Y; Yoshiro, F; Toshio, T

    1987-01-01

    The aims of this paper are to demonstrate the stainability of estrogen, CEA, and ferritin in breast carcinomas, fibroadenomas, and fibrocystic diseases; to examine whether the findings of endogenous estrogen using the immunohistochemical detection method are related to estrogen receptor (ER) assays; and to determine whether the stainability of estrogen, CEA, and ferritin were related to the prognosis of breast carcinomas. In breast cancer, the stainability of estrogen using the peroxidase-antiperoxidase (PAP) method was positively correlated with the dextran-coated charcoal (DCC) assay for ER. In breast cancers, the percentage of positive staining was 46% for estrogen, 48% for CEA, and 47% for ferritin. With all three stains, significant differences were observed between cancer and benign diseases. Cases that were both positive for estrogen staining and negative for CEA showed a good prognosis after the recurrence of disease. Our data suggest that the immunohistochemical staining of estrogen, CEA, and ferritin might predict the biological behavior of breast carcinomas and be a prognostically useful indicator of breast cancer patients. PMID:2436774

  18. Prevalence of HPV Infection and Its Association with Cytological Abnormalities of Pap Smears in Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Jamali Zavarei Jamali Zavarei

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Human papillomavirus infection is one of the most common genital infections. More than 100 types of this virus have been identified, and most of them are capable of infecting the genital mucosa. Human papillomavirus is in association with cancerous and precancerous lesions of the cervix; some types like HPV 16 and 18 are highly carcinogenic, some types like HPV 31 and 33 are moderately and some types like HPV 6 and 11 are mildly carcinogenic. In this research, the relationship between cytological changes of the squamous epithelial cells and the presence of HPV infections in our cases has been assessed."nMethods: In this prospective study, we collected 681 samples from women admitted to different hospitals and private gynecological clinics in Tehran, during the years 2003-2005. Two specimens were collected from each patient; one for a Pap smear study and the other for PCR assay in order to detect HPV."nResults: Out of our 681 samples, 600 specimens were suitable for PCR assay, and 34 cases were HPV positive in PCR assay. This means that 5.7 percent of our patients were infected with HPV."nConclusion: HPV infection is common in Iran and is nearly identical to European countries such as Germany, and Spain. Also, we found that using PCR assay in order to detect the presence of HPV viruses in vaginal discharges can be very helpful.

  19. CIEMAT Interlaboratories Comparison of the Results obtained in the Proficiency Test Run by IAEA; Comparacion Interlaboratorios del CIEMAT de los Resultados Obtenidos en la Prueba de Capacitacion de Analisis de Transuranicos en Cenizas propocionadas por el OIEA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gasco, C.; Anton, M. P.; Alvarez, A.; Navarro, N.; Meral, J.; Gonzalez, A.; Higueras Lafaja, E. [Ciemat. Madrid (Spain)

    2000-07-01

    This report contains the results obtained by two different laboratories from CIEMAT after participating in the Proficiency Test organised by IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency) in 1999. This test involves the analysis of fly ashes containing natural radionuclides and different amounts of added transuranics. The extraction techniques, counting methods and results obtained are detailed. This type of test are used for the labs to achieve their accreditation and check the reliability of the procedures routinely employed. (Author) 4 refs.

  20. Testing for measurement equivalence of human values across online and paper-and-pencil surveys

    OpenAIRE

    Davidov, Eldad; Depner, Felix

    2011-01-01

    The following study investigates the measurement quivalence of an online and paper-and-pencil (PAP) survey of human values. For this purpose, a total of 250 respondents completed the 21-item version of the Portrait Value Questionnaire (PVQ) either online (n = 125) or by PAP (n = 125). This questionnaire was developed by Shalom Schwartz and has been included in the European Social Survey (ESS) since 2002 to test his theory of basic human values (Schwartz, 1992). Measurement invariance was test...

  1. Self-reported history of Pap-smear in HIV-positive women in Northern Italy: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghinelli Florio

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The incidence of invasive cervical cancer in HIV-positive women is higher than in the general population. There is evidence that HIV-positive women do not participate sufficiently in cervical cancer screening in Italy, where cervical cancer is more than 10-fold higher in women with AIDS than in the general population. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the history of Pap-smear in HIV-positive women in Italy in recent years. We also examined the sociodemographic, clinical, and organizational factors associated with adherence to cervical cancer screening. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted between July 2006 and June 2007 in Emilia-Romagna region (Northern Italy. All HIV-positive women who received a follow-up visit in one of the 10 regional infectivology units were invited to participate. History of Pap-smear, including abnormal smears and subsequent treatment, was investigated through a self-administered anonymous questionnaire. The association between lack of Pap-smear in the year preceding the interview and selected characteristics was assessed by means of odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals adjusted for study centre and age. Results A total of 1,002 HIV-positive women were interviewed. Nine percent reported no history of Pap-smear, and 39% had no Pap-smear in the year prior to the date of questionnaire (last year. The lack of Pap-smear in the last year was significantly associated with age Three hundred five (34% women reported a previous abnormal Pap-smear, and of the 178 (58% referred for treatment, 97% complied. Conclusions In recent years the self-reported history of Pap-smear in HIV-positive women, in some public clinics in Italy, is higher than previously reported, but further efforts are required to make sure cervical cancer screening is accessible to all HIV-positive women.

  2. Analysis of the F Antigen-Specific papA Alleles of Extraintestinal Pathogenic Escherichia coli Using a Novel Multiplex PCR-Based Assay

    OpenAIRE

    James R. Johnson; Stell, Adam L.; Scheutz, Flemming; O'Bryan, Timothy T.; Russo, Thomas A.; Carlino, Ulrike B.; Fasching, Caludine; Kavle, Justine; van Dijk, Linda; Gaastra, Wim

    2000-01-01

    Polymorphisms in PapA, the major structural subunit and antigenic determinant of P fimbriae of extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli, are of considerable epidemiological, phylogenetic, and immunotherapeutic importance. However, to date, no method other than DNA sequencing has been generally available for their detection. In the present study, we developed and rigorously validated a novel PCR-based assay for the 11 recognized variants of papA and then used the new assay to assess the pre...

  3. Diacyltransferase Activity and Chain Length Specificity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis PapA5 in the Synthesis of Alkyl β-Diol Lipids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Touchette, Megan H.; Bommineni, Gopal R.; Delle Bovi, Richard J.; Gadbery, John; Nicora, Carrie D.; Shukla, Anil K.; Kyle, Jennifer E.; Metz, Thomas O.; Martin, Dwight W.; Sampson, Nicole S.; Miller, W. T.; Tonge, Peter J.; Seeliger, Jessica C.

    2015-09-08

    Although classified as Gram-positive bacteria, Corynebacterineae possess an asymmetric outer membrane that imparts structural and thereby physiological similarity to more distantly related Gram-negative bacteria. Like lipopolysaccharide in Gram-negative bacteria, lipids in the outer membrane of Corynebacterineae have been associated with the virulence of pathogenic species such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). For example, Mtb strains that lack long, branched-chain alkyl esters known as dimycocerosates (DIMs) are significantly attenuated in model infections. The resultant interest in the biosynthetic pathway of these unusual virulence factors has led to the elucidation of many of the steps leading to the final esterification of the alkyl beta-diol, phthiocerol, with branched-chain fatty acids know as mycocerosates. PapA5 is an acyltransferase implicated in these final reactions. We here show that PapA5 is indeed the terminal enzyme in DIM biosynthesis by demonstrating its dual esterification activity and chain-length preference using synthetic alkyl beta-diol substrate analogues. Applying these analogues to a series of PapA5 mutants, we also revise a model for the substrate binding within PapA5. Finally, we demonstrate that the Mtb Ser/Thr kinase PknB modifies PapA5 on three Thr residues, including two (T196, T198) located on an unresolved loop. These results clarify the DIM biosynthetic pathway and suggest possible mechanisms by which DIM biosynthesis may be regulated by the post-translational modification of PapA5.

  4. Charging and discharging tests for obtaining an accurate dynamic electro-thermal model of high power lithium-ion pack system for hybrid and EV applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mihet-Popa, Lucian; Camacho, Oscar Mauricio Forero; Nrgrd, Per Bromand

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a battery test platform including two Li-ion battery designed for hybrid and EV applications, and charging/discharging tests under different operating conditions carried out for developing an accurate dynamic electro-thermal model of a high power Li-ion battery pack system. The aim of the tests has been to study the impact of the battery degradation and to find out the dynamic characteristics of the cells including nonlinear open circuit voltage, series resistance and paralle...

  5. Fatores associados no realizao do exame de Papanicolaou: um estudo de base populacional no Municpio de Campinas, So Paulo, Brasil Factors associated with women's failure to submit to Pap smears: a population-based study in Campinas, So Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivian Mae Schmidt Lima Amorim

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar a prevalncia da no realizao do exame de Papanicolaou segundo variveis scio-econmicas, demogrficas e de comportamentos relacionados sade, em mulheres com 40 anos ou mais de idade, residentes no Municpio Campinas, So Paulo, Brasil. O estudo foi do tipo transversal, de base populacional em uma amostra de 290 mulheres. Os fatores associados no realizao do Papanicolaou, encontrados na anlise multivariada, foram: ter de 40 a 59 anos, ser preta/parda, ter escolaridade de at 4 anos. Entre os motivos alegados por quem nunca realizou o Papanicolaou destacam-se: achar desnecessrio (43,5%, sentir vergonha (28,1% e 13,7% por dificuldades relacionadas aos servios. O SUS foi responsvel por 43,2% dos exames de Papanicolaou realizados. Verificou-se a existncia de discriminao racial e social na realizao do exame, o que enfatiza a necessidade de intervenes que garantam melhor cobertura e ateno s mulheres mais vulnerveis incidncia e mortalidade por cncer do colo do tero.This study analyzes the prevalence of non-submittal to Pap smears according to socioeconomic, demographic, and health-related behavioral variables in women 40 years or older in Campinas, So Paulo State. This was a cross-sectional population-based study with a sample of 290 women. Based on multivariate analysis, factors associated with not having Pap smears were: age (40-59 years, race/ethnicity (black or mixed-race, and schooling (< 4 years. The following reasons were cited for not having Pap smears: considered unnecessary (43.5%, embarrassment (28.1%, and barriers related to health services (13.7%. The Unified National Health System performed 43.2% of the reported Pap smears. Health services should promote more equitable access to the health care system and improve the quality of care for women, since Pap smears are an effective tool against cervical cancer. The study confirmed that women's failure to obtain Pap smears is associated with social and racial inequality, placing these women at increased risk of cervical cancer.

  6. Effect of an antepartum Pap smear on the coverage of a cervical cancer screening programme: a population-based prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thoresen Steinar

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Almost one-third of Norwegian women aged 2569 years invited to have a Pap smear do not attend during the recommended period, and thus constitute a population with high-risk of cervical cancer (CC. Since the incidence of precancerous lesions of the cervix peak with occurrence of pregnancies within the same decade in women aged 25 to 35 years of age, antepartum care presents an opportunity to offer a Pap smear thereby increasing the coverage of the programme. The study objective was to describe the effect of the antepartum Pap smear on the coverage of a cytological CC screening programme. Methods Among 2 175 762 women resident in Norway in 31.12.1996, all women who gave birth in 19967 were identified from the Medical Birth Registry of Norway. Attendance to the cervical cancer screening was assessed by linkage to the Cytology Registry separately for the pregnant and non-pregnant women cohorts. The results were stratified by age, history of previous Pap smear and history of invitation to the CC screening programme. Logistic regression was used to estimate the relative probabilities of having a Pap smear adjusted for age, screening history, and time since invitation, for pregnant and non-pregnant women, respectively. Results 69% of the pregnant women had a Pap smear during one year of follow-up since beginning of the pregnancy with the majority taken during the antepartum period. Irrespectively of age or history of having a Pap smear, pregnant women were 4.3 times more likely to have a Pap smear during follow-up compared to non-pregnant women. 63.2% of the pregnant women had a smear as response to the invitation letter compared to 28.7% of the non-pregnant women, OR = 2.1 (95% CI 1.9 to 2.4. As an indication of "over-screening", 5397 pregnant women (57.8% with a smear shortly before the start of follow-up also had a new Papsmear, compared to 83 023 (32.3% in non-pregnant. Conclusion Pap smear screening during pregnancy increases the coverage of the CC screening programme. The contribution of the antepartum Pap smear to "over-screening" exists but its effect is modest in countries where women on average become pregnant after the start of recommended age of screening.

  7. Sanger Sequencing for BRCA1 c.68_69del, BRCA1 c.5266dup and BRCA2 c.5946del Mutation Screen on Pap Smear Cytology Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sin Hang; Zhou, Shaoxia; Zhou, Tianjun; Hong, Guofan

    2016-01-01

    Three sets of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primers were designed for heminested PCR amplification of the target DNA fragments in the human genome which include the site of BRCA1 c.68_69del, BRCA1 c.5266dup and BRCA2 c.5946del respectively, to prepare the templates for direct Sanger sequencing screen of these three founder mutations. With a robust PCR mixture, crude proteinase K digestate of the fixed cervicovaginal cells in the liquid-based Papanicolaou (Pap) cytology specimens can be used as the sample for target DNA amplification without pre-PCR DNA extraction, purification and quantitation. The post-PCR products can be used directly as the sequencing templates without further purification or quantitation. By simplifying the frontend procedures for template preparation, the cost for screening these three founder mutations can be reduced to about US $200 per test when performed in conjunction with human papillomavirus (HPV) assays now routinely ordered for cervical cancer prevention. With this projected price structure, selective patients in a high-risk population can be tested and each provided with a set of DNA sequencing electropherograms to document the absence or presence of these founder mutations in her genome to help assess inherited susceptibility to breast and ovarian cancer in this era of precision molecular personalized medicine. PMID:26867194

  8. Sanger Sequencing for BRCA1 c.68_69del, BRCA1 c.5266dup and BRCA2 c.5946del Mutation Screen on Pap Smear Cytology Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sin Hang; Zhou, Shaoxia; Zhou, Tianjun; Hong, Guofan

    2016-01-01

    Three sets of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primers were designed for heminested PCR amplification of the target DNA fragments in the human genome which include the site of BRCA1 c.68_69del, BRCA1 c.5266dup and BRCA2 c.5946del respectively, to prepare the templates for direct Sanger sequencing screen of these three founder mutations. With a robust PCR mixture, crude proteinase K digestate of the fixed cervicovaginal cells in the liquid-based Papanicolaou (Pap) cytology specimens can be used as the sample for target DNA amplification without pre-PCR DNA extraction, purification and quantitation. The post-PCR products can be used directly as the sequencing templates without further purification or quantitation. By simplifying the frontend procedures for template preparation, the cost for screening these three founder mutations can be reduced to about US $200 per test when performed in conjunction with human papillomavirus (HPV) assays now routinely ordered for cervical cancer prevention. With this projected price structure, selective patients in a high-risk population can be tested and each provided with a set of DNA sequencing electropherograms to document the absence or presence of these founder mutations in her genome to help assess inherited susceptibility to breast and ovarian cancer in this era of precision molecular personalized medicine. PMID:26867194

  9. Sanger Sequencing for BRCA1 c.68_69del, BRCA1 c.5266dup and BRCA2 c.5946del Mutation Screen on Pap Smear Cytology Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sin Hang Lee

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Three sets of polymerase chain reaction (PCR primers were designed for heminested PCR amplification of the target DNA fragments in the human genome which include the site of BRCA1 c.68_69del, BRCA1 c.5266dup and BRCA2 c.5946del respectively, to prepare the templates for direct Sanger sequencing screen of these three founder mutations. With a robust PCR mixture, crude proteinase K digestate of the fixed cervicovaginal cells in the liquid-based Papanicolaou (Pap cytology specimens can be used as the sample for target DNA amplification without pre-PCR DNA extraction, purification and quantitation. The post-PCR products can be used directly as the sequencing templates without further purification or quantitation. By simplifying the frontend procedures for template preparation, the cost for screening these three founder mutations can be reduced to about US $200 per test when performed in conjunction with human papillomavirus (HPV assays now routinely ordered for cervical cancer prevention. With this projected price structure, selective patients in a high-risk population can be tested and each provided with a set of DNA sequencing electropherograms to document the absence or presence of these founder mutations in her genome to help assess inherited susceptibility to breast and ovarian cancer in this era of precision molecular personalized medicine.

  10. A generalization of Bertrand's test

    OpenAIRE

    Amirali Tabatabai Adnani; Ali Reza; Mehdi Morovati

    2014-01-01

    One of the most practical routine tests for convergence of a positive series makes use of the ratio test. If this test fails, we can use Rabbe's test. When Rabbe's test fails the next sharper criteria which may sometimes be used is the Bertrand's test. If this test fails,we can use a generalization of Bertrand's test and such tests can be continued in nitely. For simplicity, we call ratio test, Rabbe's test, Bertrand's test as the Bertrand's test of order 0, 1 and 2, respectively. In this pap...

  11. Preliminary Results Obtained from Flight Test of a Rocket Model Having the Tail Only of the Grumman XF10F Airplane Configuration, TED No. NACA DE 354

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, William N.; Edmondson, James L.

    1950-01-01

    A flight test was made to determine the servoplane effectiveness and stability characteristics of the free-floating horizontal stabilizer to be used on the XF10F airplane. The results of this test indicate that servoplane effectiveness is practically constant through the speed range up to a Mach number of 1.15, and the stabilizer static stability is satisfactory. A loss of damping occurs over a narrow Mach number range near M = 1.0, resulting in dynamic instability of the stabilizer in this narrow range. Above M = 1.0 there is a gradual positive trim change of the stabilizer.

  12. Comparison between SRAM SEE cross-sections from ion beam testing with those obtained using a new picosecond pulsed laser facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A laser system has been designed to be capable of delivering large numbers of pulses across a micro-chip die under computer control, so as rapidly to generate upset and latch-up cross-section curves, in order to provide an efficient screening tool for SEE (single event effect) susceptibility. The system has been automated to make screening of parts for use in an SEE environment fast, efficient and inexpensive. A comparison between ion beam test results and laser test results has been used to develop initial calibrations between laser energy and LET (linear energy transfer)

  13. User's guide for polyethylene-based passive diffusion bag samplers to obtain volatile organic compound concentrations in wells. Part 2, Field tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vroblesky, Don A.

    2001-01-01

    Diffusion samplers installed in observation wells were found to be capable of yielding representative water samples for chlorinated volatile organic compounds. The samplers consisted of polyethylene bags containing deionized water and relied on diffusion of chlorinated volatile organic compounds through the polyethylene membrane. The known ability of polyethylene to transmit other volatile compounds, such as benzene and toluene, indicates that the samplers can be used for a variety of volatile organic compounds. In wells at the study area, the volatile organic compound concentrations in water samples obtained using the samplers without prior purging were similar to concentrations in water samples obtained from the respective wells using traditional purging and sampling approaches. The low cost associated with this approach makes it a viable option for monitoring large observation-well networks for volatile organic compounds.

  14. Clinical Evaluation of A New Model of Self-Obtained Method for the Assessment of Genital Human Papilloma Virus Infection in an Underserved Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Chang Chang

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: We designed a self-sampling method to collect exfoliated genital cells forhuman papilloma virus (HPV detection. The aim was to assess whether itwas suitable as an assistant tool for the early detection of cervical pre-cancerand cancer in a special category of the women who are not frequentlyscreened for cervical cancer.Methods: We compared the results of HPV detection that were self-obtained and physician-obtained cervical swabs from the same patient that were analyzed usinghybrid capture II assay. The diagnostic rate of cervical pre-cancer and cancerbetween self-obtained method and physician-obtained method were analyzed.Results: A total of 1194 women were prospectively registered from September 1997through September 1999. Among them, 144 (12.1% of self-test samplesand 155 (13% of physician-obtained samples were oncogenetic associated-HPV positive. Statistically, no significant differences existed in the screeningrate for cervical cancer using either the self-collected samples or thephysician-obtained samples ( p > .05. The sensitivity of cervical precanceror cancer detection using self-obtained HPV testing was higher (96.3% ascompared with the Pap smear (79.2% ( p < .02.Conclusion: The detection correlation of the HPV test between the self-obtained methodand physician-obtained method was 93%. Our results indicated that self-samplingwas a reliable method for testing for HPV. The identification of HPVinfection through the self-obtained method can be used in early identificationof high-risk women with cervical precancer and cancer especially in underservedpopulations.

  15. Evaluation of the relationship between capillary and venous plasma glucose concentrations obtained by the HemoCue Glucose 201+ system during an oral glucose tolerance test

    OpenAIRE

    Ignell, Claes; Berntorp, Kerstin

    2011-01-01

    Abstract In 55 women with previous gestational diabetes mellitus, simultaneous capillary and venous plasma glucose concentrations were measured at 0, 30 and 120 min during a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). The aims of the study were to examine the relationship between capillary and venous glucose measurements, and to establish equations for the conversion of capillary and venous glucose concentrations using the HemoCue Glucose 201+ system. Additionally, the correlation between the ca...

  16. The Correlation of Blood Test Results with the Data Obtained from MRI Images during the Determination of Pathology in Small Bones.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Marcon, P.; Bartuek, Karel; prlkov, A.; Dohnal, P.

    Berlin : IEEE, 2014, s. 490-493. ISBN 978-80-214-4983-1. ISSN 1805-5435. [TSP 2014. International Conference on Telecommunications and Signal Processing /37./. Berln (DE), 01.07.2014-03.07.2014] R&D Projects: GA ?R GAP102/12/1104 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : blood test results * bone * correlation * MRI images Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers

  17. Prevalence of high-risk human papillomavirus types 16 and 18 in healthy women with cytologically negative pap smear in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safaei Akbar

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Because human papillomavirus (HPV is one of the causal factors in cervical cancer, understanding the epidemiology of this infection is an important step towards developing strategies for prevention. Materials and Methods: We evaluated the prevalence of high-risk human papillomavirus Types 16 and 18 in cervical samples from 402 healthy women with normal Pap smears by testing with type-specific primers in the polymerase chain reaction. Participants were seen at two gynecological clinics affiliated to the Shiraz University of Medical Sciences in Iran. Result: The prevalence of positive HPV findings was 5.5%; high-risk HPV human papillomavirus Type 16 prevalence was 2% and no patient harbored HPV-18. The prevalence of HPV was 4.5% in younger age group and gradually increased to 20% in the 4 th decade. Conclusion: The prevalence of high-risk HPV was highest in the youngest women and gradually decreased with age. Overall, the prevalence of HPV in our population is low.

  18. IMPLEMENTASI HASIL PAP SMEARS PADA PENGEMBANGAN SURVEILANS TERPADU INFEKSI MENULAR SEKSUAL DI JAWA TIMUR (ANALISIS UNTUK MENGEMBANGKAN SURVEILANS-RESPONS IMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widjiartini Widjiartini

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The implementation analysis of Pap Smears result to the integrated Surveillance development of sexual infection in order to respond the IMS and HIV/AIDS cases which increased especially among the housewife and its aim to the implementation Pap Smears result. Results: The Analysis result: 1. Based on the Pap Smears analysis result when its managed properly might be benefited the information not merely detected service cancer which is tend to increase but its also detected fungal infection and 5 types of IMS data: Haemavilus Vaginalis (HV, Gonococoes (Cocen, Trichomonas Vaginalis (TV, Herpes and Virus Papiloma Humanus (HPV which is Cocen and TV tend to increase every years. This data might be used for Surveillance Respond of Pap Smears intended to the productive housewife who is representing susceptible age group against sexual infection and HIV/AIDS. 2. The integrated Surveillance activity of HIV and sexual infection along with eight steps of respond Pap Smears, the structure is matching up with Surveillance of WHO respond and the system and mechanism base on decision of Minister of Health number 1116/2003 to instruct the formation of Surveillance technical implementation and the formation Surveillance technical implementation and the formation Surveillance networking among those units. 3. Developing the integrated Surveillance of sexual infection and HIV/AIDS through the uphold unit Pap Smears is required the determination of basis function, the Surveillance uphold unit, the Respond Surveillance uphold and function, formulation of Protap and Instruction, Training, Monitoring and Evaluation Surveillance System, Communication, Procurement of Coordination and Resources. Exceptional the above mentioned it is necessary pay attention as well as Surveillance structure and quality. Suggestion: 1. Improving the Surveillance Respond System by improving the users of culture information and data for making a decision the unit of Pap Smears entirely levels of administrative at Central or Regional. 2. Developing the production of Health Information System that is able to convert data into information Pap Smears to facilitate analysis and interpretation of data. 3. Developing Data Centers, Surveillance and Health Information in accordance with decision of Minister of Health number 116/2003 and filling those units with functional staff epidemiologists and health information experts.Key words: Pap Smears, Surveillance Respond, Sexual Infection-housewife

  19. Pap Smear Diagnosis Using a Hybrid Intelligent Scheme Focusing on Genetic Algorithm Based Feature Selection and Nearest Neighbor Classification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marinakis, Yannis; Dounias, Georgios; Jantzen, Jan

    2009-01-01

    The term pap-smear refers to samples of human cells stained by the so-called Papanicolaou method. The purpose of the Papanicolaou method is to diagnose pre-cancerous cell changes before they progress to invasive carcinoma. In this paper a metaheuristic algorithm is proposed in order to classify the...... a 2 class problem. For finding the best possible performing feature subset selection problem, an effective genetic algorithm scheme is proposed. This algorithmic scheme is combined with a number of nearest neighbor based classifiers. Results show that classification accuracy generally outperforms...

  20. One year of Seaglider dissolved oxygen concentration profiles at the PAP site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binetti, Umberto; Kaiser, Jan; Heywood, Karen; Damerell, Gillian; Rumyantseva, Anna

    2015-04-01

    Oxygen is one of the most important variables measured in oceanography, influenced both by physical and biological factors. During the OSMOSIS project, 7 Seagliders were used in 3 subsequent missions to measure a multidisciplinary suite of parameters at high frequency in the top 1000 m of the water column for one year, from September 2012 to September 2013. The gliders were deployed at the PAP time series station (nominally at 49 N 16.5 W) and surveyed the area following a butterfly-shaped path. Oxygen concentration was measured by Aanderaa optodes and calibrated using ship CTD O2 profiles during 5 deployment and recovery cruises, which were in turn calibrated by Winkler titration of discrete samples. The oxygen-rich mixed layer deepens in fall and winter and gets richer in oxygen when the temperature decreases. The spring bloom did not happen as expected, but instead the presence of a series of small blooms was measured throughout spring and early summer. During the summer the mixed layer become very shallow and oxygen concentrations decreased. A Deep Oxygen Maximum (DOM) developed along with a deep chlorophyll maximum during the summer and was located just below the mixed layer . At this depth, phytoplankton had favourable light and nutrient conditions to grow and produce oxygen, which was not subject to immediate outgassing. The oxygen concentration in the DOM was not constant, but decreased, then increased again until the end of the mission. Intrusions of oxygen rich water are also visible throughout the mission. These are probably due to mesoscale events through the horizontal transport of oxygen and/or nutrients that can enhance productivity, particularly at the edge of the fronts. We calculate net community production (NCP) by analysing the variation in oxygen with time. Two methods have been proposed. The classical oxygen budget method assumes that changes in oxygen are due to the sum of air-sea flux, isopycnal advection, diapycnal mixing and NCP. ERA-Interim provides climatological data to calculate air-sea gas exchange fluxes based on wind-speed parameterisations of the gas exchange coefficient. The second method exploits the high frequency of the measurements to determine the increment of oxygen over time during daylight hours to measure NCP. Together with the O2 concentration decrease during the night (due to community respiration), this method also allows us to derive gross oxygen production rates. The results of these two methods are compared.

  1. Natural variation for anthocyanin accumulation under high-light and low-temperature stress is attributable to the ENHANCER OF AG-4 2 (HUA2) locus in combination with PRODUCTION OF ANTHOCYANIN PIGMENT1 (PAP1) and PAP2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilk, Nadine; Ding, Jia; Ihnatowicz, Anna; Koornneef, Maarten; Reymond, Matthieu

    2015-04-01

    Growing conditions combining high light intensities and low temperatures lead to anthocyanin accumulation in plants. This response was contrasted between two Arabidopsis thaliana accessions, which were used to decipher the genetic and molecular bases underlying the variation of this response. Quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for flowering time (FT) and anthocyanin accumulation under a high-light and low-temperature scenario versus a control environment were mapped. Major QTLs were confirmed using near-isogenic lines. Candidate genes were examined using mutants and gene expression studies as well as transgenic complementation. Several QTLs were found for FT and for anthocyanin content, of which one QTL co-located at the ENHANCER OF AG-4 2 (HUA2) locus. That HUA2 is a regulator of both pathways was confirmed by the analysis of loss-of-function mutants. For a strong expression of anthocyanin, additional allelic variation was detected for the PRODUCTION OF ANTHOCYANIN PIGMENT1 (PAP1) and PAP2 genes which control the anthocyanin pathway. The genetic control of variation for anthocyanin content was dissected in A. thaliana and shown to be affected by a common regulator of flowering and anthocyanin biosynthesis together with anthocyanin-specific regulators. PMID:25425527

  2. Interpretation of Actinide-Distribution Data Obtained from Non-Destructive and Destructive Post-Test Analyses of an Intact-Core Column of Culebra Dolomite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US DOE, with technical assistance from Sandia National Laboratories, has successfully received EPA certification and opened the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), a nuclear waste disposal facility located approximately 42 km east of Carlsbad, New Mexico. Performance assessment analyses indicate that human intrusions by inadvertent, intermittent drilling for resources provide the only credible mechanisms for releases of radionuclides from the disposal system. In modeling long-term brine releases, subsequent to a drilling event, potential migration pathways through the permeable layers of rock above the Salado formation were analyzed. Major emphasis is placed on the Culebra Member of the Rustler Formation because this is the most transmissive geologic layer overlying the WIPP site. In order to help quantify parameters for the calculated releases, radionuclide transport experiments have been earned out using intact-core columns obtained from the Culebra dolomite member of the Rustler Formation within the WIPP site. This paper deals primarily with results of analyses for 241Pu and 241Am distributions developed during transport experiments in one of these cores. Transport experiments were done using a synthetic brine that simulates Culebra brine at the core recovery location (the WIPP air-intake shaft--AIS). Hydraulic characteristics (i.e., apparent porosity and apparent dispersion coefficient) for intact-core columns were obtained via experiments using the conservative tracer 22Na. Elution experiments carried out over periods of a few days with tracers 232U and 239Np indicated that these tracers were weakly retarded as indicated by delayed elution of the species. Elution experiments with tracers 241Pu and 241Am were attempted, but no elution of either species has been observed to date, including experiments of many months' duration. In order to quantify retardation of the non-eluted species 241Pu and 241Am after a period of brine flow, non-destructive and destructive analyses of one intact-core column were carried out to determine distribution of these actinides in the rock. Analytical results indicate that the majority of the 241Am remained very near the injection surface of the core (possibly as a precipitate), and that the majority of the 241Pu was dispersed with a very high apparent retardation value. The 241Pu distribution is interpreted using a single-porosity advection-dispersion model, and an approximate retardation value is reported

  3. Comparison of Hematologic and Biochemical Test Results in Blood Samples Obtained by Jugular Venipuncture Versus Nail Clip in Moluccan Cockatoos (Cacatua moluccensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Tracy D; Lejnieks, Daniel V; Koepke, Hoyt; Grimson, Fiona; Szucs, Jennifer; Omaits, Kerri; Lane, Rosalie

    2015-12-01

    In birds, blood samples are often collected from the jugular, medial metatarsal, and basilic vein. Samples are sometimes collected by toe nail clip, but concerns to avoid drawing blood from the nail include pain after nail clips for blood collection, potential differences in complete blood count (CBC) results, and potential contamination with uric acid values. To compare differences in biochemical and hematologic values in blood samples obtained by jugular venipuncture versus toenail clip, blood samples were collected from Moluccan cockatoos (Cacatua moluccensis) (N = 23) and sent to a commercial laboratory for routine CBCs and serum biochemical analysis. Results showed good agreement between venipuncture and nail clip blood samples in red blood cell count, packed cell volume, heterophil count and percentage, lymphocyte count and percentage, aspartate aminotransferase, chloride, creatine phosphokinase, glucose, lactate dehydrogenase, total protein, and uric acid values. Constant bias was found in values of bile acids, cholesterol, and hemoglobin. Proportional bias toward higher values in the jugular sample were found in total white blood cell (WBC) count and inorganic phosphorus. Serum calcium plots revealed a proportional bias toward higher values in the toe nail blood when values were increased. Results suggest some differences in WBC count, bile acids, calcium, cholesterol, hemoglobin, and phosphorus values between blood samples collected by jugular venipuncture and samples collected by toe nail clip, but the differences are mostly minor and, with the possible exception of inorganic phosphorus and marginally elevated or very low WBC counts, are unlikely to affect the use or interpretation of the avian blood panel. PMID:26771320

  4. Evaluation of the relationship between capillary and venous plasma glucose concentrations obtained by the HemoCue Glucose 201+ system during an oral glucose tolerance test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ignell, Claes; Berntorp, Kerstin

    2011-12-01

    In 55 women with previous gestational diabetes mellitus, simultaneous capillary and venous plasma glucose concentrations were measured at 0, 30 and 120 min during a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). The aims of the study were to examine the relationship between capillary and venous glucose measurements, and to establish equations for the conversion of capillary and venous glucose concentrations using the HemoCue Glucose 201+ system. Additionally, the correlation between the capillary and venous glucose concentrations with the diagnostic cut-off limits proposed by the World Health Organization (WHO) in 1999 was evaluated. Capillary glucose concentrations were consistently higher than venous glucose concentrations at all time points of the OGTT (p < 0.001), and the correlations between the measurements were statistically highly significant (p < 0.001). The differences between the samples were greatest in the non-fasting state as revealed by the 95% prediction intervals (mmol/L) in Bland-Altman plots; 0.54 at 0 min, 2.01 at 30 min, and 1.35 at 120 min. Equivalence values for capillary plasma glucose concentrations derived from this study tended to be higher than those proposed by the WHO as diagnostic cut-off limits. Stratifying subjects by glucose tolerance status according to the WHO criteria revealed disagreements related to glucose values close to the diagnostic cut-off points. The study findings highlight the uncertainty associated with derived equivalence values. However, capillary plasma glucose measurements could be suitable for diagnostic purposes in epidemiological studies and when translating results on a group basis. PMID:21961814

  5. Endocervical curettage and brushing during colposcopic evaluation in patients having suspected changes in pap smear and negative colposcopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borr-Arrieta Orlando

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: the aim of this study was to evaluate the utility of endocervical curettage and brushing during colposcopic evaluation in patients having suspected changes in Pap smear and negative colposcopy.Methodology: results from 43 women having abnormal Pap smear and negative satisfactory colposcopy; endocervical curettage during colposcopic evaluation were thus compared to endocervical brushing during colposcopic evaluation.Results: the endocervical curettage was useful to detect cervical intraepithelial neoplasia no suspected during satisfactory colposcopic evaluation. The endocervical brushings was useful too, but the endocervical curettage was better.Conclusion: this study suggests that endocervical curettage can be useful during negative satisfactory colposcopic evaluation of a patient with an abnormal Papnicolaou smear.RESUMENObjetivos: El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar la utilidad del cepillado y legrado endocervical durante la evaluacin colposcpica en pacientes con citologa anormal y colposcopia satisfactoria negativa. Materiales y mtodos: Se incluyeron 43 mujeres con citologa anormal y colposcopia satisfactoria negativa. Se realiz legrado y cepillado endocervical y se compararon los resultados.Resultados: El legrado endocervical fue til en detectar neoplasia intraepitelial cervical no observada durante la evaluacin colposcpica satisfactoria. El cepillado endocervical tambin fue til, pero el legrado fue mejor.Conclusin: Este estudio sugiere que el legrado endocervical puede ser de utilidad durante la evaluacin colposcpica satisfactoria negativa de pacientes con una citologa anormal.

  6. Pancreatitis-associated protein (HIP/PAP) gene expression is upregulated in NOD mice pancreas and localized in exocrine tissue during diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baeza, N; Sanchez, D; Christa, L; Guy-Crotte, O; Vialettes, B; Figarella, C

    2001-01-01

    We have previously shown a specific significant overexpression in the exocrine pancreatic tissue of two members of the regenerating gene multifamily: reg I and reg II in the non-obese diabetic (NOD) mouse during active diabetogenesis. To strengthen the hypothesis that the overexpression of these genes may represent a defence of the acinar cell against pancreatic endocrine agression, we studied the pancreatic expression and the localization of another member of this family: the pancreatitis-associated protein (PAP) in NOD mice under the same conditions. We found that NOD mice present significantly higher PAP mRNA levels than control IOPS-OF1 mice. There is no difference between female NOD mice which progressively develop type I diabetes between 100 and 200 days and male NOD mice which are protected. The only difference observed was in function of the age of onset of diabetes. Before 180 days, the PAP mRNA levels were similar to those found in NOD males and nondiabetic females, but above 180 days the levels of PAP mRNA increased significantly. More importantly immunohistological studies demonstrate a striking difference in the protein localization between normal or nondiabetic NOD mice and diabetic NOD mice. If the protein is mainly detected in the islet cells in the absence of diabetes, a specific and intense expression of PAP was observed in the acinar cells of diabetic NOD mice. In conclusion, our data demonstrates that the acinar cells may react to a long-lasting pancreatic endocrine aggression by an induction of PAP and underlines the existence of a symbiotic relationship between endocrine and exocrine tissue. PMID:11842280

  7. Identification of Phase-I Metabolites of the Kv1.3 Blocker PAP-1 (5-(4-Phenoxybutoxy)psoralen) in the Rat

    OpenAIRE

    Hao, Bin; Chen, Zhong-Wei; Zhou, Xiang-Jun; Zimin, Pavel I.; Miljanich, George P.; Wulff, Heike; Wang, Yong-xiang

    2010-01-01

    PAP-1 (5-(4-phenoxybutoxy)psoralen), a potent small-molecule blocker of the voltage-gated potassium Kv1.3 channel, is currently in pre-clinical development for psoriasis. The present study was undertaken to identify the major phase-I metabolites of PAP-1 in rats. Following oral administration at 50 mg/kg, bile, plasma, urine and feces were collected, and separated by reversed-phase HPLC after sample preparation by solid-phase extraction. Five phase-I metabolites, i.e., 5-(oxybutyric-acid)psor...

  8. Study of the role of Pap1 as a sensor of H2O2 and as a transcriptional activator of stress responses in Schizosaccharimyces pombe

    OpenAIRE

    Calvo Arnedo, Mar??a Isabel, 1983-

    2012-01-01

    En el laboratorio se utiliza como sistema modelo la levadura Schizosaccaromyces pombe para poder estudiar la respuesta a estr??s oxidativo. Las dos rutas principales de respuesta a estr??s oxidativo son las del factor de transcripci??n Pap1 y la de la MAP quinasa Sty1. Cuando aplicamos a la c??lula bajas dosis de H2O2, Pap1 que se encuentra en el citoplasma en estado reducido, sufre un cambio conformacional, se oxida, y activo viaja al n??cleo, donde se une a diferentes promotores para activa...

  9. Constitutive equations of Li2TiO3 and Li4SiO4 pebble Beds obtained by means of standard triaxial tests: implementation of the model in a FEM code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the ITER operation, some Test Breeding Modules (TBM) will be tested in the equatorial ports of the reactor. Presently, these TBM are being developed in different research centres in the world. The Helium-Cooled Pebble Bed (HCPB) blanket is one of two breeder blanket concepts developed in Europe. The HCPB uses Beryllium pebbles as neutron multiplier and. Li4SiO4 or Li2TiO3 pebbles as breeder material. The analysis of the breeding blanket is complex for the geometry as well as for the loading conditions. Advanced computer codes are needed in order to determine the reliability of the different designs. In this context the mechanical characterisation of pebble beds is important in order to simulate their behaviour. This paper illustrates the standard tests, performed in order to obtain the effective properties of the pebble beds, and the implementation of a constitutive model of the granular material in a FEM code. Several Authors have analyzed the pebble bed by meand uniaxial compression tests (oedometer tests). This test permits to obtain an effective displacement- load law under lateral constraint, but no data are obtained about the pebble bed shear resistance or about the three-dimensional behaviour of the bed. In the soil (made of sand, gravel or clay) qualification, triaxial tests are used for determining all their constitutive properties. In these test the soil is loaded by axial and lateral loads which can be varied independently. The measurement of the load and the displacement in both the directions permits to obtain the material constants f the constitutive models elaborated for describing the soil behaviour. The classic soil models are the Cam-Clay model and the Drucker-Prager with cap model. These models are implemented in several commercial FEM codes and they could be easily used for simulating the pebble beds. But the pebble bed behaviour is different from that of the soil. The soil models describe in detail the behaviour dependent on the water pressure and on the drainage conditions. These aspects have not any meaning for the pebble bed. Moreover the soil consolidation is different from the creep of the pebble bed. The paper demonstrates the limits of applying the soil model to the pebble bed. In fact the triaxial tests have been simulated numerically by means a commercial FEM code considering the classic soil models and the material constants obtained by the tests. Moreover the paper emphasizes the relative importance of the material constants (about 10), contained in the classic soil model, in order to fit the experimental results of the tests on the pebble beds. (orig.)

  10. Cytologic differential diagnosis of follicular lymphoma grades 1 and 2 from reactive follicular hyperplasia: cytologic features of fine-needle aspiration smears with Pap stain and fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis to detect t(14;18)(q32;q21) chromosomal translocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishimoto, Koji; Kitamura, Takashi; Fujita, Kazuhiro; Tate, Genshu; Mitsuya, Toshiyuki

    2006-01-01

    Fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) is a well-established technique for diagnosis of malignant lymphoma (ML). Generally, Giemsa but not Pap stain is used in FNAC. However, cytologic features obtained from Pap stain are also valuable. Very few studies on the cytologic characteristics of ML, as determined by Pap stain, are available. It is easier to observe nuclear irregularity and to identify nucleoli in ML cells by Pap stain than by Giemsa stain. Here, we applied Pap stain for cytomorphologic differential diagnosis of follicular lymphoma (FL) from reactive follicular hyperplasia (RFH). Eighteen biopsy-confirmed cases of FL grades 1 and 2, with available FNAC smears, and six cases of RFH were selected for this study. Low-power magnification showed well-known features, and tingible body macrophages and lymphoid cell aggregates were observed frequently in RFH and FL, respectively. In addition, the so-called two-nuclei-like cleaved cells were observed frequently in FL. These cells showed notably cleaved nuclei, and therefore, appeared to possess two nuclei. Under high-power magnification, the occurrence of cells with nucleoli >1 microm and of cleaved cells was high in FL compared to RFH. It is believed that FL derives from centrocytes and that FL cells are slightly larger than non-neoplastic small lymphocytes. However, analysis of cell diameter in this study indicated that small lymphoma cells were predominant in half the cases of FL grades 1 and 2, and the percentage of these cells was similar to that in RFH, showing why false-negative diagnosis of FL grades 1 and 2 occasionally occurs. There are limitations of FNAC in the diagnosis of FL. However, we believe that the appearance of two-nuclei-like cleaved cells and the high percentage of nucleoli-possessing cells, which we describe here, provide significant and valuable clues for the differential diagnosis of FL from RFH. Of 18 cases of FL grades 1 and 2, t(14;18)(q32;q21) was found in 13 cases with the use of destained FNAC smears. Our study suggests that, together with the cytomorphologic findings described earlier, FISH analysis for the chromosomal translocation, t(14;18)(q32;q21), is crucial for final cytologic diagnosis of FL grades 1 and 2. PMID:16355396

  11. Potential coverage of circulating HPV types by current and developing vaccines in a group of women in Bosnia and Herzegovina with abnormal Pap smears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salimovi?-Bei?, I; Huki?, M

    2015-09-01

    The objectives of this study were to identify human papillomavirus (HPV) genotypes in a group of Bosnian-Herzegovinian women with abnormal cytology and to assess their potential coverage by vaccines. HPVs were identified by multiplex real-time PCR test (HPV High Risk Typing Real-TM; Sacace Biotechnologies, Italy) of 105 women with an abnormal cervical Pap smear and positive high-risk (HR) HPV DNA screening test. The most common genotypes in the study were HPV-16 (326%, 48/147), HPV-31 (143%, 21/147), HPV-51 (95%, 14/147) and HPV-18 (75%, 11/147). The overall frequency of HR HPV-16 and/or HPV-18, covered by currently available vaccines [Gardasil (Merck & Co., USA) and Cervarix; (GlaxoSmithKline, UK)] was lower than the overall frequency of other HPVs detected in the study (401%, 59/174, P = 0017). Group prevalence of HR HPVs targeted by a nine-valent vaccine in development (code-named V503) was higher than total frequency of other HPVs detected (680%, 100/147, P Development of cervical cytological abnormalities was independent of the presence of multiple infections (? 2 = 0598, P = 0741). Compared to other HPVs, dependence of cervical diagnosis and HPV-16, -18 (P = 0008) and HPV-16, -18, -31 (P = 0008) infections were observed. Vaccines targeting HR HPV-16, -18 and -31 might be an important tool in the prevention of cervical disease in Bosnia and Herzegovina. PMID:25578155

  12. Experiences and unmet needs of women undergoing Pap smear cervical cancer screening: impact on uptake of cervical cancer screening in south eastern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chigbu, Chibuike O; Onyebuchi, Azubuike K; Egbuji, Chuma C; Ezugwu, Eusebus C

    2015-03-01

    The burden of cervical cancer is on the increase in sub-Saharan Africa mainly due to inadequate provision and utilisation of cervical cancer prevention services. Several evidence-based strategies have been deployed to improve cervical cancer screening uptake without much success. However, patients' experiences and satisfaction with service provision has not been adequately studied. Inefficiencies in service delivery and less fulfilling experiences by women who attend cervical cancer screening could have considerable impact in future voluntary uptake of cervical cancer screening. Six hundred and eighty women who underwent Pap smear screening in three health care facilities in two states in south eastern Nigeria were interviewed to evaluate their satisfaction, willingness to undertake future voluntary screening, unmet needs and correlation between satisfaction level and willingness to undergo future screening. Satisfaction with Pap smear screening correlated positively with willingness to undertake future voluntary screening (Pearson's correlation coefficient?=?0.78, P?=?0.001). The mean satisfaction score was significantly higher among participants handled by nurses than those handled by the physicians (3.16??0.94 vs 2.52??0.77, P?=?0.001). 'Scrapping discomfort' of the spatula was reported as the most dissatisfying aspect of Pap smear experience. The need for less invasive screening procedures was the most unmet need. It was concluded that improving the Pap smear screening experience of women and providing less invasive methods of cervical cancer screening with immediate results could improve uptake of cervical cancer screening in south eastern Nigeria. PMID:24980966

  13. Follow-up of women with inadequate Pap smears: a prospective cohort study / Acompanhamento de mulheres com esfregaos de Papanicolaou inadequados: um estudo prospectivo de coorte

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Fanny, Lpez-Alegra; Dino Roberto Soares De, Lorenzi; Orlando Quezada, Poblete.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXTO E OBJETIVO: Esfregaos inadequados de Papanicolaou no fornecem amostra satisfatria de clulas para avaliao, ficando assim mais difcil detectar anomalias citolgicas cervicais. O objetivo deste estu [...] do foi determinar os resultados de seguimento citolgico e histolgico de mulheres com relatrios de esfregaos inadequados nas unidades bsicas de sade em Santiago, Chile, 2010-2011. DESENHO E LOCAL: Estudo prospectivo de coorte em unidades bsicas de sade em Santiago, Chile. MTODOS: A populao foi selecionada do banco de dados Cito-Expert em 2010. Na sequncia, os dados foram organizados pelos resultados de seguimento citolgico e histolgico de 2.547 mulheres com relatrios inadequados de citologia cervical pelo perodo de 12 meses. As amostras foram atri-budas a grupos com base na causa de inadequao (esfregaos com clulas endocervicais; amostras insuficientes, inflamatrias, ou com m fixao, amostras insuficientes e hemorrgicas, ou espci-mes insuficientes e inflamatrios). Os dados foram analisados com base no conditional probability tree diagram" e estatsticas descritivas. RESULTADOS: Metade das mulheres (n = 1.285) preencheram os requisitos do Ministrio da Sade para repetir esses esfregaos; dessas mulheres, 1.104 tiveram resultados normais para citologia (85,9%). A detec-o de leses cervicais por grupo variou de 0% (esfregaos com apenas clulas endocervicais e espcimes insuficientes e hemorrgicos) para 4,1% (m fxao). CONCLUSO: Uma grande proporo de resultados normais justifica a reviso das diretrizes clnicas atuais. Os resultados mostraram que no necessrio repetir to cedo o teste de Papanicolaou, exceto em resul-tados inadequados de hemorragia e citologia inflamatria. Abstract in english CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Inadequate Pap smears do not provide satisfactory cell samples for evaluation, thus making it more difficult to detect cervical cytological abnormalities. The objective of this study was t [...] o determine the cytological and histological follow-up results from women with inadequate smear reports in primary healthcare centers in Santiago, Chile 2010-2011. DESIGN AND SETTING: Prospective cohort study at primary healthcare clinics in Santiago, Chile. METHODS: The population was taken from the Cito-Expert" database of 2010. The data were then organized according to the cytological and histological follow-up results of 2,547 women with inadequate cervical cytological reports over the 12-month period. The samples were assigned to groups based on the cause of inadequacy (smears with endocervical cells alone; insufficient, hemorrhagic, inflammatory or poorly fixed samples; insufficient and hemorrhagic samples; or insufficient and inflammatory specimens). The data were analyzed using the conditional probability tree diagram" and descriptive statistics. RESULT: Half of the women (n = 1,285) met the requirements of the Ministry of Health for repeating these inadequate smears, and 1,104 of these women had normal cytological results (85.9%). The detection rate for cervical lesions according to group ranged from 0% (smears with endocervical cells alone or insufficient and hemorrhagic specimens) to 4.1% (poor fixation). CONCLUSION: The large proportion of normal results justifies revision of the current clinical guidelines. The results showed that it is not necessary to repeat the Pap test early on, with the exception of inadequate hemorrhagic and inflammatory cytological results.

  14. Cervical pap smear study and its utility in cancer screening to specify the strategy for cervical cancer control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandakini M Patel, Amrish N Pandya, Jigna Modi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to explore various lesions of Uterine cervix [inflammatory and growth], to find out target age group in which screening efforts can be concentrated for early detection as well as reduction of the incidence of cervical cancer, in our set up. Patients in the age group 15-50 and 50-78 years with various complaints were screened during June 2006 to December 2007. Total 995 patients were studied. Slides were fixed in 95% ethyl alcohol and stained with Pap stain. Slides were reported according to The 2001 Bethesda System, by cytopathologists. Out of 995 patients studied, 940 showed inflammation and other benign lesions. 55 patients showed premalignant and malignant lesions. Premalignant lesions were present in 30-50 year of age group.

  15. Links between surface productivity and deep ocean particle flux at the Porcupine Abyssal Plain (PAP sustained observatory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Frigstad

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study we present hydrography, biogeochemistry and sediment trap observations between 2003 and 2012 at Porcupine Abyssal Plain (PAP sustained observatory in the northeast Atlantic. The time series is valuable as it allows for investigation of the link between surface productivity and deep ocean carbon flux. The region is a perennial sink for CO2, with an average uptake of around 1.5 mmol m−2 d−1. The average monthly drawdowns of inorganic carbon and nitrogen were used to quantify the net community production (NCP and new production, respectively. Seasonal NCP and new production were found to be 4.57 ± 0.27 mol C m−2 and 0.37 ± 0.14 mol N m−2. The Redfield ratio was high (12, and the production calculated from carbon was higher than production calculated from nitrogen, which is indicative of carbon overconsumption. The export ratio and transfer efficiency were 16 and 4%, respectively, and the site thereby showed high flux attenuation. Particle tracking was used to examine the source region of material in the sediment trap, and there was large variation in source regions, both between and within years. There were higher correlations between surface productivity and export flux when using the particle-tracking approach, than by comparing with the mean productivity in a 100 km box around the PAP site. However, the differences in correlation coefficients were not significant, and a longer time series is needed to draw conclusions on applying particle tracking in sediment trap analyses.

  16. Resultados histolgicos e deteco do HPV em mulheres com clulas escamosas atpicas de significado indeterminado e leso escamosa intra-epitelial de baixo grau na colpocitologia oncolgica / Histological results and HPV detection in women with pap smear showing atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance and low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Andr Luis Ferreira, Santos; Sophie Franoise Mauricette, Derchain; Luis Otvio, Sarian; Elizabete Aparecida, Campos; Marcos Roberto dos, Santos; Gislaine Aparecida, Fonsechi-Carvasan.

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: avaliar o desempenho da colpocitologia oncolgica (CO) e da Captura de Hbridos II (CHII) para o diagnstico de leso cervical histolgica significativa (NIC2/3) em mulheres encaminhadas com CO contendo atipias celulares de significado indeterminado (ASCUS) ou leso escamosa intra-epiteli [...] al de baixo grau (LSIL). MTODOS: estudo de corte transversal no qual foram includas 161 mulheres encaminhadas, entre agosto de 2000 e setembro de 2002, devido a CO com resultado de ASCUS ou LSIL. As mulheres responderam a questionrio especfico sobre caractersticas sociodemogrficas e reprodutivas e foram submetidas a exame ginecolgico com coleta de CO e CHII, sendo realizada colposcopia com eventual bipsia de reas suspeitas. Foi aplicado o teste do qui-quadrado para as associaes da idade, uso de condom, uso de anticoncepcional oral e tabagismo com os resultados da CHII. Foram calculados a sensibilidade, especificidade, valor preditivo positivo e valor preditivo negativo da CO e da CHII para detectar NIC2/3. Todos os clculos foram realizados com intervalos de confiana estatstica de 95%. RESULTADOS: sessenta e sete porcento das mulheres com menos de 30 anos de idade tiveram testes positivos para o HPV. A CO e CHII tiveram sensibilidade de 82% em detectar NIC2/3 quando considerados como positivos ASCUS, LSIL ou HSIL. Quando se consideram como positivas apenas as CO com HSIL, este exame apresenta acentuado ganho de especificidade (de 29 para 95%) e valor preditivo positivo (de 12 para 50%), superando a CHII, porm com reduo igualmente significativa de sua sensibilidade (de 82 para 41%). CONCLUSES: nossos resultados indicaram grande potencial da CHII para detectar mulheres com NIC2/3 entre as pacientes com ASCUS/LSIL na CO de encaminhamento. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: to assess the ability of Pap smear and hybrid capture II (HCII) to detect clinically significant cervical lesions (CIN2/3) in women referred to hospital due to atypical squamous cells of unknown significance (ASCUS) or low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL). METHODS: a cross-se [...] ctional study comprising 161 women referred to the Taubat University Hospital due to ASCUS/LSIL, between August 2000 and September 2002. All women responded to a questionnaire regarding sociodemographic and reproductive characteristics and were subjected to gynecological examination with specimen collection for Pap test and HCII, along with colposcopy and eventual cervical biopsy. The relationship between HCII results and age, use of condom, oral hormonal contraception, and smoking were evaluated by the chi-square test. The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of both Pap test and HCII were calculated. All calculations were performed within 95% confidence intervals. RESULTS: sixty-seven percent of the women that tested positive for HPV were less than 30 years old. Pap smear and HCII showed the same 82% sensitivity in detecting CIN2/3 when the threshold for a positive Pap result was ASCUS, LSIL or HSIL. Pap smear specificity and positive predictive values were substantially increased when only HSIL results were considered as positive (from 29 to 95% and 12 to 50%, respectively). These figures were superior to those of HCII, but at the expense of an expressive loss of sensitivity (from 82% to 41%). CONCLUSIONS: our results substantiate the potential of HCII in detecting CIN2/3 among women referred due to ASCUS/LSIL.

  17. Bacterial curli protein promotes the conversion of PAP248-286 into the amyloid SEVI: cross-seeding of dissimilar amyloid sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Kevin; Brender, Jeffrey R; Monde, Kazuaki; Ono, Akira; Evans, Margery L; Popovych, Nataliya; Chapman, Matthew R; Ramamoorthy, Ayyalusamy

    2013-01-01

    Fragments of prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP248-286) in human semen dramatically increase HIV infection efficiency by increasing virus adhesion to target cells. PAP248-286 only enhances HIV infection in the form of amyloid aggregates termed SEVI (Semen Enhancer of Viral Infection), however monomeric PAP248-286 aggregates very slowly in isolation. It has therefore been suggested that SEVI fiber formation in vivo may be promoted by exogenous factors. We show here that a bacterially-produced extracellular amyloid (curli or Csg) acts as a catalytic agent for SEVI formation from PAP248-286 at low concentrations in vitro, producing fibers that retain the ability to enhance HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) infection. Kinetic analysis of the cross-seeding effect shows an unusual pattern. Cross-seeding PAP248-286 with curli only moderately affects the nucleation rate while significantly enhancing the growth of fibers from existing nuclei. This pattern is in contrast to most previous observations of cross-seeding, which show cross-seeding partially bypasses the nucleation step but has little effect on fiber elongation. Seeding other amyloidogenic proteins (IAPP (islet amyloid polypeptide) and A?1-40) with curli showed varied results. Curli cross-seeding decreased the lag-time of IAPP amyloid formation but strongly inhibited IAPP elongation. Curli cross-seeding exerted a complicated concentration dependent effect on A?1-40 fibrillogenesis kinetics. Combined, these results suggest that the interaction of amyloidogenic proteins with preformed fibers of a different type can take a variety of forms and is not limited to epitaxial nucleation between proteins of similar sequence. The ability of curli fibers to interact with proteins of dissimilar sequences suggests cross-seeding may be a more general phenomenon than previously supposed. PMID:23638387

  18. Bacterial curli protein promotes the conversion of PAP248-286 into the amyloid SEVI: cross-seeding of dissimilar amyloid sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Hartman

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Fragments of prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP248-286 in human semen dramatically increase HIV infection efficiency by increasing virus adhesion to target cells. PAP248-286 only enhances HIV infection in the form of amyloid aggregates termed SEVI (Semen Enhancer of Viral Infection, however monomeric PAP248-286 aggregates very slowly in isolation. It has therefore been suggested that SEVI fiber formation in vivo may be promoted by exogenous factors. We show here that a bacterially-produced extracellular amyloid (curli or Csg acts as a catalytic agent for SEVI formation from PAP248-286 at low concentrations in vitro, producing fibers that retain the ability to enhance HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus infection. Kinetic analysis of the cross-seeding effect shows an unusual pattern. Cross-seeding PAP248-286 with curli only moderately affects the nucleation rate while significantly enhancing the growth of fibers from existing nuclei. This pattern is in contrast to most previous observations of cross-seeding, which show cross-seeding partially bypasses the nucleation step but has little effect on fiber elongation. Seeding other amyloidogenic proteins (IAPP (islet amyloid polypeptide and A?1?40 with curli showed varied results. Curli cross-seeding decreased the lag-time of IAPP amyloid formation but strongly inhibited IAPP elongation. Curli cross-seeding exerted a complicated concentration dependent effect on A?1?40 fibrillogenesis kinetics. Combined, these results suggest that the interaction of amyloidogenic proteins with preformed fibers of a different type can take a variety of forms and is not limited to epitaxial nucleation between proteins of similar sequence. The ability of curli fibers to interact with proteins of dissimilar sequences suggests cross-seeding may be a more general phenomenon than previously supposed.

  19. Anlise espectral do sinal eletromiogrfico do msculo eretor da espinha obtido do teste de Sorensen / Spectral analysis of the electromyographic signal of the erector spinae muscle obtained from Sorensen test

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Fernando Srgio Silva, Barbosa; Camila Cristina Rodeline, Almeida; Mauro, Gonalves.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUO: A fadigabilidade excessiva dos msculos lombares um achado comum em pacientes portadores de dor lombar. Por isso, a avaliao da resistncia isomtrica desses msculos tem sido recomendada nessa populao. OBJETIVO: O objetivo deste estudo foi identificar e analisar objetivamente o com [...] portamento da fadiga do msculo eretor da espinha em um teste de resistncia isomtrica realizado at a exausto. METODOLOGIA: Nove sujeitos saudveis realizaram o teste de Sorensen modificado com contraes em intensidades correspondentes a 5%, 10%, 15% e 20% da contrao voluntria mxima. A fadiga muscular foi identificada pela anlise do comportamento da frequncia mediana (FM) em funo do tempo. RESULTADOS: O tempo de resistncia isomtrica foi inversamente correlacionado com a intensidade da contrao. Contudo, a intensidade da contrao no demonstrou efeito sobre a taxa de declnio da FM. A fadiga muscular foi significante em todas as pores do msculo eretor da espinha. Comparaes entre os msculos eretor da espinha direito e esquerdo no revelaram diferenas significantes, enquanto que comparaes entre pores do msculo eretor da espinha localizadas em diferentes nveis lombares revelaram maiores nveis de fadiga em L4-L5 bilateralmente. CONCLUSO: A anlise espectral do sinal eletromiogrfico foi eficaz para idenficao da fadiga do msculo eretor da espinha. Tambm foi possvel identificar diferenas funcionais entre as diferentes pores desse msculo. O conhecimento dessas particularidades permite intervir de forma mais especfica na preveno e reabilitao dos distrbios da coluna lombar. Abstract in english INTRODUCTION: Excessive fatigability of the low back muscles is a common finding in low back pain patients. Therefore, the assessment of the isometric endurance of these muscles has been recommended in this population. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to identify and to analyze objectively t [...] he behavior of the erector spinae muscle fatigue in an isometric endurance test performed until exhaustion. METHOD: Nine healthy subjects performed a modified Sorensen test with contractions of 5%, 10%, 15%, and 20% of the maximal voluntary contraction. The muscle fatigue was identified for the analysis of the behavior of the median frequency (MF) over time. The endurance time was inversely correlated with the contraction intensity. However, the contraction intensity did not show effect on the rate of decline of the MF. The muscle fatigue was significant in all the portions of the erector spinae muscle. RESULTS: Comparisons between the erector spinae muscles from right and left side did not show significant differences, while that the comparisons between the portions of the erector spinae muscle localized at different vertebral levels showed higher fatigue levels at L4-L5 bilaterally. CONCLUSION: Thus, the spectral analysis of the electromyographic signal was effective for the identification of the erector spinae muscle fatigue. Also, it was possible to identify functional differences between the different portions of this muscle. The knowledge of these particularities allows managing in a more specific way the prevention e rehabilitation of the low back troubles.

  20. Evaluation of the Biofire FilmArray BioThreat-E Test (v2.5) for Rapid Identification of Ebola Virus Disease in Heat-Treated Blood Samples Obtained in Sierra Leone and the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weller, Simon A; Bailey, Daniel; Matthews, Steven; Lumley, Sarah; Sweed, Angela; Ready, Derren; Eltringham, Gary; Richards, Jade; Vipond, Richard; Lukaszewski, Roman; Payne, Phillippa M; Aarons, Emma; Simpson, Andrew J; Hutley, Emma J; Brooks, Tim

    2016-01-01

    Rapid Ebola virus (EBOV) detection is crucial for appropriate patient management and care. The performance of the FilmArray BioThreat-E test (v2.5) using whole-blood samples was evaluated in Sierra Leone and the United Kingdom and was compared with results generated by a real-time Ebola Zaire PCR reference method. Samples were tested in diagnostic laboratories upon availability, included successive samples from individual patients, and were heat treated to facilitate EBOV inactivation prior to PCR. The BioThreat-E test had a sensitivity of 84% (confidence interval [CI], 64% to 95%) and a specificity of 89% (CI, 73% to 97%) in Sierra Leone (n = 60; 44 patients) and a sensitivity of 75% (CI, 19% to 99%) and a specificity of 100% (CI, 97% to 100%) in the United Kingdom (n = 108; 70 patients) compared to the reference real-time PCR. Statistical analysis (Fisher's exact test) indicated there was no significant difference between the methods at the 99% confidence level in either country. In 9 discrepant results (5 real-time PCR positives and BioThreat-E test negatives and 4 real-time PCR negatives and BioThreat-E test positives), the majority (n = 8) were obtained from samples with an observed or probable low viral load. The FilmArray BioThreat-E test (v2.5) therefore provides an attractive option for laboratories (either in austere field settings or in countries with an advanced technological infrastructure) which do not routinely offer an EBOV diagnostic capability. PMID:26537445

  1. Process for obtaining uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is concerned with an improvement to the process for obtaining ammonium diuranate from a solution which contains uranyl fluoride and hydrofluoric acid, by the addition of an ammonium hydroxide solution. A great excess of ammonium hydroxide is avoided in the new process, and one obtains all the uranium present. This is achieved by varying the quantities added with exact control of the pH value at the time. The detailed description also discusses the probable conversion rates. (UWI)

  2. A new optical method of continuously analysing the surface properties of a single pendant drop while obtaining quality bulk spectral and refractive index measurements of the liquid-under-test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The classical stalagmometer has been replaced by the tensiometer to measure surface properties from drop volume. From the drop period T1, converted into volume, the surface properties of the liquid can be obtained. In the fibre drop analyser the use of the graphical signal (tensiotrace), significantly extends the measurement potential of the tensiometer by providing additional measurands. This instrument produces a series of peaks. The third-order reflection is known as 'the tensiopeak-period' t3, and accurately predicts the value of the drop period. The results of an experimental study confirm the relationship between T1 and t3 for a wide range of liquids and are supported by ray-tracing modeling. Very sensitive and high quality bulk UV-visible spectra and refractive index measurements can be obtained from the drop-under-test.

  3. Comportamiento de las citologas orgnicas alteradas en un rea de salud / Behavior of organic altered Pap in one health area

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Mara Eulalia, Prieto Herrera; Jorge Luis, Prez Rivero; Mait, Camacho Vzquez; Martha, Ordn reas; Niurka, Rodrguez Snchez.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduccin: el cncer de tero es, despus del cncer de mama, el que ms frecuentemente afecta a la mujer. La deteccin y tratamiento temprano de las lesiones premalignas garantizan la durabilidad de esta afeccin. Objetivo: conocer el comportamiento de las citologas orgnicas alteradas en un r [...] ea de salud. Mtodos: se realiz un estudio descriptivo, transversal y retrospectivo en el Policlnico Este del municipio Camagey en el perodo de enero de 2005 a diciembre de 2010. El universo estuvo constituido por las 189 mujeres que presentaron citologas orgnicas anormales en el perodo antes sealado. Se recogieron variables como: grupo de edades, resultados de las citologas orgnicas segn toma de muestra, edad de las primeras relaciones sexuales, nmero de partos, diagnstico citolgico de infeccin por virus del papiloma humano (VPH). Resultados: poco menos de la mitad de las mujeres inici las relaciones sexuales antes de los 18 aos (46,56 %) y la mayora tena entre 1 y 3 partos (83,06 %). El 56,08 % de las pacientes presentaron infeccin por VPH. Conclusiones: predominaron las pacientes con neoplasia intraepitelial cervical II, el ao 2006 fue el de mayor incidencia de lesiones de cuello uterino. Abstract in english Introduction: uterine cancer is the type of cancer which most frequently affects women after breast cancer. The early detection and treatment of pre-malignant damage guarantees the durability of this condition. Objective: to understand the behavior of organic altered Pap in one health area. Methods: [...] a descriptive, cross-sectional and retrospective study was conducted I, the eastern polyclinic in Camagey municipality from January 2005 to December 2010. The sample consisted of 189 women who had abnormal Pap organic in the aforementioned period. Variables were collected such as: age group, organic cytology results according to sampling, age of first intercourse, parity, cytological diagnosis of infection with human papillomavirus (HPV). Results: slightly less than half of these women had their first sex intercourse before the age of 18 (46.56 %) and most had had 1-3 births (83.06 %). 56.08 % of these patients had HPV infection. Conclusions: cervical intraepithelial neoplasia II was predominant in these patients. The highest incidence of cervical lesions occurred in 2006.

  4. Preliminary Results Obtained from Flight Test of a 1/7-Scale Rocket-Powered Model of the Grumman XF10F Airplane Configuration in the Swept-Wing Condition, TED No. NACA DE 354

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, William N.

    1951-01-01

    A flight investigation of a 1/7-scale rocket-powered model of the XF10F Grumman XFl0F airplane in the swept-wing configuration has been made. The purpose of this test was to determine the static longitudinal stability, damping in pitch, and longitudinal control effectiveness of the airplane with the center of gravity at 20 percent of the wing mean aerodynamic chord. Only a small amount of data was obtained from the test because, immediately after booster separation at a Mach number of 0.88, the configuration was directionally unstable and diverged in sideslip. Simultaneous with the sideslip divergence, the model became longitudinally unstable at 3 degree angle of attack and -6 degree sideslip and diverged in pitch to a high angle of attack. During the pitch-up the free-floating horizontal tail became unstable at 5 degree angle of attack and the tail drifted against its positive deflection limit.

  5. Trends of Human Papillomavirus Testing in Cervical Cancer Screening at a Large Academic Cytology Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelan, Darcy F.; Boitnott, John K.; Clark, Douglas P.; Dubay, Lisa C.; Gravitt, Patti E.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To estimate time trends of actual provider use of human papillomavirus (HPV) testing in cervical cancer screening by using laboratory and administrative data from the Johns Hopkins Hospital Division of Cytopathology in Baltimore, Maryland. METHODS In this ecologic trend study, we analyzed 178,510 Pap specimen records and 12,221 HPV tests among 85,048 patients from 2001 to 2007. Monthly frequencies and proportions of HPV reflex testing and HPV cotesting with Pap (stratified by patient ages 30 and older and 1829 years) were calculated. Time trends of monthly HPV testing proportions were analyzed using joinpoint regression methods. RESULTS From April 2002, when the American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology added HPV reflex testing to its guidelines, to December 2007, the monthly the proportion of reflex testing was 95.8%. From February 2004, when the society added HPV cotesting with Pap among women aged 30 years or older to its guidelines, to December 2007, the overall proportion HPV cotesting with Pap among patients aged 30 years or older was 7.8% (compared with 4.9% among patients 1829 years [P<.01]). The highest proportion of HPV cotesting among women aged 30 years or older, 15%, was observed in September 2006, and the trend later plateaued around 13%. The monthly proportions of HPV reflex testing and cotesting with Pap changed significantly over time. CONCLUSION These data reveal that a small percentage of women aged 30 years or older received HPV cotesting with Pap, thus identifying a significant opportunity for providers to improve patient care in cervical cancer prevention. PMID:21775844

  6. CodY Regulates the Activity of the Virulence Quorum Sensor PlcR by Controlling the Import of the Signaling Peptide PapR in Bacillus thuringiensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slamti, Leyla; Lemy, Christelle; Henry, Céline; Guillot, Alain; Huillet, Eugénie; Lereclus, Didier

    2016-01-01

    In Gram-positive bacteria, cell–cell communication mainly relies on cytoplasmic sensors of the RNPP family. Activity of these regulators depends on their binding to secreted signaling peptides that are imported into the cell. These quorum sensing regulators control important biological functions in bacteria of the Bacillus cereus group, such as virulence and necrotrophism. The RNPP quorum sensor PlcR, in complex with its cognate signaling peptide PapR, is the main regulator of virulence in B. cereus and Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt). Recent reports have shown that the global stationary phase regulator CodY, involved in adaptation to nutritional limitation, is required for the expression of virulence genes belonging to the PlcR regulon. However, the mechanism underlying this regulation was not described. Using genetics and proteomics approaches, we showed that CodY regulates the expression of the virulence genes through the import of PapR. We report that CodY positively controls the production of the proteins that compose the oligopeptide permease OppABCDF, and of several other Opp-like proteins. It was previously shown that the pore components of this oligopeptide permease, OppBCDF, were required for the import of PapR. However, the role of OppA, the substrate-binding protein (SBP), was not investigated. Here, we demonstrated that OppA is not the only SBP involved in the recognition of PapR, and that several other OppA-like proteins can allow the import of this peptide. Altogether, these data complete our model of quorum sensing during the lifecycle of Bt and indicate that RNPPs integrate environmental conditions, as well as cell density, to coordinate the behavior of the bacteria throughout growth. PMID:26779156

  7. CodY Regulates the Activity of the Virulence Quorum Sensor PlcR by Controlling the Import of the Signaling Peptide PapR in Bacillus thuringiensis

    OpenAIRE

    Slamti, Leyla; LEMY, Christelle; Henry, Cline; Guillot, Alain; Huillet, Eugnie; Lereclus, Didier

    2016-01-01

    In Gram-positive bacteria, cellcell communication mainly relies on cytoplasmic sensors of the RNPP family. Activity of these regulators depends on their binding to secreted signaling peptides that are imported into the cell. These quorum sensing regulators control important biological functions in bacteria of the Bacillus cereus group, such as virulence and necrotrophism. The RNPP quorum sensor PlcR, in complex with its cognate signaling peptide PapR, is the main regulator of virulence in B....

  8. Tobacco expressing pap1 increases the responses to par and uv-a by enhancing soluble sugars and flavonoids and elevating plant protections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Five lines of transgenic tobacco over-expressing Production of Anthocyanin Pigment 1 (PAP1) cDNA were analysis of metabolic response against the radiation and their protection of the plant under tissue culture condition. PAP1 transgenic and wild type (WT) plants were treated with the radiations of photosynthetically activate radiation (PAR) or PAR combined with UV-A. All lines of transgenic significantly increased in amounts of p-coumaric acid, naringenin apigenin more than WT under both treatments. Additional UV-A radiating to plant rose up kaempferol content in WT plant (1.5 times) and in PAP1 transgenics (1.8 times). These transgenic plants treated under both conditions had also increased anthocyanin substances (pelargonidin) with significant value after compared to WT. Content of total soluble sugar (TSS) was related to the content of total flavonoids in transgenic. PAR combined with UV-A had a lower induction of the electrolyte leakage percentage and malondialdehyde (MDA) level in the transgenic leaf tissue compared to WT tissue. The metabolic substance levels were considered on its protection of plant cells. In transgenic tissue, the enhancement of apigenin level strongly diminished the increase level of electrolyte leakage while the levels of TSS, p-coumaric acid and naringinin less affected. Moreover, the increase levels of kaempferol and pelargonidin associated with the decrease level of MDA, while the TSS level reversely responded. The PAP1 transgenic increased response of light by adaptation of their metabolites (TSS, p-coumaric acid and flavonoids) consequently enhance parameter indicating protections of the cell. (author)

  9. Modification of the synthesis of bioactive flavonoids in transgenic hop Humulus lupulus L. by PAP1/MYB75 from Arabidopsis thaliana L.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Aldinger, C.; Stanke, M.; Alheit, C.; Gatca, A.; Hhnle, M.; Matouek, Jaroslav; Weber, G.

    Hll : Scientific Commission of the International Hop Growers Convention, 2009 - (Seigner, E.), s. 49-52 ISSN 1814-2192. [Scientific Commission of the International Hop Growers Convention Meeting. Len (ES), 21.06.2009-25.06.2009] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50510513 Keywords : flavonoid biosynthesis * transgenic hop Humulus lupulus L. cv. Tettnanger * Arabidopsis thaliana PAP1/MYB75 regulatory gene Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry

  10. A construção social dos papéis sexuais femininos Feminine sex-roles social construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eros DeSouza

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Esta revisão é uma tentativa de produzir uma representação holística, mas não exaustiva, dos papéis sexuais femininos no Brasil. Começamos traçando o papel histórico-político das mulheres do Brasil Colonial até o movimento feminista moderno, enfocando três questões correntes: planejamento familiar, creches e violência contra a mulher. A seguir, examinamos as normas culturais do machismo e do marianismo. Finalmente, discutimos os avanços que as mulheres fizeram no Brasil na última década (desde a Constituição de 1988, chamando a atenção para uma questão que tem sido grandemente ignorada: o assédio sexual.This review is an attempt to provide a holistic, but by no means exhaustive, picture of gender roles in Brazil. We begin by tracing the historical-political role of women from colonial Brazil through the modern women’s movement, highlighting three current issues: family planning, child care, and violence against women. Next, we examine the cultural norms of machismo and marianismo. Finally, we discuss the strides women have made in Brazil in the last decade (since the Consitution of 1988, calling attention to one issue that has been largely ignored: sexual harassment.

  11. [Previous history of Pap smears and cervical cancer: a case-control study in the Baixada Fluminense, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, Maria Isabel do; Silva, Gulnar Azevedo e; Monteiro, Gina Torres Rego

    2012-10-01

    This hospital-based case-control study (2007-2010) aimed to estimate the association between previous Pap smear and cervical cancer diagnosis in the Baixada Fluminense, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. The sample consisted of 152 histologically confirmed cases and 169 controls from the same hospital as the cases. The analysis was conducted according to a model in three hierarchical levels considering sociodemographic characteristics (distal), sexual/reproductive and lifestyle factors (intermediate), and previous Pap smear (proximal). Odds ratios (OR) and respective 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) were calculated using unconditional logistic regression. History of three or more Pap smears was associated with an 84% reduction in cervical cancer risk (OR = 0.16; 95%CI: 0.074; 0.384) after adjusting for selected variables. The results highlight the importance of preventive gynecological examination for reducing the risk of cervical cancer and emphasize the need to increase adherence to the guidelines of the Brazilian program, besides identifying and scheduling women that have proven reluctant to submit to cervical cancer screening. PMID:23090165

  12. Citologia vaginal a fresco na gravidez: correlação com a citologia corada pela técnica de Papanicolaou Fresh wet mount in pregnancy: correlation with Pap smears

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amadeu Ramos da Silva Filho

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: analisar o conteúdo vaginal utilizando o exame citológico a fresco na primeira consulta pré-natal em mulheres com ou sem queixas genitais e correlacionar os resultados com os encontrados na citologia corada pela técnica de Papanicolaou. A microscopia direta durante a gravidez deve ser valorizada e reconhecida como método propedêutico capaz de diagnosticar, de forma imediata, 90% dos casos de vaginose bacteriana, candidose e tricomonose. MÉTODOS: estudo prospectivo em 216 gestantes, selecionadas em ambulatório de pré-natal no período de 30 de outubro de 2001 a 12 de novembro de 2002. Foram colhidas duas amostras do conteúdo existente no fundo de saco vaginal posterior e depositadas em lâminas de vidro para microscopia. Sobre a primeira e a segunda amostra eram colocadas uma gota de NaCl a 0,9% e uma de KOH a 10%, respectivamente. Adicionalmente, em todas as grávidas determinou-se o pH vaginal e realizaram-se os testes de produção das aminas com odores de pescado. O material era examinado ao microscópio em aumentos de 100 vezes, 400 vezes e excepcionalmente 1000 vezes. Foram realizados esfregaços cervicovaginais para citologia corada pelo método de Papanicolaou. A correlação entre os resultados dos métodos citológicos empregados foi realizada pelo cálculo do coeficiente kappa, que avalia a concordância para variáveis qualitativas. RESULTADOS: o encontro nos esfregaços a fresco de flora bacteriana normal foi de 51,8, representando o aspecto citológico mais observado e sem correspondência com os 3,7% apurados na microscopia corada. No exame citológico direto foram observados 30,9% de vaginose bacteriana e 7,9% de candidose. Todavia, no Papanicolaou não foi encontrada tal equivalência, sendo as porcentagens de 0,7 e 24,3%, respectivamente. A ausência de correlação no diagnóstico de colpite bacteriana inespecífica na microscopia direta (17,5% e corada (51,3% talvez deva-se ao subdiagnóstico de vaginose neste último método propedêutico. Os diagnósticos de tricomoníase observados em ambos os métodos citológicos (3,7 e 2,7% traduzem a baixa prevalência destes parasitas na gestação. O cálculo do índice kappa para avaliação da concordância entre os dois procedimentos citológicos nos diversos achados microbiológicos demonstrou baixa correlação nos diagnósticos da vaginose bacteriana e colpites bacterianas inespecíficas, bem como na identificação da flora vaginal normal. CONCLUSÕES: embora a citologia corada apresente melhor acurácia no diagnóstico de fungos não formadores de micélios, a citologia direta a fresco demonstrou ser melhor avaliador dos elementos não epiteliais dos esfregaços vaginais. Entretanto, a microscopia corada pela técnica de Papanicolaou, por permitir melhor apreciação das células epiteliais cervicovaginais, representa o mais importante instrumento revelador das agressões e reações nucleocitoplasmáticas.PURPOSE: to analyze vaginal contents using the fresh wet mount of a cytological exam in the first prenatal visit of women with or without genital complaints and correlate the conclusion with the results from the Pap smears. Microscopy during pregnancy should be valued and recognized as a method capable of providing immediate diagnosis in 90% of bacterial vaginosis, candidiasis and trichomoniasis cases. METHODS: a prospective study was performed in 216 pregnant women selected from the prenatal department of a public hospital, between October 30, 2001 and November 12, 2002. Two samples were collected from the posterior vaginal vault and deposited onto two separate microscope slides. To one slide, a droplet of 0.9% NaCl was applied and to the other, a droplet of 10% KOH. Both slides were covered with a coverslip for immediate microscopic evaluation. Tests were perfomed in one drop of the material to examine pH and whiff. The microscopic examination of the material was carried out at a 100X, 400X and exceptionally 1000X magnification. Pap smears were performed in all pregnant patients. The correlation between the results of the utilized cytological methods was perfomed by the kappa coefficient, which evaluates the concordance for quality variables. RESULTS: the findings of the normal vaginal microflora in the fresh wet mount were 7.8%, representing the most observed cytological aspect, and without correspondence with the 3.70% verified by the Pap smears. In the fresh wet mount, bacterial vaginosis was found in 30.9% and candidiasis in 7.9% of the cases. However, in the Pap smears no similar event occurred, the diagnosis being 0.7 and 24.3%, respectively. The absence of a diagnosis correlation of nonspecific bacterial vaginitis by direct microscopy (17.5% and Pap smears (51.3% is probably due to the undervalued diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis by the latter method. The diagnosis of trichomonas vaginalis observed in both cytological methods (3.70 and 2.78% represents a low prevalence of these parasites in the course of pregnancy. The kappa coefficient between the two cytological procedures in the several microbiological findings showed low correlation of the diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis with nonspecific vaginitis, as well as the normal vaginal flora. CONCLUSIONS: although the Pap smear presents the best accuracy of the diagnosis of yeast without pseudomycelium, the fresh wet mount has shown to be a better appraiser of nonepithelial cells the vaginal smears. Because Pap smears allow a better evaluation of vaginal epithelial cells, they represent the most important tool to show the aggressions and reactions of the nucleus and cytoplasm.

  13. In vitro studies of the genotoxic effects of bitumen and coal-tar fume condensates: comparison of data obtained by mutagenicity testing and DNA adduct analysis by 32P-postlabelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Mo, M; Genevois, C; Brandt, H; Laget, M; Bartsch, H; Castegnaro, M

    1996-08-14

    Bitumens contain traces of polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs), a part of which will end up in the fumes emitted during hot handling of bitumen-containing products, e.g. during roadpaving. Although exposure of workers to these fumes is low, it might lead to health problems. Studies on bitumen fume condensates (BFCs) showed weak to moderate mutagenic activities, but studies on DNA adduct formation have not been reported. Therefore, a study was initiated in which fumes were generated from two road grade bitumens, in such a way that they were representative of the fumes produced in the field. The combined vapour/particulates were tested in vitro for their ability to produce DNA adducts and in modified Ames mutation assays, using a number of different strains. An attempt was made to relate the results to chemical data, such as the content of a number of individual polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and with a measure for the total PAC content. As a reference material fume condensate from coal-tar (coal-tar pitch volatiles; CTPV) were subjected to the same tests. All fume condensates tested were mutagenic to all strains and induced the formation of DNA adducts. The patterns of DNA adducts, obtained by 32P-postlabelling, arising from the BFCs were qualitatively different from the patterns of adducts obtained from the CTPVs, implying qualitative differences in the nature of the compounds responsible for the formation of these adducts. This is corroborated by the observation that for BFCs quantitative adduct levels are higher than would be expected based on the PAH content. These data thus indicate that the PAHs analysed are not the sole components responsible for adduct formation from BFCs, but that an important contribution comes from other (hetero- and/or substituted-) PACs. PMID:8760390

  14. Complete Genome Sequence of pAP13, a Large Linear Plasmid of a Brevibacterium Strain Isolated from a Saline Lake at 4,200Meters above Sea Level in Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Dib, Julian Rafael; Schuldes, Jrg; Thrmer, Andrea; Farias, Mara E.; Daniel, Rolf; Meinhardt, Friedhelm

    2013-01-01

    pAP13 is an 89-kb linear plasmid hosted by Brevibacterium sp. strain Ap13, an actinobacterium isolated from the feces of a flamingo from an extremely high-altitude lake in Argentina. Because of the ecological importance of the genus Brevibacterium, the absolute lack of information concerning Brevibacterium linear plasmids, and the possible ecological significance of this unusual plasmid, pAP13 was completely sequenced, including the inversely oriented termini.

  15. Cobertura do exame de Papanicolaou no Brasil e seus fatores determinantes: uma reviso sistemtica da literatura Coverage of the Pap smear in Brazil and its determining factors: a systematic literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lus Felipe Leite Martins

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: apresentar o panorama da cobertura do exame de Papanicolaou no Brasil, com nfase nos seus fatores determinantes. MTODOS: foram pesquisadas as bases de dados "on line" LILACS (Literatura Latino-Americana e do Caribe em Cincias da Sade, MEDLINE - 1966 a 2004 (Literatura Internacional em Cincias da Sade, PAHO (Acervo da Biblioteca da Organizao Pan-Americana de Sade e WHOLIS (Sistema de Informao da Biblioteca da OMS. A reviso foi ampliada por meio da busca a referncias bibliogrficas dos estudos relevantes, solicitao de estudos publicados e no publicados a especialistas e outras fontes. Foram selecionados artigos que preenchiam os seguintes critrios: ser um estudo transversal, ter sido realizado no Brasil, conter informaes sobre a cobertura do exame Papanicolaou (alguma vez na vida ou nos ltimos trs anos ou sobre seus fatores determinantes. Foram excludas as duplicidades e os artigos sem resumo. Um total de 13 artigos foram selecionados atendendo a esses critrios. RESULTADOS: so poucos os estudos sobre a cobertura do exame de Papanicolaou no Brasil. A maioria concentra-se nas grandes cidades das regies Sul e Sudeste do pas. Alm da escassez, existe pouca padronizao metodolgica em relao amostragem e perfil das mulheres a serem investigadas, o que torna difcil a comparao entre si. Estas diferenas metodolgicas devem ter contribudo para a grande variabilidade nas coberturas encontradas. Entretanto, apesar de todos os problemas, observa-se tendncia de aumento temporal no percentual de mulheres que foram submetidas a pelo menos um exame de Papanicolaou: os dois nicos estudos realizados nos anos 80 mostram coberturas de 55,0 e 68,9% na vida, ao passo que um inqurito domiciliar realizado em 15 capitais e no Distrito Federal entre 2002 e 2003 apresenta valores que variam de 73,4 a 92,9%; porm, dois estudos de abrangncia nacional realizados em 2003 apresentaram coberturas abaixo de 70,0% nos ltimos trs anos. Por outro lado, algumas variveis foram mais freqentemente observadas nas mulheres no submetidas ao exame de Papanicolaou: ter baixo nvel socioeconmico, ter baixa escolaridade, ter baixa renda familiar e pertencer s faixas etrias mais jovens. CONCLUSO: os dados aqui apresentados apontam para desigualdades regionais na cobertura do exame de Papanicolaou na populao feminina brasileira e para a necessidade de interveno junto queles fatores a ela associados.PURPOSE: to present an overview of the coverage of the Pap smear in Brazil, emphasizing the determinant factors associated with failure of women to submit to the test. METHODS: the literature was reviewed using the LILACS (Latin-American and Caribbean Literature in Sciences of the Health, MEDLINE - 1966 to 2004 (International Literature in Sciences of the Health, PAHO (Collection of the Library of the Pan-American Organization of Health, and WHOLIS (System of Information of the Library of OMS databases. The review was enlarged through the search of bibliographical references of relevant studies, request for published and unpublished studies by specialists, and other sources. Articles that fulfilled the following criteria were selected: to be a cross-sectional study, carried out in Brazil, including information about periodicity of the Pap test (some time in life or in the last three years and/or containing information about factors associated with failure of women to submit to the test. Duplicates and articles without summary were excluded. A total of 13 articles fulfilling these criteria were selected. RESULTS: there are few studies on the coverage of Pap smear in Brazil. Most of them are concentrated in the big cities of the South and Southeast regions of the country. Besides the shortage, little methodological standardization exists in relation to the sampling and profile of the investigated women, which turns difficult the comparison among them. These methodological differences must have contributed to the great variability found in

  16. Identification of hemostatic genes expressed in human and rat leg muscles and a novel gene (LPP1/PAP2A suppressed during prolonged physical inactivity (sitting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zderic Theodore W

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Partly because of functional genomics, there has been a major paradigm shift from solely thinking of skeletal muscle as contractile machinery to an understanding that it can have roles in paracrine and endocrine functions. Physical inactivity is an established risk factor for some blood clotting disorders. The effects of inactivity during sitting are most alarming when a person develops the enigmatic condition in the legs called deep venous thrombosis (DVT or coach syndrome, caused in part by muscular inactivity. The goal of this study was to determine if skeletal muscle expresses genes with roles in hemostasis and if their expression level was responsive to muscular inactivity such as occurs in prolonged sitting. Methods Microarray analyses were performed on skeletal muscle samples from rats and humans to identify genes associated with hemostatic function that were significantly expressed above background based on multiple probe sets with perfect and mismatch sequences. Furthermore, we determined if any of these genes were responsive to models of physical inactivity. Multiple criteria were used to determine differential expression including significant expression above background, fold change, and non-parametric statistical tests. Results These studies demonstrate skeletal muscle tissue expresses at least 17 genes involved in hemostasis. These include the fibrinolytic factors tetranectin, annexin A2, and tPA; the anti-coagulant factors TFPI, protein C receptor, PAF acetylhydrolase; coagulation factors, and genes necessary for the posttranslational modification of these coagulation factors such as vitamin K epoxide reductase. Of special interest, lipid phosphate phosphatase-1 (LPP1/PAP2A, a key gene for degrading prothrombotic and proinflammatory lysophospholipids, was suppressed locally in muscle tissue within hours after sitting in humans; this was also observed after acute and chronic physical inactivity conditions in rats, and exercise was relatively ineffective at counteracting this effect in both species. Conclusions These findings suggest that skeletal muscle may play an important role in hemostasis and that muscular inactivity may contribute to hemostatic disorders not only because of the slowing of blood flow per se, but also potentially because of the contribution from genes expressed locally in muscles, such as LPP1.

  17. [KI-67 PAP stain for histologic grading of brain tumors by squash preparations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, T; Ostertag, C B; Volk, B

    1989-01-01

    Using Ki-67 monoclonal antibody to the nuclear antigen of proliferating cells, the squash preparations of 141 brain tumors and the 36 frozen sections from corresponding tumor tissues were stained with peroxidase-antiperoxidase method. The staining indices in squash preparations correlated well to those in the corresponding frozen sections. There were good correlations between the percentage of stained cells and the histologic grade in agreement with known biologic behavior. In order of decreasing malignancy, the averages of Ki-67 staining indices were 26.7% for metastatic carcinomas, 12.6% for glioblastomas, and less than 2.8% for benign mesodermal tumor groups. Ki-67 staining with squash preparations could be applied to small tissues obtained by transsphenoidal surgery and stereotactic surgery as valuable adjuncts to intraoperative histologic diagnosis and the estimation of histologic malignancy. PMID:2470401

  18. 1-2-3 Pap Intervention Improves HPV Vaccine Series Completion among Appalachian Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderpool, Robin C.; Cohen, Elisia; Crosby, Richard A.; Jones, Maudella G.; Bates, Wallace; Casey, Baretta R.; Collins, Tom

    2015-01-01

    Completion of the Human Papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine series is a national priority. This study not only identified correlates of intent to complete the vaccine series and actual series completion, but also tested the efficacy of a DVD intervention to promote series completion. Womens beliefs that all three doses reduced cancer risk predicted intent and completion. Intention predicted completion, as did the belief that having a friend accompany the woman would promote completion. Beyond these effects, women assigned to the intervention were 2.44 times more likely than women in the control group to complete the series. Thus, in controlled analyses, a theory-grounded DVD intervention successfully promoted HPV series completion in a community setting. This method of intervention has high translational potential.

  19. Reflection of the changes in properties of pressure vessel metal due to irradiation, recovery annealing and re-irradiation in the character of fractures obtained in Charpy impact testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pressure vessel steels of Russian and American origin were investigated by raster electron microscopy (fractography), optical microscopy (metallography) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The influence of Russian weld macrostructure parameters on the data obtained by Charpy test was revealed. Possible appearance of brittle intergranular components in fracture surfaces of sub-size Charpy specimen made of Russian weld metal with phosphorus content greater than 0.04% was shown when tested at temperatures close to the upper shelf level. Recovery annealing at 475 deg.C, for 15 hours did not induce reduction of the brittle intergranular component while recovery of DBTT was observed. This confirmed that the contribution of radiation induced intergranular phosphorus segregation to embrittlement of pressure vessel steels is not significant. The presence of ductile intergranular component in fractures of specimens made of Russian and American steels confirmed the possibility of radiation induced intragranular phosphorus segregation to precipitate/matrix interfaces. In accordance with the properties recovery due to annealing, the successive reduction of ductile intergranular component fraction in fracture surfaces indicates that the contribution of radiation induced ill-treating phosphorus segregation to radiation embrittlement of pressure vessel steels is valuable

  20. ROLE OF HUMAN PAPILLOMA VIRUS IN ETIOLOGY OF CERVICAL INTRAEPITHELIAL NEOPLASIA (CIN & CARCINOMA CERVIX BY PAP SMEARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahendra

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The causal role of human papilloma virus in all cancers of uterine cervix has been confirmed. HPV infection of uterine cervix is associated with development of a spectrum of benign and malignant epithelial lesions. Morphological changes in the ep ithelial cells associated with HPV have been reported in up to 91 % of women with invasive and intraepithelial neoplasia. With over 120 specific types described, type 16 and 18 are linked mainly to cervical neoplasia. Human papilloma virus although necessa ry but is not a sufficient cause. There are cofactors necessary for progression from cervical HIV infection to cancer. Long term use of hormonal contraceptives, high parity, socio - economic status, tobacco smoking, and young age at coitus has been identifie d as established cofactors. PAP smear has become a routine method of cervical cancer screening and its clinical utilization has certain limitations like false negative rate (Elovainio et al, 1999 reported 20%. Colposcopy (introduced in 1925 by Hans Hinsel mann as an adjunct to cytology possibly increases the accuracy of cervical cancer detection to almost 100%. It evaluates changes in terminal vascular network that reflects biochemical and metabolic changes in tissue that are earliest changes in developmen t of cancer cervix. It is an O. P. D. procedure, no prior preparation or anesthesia required. Follow up of patients by HPV DNA detection can be used as an adjunctive to cytology preventing the requirement of unnecessary invasive interventions. Detection of Human Papilloma Virus by polymerase chain reaction along with screening by cytology can augment our ability to diagnose the cases in its early stage which will prove useful in preventing the cases of carcinoma cervix.

  1. In vitro studies of the genotoxic effects of bitumen and coal-tar fume condensates: comparison of data obtained by mutagenicity testing and DNA adduct analysis by {sup 32}P-postlabelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Meo, M.; Genevois, C.; Brandt, H.; Laget, M.; Bartsch, H.; Castegnaro, M. [Laboratoire de Biogenotoxicologie et Mutagenese Environnementale, Marseille (France). Faculte de Pharmcie

    1996-08-14

    Bitumens contain traces of polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs), a part of which will end up in fumes emitted during hot handling of bitumen-containing products, e.g. during road paving. Exposure of workers to these fumes might lead to health problems. Studies on bitumen fume condensates (BFCs) showed mutagenic activities, but studies on DNA adduct formation have not been reported. Thus a study was initiated in which fumes were generated from two road grade bitumens which were representative of the fumes produced in the field. The combined vapour/particulates were tested in vitro for their ability to produce DNA adducts and in modified Ames mutation assays. Results were related to chemical data, such as the content of a number of individual polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and with a measure for total PAC content. As a reference material fume condensate from coal tar (coal-tar pitch volatiles; CTPV) were subjected to the same tests. All fume condensates were tested were mutagenic to all strains and induced the formation of DNA adducts. The patterns of DNA adducts arising from the BFCs were qualitatively different from the patterns of adducts obtained from the CTPVs, implying qualitative differences in the nature of the compounds responsible for their formation. This is corroborated by the observation that for BFCs quantitative adduct levels are higher than would be expected based on the PAH content. These data thus indicate that the PAHs analysed are not the sole components responsible for adduct formation from BFCs, but that an important contribution comes from other (hetero- and/or substituted-) PACs. 32 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  2. Prevalencia de alteraciones oncolgicas en la citologa cervicovaginal de pacientes de una institucin prestadora de servicios de salud de Medelln, 2010-2012 / Oncology findings of pap smear in a health provider institution of Medelln, 2010-2012

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    JAIBERTH ANTONIO, CARDONA-ARIAS; MARLENY, VALENCIA-ARREDONDO.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduccin: el cncer cervico-uterino es la enfermedad maligna ms frecuente en mujeres colombianas; la tamizacin con la citologa crvico-vaginal ha sido til para disminuir su morbilidad y mortalidad. Objetivo: determinar la prevalencia de alteraciones oncolgicas en la citologa cervical, en m [...] ujeres atendidas en una institucin prestadora de servicios de salud, Medelln 2010-2012. Mtodos: estudio de prevalencia en 205 917 mujeres del programa de deteccin y prevencin del cncer cervicouterino de Metrosalud. Se calcul la prevalencia global de cada uno de los hallazgos oncolgicos y de forma especfica segn el grupo etario y el mtodo de planificacin y sector de residencia. Resultados: la prevalencia global de alteraciones citolgicas fue 8,5 %; las lesiones intraepiteliales escamosas (LIE) de bajo grado se presentaron en el 2 %, las de alto grado en 0,3 %; las clulas escamosas atpicas de significado indeterminado en 3,2 % y las clulas glandulares atpicas de significado indeterminado (AGC-US) 0,4 %. En las menores de 30 aos se obtuvo una mayor prevalencia de lesiones intraepiteliales escamosas de bajo grado, las neoplasias intraepiteliales vaginales de alto grado y clulas escamosas atpicas de significado indeterminado; en las mayores de 50 se observaron las prevalencias ms elevadas de lesiones intraepiteliales escamosas de alto grado, inflamacin y atrofia. Conclusiones: la prevalencia de alteraciones citolgica cervicales fue baja en los subgrupos estudiados; las adolescentes constituyen un grupo de mayor riesgo para las lesiones intraepiteliales escamosas de bajo grado Abstract in english Introduction: Cervical cancer is the most prevalent malignancy in colombian women. The screening with Pap smear has been a key tool for reducing morbidity and mortality. Objectives: to determine the prevalence of oncological alterations in the Pap smear in women of a health provider in institution, [...] Medelln 2010-2012. Methods: The prevalence study in 205,917 women of program to detect and prevent cervical cancer of Metrosalud The overall prevalence of oncologic findings was calculated, also prevalence by age group, the planning method and sector of residence. Results: the overall prevalence of disorders was 8.5 %, low grade Squamous Intraepithelial Lesions (SIL) 2 % and High grade SIL 0.3 %, atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US) 3.2 % and atypical glandular cells of undetermined significance (AGC-US) 0.4 %. The prevalence of HSIL, inflammation and atrophy were highest at woman 50 and older, in the under 30 a higher prevalence of low grade SIL, highgrade vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia, ASCUS and ASC was obtained. Conclusions: The prevalence of cervical cytological abnormalities was low in the subgroups studied; adolescents are a higher risk group for low-grade SIL

  3. Field project to obtain pressure core, wireline log, and production test data for evaluation of CO/sub 2/ flooding potential, Conoco MCA unit well No. 358, Maljamar Field, Lea County, New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swift, T.E.; Marlow, R.E.; Wilhelm, M.H.; Goodrich, J.H.; Kumar, R.M.

    1981-11-01

    This report describes part of the work done to fulfill a contract awarded to Gruy Federal, Inc., by the Department of Energy (DOE) on Feburary 12, 1979. The work includes pressure-coring and associated logging and testing programs to provide data on in-situ oil saturation, porosity and permeability distribution, and other data needed for resource characterization of fields and reservoirs in which CO/sub 2/ injection might have a high probability of success. This report details the second such project. Core porosities agreed well with computed log porosities. Core water saturation and computed log porosities agree fairly well from 3692 to 3712 feet, poorly from 3712 to 3820 feet and in a general way from 4035 to 4107 feet. Computer log analysis techniques incorporating the a, m, and n values obtained from Core Laboratories analysis did not improve the agreement of log versus core derived water saturations. However, both core and log analysis indicated the ninth zone had the highest residual hydrocarbon saturations and production data confirmed the validity of oil saturation determinations. Residual oil saturation, for the perforated and tested intervals were 259 STB/acre-ft for the interval from 4035 to 4055 feet, and 150 STB/acre-ft for the interval from 3692 to 3718 feet. Nine BOPD was produced from the interval 4035 to 4055 feet and no oil was produced from interval 3692 to 3718 feet, qualitatively confirming the relative oil saturations as calculated. The low oil production in the zone from 4022 to 4055 and the lack of production from 3692 to 3718 feet indicated the zone to be at or near residual waterflood conditions as determined by log analysis. This project demonstrates the usefulness of integrating pressure core, log, and production data to realistically evaluate a reservoir for carbon dioxide flood.

  4. The Possible Effects on Socio-Economic Inequalities of Introducing HPV Testing as Primary Test in Cervical Cancer Screening Programs

    OpenAIRE

    Giorgi Rossi, Paolo; Baldacchini, Flavia; Ronco, Guglielmo

    2014-01-01

    Background: Screening with HPV is more effective than Pap test in preventing cervical cancer. HPV as primary test will imply longer intervals and a triage test for HPV positive women. It will also permit the development of self-sampling devices. These innovations may affect population coverage, participation, and compliance to protocols, and likely in a different way for less educated, poorer, and disadvantaged women. Aim: To describe the impact on inequalities, actual or presumed, of the ...

  5. Resduos vegetais na superfcie e carbono orgnico do solo e suas relaes com a densidade mxima obtida no ensaio proctor Mulch and soil organic carbon content and their relationship with the maximum soil density obtained in the proctor test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joo Alfredo Braida

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available A susceptibilidade do solo compactao, avaliada pelo ensaio Proctor, torna-se menor medida que cresce a quantidade de material orgnico existente. Em geral, para um mesmo nvel de energia, quanto maior o teor de matria orgnica do solo, menor o valor de densidade mxima obtido e maior o teor de gua necessrio para atingi-lo. As caractersticas da palha, como sua baixa densidade, elasticidade e susceptibilidade deformao, tornam-na potencialmente capaz de atenuar as cargas aplicadas sobre o solo. O presente trabalho foi realizado para estudar o efeito da matria orgnica do solo no comportamento da curva de compactao e avaliar a capacidade dos resduos vegetais em dissipar a energia compactante. Amostras superficiais (0-0,05 m de um Argissolo Vermelho-Amarelo arnico, de textura franco-arenosa, e de um Nitossolo Vermelho distrfico, de textura argilosa, ambos com variaes nos teores de matria orgnica, foram submetidas ao ensaio Proctor Normal, determinando-se a densidade mxima e a umidade crtica para compactao. Determinaram-se, tambm, os limites de liquidez e de plasticidade e o teor de carbono orgnico. Para avaliar a capacidade da palha em dissipar a energia de compactao, amostras do Argissolo foram compactadas com a aplicao de uma camada de palha sobre o solo, dentro do cilindro do aparelho de Proctor, em quantidades correspondentes a 2, 4, 8 e 12 Mg ha-1 de matria seca. O acmulo de matria orgnica nos solos, proporcionado por diferentes sistemas de manejo, reduziu a densidade mxima e aumentou a umidade crtica para compactao do solo, significando que o solo torna-se mais resistente compactao. A magnitude desses efeitos, contudo, foi dependente da granulometria do solo. A palha na superfcie do solo, durante a realizao do ensaio Proctor, dissipou at 30 % da energia de compactao utilizada, com reduo da densidade obtida, confirmando a hiptese de que a palha existente sobre o solo capaz de absorver parte da energia de compactao produzida pelo trnsito de mquinas e animais.The susceptibility of soils to compaction, measured by the Proctor test, decreases with increasing soil organic matter (SOM content. For a given energy level, with increasing SOM contents the maximum obtained density decreases and the corresponding critical moisture content increases. Due to its low density, elasticity and deformation susceptibility, straw is potentially able to dissipate applied loads. This study was conducted to evaluate the SOM effect on the soil compaction curve and to evaluate the ability that mulch has to absorb compactive energy in the Proctor test. The compaction test was carried out using soil surface samples (0 to 0.05 m of a Hapludalf, with sandy loam texture at its soil surface, and an Oxisol, with clayey texture at its soil surface, both with variations in the SOM content. The maximum density, the critical moisture content, the liquid and plastic limits, and the soil organic carbon content were determined. A second test was performed to evaluate the ability of mulch to absorb compactive energy, by compacting Hapludalf samples with the presence of a straw layer on the soil surface, inside a Proctor cylinder, at amounts corresponding to 2, 4, 8 and 12 Mg ha-1. SOM accumulation reduced the maximum density and increased the critical moisture content, suggesting an increased resistance to soil compaction. In the Proctor test the straw on the soil surface dissipated up to 30 % of the compactive energy and reduced the bulk density, confirming the hypothesis that mulch can absorb part of the compactive energy caused by machine traffic and by animals.

  6. Self-reported history of Pap-smear in HIV-positive women in Northern Italy: a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Ghinelli Florio; Polesel Jerry; de Bianchi Priscilla; Lise Mauro; Franceschi Silvia; Dal Maso Luigino; Falcini Fabio; Finarelli Alba C

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background The incidence of invasive cervical cancer in HIV-positive women is higher than in the general population. There is evidence that HIV-positive women do not participate sufficiently in cervical cancer screening in Italy, where cervical cancer is more than 10-fold higher in women with AIDS than in the general population. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the history of Pap-smear in HIV-positive women in Italy in recent years. We also examined the sociodemographic, ...

  7. CRITICAL ASSESSMENT OF THE EFFECTIVENESS OF PROJECT IMPLEMENTATION THROUGH DONORS SUPPORT: A CASE STUDY OF THE PAN-AFRICAN PARLIAMENT (PAP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Innocents Edoun

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The study seeks to analyse the effectiveness of project implementation through Donors support using the PAP as a case study. Using quantitative analysis as a method of inquiry, the researchers felt that it was important to determine the correlations between the scores of various variables for an in-depth understanding of the study. These variables are (donors support, performance management, and team work, coordination and follow-up. Pearsons coefficient correlation (r was therefore chosen to calculate and use to measure the degree of association between the variables.

  8. Obtaining zircaloy powder through hydriding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zirconium alloys are good options for the metal matrix in dispersion fuels for power reactors due to their low thermal neutron absorption cross-section, good corrosion resistance, good mechanical strength and high thermal conductivity. A necessary step for obtaining such fuels is producing Zr alloy powder for the metal matrix composite material. This article presents results from the Zircaloy-4 hydrogenation tests with the purpose to embrittle the alloy as a first step for comminuting. Several hydrogenation tests were performed and studied through thermogravimetric analysis. They included H2 pressures of 25 and 50 kPa and temperatures ranging between from 20 to 670 deg C. X-ray diffraction analysis showed in the hydrogenated samples the predominant presence of ZrH2 and some ZrO2. Some kinetics parameters for the Zircaloy-4 hydrogenation reaction were obtained: the time required to reach the equilibrium state at the dwell temperature was about 100 minutes; the hydrogenation rate during the heating process from 20 to 670 deg C was about 21 mg/h, and at constant temperature of 670 deg C, the hydride rate was about 1.15 mg/h. The hydrogenation rate is largest during the heating process and most of it occurs during this period. After hydrogenated, the samples could easily be comminuted indicating that this is a possible technology to obtain Zircaloy powder. The results show that only few minutes of hydrogenation are necessary to reach the hydride levels required for comminuting the Zircaloy. The final hydride stoichiometry was between 2.7 and 2.8 H for each Zr atom in the sample (author)

  9. Obtaining zircaloy powder through hydriding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dupim, Ivaldete da Silva; Moreira, Joao M.L., E-mail: joao.moreira@ufabc.edu.b [Universidade Federal do ABC, Santo Andre, SP (Brazil). Centro de Engenharia e Ciencias Sociais Aplicadas; Silva, Selma Luiza; Silva, Cecilia Chaves Guedes e; Nunes Junior, Oswaldo; Gomide, Ricardo Goncalves, E-mail: celia.chaves@ctmsp.mar.mil.b, E-mail: gomide@ctmsp.mar.mil.b [Centro Tecnologico da Marinha em Sao Paulo (CTMSP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    Zirconium alloys are good options for the metal matrix in dispersion fuels for power reactors due to their low thermal neutron absorption cross-section, good corrosion resistance, good mechanical strength and high thermal conductivity. A necessary step for obtaining such fuels is producing Zr alloy powder for the metal matrix composite material. This article presents results from the Zircaloy-4 hydrogenation tests with the purpose to embrittle the alloy as a first step for comminuting. Several hydrogenation tests were performed and studied through thermogravimetric analysis. They included H{sub 2} pressures of 25 and 50 kPa and temperatures ranging between from 20 to 670 deg C. X-ray diffraction analysis showed in the hydrogenated samples the predominant presence of ZrH{sub 2} and some ZrO{sub 2}. Some kinetics parameters for the Zircaloy-4 hydrogenation reaction were obtained: the time required to reach the equilibrium state at the dwell temperature was about 100 minutes; the hydrogenation rate during the heating process from 20 to 670 deg C was about 21 mg/h, and at constant temperature of 670 deg C, the hydride rate was about 1.15 mg/h. The hydrogenation rate is largest during the heating process and most of it occurs during this period. After hydrogenated, the samples could easily be comminuted indicating that this is a possible technology to obtain Zircaloy powder. The results show that only few minutes of hydrogenation are necessary to reach the hydride levels required for comminuting the Zircaloy. The final hydride stoichiometry was between 2.7 and 2.8 H for each Zr atom in the sample (author)

  10. Experimental and clinical testings of 99mTc-pertechnetate and 131I without carrier obtained at the Institute of Nuclear Physics of the National Nuclear Center of the Republic of Kazakhstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During 2000-2002 in the Almaty city's medical centers both experimental and clinical tests of the domestic radiopharmaceuticals on the basis of 131I and 99mTc radioisotopes produced at the Institute of Nuclear Physics of the National Nuclear Center of the Republic of Kazakhstan (INP of NNC RK) were carried out. The experimental studies on the rates showing the conformity of the 131I and 99mTc distribution in the animals' organism to its pharmacologic and kinetic properties and analogous organic trophy in the relation to the thyroid. It is emphasized that injection of the pharmaceuticals into the animal's organism does not caused both negative reactions and side toxic exhibitions. In the experimental and clinical approbation the radiometric, scanning, and scintigraphic methods were used. Radiometry have been conducted 2, 4 and 24 hours after 131I injection and scanning after 24 hours in 27 patients. 5 patients without the thyroid pathology made up the control group. The conducted examinations allow to receive data reflecting the anatomical, topographical, structural and functional status of the thyroid. High tireotrophy of the 131I permits to study in vivo iodine exchange conditions and got the qualitative image of the thyroid. With help of the 99mTc-pertechnetate the dynamical and static scintigraphy studies of 11 patients with different thyroid pathologies and 7 patients with the head brain pathologies were examined. The changes revealed by the radionuclide method corresponding to clinical diagnosis and distinguishing from the control group. As well as the dynamic scintigraphy angiography of kidneys with help of 99mTc-DTPA, static scintigraphy of kidneys with 99mTc-DMCA, the liver dynamical scintigraphy with 99mTc-Technide, the liver static al scintigraphy with 99mTc-phytone (7 patients) ware carried out. The obtained results confirm the labelled compound strength manufacture with 99mTc of domestic manufacture. The reactions on the radionuclide administration during/after examination of the patient did not observed, and clinical and laboratory changes did not noted as well. By the result of testing the sterile sodium pertechnetate (99mTc) and sodium iodide (131I) produced at the INP of NNC RK are recommended to the commercial production for radionuclide diagnostics use

  11. Equilibration of [3H]glucosamine and [35S]sulfate with intracellular pools of UDP-N-acetylhexosamine and 3'-phosphoadenosine-5'-phosphosulfate (PAPS) in cultured fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nucleotides and sugar nucleotides were extracted from cultures of human fibroblasts with perchloric acid, separated by isotachophoresis, and quantified by uv absorption analysis at 254 nm. ATP (936 pmol/micrograms DNA) was, as expected, the dominating nucleotide pool. The energy charge was estimated to 0.9. The UDP-N-acetylhexosamine pool was also a very prominent compound (596 pmol/micrograms DNA). After incubation of fibroblasts with [3H]glucosamine, more than 95% of the acid-soluble radioactivity was found in the UDP-N-acetylhexosamine pool. Incubation with [35S]sulfate resulted in the incorporation of [35S]sulfate into 3'-phosphoadenosine-5'-phosphosulfate (PAPS). The latter could, however, only be measured as radioactivity, as the amount was too small to be quantified as total mass. Pulse-labeling of fibroblasts with [35S]sulfate and [3H]glucosamine from 5 min to 16 h showed that [35S]PAPS was equilibrated in less than 10 min, while [3H]glucosamine required a longer time, 2-4 h, to attain a steady state with UDP-N-acetylhexosamine. [14C]Glucose required approximately the same time as [3H]glucosamine to reach steady state with UDP-acetylhexosamine, which suggests that the reason for the long equilibration time is the slow turnover of this pool

  12. Distribution of human papillomavirus (HPV) genotypes detected by routine pap smear in uyghur-muslim women from Karasay Township Hotan (Xinjiang, China).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mijit, Fatima; Ablimit, Tangnur; Abduxkur, Guzalnur; Abliz, Guzalnur

    2015-11-01

    HPV infection is an important public health problem in developing countries. We investigated HPV genotypes in the Uyghur female population of Karasay Township, Hotan region. A population-based cervical cancer screening was conducted for 4,500 women in Karasay Township, Xinjiang Hotan, China. A total of 900 women were selected by systematic sampling with a 5:1 proportion (ages 20-69). The subjects completed a questionnaire and consented to HPV typing and Pap smear examination. Colposcopic biopsies were performed for patients with cytological abnormalities (?ASCUS). A total of 117 of the 900 women (13%) assessed were infected with HPV. The most common subtype was HPV-16, and other common high-risk types included HPV-58 and HPV-39. A total of 40 women (4.44%) were identified with abnormal cytology (?ASCUS) by Pap smear. A significant link was found between HPV prevalence and cytological diagnosis. The HPV infection rates for the patients with cervical inflammation, CIN, and cancer were 18.18%, 64.71%, and 100%, respectively. Significant differences in HPV infection rates were found among the patients with the three groups of pathological results. In Karasay, the HPV infection rate in Uyghur women is lower than previously reported; however, the proportion infected with HR-HPV is higher. HPV-16, HPV-58, and HPV-39 are the most prevalent genotypes. J. Med. Virol. 87:1960-1965, 2015. 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26081269

  13. From the definition of silicosis at the 1930 Johannesburg conference to the blurred boundaries between pneumoconioses, sarcoidosis, and pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Michel; Chemarin, Cecile; Cavalin, Catherine; Catinon, Mikael; Rosental, Paul-Andr

    2015-11-01

    The 1930 International Labour Office Conference on silicosis in Johannesburg identified silicosis by setting a medicolegal framework to its nosology: as with other occupational illnesses, its medical content was fixed under economic pressure. This article follows a reading of all the proceedings of this conference (debates and reports of experts) to examine their potential impact on the etiology and nosology of other diseases, specifically sarcoidosis and pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP), "idiopathic" diseases in which inorganic particles may be involved. We propose renewed study of the role of inorganic particles in these diseases. To do this, we propose to mobilize detection means such as mineralogical analysis and electron microscopy and in depth interviewing that are currently seldom used in France, in order to establish diagnosis and the potential occupational and environmental origin of these diseases. Am. J. Ind. Med. 58:S31-S38, 2015. 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26509752

  14. Static Longitudinal and Lateral Stability and Control Data Obtained from Tests of a 1/15-Scale Model of the Goodyear XZP5K Airship, TED No. NACA DE 211

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, Michael D.

    1956-01-01

    Static longitudinal and lateral stability and control data are presented of an investigation on a l/15-scale model of the Goodyear XZP5K airship over a pitch and yaw range of +/-20 deg and 0 deg to 30 deg, respectively, for various rudder and elevator deflections. Two tail configurations of different plan forms were tested and wake and boundary-layer surveys were conducted. Testing was conducted in the Langley full-scale tunnel at a Reynolds number of approximately 16.5 x 10(exp 6) based on hull length, and corresponds to a Mach number of about 0.12.

  15. The Pap smear screening as an occasion for smoking cessation and physical activity counselling: baseline characteristics of women involved in the SPRINT randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chellini Elisabetta

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gender-specific smoking cessation strategies have rarely been developed. Evidence of effectiveness of physical activity (PA promotion and intervention in adjunct to smoking cessation programs is not strong. SPRINT study is a randomized controlled trial (RCT designed to evaluate a counselling intervention on smoking cessation and PA delivered to women attending the Italian National Health System Cervical Cancer Screening Program. This paper presents study design and baseline characteristics of the study population. Methods/Design Among women undergoing the Pap examination in three study centres (Florence, Turin, Mantua, participants were randomized to the smoking cessation counselling [S], the smoking cessation + PA counselling [S + PA], or the control [C] groups. The program under evaluation is a standard brief counselling on smoking cessation combined with a brief counselling on increasing PA, and was delivered in 2010. A questionnaire, administered before, after 6 months and 1 year from the intervention, was used to track behavioural changes in tobacco use and PA, and to record cessation rates in participants. Discussion Out of the 5,657 women undergoing the Pap examination, 1,100 participants (55% of smokers were randomized in 1 of the 3 study groups (363 in the S, 366 in the S + PA and 371 in the C groups. The three arms did not differ on any demographic, PA, or tobacco-use characteristics. Recruited smokers were older, less educated than non-participant women, more motivated to quit (33% vs.9% in the Preparation stage, p p p Trial registration number ISRCTN: ISRCTN52660565

  16. Algunos factores biolgicos asociados con la aparicin de citologas alteradas Some biological factors associated with the appearance of altered Pap smears

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ren Mustelier Despaigne

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available Se realiz un estudio observacional, de tipo caso-control, basado en 54 mujeres con estudios citolgicos alterados (casos y 108 supuestamente sanas con citologas normales (controles, para identificar algunos factores biolgicos asociados con la aparicin del fenmeno durante 1994 en el rea de salud "Frank Pas Garca" de Santiago de Cuba. En el anlisis estadstico se determin la razn de productos cruzados, el intervalo de confianza, el nivel de asociacin y el riesgo atribuible en expuesto porcentual, para determinar aquellos factores que al incidir sobre ellos garantizaran una mayor influencia positiva en la poblacin expuesta, estos fueron: tener antecedentes personales de afecciones benignas de cuello uterino, manipulaciones e infecciones por oncovirus, as como antecedentes patolgicos familiares de cncer cervical; razones que justifican dar a conocer estos datos a los mdicos y enfermeras del rea, con vistas a trazar estrategias de trabajo encaminadas a actuar tempranamente sobre la poblacin con riesgo.A limited controlled observational trial based on 54 women with altered Pap smears (cases and 108 apparently sound women with normal Pap smears (controls was conducted aimed at identifying some biological factors associated with the appearance of this phenomenon during 1994 at the "Frank Pas Garca" health area, in Santiago de Cuba. The ratio of crossed products, the confidence interval, the level of association, and the attributable risk in percent expos were determinated by statistical analysis to identify those factors that on inciding on them guarantee a higher positive influence on the exposed population. The following factors were found: personal history of benign affections of the cervix uteri, manipulations and infections caused by oncovirus, and pathological family history of cervix uteri cancer. It is important for physicians and nurses to know these data in order to lay down working strategies that allow the early treatment of the population at risk.

  17. Cervical Cancer Screening for the Reluctant - HPV Testing of Air-Dried Vaginal Discharge

    OpenAIRE

    Tong, Tommy R.; Yau, Rae Wai-nang; Chan, Olivia Wai-hing; Yu, Vivian; Lo, Joyce Wing-sze; Chow, Tat-chong; Chan, Billy Wai-hon; Lee, Kam-cheong

    2006-01-01

    Despite the availability of the PAP test, cervical cancer continues to cause considerable morbidity and mortality. Many women default cervical cytology for a variety of reasons. This demands the development of alternative screening strategies, such as HPV testing on self-procured cervical-vaginal specimens in order to capture this group of women. We investigated the self-procured air-dried vaginal discharge for HPV testing. We recruited 82 patients with HPV-associated cervical lesions and 36 ...

  18. Obtencin y evaluacin de pelculas de materiales con aplicaciones electrnicas mediante pruebas aceleradas de corrosin / Obtaining and evaluation of material films with electronic applications by means of accelerated tests of corrosion

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Diana Milena, Marn; Maryory Astrid, Gmez Botero; Rodolfo, Mira; Flix, Echeverra.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de la investigacin fue evaluar el comportamiento frente a la corrosin de diferentes materiales utilizados en la electrnica. Se depositaron pelculas delgadas de Al, Cu, Ni y una bicapa Cu/Au sobre sustratos de mica, mediante evaporacin fsica en fase vapor. Los recubrimientos se some [...] tieron a ensayos acelerados de corrosin en cmara climtica, bajo atmsferas de NOx y SO2. Las pelculas se evaluaron conectadas en circuito y de forma individual. El tiempo total de exposicin fue de 9 semanas. Se realizaron medidas de rugosidad y resistencia de los recubrimientos a las diferentes semanas de exposicin y se estudiaron por microscopa ptica, STM, SEM y EDS. La bicapa Cu/Au present mayor estabilidad respecto al Cu en las pruebas aceleradas de corrosin. Mediante los anlisis EDS se encontr la presencia de elementos precursores del proceso corrosivo. Abstract in english The air of this study was to evaluate the corrosion behaviour of different materials employed in electronics. Thin films of Al, Cu, Ni an bilayer of Cu/Au were deposited by PVD on mica substrates. The coatings were exposed at accelerated corrosion test in chamber, using atmospheres containing NOx an [...] d SO2. The films were tested both connected and as individual parts. The total exposure time was weeks. Roughness and electrical resistance of the coatings across the exposure time and they were studied by optical microscopy, STM, SEM and EDS. The bilayer Cu/AU shows more stability compared with Cu according to the accelerated corrosion test. EDS analysis identified the presence of the corrosive aggressive species.

  19. Field project to obtain pressure core, wireline log, and production test data for evaluation of CO/sub 2/ flooding potential. Conoco MCA unit well No. 358, Maljamar Field, Lea County, New Mexico. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swift, T.E.; Kumar, R.M.; Marlow, R.E.; Wilhelm, M.H.

    1982-08-01

    Field operations, which were conducted as a cooperative effort between Conoco and Gruy Federal, began on January 16, 1980 when the well was spudded. The well was drilled to 3692 feet, and 18 cores recovered in 18 core-barrel runs (144 feet). Upon completion of the coring phase, the hole was drilled to a total depth of 4150 feet and a complete suite of geophysical logs was run. Logging was then followed by completion and testing by Concoco. Core porosities agreed well with computed log porosities. Core water saturation and computed log porosities agree fairly well from 3692 to 3712 feet, poorly from 3712 to 3820 feet and in a general way from 4035 to 4107 feet. Computer log analysis techniques did not improve the agreement of log versus core derived water saturations. However, both core and log analysis indicated the ninth zone had the highest residual hydrocarbon saturations. Residual oil saturation were 259 STB/acre-ft for the 4035 - 4055 feet interval, and 150 STB/acre-ft for the 3692 - 3718 feet interval. Nine BOPD was produced from the 4035 - 4055 feet interval and no oil was produced from 3692 to 3718 feet interval, qualitatively confirming the relative oil saturations. The low oil production in the zone from 4022 to 4055 and the lack of production from 3692 to 3718 feet indicated the zone to be at or near residual waterflood conditions as determined by log analysis. 68 figures, 11 tables.

  20. Electrochemical Genotoxicity Assay Based on a SOS/umu Test Using Hydrodynamic Voltammetry in a Droplet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuharu Sugawara

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The SOS/umu genotoxicity assay evaluates the primary DNA damage caused by chemicals from the ?-galactosidase activity of S. typhimurium. One of the weaknesses of the common umu test system based on spectrophotometric detection is that it is unable to measure samples containing a high concentration of colored dissolved organic matters, sediment, and suspended solids. However, umu tests with electrochemical detection techniques prove to be a better strategy because it causes less interference, enables the analysis of turbid samples and allows detection even in small volumes without loss of sensitivity. Based on this understanding, we aim to develop a new umu test system with hydrodynamic chronoamperometry using a rotating disk electrode (RDE in a microliter droplet. PAPG when used as a substrate is not electroactive at the potential at which PAP is oxidized to p-quinone imine (PQI, so the current response of chronoamperometry resulting from the oxidation of PAP to PQI is directly proportional to the enzymatic activity of S. typhimurium. This was achieved by performing genotoxicity tests for 2-(2-furyl-3-(5-nitro-2-furyl-acrylamide (AF-2 and 2-aminoanthracene (2-AA as model genotoxic compounds. The results obtained in this study indicated that the signal detection in the genotoxicity assay based on hydrodynamic voltammetry was less influenced by the presence of colored components and sediment particles in the samples when compared to the usual colorimetric signal detection. The influence caused by the presence of humic acids (HAs and artificial sediment on the genotoxic property of selected model compounds such as 4-nitroquinoline-N-oxide (4-NQO, 3-chloro-4-(dichloromethyl-5-hydroxy-2(5H-furanone (MX, 1,8-dinitropyrene (1,8-DNP and 1-nitropyrene (1-NP were also investigated. The results showed that the genotoxicity of 1-NP and MX changed in the presence of 10 mg?L1 HAs. The genotoxicity of tested chemicals with a high hydrophobicity such as 1,8-DNP and 1-NP were decreased substantially with the presence of 1 g?L1 sediment. This was not observed in the case of genotoxins with a low log Kow value.

  1. Coefficient of variation of normal seedlings obtained from the validation of methods for the seed germination testing of 20 species belonging to the family Fabaceae / Coeficientes de variao de plntulas normais obtidas na validao de mtodos para teste de germinao de sementes de 20 espcies florestais da famlia Fabaceae

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Vanderley Jos, Pereira; Denise Garcia, Santana.

    Full Text Available A uniformizao dos resultados inter laboratoriais de testes de germinao de sementes de espcies florestais exige que os mtodos sejam robustos. Assim, o objetivo foi comparar e discutir, por meio do coeficiente de variao obtido para plntulas normais, as variabilidades presentes no processo de [...] validao de mtodos obtidas no teste de germinao de sementes de 20 espcies da famlia Fabaceae. Coeficientes de variao para o experimento, por lote e por laboratrio para a varivel plntulas normais foram calculados. Os coeficientes de variao obtidos para plntulas normais de 20 espcies florestais nativas, so de baixos (at 9,84%) a mdios (at 17,66%), contrariando o esperado pela grande variabilidade gentica dessas espcies pouco melhoradas. O aumento do coeficiente de variao no est relacionado ao tratamento utilizado para superao de dormncia, porm cresce medida que a qualidade do lote decresce. Os altos coeficientes obtidos por laboratrio, superestimados pelo efeito de lotes, so uniformes indicando que os mtodos so reproduzveis. O coeficiente de variao no um indcio capaz de predizer a heterogeneidade das varincias do modelo. Como a distribuio normal modela eventos aleatrios, a aleatoriedade est presente no processo de validao de mtodos das 20 espcies florestais da famlia Fabaceae. Abstract in english The standardization of inter-laboratory results of germination test of forest species seeds requires that the methods be robust. Therefore, the objective was to compare and discuss, through the coefficient of variation for normal seedlings, the variabilities present in the process of validation meth [...] ods obtained in the germination test for seeds of 20 species of the family Fabaceae. Coefficients of variation for the experiment by lot and by laboratory were calculated for normal seedlings from the statistical analysis of method validations. For normal seedlings of 20 Brazilian forest species, the coefficients of variation are low (up to 9.84%), to average (up to 17.66%), contrary to expectations due to high genetic variability in these barely improved species. The increase of the coefficient is not related to treatment for breaking dormancy, but it grows as the lot quality decreases. The high coefficients by laboratory, overestimated by the lot effect, are uniform indicating that the methods are repeatable. The coefficient is not an indicator capable of predicting the heterogeneity of model variance. As normal distribution models random events, randomness is present in the validation process of the 20 forest species of the Fabaceae family.

  2. Cobertura do exame citopatolgico na cidade de Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil Pap test coverage in the city of Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Juvenal Soares Dias-da-Costa; Maria Teresa Anselmo Olinto; Denise Petrucci Gigante; Ana Maria Baptista Menezes; Silvia Macedo; Andresa Thier de Borba; Gledis Lisiane Silveira da Motta; Sandra Costa Fuchs

    2003-01-01

    No Brasil, a avaliao da efetividade de programas de preveno e aes de sade pblica ainda so incipientes. Dessa forma, realizou-se um estudo transversal de base populacional envolvendo a sade da populao adulta residente na zona urbana da cidade de Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil, com o objetivo de verificar a evoluo nos nveis de cobertura do exame citopatolgico. Investigaram-se fatores associados com a no realizao do procedimento. Considerou-se exame citopatolgico atualiza...

  3. The Pap Test and Bethesda 2014. "The reports of my demise have been greatly exaggerated." (after a quotation from Mark Twain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayar, Ritu; Wilbur, David C

    2015-01-01

    The history of 'The Bethesda System' for reporting cervical cytology goes back almost 3 decades. This terminology and the process that created it have had a profound impact on the practice of cervical cytology for laboratorians and clinicians alike. The Bethesda conferences and their ensuing output have also set the stage for standardization of terminology across multiple organ systems, including both cytology and histology, have initiated significant research in the biology and cost-effective management for human papillomavirus-associated anogenital lesions, and, finally, have fostered worldwide unification of clinical management for these lesions. Herein, we summarize the process and rationale by which updates were made to the terminology in 2014 and outline the contents of the new, third edition of the Bethesda atlas and corresponding website. PMID:25997404

  4. The Pap Test and Bethesda 2014: "The reports of my demise have been greatly exaggerated. (after a quotation from Mark Twain)".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayar, Ritu; Wilbur, David C

    2015-07-01

    The Bethesda System for gynecologic cytopathology has standardized reporting terminology over the past quarter of a century. In doing so, it has allowed for improved communication among practitioners around the world, facilitated large research projects and clinical trials, and has provided the basis from which uniformly accepted risk-based management strategies have been developed. Over time, changes in terminology and the underlying science require revisions, and the third edition of the Bethesda "Atlas" is the result of a yearlong effort to provide such an update. New material was developed and proposed via an Internet bulletin board, allowing for wide commentary that was compiled and incorporated. New images were collected, which comprised many new examples of equivocal presentations and mimics. New background material on the scientific basis supporting the terminology categories, the most current management algorithms, and comprehensive references were included. The effort completely refurbishes this standard reference that forms an inexpensive and, therefore, widely available resource for the world's cytology community. PMID:25943863

  5. Cada cuánto me tengo que hacer la prueba de Papanicoláu (How Often to Get a Pap Test)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-01-10

    El cáncer de cuello uterino ha disminuido en los Estados Unidos, pero cada año se le diagnostica a más de 12,000 mujeres y 4,000 mueren. Este podcast habla sobre la importancia de las pruebas de Papanicoláu.  Created: 1/10/2013 by MMWR.   Date Released: 11/4/2013.

  6. Employment Obtaining and Business Starting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Jian

    2009-01-01

    The implementation of business starting education in higher vocational colleges is of important and realistic meanings for cultivating advanced technology application-type talents and for releasing the employment obtaining pressure of higher vocational students. Based on the analysis on the employment situation of higher vocational graduates, this

  7. Obtaining Public Records: Reporter Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Betsy

    2013-01-01

    Obtaining public records is essential to covering public education. Fortunately, the law is on the side of reporters: Public agencies generally must disclose their records to the public and to the media--with important exceptions. Public agencies are often reluctant to hand over records, however, even when the law clearly says they should.

  8. Methods of obtaining thermodynamic data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The types of thermodynamic data needed to predict behavior of high temperature systems such as an overheated nuclear reactor in which the fuel has been exposed to water and oxygen are discussed. Procedures for obtaining the needed data are reviewed. 14 refs

  9. Employment Obtaining and Business Starting

    OpenAIRE

    Jian Lan

    2009-01-01

    The implementation of business starting education in higher vocational colleges is of important and realistic meanings for cultivating advanced technology application-type talents and for releasing the employment obtaining pressure of higher vocational students. Based on the analysis on the employment situation of higher vocational graduates, this paper explores the thoughts and methods for higher vocational colleges to implement business starting education.

  10. Comparison of Exfoliative Pap Stain and AgNOR Counts of the Tongue in Smokers and Nonsmokers

    OpenAIRE

    Fontes, Patrcia Campos; Corra, Gustavo Henrique Marques; Issa, Jaqueline Scholz; Adriana Aigotti Haberbeck BRANDO; ALMEIDA, JANETE DIAS

    2008-01-01

    Objective To compare exfoliative cytology from the oral mucosa of smokers and nonsmokers, with emphasis on proliferative activity. Methods Exfoliative cytology specimens were obtained from clinical normal mucosa from the lateral border of the tongue in 30 nonsmokers and 30 smokers ranging in age from 40 to 70years of age, who were seen at the Heart Institutes Patient Center and the Smoking Cessation Program of the University Hospital, University of So Paulo Medical School (InCor-HCFMUSP). ...

  11. Identidade narrativa: papéis familiares e de gênero na perspectiva de meninas ciganas

    OpenAIRE

    Adolfo Pizzinato

    2014-01-01

    This article aims to present the way that some gypsy girls in the metropolitan area of Barcelona (Spain) evaluate the family and gender roles, from an intra and intercultural point of view (in relation to non-Roma - paya - culture). To obtain these data, group interviews with girls between seven and nine years old were organized, participating in extra-curricular educational activities at a Roma association of their city. The results indicates an evaluation strongly influenced by traditional ...

  12. HPV DNA testing improves CIN2+ risk stratification and detection of CIN2+ in delayed triage of ASCUS and LSIL. A population-based follow-up study from Western Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Budal, Elisabeth B; Haugland, Hans K; Skar, Robert; Mhle, Bjrn O.; Bjrge, Tone; Vintermyr, Olav K.

    2013-01-01

    In Norway, Pap smears with atypical squamous cells of uncertain significance (ASCUS) and low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL) are triaged after 6?months. The aim of the study was to evaluate effects of implementing human papillomavirus (HPV) test (2005) in delayed triage of ASCUS and LSIL in a cohort of women from Western Norway. After a survey of 119,469 cervical Pap smears during 20052007, a total of 1055 women with an index ASCUS or LSIL were included in the study and followe...

  13. Oxidation State Analysis of a Four-Component Redox Series [Os(pap)2(Q)]n Involving Two Different Non-Innocent Ligands on a Redox-Active Transition Metal.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Das, D.; Sarkar, B.; Mondal, T. K.; Mobin, S. M.; Fiedler, Jan; Kaim, W.; Lahiri, G. K.

    2011-01-01

    Ro?. 50, ?. 15 (2011), s. 7090-7098. ISSN 0020-1669 R&D Projects: GA ?R GA203/09/0705; GA Mk LD11086 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : oxidation state analysis * [Os(pap)2(Q)]n * redox-active transition metal Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 4.601, year: 2011

  14. Patterns of epithelial cell abnormalities in Pap smears and its clinicopathological and demographic association: a descriptive study from Visakhapatnam city, Andhra Pradesh, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bhagya Lakshmi

    2014-02-01

    Results: Among the 194 women, in 8 subjects, the smears collected were unsatisfactory for evaluation. Analysis was done in the remaining 186 subjects. Among the latter, in 83.9%, the smears were negative for intraepithelial lesions (NIEL and 16.1% revealed epithelial cell abnormalities (ECA. Among those with ECA, Atypical cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS was identified in 66.67%, Low grade squamous intraepithelial lesions(LSIL in 16.67%, Atypical squamous cells-cannot exclude HSIL (ASC-H and Atypical glandular cells-not otherwise specified (AGC-NOS in 6.67% each and High grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL in 3.33%. Epithelial cell abnormalities were more common in women in the age group of 30-60 years (80%, they were more common in those with age at marriage between 13-18 years (63.3% and in those with age at first child birth between 15-19 years (56.7%. Conclusions: Therefore there is a need for Pap screening at regular intervals through camp based approach in these populations to motivate the women, increase their awareness, ensure follow up and referral and timely intervention in appropriate cases. [Int J Res Med Sci 2014; 2(1.000: 300-305

  15. Drugs obtained by biotechnology processing

    OpenAIRE

    Hugo Almeida; Maria Helena Amaral; Paulo Lobo

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, the number of drugs of biotechnological origin available for many different diseases has increased exponentially, including different types of cancer, diabetes mellitus, infectious diseases (e.g. AIDS Virus / HIV) as well as cardiovascular, neurological, respiratory, and autoimmune diseases, among others. The pharmaceutical industry has used different technologies to obtain new and promising active ingredients, as exemplified by the fermentation technique, recombinant DNA tec...

  16. Viscoelastic properties of denture base resins obtained by underwater test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiromori, K; Fujii, K; Inoue, K

    2000-06-01

    The viscoelastic properties of denture base polymers, such as poly(methylmethacrylate) (PMMA), polycarbonate (PC), polysulfone (PSF) and polyethersulfone (PES) which have been used in current clinical dentistry were investigated. In addition, water absorption, diffusion coefficient of water into material, cubical expansion, specific volume and residual monomer were also determined. From the results of this study, the viscoelastic behaviours of the denture base polymers in water have been discussed. The relaxation modulus (Er(5)) which was calculated using a stress at 5 s from the start of measurement for the specimen which reached an equilibrium moisture content (wet specimen), decreased from 23.1 to 25.5% compared with that of PMMA stored in a desiccator (37 degrees C) for 1 week (dry specimen). In contrast, this decreasing ratio was 7.0 to 10.0% for PC, PSF and PES. It is suggested that this phenomenon is caused by the increase of specific volume (cm3/g) with water absorption in each material. The water absorption of the PMMA group was relatively large in comparison with other material and was 1.81-1.85%. This value was within the range from 0.38 to 1.74% for PC, PSF and PES. The diffusion coefficients of water for PC, PSF and PES increased by approximately 1.5-2.7 times that of PMMA. Furthermore, the coefficient of cubical expansion of the wet specimen was larger than that of the dry specimen. The increasing ratio was 1.03-1.10 times for the PMMA group and 1. 18-2.38 times for PC, PSF and PES. The variation of Er(5) of the PMMA group with temperature in water was larger than those of PC, PSF and PES. PMID:10888280

  17. Moessbauer Characterization of Rust Obtained in an Accelerated Corrosion Test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have performed drying-humectation cyclical processes (CEBELCOR) on eight A36 low carbon steel coupons in NaCl solutions containing 1x10-2 M and 1x10-1 M concentrations. The main purpose of these experiments is to contribute to the understanding of the conditions for akaganeite formation. Additionally, and with the idea to perform a complete characterization of the rust, this work also considers the formation of other iron oxide phases. The corrosion products were characterized by Moessbauer spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction techniques. Gravimetric analysis demonstrates that the coupons presented high corrosion rates. Magnetite/maghemite was common in the rust stuck to the steel surface, whereas akaganeite was present only in traces. In the rust collected from the solutions, i.e., the rust that goes away from the metal surface easily, a magnetite/maghemite was not present and akaganeite showed up in larger quantities. These results support the idea that high concentrations of Cl- ions are required for the akaganeite formation. We concluded that akaganeite is not easily bonded to the rust layer; this may lead to the formation of a less protective rust layer and to higher corrosion rates.

  18. Organoclays obtaining starting up of clays sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clays have several applications in many areas of fields of technology, however, modification of these materials using organic compounds can be performed to obtain further hydrophobic materials, for applications in the adsorption of organic pollutants. This study aimed to analyze the effects of modifying two clays using sodium quaternary ammonium surfactants through ion exchange reaction process, in obtaining organoclays. The samples with sodium and organoclays were characterized by the techniques of X-ray diffraction (XRD), Infrared Spectroscopy in the region (IV), Gravimetric and Differential Thermal Analysis (DTA / TG) and organic adsorption tests. The results show that the process of obtaining organoclay is efficient, and materials have the potential for future applications in removing organic contaminants. (author)

  19. Process for polysulfide films obtaining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The invention relates to the electronics, in particular to the semiconductor technology. The process for polysulfide films obtaining includes deposition of the sulfide complounds onto the support and sunsequent thermal treatment. Novelty consists in that the support is preliminary treated with ZnCl solution, dried at the temperature 373 K, the sulfidic compound ZnInS is mixed with ZnCl solution, and the termal treatment is carried out under the condition Txt=(6,3-8,5) 10 grade h, were T - the treatment temperature , t - the treatment time

  20. Obtaining the acyclovir labelled compound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elemental tritium is obtained during the decontamination process of the moderator from Cernavoda Nuclear Power Plant. It may be stocked for use in controlled fusion, in a relatively far future, or, it can be immediately used as raw material in the synthesis of labelled compounds with important economic values. Acyclovir, C8H11N5O3 is a biologically active compound, with antiviral properties. The use of the radioisotopic labelled compound, accompanied by radiometric measurements in biological samples is recommended in pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic studies for promoting pharmaceutical products. The labelled Acyclovir was obtained by isotopic exchange reaction in heterogenous catalysis, using Acyclovir as substrate and T2 as labelling agent. Pd/C and Pd/BaSO4 were used as catalyst and the mixtures dioxane-water-acetic acid or dimethylformamide-phosphate buffer as solvents. Reaction time was 20-25 hours. The labelled compound was conditioned as aqueous solution. Characterization of labelled compound was accomplished by determination of chemical and radioactive concentrations and purities. (authors)

  1. The Insecticides Obtained from Turpentine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Pestana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Over a period of millions of years there has been a close association, evolution and adaptation between plants and insects. The plants have developed terpenes and their derivatives for their own protection and pollination. The insects interact with these substances, ingesting and using them or their biosynthesized derivatives for their own bio-regulation. They have used them as sex hormones, growth and development hormones and pheromones of behaviour such as feeding, aggregation, alarm, and defence. It is also known that turpentine (the volatile fraction of the pine resin, obtained by its distillation and some of its derivatives have in their constitution substances known as insecticides. This article reviews the most important products - the thiocyanates, the chlorinated terpenes, the chrysanthemum-carboxylic acids, the terpenes and derivatives and the terpene polymers - discussing their main characteristics, chemical synthesis, advantages and disadvantages.

  2. Comportamiento de las citologías orgánicas alteradas en un área de salud Behavior of organic altered Pap in one health area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Eulalia Prieto Herrera

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: el cáncer de útero es, después del cáncer de mama, el que más frecuentemente afecta a la mujer. La detección y tratamiento temprano de las lesiones premalignas garantizan la durabilidad de esta afección. Objetivo: conocer el comportamiento de las citologías orgánicas alteradas en un área de salud. Métodos: se realizó un estudio descriptivo, transversal y retrospectivo en el Policlínico Este del municipio Camagüey en el período de enero de 2005 a diciembre de 2010. El universo estuvo constituido por las 189 mujeres que presentaron citologías orgánicas anormales en el período antes señalado. Se recogieron variables como: grupo de edades, resultados de las citologías orgánicas según toma de muestra, edad de las primeras relaciones sexuales, número de partos, diagnóstico citológico de infección por virus del papiloma humano (VPH. Resultados: poco menos de la mitad de las mujeres inició las relaciones sexuales antes de los 18 años (46,56 % y la mayoría tenía entre 1 y 3 partos (83,06 %. El 56,08 % de las pacientes presentaron infección por VPH. Conclusiones: predominaron las pacientes con neoplasia intraepitelial cervical II, el año 2006 fue el de mayor incidencia de lesiones de cuello uterino.Introduction: uterine cancer is the type of cancer which most frequently affects women after breast cancer. The early detection and treatment of pre-malignant damage guarantees the durability of this condition. Objective: to understand the behavior of organic altered Pap in one health area. Methods: a descriptive, cross-sectional and retrospective study was conducted I, the eastern polyclinic in Camagüey municipality from January 2005 to December 2010. The sample consisted of 189 women who had abnormal Pap organic in the aforementioned period. Variables were collected such as: age group, organic cytology results according to sampling, age of first intercourse, parity, cytological diagnosis of infection with human papillomavirus (HPV. Results: slightly less than half of these women had their first sex intercourse before the age of 18 (46.56 % and most had had 1-3 births (83.06 %. 56.08 % of these patients had HPV infection. Conclusions: cervical intraepithelial neoplasia II was predominant in these patients. The highest incidence of cervical lesions occurred in 2006.

  3. Drugs obtained by biotechnology processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Almeida

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the number of drugs of biotechnological origin available for many different diseases has increased exponentially, including different types of cancer, diabetes mellitus, infectious diseases (e.g. AIDS Virus / HIV as well as cardiovascular, neurological, respiratory, and autoimmune diseases, among others. The pharmaceutical industry has used different technologies to obtain new and promising active ingredients, as exemplified by the fermentation technique, recombinant DNA technique and the hybridoma technique. The expiry of the patents of the first drugs of biotechnological origin and the consequent emergence of biosimilar products, have posed various questions to health authorities worldwide regarding the definition, framework, and requirements for authorization to market such products.Nos ltimos anos, tem aumentado exponencialmente o nmero de frmacos de origem biotecnolgica ao dispor das mais diversas patologias, entre elas destacam-se, os diferentes tipos de cancr, as doenas infecciosas (ex. vrus AIDS/HIV, as doenas autoimunes, as doenas cardiovasculares, a Diabetes Mellitus, as doenas neurolgicas, as doenas respiratrias, entre outras. A indstria farmacutica tem recorrido a diferentes tecnologias para a obteno de novos e promissores princpios ativos, como so exemplo a fermentao, a tcnica de DNA Recombinante, a tcnica de hidridoma, entre outras. A queda das patentes dos primeiros frmacos de origem biotecnolgica e o consequente aparecimento dos produtos biossimilares tm colocado diferentes questes s autoridades de sade mundiais, sobre a definio, enquadramento e exigncias para a autorizao de entrada no mercado deste tipo de produtos.

  4. Drugs obtained by biotechnology processing

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Hugo, Almeida; Maria Helena, Amaral; Paulo, Lobo.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Nos ltimos anos, tem aumentado exponencialmente o nmero de frmacos de origem biotecnolgica ao dispor das mais diversas patologias, entre elas destacam-se, os diferentes tipos de cancr, as doenas infecciosas (ex. vrus AIDS/HIV), as doenas autoimunes, as doenas cardiovasculares, a Diabetes Me [...] llitus, as doenas neurolgicas, as doenas respiratrias, entre outras. A indstria farmacutica tem recorrido a diferentes tecnologias para a obteno de novos e promissores princpios ativos, como so exemplo a fermentao, a tcnica de DNA Recombinante, a tcnica de hidridoma, entre outras. A queda das patentes dos primeiros frmacos de origem biotecnolgica e o consequente aparecimento dos produtos biossimilares tm colocado diferentes questes s autoridades de sade mundiais, sobre a definio, enquadramento e exigncias para a autorizao de entrada no mercado deste tipo de produtos. Abstract in english In recent years, the number of drugs of biotechnological origin available for many different diseases has increased exponentially, including different types of cancer, diabetes mellitus, infectious diseases (e.g. AIDS Virus / HIV) as well as cardiovascular, neurological, respiratory, and autoimmune [...] diseases, among others. The pharmaceutical industry has used different technologies to obtain new and promising active ingredients, as exemplified by the fermentation technique, recombinant DNA technique and the hybridoma technique. The expiry of the patents of the first drugs of biotechnological origin and the consequent emergence of biosimilar products, have posed various questions to health authorities worldwide regarding the definition, framework, and requirements for authorization to market such products.

  5. Obtaining railpad properties via dynamic mechanical analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oregui, M.; de Man, A.; Woldekidan, M. F.; Li, Z.; Dollevoet, R.

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, we propose combining dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) and the time-temperature superposition principle to determine various railpad dynamic properties. Having accurate information regarding the dynamic properties of a railpad is a fundamental requirement for designing tracks and understanding track deterioration. By testing three different railpad types, we demonstrate that the dynamic behavior of railpads over a wide frequency range can be successfully obtained under different preloads and temperatures if time-temperature superposition can be applied. To investigate railpad aging, worn railpads taken from a mainline in the Netherlands are tested. In this case, worn railpads are softer and possess a lower damping capacity than new railpads. In addition to performing these measurements, a Prony series material model is proposed to reproduce the dynamic behavior of railpads. The Prony series model is in good agreement with the measurements. Measured railpad dynamic properties and the corresponding Prony series numerical model provide valuable information for track design and modeling.

  6. Validez del curetaje endocervical en la deteccin de lesiones no sospechadas durante el estudio colposcpico de pacientes con citologa anormal escamosa Efficacy of endocervical curettage in colposcopic assessment of patients having abnormal squamous pap smear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Gonzlez-Mazuelo

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: el uso del curetaje endocervical (CEC durante la colposcopia est actualmente en medio de una importante controversia: se duda de su utilidad diagnstica en las pacientes con sospecha de anormalidad escamosa en la citologa cervicovaginal y el enfoque clsico del problema, compara el resultado del mismo contra el estudio histolgico del cuello, utilizado por diversos autores, no ha ayudado a resolver el dilema. La presente investigacin da un nuevo enfoque al incluir en el anlisis la biopsia dirigida y orientado a la bsqueda de lesiones no sospechadas por el examinador, a fin de mejorar la seguridad del diagnstico colposcpico. Metodologa: se tomaron los datos de 306 mujeres con citologa anormal escamosa y CEC durante el estudio colposcpico, el cual se compar con el resultado histopatolgico de la totalidad del cuello uterino en la bsqueda de lesiones no sospechadas en la biopsia dirigida y analizadas respecto a la satisfaccin o no de la colposcopia y el resultado de la citologa. Resultados: en general se encontraron valores de sensibilidad bajos, mientras que el valor predictivo negativo y la especificidad fueron altos. Conclusin: el CEC realizado bajo indicaciones precisas, de acuerdo al tipo de colposcopia y anormalidad citolgica, es de utilidad y mejora la seguridad del diagnstico coloscpico.Objective: using endocervical curettage during colposcopy is currently being questioned; its usefulness as a diagnostic tool in patients having suspected squamous changes in pap smear is controversial. The classical approach to this problem adopted by many authors has yielded little help; it consists of matching histological results from the cervix with the problem itself. The current research provides a new approach by including biopsy orientated towards searching for lesions which were not suspected during examination; this was aimed at trying to improve the safety of colposcopy when used as a diagnostic tool. Methodology: results from 306 women having abnormal pap smear and endocervical curettage during colposcopic evaluation were thus compared to histopathological results from cervical specimens in the search for non-suspicious lesions during guided biopsy and analysed according to colposcopy and pap smear results. Results: overall, sensitivity was low while specificity and negative predictive values were high. Conclusion: the outcomes led to the conclusion that endocervical curettage performed in line with strict indications, according to the type of colposcopy and pap smear abnormality, is of great help and improves the safety of colposcopic diagnosis.

  7. Data Obtained from Prototype Wave Dragon in Nissum Bredning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tedd, James William; Curie, Marie; Kofoed, Jens Peter

    This report is a product of the Project: Sea Testing and Optimisation of Power Production on a Scale 1:4.5 Test Rig of the Offshore Wave Energy Converter Wave Dragon. This report aims to provide access for the project partners to the raw data obtained from the testing period in Nissum Bredning. B...

  8. An EPR experiment testing the non-separability of the $K^{0} \\overline{K^{0}}$ wave function

    CERN Document Server

    Apostolakis, Alcibiades J; Backenstoss, Gerhard; Bargassa, P; Behnke, O; Benelli, A; Bertin, V; Blanc, F; Bloch, P; Carlson, P J; Carroll, M; Cawley, E; Chardin, G; Chertok, M B; Cody, A; Dejardin, M; Derré, J; Ealet, A; Eleftheriadis, C; Ferreira-Marques, R; Fetscher, W; Fidecaro, Maria; Filipcic, A; Francis, D; Fry, J; Gabathuler, Erwin; Gamet, R; Gerber, H J; Go, A; Guyot, C; Haselden, A; Hayman, P J; Henry-Coüannier, F; Hollander, R W; Hubert, E; Jon-And, K; Kettle, P R; Kochowski, Claude; Kokkas, P; Kreuger, R; Le Gac, R; Leimgruber, F; Mandic, I; Manthos, N; Marel, Gérard; Mikuz, M; Miller, J; Montanet, François; Müller, A; Nakada, Tatsuya; Pagels, B; Papadopoulos, I M; Pavlopoulos, P; Policarpo, Armando; Polivka, G; Rickenbach, R; Roberts, B L; Ruf, T; Schäfer, M; Schaller, L A; Schietinger, T; Schopper, A; Schune, P; Tauscher, Ludwig; Thibault, C; Touchard, F; Touramanis, C; van Eijk, C W E; Vlachos, S; Weber, P; Wigger, I; Wolter, M; Yéche, C; Zavrtanik, D

    1998-01-01

    The EPR-type strangeness correlation in the \\PKz \\PaKz ~system produced in the reaction $\\Pap \\Pp \\rightarrow \\PKz \\PaKz$ at rest has been tested using the CPLEAR detector. The strangeness was tagged via strong interaction with absorbers away from the creation point. The results are consistent with the QM non-separability of the wave function and exclude a spontaneous wave-function factorisation at creation (CL $> 99.99\\%$).

  9. Point-Counterpoint: Cervical Cancer Screening Should Be Done by Primary Human Papillomavirus Testing with Genotyping and Reflex Cytology for Women over the Age of 25 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoler, Mark H; Austin, R Marshall; Zhao, Chengquan

    2015-09-01

    Screening for cervical cancer with cytology testing has been very effective in reducing cervical cancer in the United States. For decades, the approach was an annual Pap test. In 2000, the Hybrid Capture 2 human papillomavirus (HPV) test was approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for screening women who have atypical squamous cells of underdetermined significance (ASCUS) detected by Pap test to determine the need for colposcopy. In 2003, the FDA approved expanding the use of the test to include screening performed in conjunction with a Pap test for women over the age of 30 years, referred to as "cotesting." Cotesting allows women to extend the testing interval to 3 years if both tests have negative results. In April of 2014, the FDA approved the use of an HPV test (the cobas HPV test) for primary cervical cancer screening for women over the age of 25 years, without the need for a concomitant Pap test. The approval recommended either colposcopy or a Pap test for patients with specific high-risk HPV types detected by the HPV test. This was based on the results of the ATHENA trial, which included more than 40,000 women. Reaction to this decision has been mixed. Supporters point to the fact that the primary-screening algorithm found more disease (cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 3 or worse [CIN3+]) and also found it earlier than did cytology or cotesting. Moreover, the positive predictive value and positive-likelihood ratio of the primary-screening algorithm were higher than those of cytology. Opponents of the decision prefer cotesting, as this approach detects more disease than the HPV test alone. In addition, the performance of this new algorithm has not been assessed in routine clinical use. Professional organizations will need to develop guidelines that incorporate this testing algorithm. In this Point-Counterpoint, Dr. Stoler explains why he favors the primary-screening algorithm, while Drs. Austin and Zhao explain why they prefer the cotesting approach to screening for cervical cancer. PMID:25948606

  10. Determinantes sociales del abandono del diagnstico y el tratamiento de mujeres con Papanicolaou anormal en Buenos Aires, Argentina / Social determinants of dropout from diagnosis and treatment by women with abnormal Pap smears in Buenos Aires, Argentina

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Melisa, Paolino; Rengaswamy, Sankaranarayanan; Silvina, Arrossi.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO:Determinar la magnitud y los motivos del abandono del proceso de diagnstico y tratamiento de las mujeres con citologa anormal, as como la relacin entre las caractersticas socioeconmicas de las mujeres y dicho abandono. MTODOS: Estudio transversal-retrospectivo. Se realiz un anlisis [...] de fuentes secundarias y entrevistas domiciliarias a mujeres con Papanicolaou (Pap) anormal atendidas en el sistema pblico municipal entre 2009 y 2011. RESULTADOS: El abandono confirmado en la poblacin de estudio fue de 18,3%. Las mujeres con mayor probabilidad de abandono fueron las que vivan en hogares con presencia de nios menores de 5 aos de edad (razn de probabilidades [RP]: 2,4; intervalo de confianza de 95% [IC95%]: 1,2-4,8) y las que vivan en hogares con hacinamiento (RP: 2,9; IC95%: 1,2-7,3). Las mujeres que realizaron el Pap inicial en un centro de atencin primaria posean 4,6 veces ms probabilidad de abandono que las atendidas en el hospital (IC95%: 1,7-12,3). Los principales motivos de abandono reportados fueron problemas con la organizacin de los servicios de salud y la carga de trabajo domstico. CONCLUSIONES: Las condiciones de vida de las mujeres, y la organizacin y calidad de los servicios de salud, inciden en el abandono del proceso de diagnstico y tratamiento de las lesiones precancerosas. Es fundamental desarrollar estrategias que acten sobre los determinantes sociales del abandono como un modo de asegurar la efectividad de los programas de tamizaje del cncer cervicouterino. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: Determine the extent and reasons why women with abnormal Pap smears drop out from diagnosis and treatment, and the relationship between women's socioeconomic characteristics and dropping out. METHODS: Cross-sectional retrospective study. Analysis of secondary sources and household intervi [...] ews with women with abnormal Pap smears seen in the public municipal system from 2009 to 2011. RESULTS: Confirmed dropout in the study population was 18.3%. Women with the greatest probability of dropping out lived in homes where there were children under five (probability ratio [PR]: 2.4; 95% confidence interval [95%CI]: 1.2-4.8) and where there was overcrowding (PR: 2.9; 95%CI: 1.2-7.3). Women whose initial Pap smear was done in a primary care center had a 4.6 times greater probability of dropping out than those seen in a hospital (95%CI: 1.7-12.3). The main reasons reported for dropping out were problems with health services organization and domestic workload. CONCLUSIONS: Women's living conditions and the organization and quality of health services affect dropout from diagnosis and treatment of precancerous lesions. Strategies need to be developed that address social determinants of dropping out as a way to ensure effectiveness of cervical cancer screening programs.

  11. Electrolytic Hydrogen obtaining by a photovoltaic source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At present, the developed countries allocate large funds for the financing of some global programs for fundamental and applicative research for development of hydrogen non-conventional production technologies. One of these technologies is the photo-assisted electrolysis. This technology is adopted in the research, which results are presented in this paper. The experimental model includes as basic equipment 100 W photovoltaic source, electrolysis battery press filter type, control unit of the electric energy discharged, accumulator, hydrogen storage unit. Five types of material have been tested for the electrolysis cell diaphragm: asbestos; Netrom- unwoven material from fibers of polypropylene; ion changing composite membrane - polysulfone support with an active layer of sulfonated poly-sulfone (PSS/PSJ) and poly-sulfone support with an active layer of sulfonated poly-eter cetone (SPEEK/PSf); ion-exchange membrane made from sulfonated poly-eter cetone (SPEEK). The graphics and results from the test system are presented. The analysis of the experimental results lead to the establishment of the optimal configuration of battery and of the operational conditions of the assembly. The experimental results give the opportunity to obtain electrolytic hydrogen with a photovoltaic source, in an efficient system, and promote the Romanian research at a level of a demonstrative installation

  12. Hydrological processes obtained on the plot scale under four simulated rainfall tests during the cycle of different crop systems / Processos hidrolgicos obtidos em escala de parcela sob quatro testes de chuva simulada, durante o ciclo de diferentes sistemas de cultivo do solo

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ildegardis, Bertol; Roger Robert, Ramos; Fabrcio Tondello, Barbosa; Julio Csar, Ramos; Douglas Henrique, Bandeira; Mitsui Shinosaka, Tanaka.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available O sistema de cultivo influencia a interceptao de gua pelas plantas, a armazenagem de gua nas depresses do terreno, a infiltrao de gua no solo e o escoamento superficial. Este trabalho objetivou quantificar alguns processos hidrolgicos em sistemas de cultivo do solo realizados em contorno no [...] declive, em 2009 e 2010, em um Cambissolo Hmico alumnico, cuja rea foi mantida sem preparo prvio do solo, nos seguintes tratamentos: solteiros - milho, soja e feijo; e consorciados - milho e feijo. Os tratamentos foram submetidos a quatro testes de chuva simulada, em pocas distintas, com intensidade planejada de 64 mm h-1 e durao de 90 min. O primeiro teste foi aplicado 18 dias aps a semeadura e, os demais, aos 39, 75 e 120 dias, aps o primeiro. Os diferentes momentos de aplicao das chuvas e os diferentes estdios do ciclo das culturas influenciaram o teor de gua no solo antecedente s chuvas, o tempo de incio e o de pico da enxurrada e, com isso, os processos hidrolgicos de superfcie. A lmina de enxurrada e a de gua interceptada pela vegetao + infiltrada no solo + armazenada superficialmente no solo sofreram a influncia dos sistemas de cultivo e das chuvas aplicadas nas diferentes pocas. O cultivo de milho foi o tratamento mais eficaz no controle do escoamento superficial, com uma razo de perda de gua de 0,38, equivalente a 75 % da razo de perda de gua apresentada pelo feijo (0,51), que foi o tratamento menos eficaz em relao aos demais sistemas de cultivo. A perda total de gua na forma de enxurrada decresceu linearmente com o aumento do tempo de incio da enxurrada, independentemente do tratamento, enquanto o teor de gua no solo em base gravimtrica aumentou linearmente do incio ao final da chuva. Abstract in english The cropping system influences the interception of water by plants, water storage in depressions on the soil surface, water infiltration into the soil and runoff. The aim of this study was to quantify some hydrological processes under no tillage cropping systems at the edge of a slope, in 2009 and 2 [...] 010, in a Humic Dystrudept soil, with the following treatments: corn, soybeans, and common beans alone; and intercropped corn and common bean. Treatments consisted of four simulated rainfall tests at different times, with a planned intensity of 64 mm h-1 and 90 min duration. The first test was applied 18 days after sowing, and the others at 39, 75 and 120 days after the first test. Different times of the simulated rainfall and stages of the crop cycle affected soil water content prior to the rain, and the time runoff began and its peak flow and, thus, the surface hydrological processes. The depth of the runoff and the depth of the water intercepted by the crop + soil infiltration + soil surface storage were affected by the crop systems and the rainfall applied at different times. The corn crop was the most effective treatment for controlling runoff, with a water loss ratio of 0.38, equivalent to 75 % of the water loss ratio exhibited by common bean (0.51), the least effective treatment in relation to the others. Total water loss by runoff decreased linearly with an increase in the time that runoff began, regardless of the treatment; however, soil water content on the gravimetric basis increased linearly from the beginning to the end of the rainfall.

  13. Use of AffiProbe HPV test kit for detection of human papillomavirus DNA in genital scrapes.

    OpenAIRE

    Ranki, M; Leinonen, A W; Jalava, T; Nieminen, P; Soares, V R; Paavonen, J; Kallio, A

    1990-01-01

    The presence of human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA in cervical and vaginal scrapes was analyzed by the AffiProbe HPV test kit (Orion Corp., Orion Pharmaceutica, Helsinki, Finland), which is a 1-day solution hybridization test for HPV type 6/11, 16, or 18. The AffiProbe test was compared with a commercially available dot blot test (ViraPap and ViraType tests; Life Technologies Inc., Gaithersburg, Md.). The study group consisted of 178 patients seen in a gynecological outpatient clinic. Altogether,...

  14. "Tem mulher, tem preventivo": sentidos das prticas preventivas do cncer do colo do tero entre mulheres de Salvador, Bahia, Brasil / "Where there's a woman, there's a Pap smear": the meanings assigned to cervical cancer prevention among women in Salvador, Bahia State, Brazil / "Hay mujer, hay Papanicolaou": sentidos de las prcticas preventivas del cncer de cuello de tero entre mujeres de Salvador, Baha, Brasil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ana Mara, Rico; Jorge Alberto Bernstein, Iriart.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi compreender os significados das prticas preventivas do cncer do colo do tero entre mulheres de bairros populares de Salvador, Bahia, Brasil. Trata-se de estudo qualitativo, baseado na anlise de contedo de entrevistas semiestruturadas com 15 mulheres entre 24 e 68 a [...] nos. Os resultados evidenciam alta valorizao do Papanicolaou, que realizado como parte de exames de rotina, sem, no entanto, sustentar-se no conhecimento biomdico sobre as suas funes. Alm da acessibilidade aos servios de sade e da qualidade destes, outros fatores interferem na forma como essas mulheres significam a preveno do cncer do colo do tero. Valores morais associados sexualidade e ao gnero interferem na percepo de risco, na adoo de prticas preventivas e na interpretao dos resultados da citologia cervical. A realizao continuada do Papanicolaou faz parte da construo da feminilidade, que associada com maturidade e responsabilidade pessoal pelo cuidado de si em um contexto de medicalizao do corpo feminino. Abstract in spanish El objetivo de este trabajo fue comprender los significados de las prcticas preventivas del cncer de cuello de tero entre mujeres de barrios populares de Salvador, Baha, Brasil. Se trata de un estudio cualitativo, basado en el anlisis de contenido de entrevistas semiestructuradas con 15 mujeres [...] entre 24 y 68 aos. Los resultados evidencian una alta valorizacin del Papanicolaou, que es realizado como parte de exmenes de rutina sin estar basado, no obstante, en el conocimiento biomdico sobre sus funciones. Ms all de la accesibilidad y de la calidad de los servicios de salud, otros factores influyen en la forma en que estas mujeres consideran la prevencin del cncer de cuello de tero. Los valores morales asociados a la sexualidad y al gnero influyen en la percepcin de riesgo, en la adopcin de prcticas preventivas y en la interpretacin de los resultados de la citologa cervical. La realizacin continuada del Papanicolaou forma parte de la construccin de la feminidad, que est asociada con la madurez y la responsabilidad personal por el cuidado de uno mismo en un contexto de medicalizacin del cuerpo femenino. Abstract in english This study focuses on the meanings assigned to practices for cervical cancer prevention among women from low-income neighborhoods in Salvador, Bahia State, Brazil. This was a qualitative study based on content analysis of semi-structured interviews with 15 women 24 to 68 years of age. The results sh [...] owed high appreciation of the Pap smear test, performed as part of routine gynecological examination (but without the patient necessarily having biomedical knowledge of its role). Besides accessibility and quality of health services, other factors influence the way the women assign meaning to cervical cancer prevention. Moral values associated with sexuality and gender influence risk perception, adoption of preventive practices, and interpretation of cervical cytology results. The ongoing practice of the Pap smear test is part of the construction of femininity, which is associated with maturity and personal responsibility for self care in a context of medicalization of the female body.

  15. Advising patients about obtaining genomic profiles

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Donna T.; Shepherd, Lois L.

    2011-01-01

    Neurologists, as all physicians, should begin to familiarize themselves with elements of genomic medicine to help their patients navigate the promises and pitfalls of obtaining genomic profiles. The neurologist should encourage a realistic assessment of the patient's expectations regarding the genetic information to be provided and apprise the patient of the challenges involved in obtaining interpretable, clinically useful information. A review of risks of obtaining genomic information is equ...

  16. Method for obtaining solid micro -or nanoparticles

    OpenAIRE

    Ventosa Rull, Nora; Veciana Mir, Jaume; Cano Sarabia, Mary; Sala Vergs, Santiago

    2008-01-01

    [EN] The invention provides a novel method for obtaining solid micro -or nanoparticIes with a homogeneous structure. A method is provided for obtaining solid micro -or nanoparticIes with a homogeneous structure having a particIe size of less than 10 /lm where the processed solid compound has the natural, crystalline, amorphous, polymorphic and other features associated with the starting compound. In accordance with the invention a method which also makes it possible to obtain solid m...

  17. Identification of pathogens and virulence profile of Rhodococcus equi and Escherichia coli strains obtained from sand of parks

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    M.C., Fernandes; S., Takai; D.S., Leite; J.P.A.N., Pinto; P.E., Brando; V.A., Santarm; F.J.P., Listoni; A.V. Da, Silva; M.G., Ribeiro.

    Full Text Available The identification of pathogens of viral (Rotavirus, Coronavirus), parasitic (Toxocara spp.) and bacterial (Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp., Rhodococcus equi) origin shed in feces, and the virulence profile of R. equi and E. coli isolates were investigated in 200 samples of sand obtained from 40 p [...] arks, located in central region of state of Sao Paulo, Brazil, using different diagnostic methods. From 200 samples analyzed, 23 (11.5%) strains of R. equi were isolated. None of the R. equi isolates showed a virulent (vapA gene) or intermediately virulent (vapB gene) profiles. Sixty-three (31.5%) strains of E. coli were identified. The following genes encoding virulence factors were identified in E. coli: eae, bfp, saa, iucD, papGI, sfa and hly. Phylogenetic classification showed that 63 E. coli isolates belonged to groups B1 (52.4%), A (25.4%) and B2 (22.2%). No E. coli serotype O157:H7 was identified. Eggs of Toxocara sp. were found in three parks and genetic material of bovine Coronavirus was identified in one sample of one park. No Salmonella spp. and Rotavirus isolates were identified in the samples of sand. The presence of R. equi, Toxocara sp, bovine Coronavirus and virulent E. coli isolates in the environment of parks indicates that the sanitary conditions of the sand should be improved in order to reduce the risks of fecal transmission of pathogens of zoonotic potential to humans in these places.

  18. Identification of pathogens and virulence profile of Rhodococcus equi and Escherichia coli strains obtained from sand of parks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.C. Fernandes

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The identification of pathogens of viral (Rotavirus, Coronavirus, parasitic (Toxocara spp. and bacterial (Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp., Rhodococcus equi origin shed in feces, and the virulence profile of R. equi and E. coli isolates were investigated in 200 samples of sand obtained from 40 parks, located in central region of state of Sao Paulo, Brazil, using different diagnostic methods. From 200 samples analyzed, 23 (11.5% strains of R. equi were isolated. None of the R. equi isolates showed a virulent (vapA gene or intermediately virulent (vapB gene profiles. Sixty-three (31.5% strains of E. coli were identified. The following genes encoding virulence factors were identified in E. coli: eae, bfp, saa, iucD, papGI, sfa and hly. Phylogenetic classification showed that 63 E. coli isolates belonged to groups B1 (52.4%, A (25.4% and B2 (22.2%. No E. coli serotype O157:H7 was identified. Eggs of Toxocara sp. were found in three parks and genetic material of bovine Coronavirus was identified in one sample of one park. No Salmonella spp. and Rotavirus isolates were identified in the samples of sand. The presence of R. equi, Toxocara sp, bovine Coronavirus and virulent E. coli isolates in the environment of parks indicates that the sanitary conditions of the sand should be improved in order to reduce the risks of fecal transmission of pathogens of zoonotic potential to humans in these places.

  19. Bainite obtaining in cast iron with carbides castings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Pietrowski

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In these paper the possibility of upper and lower bainite obtaining in cast iron with carbides castings are presented. Conditions, when in cast iron with carbides castings during continuous free air cooling austenite transformation to upper bainite or its mixture with lower bainte proceeds, have been given. A mechanism of this transformation has been given, Si, Ni, Mn and Mo distribution in the eutectic cell has been tested and hardness of tested castings has been determined.

  20. Bainite obtaining in cast iron with carbides castings

    OpenAIRE

    S. Pietrowski; G. Gumienny

    2010-01-01

    In these paper the possibility of upper and lower bainite obtaining in cast iron with carbides castings are presented. Conditions, when in cast iron with carbides castings during continuous free air cooling austenite transformation to upper bainite or its mixture with lower bainte proceeds, have been given. A mechanism of this transformation has been given, Si, Ni, Mn and Mo distribution in the eutectic cell has been tested and hardness of tested castings has been determined.

  1. DEVELOPMENT OF TECHNOLOGY FOR OBTAINING MODIFIED LECITHIN ?????????? ?????????? ????????? ???????????????? ?????????

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belina N. N.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The necessity of developing the technology for production of modified lecithin has been presented in this article. Paramethes of obtaining lecithin with a high content of functional groups of the phospholipids has been shown. The basic directions of use of the obtained modified lecithin has been discussed

  2. 38 CFR 21.5725 - Obtaining benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Obtaining benefits. 21... benefits. (a) Actions required of the individual. In order to obtain benefits under the educational assistance and subsistence allowance program, an individual must— (1) File a claim for benefits with VA,...

  3. Treatment of biomass to obtain ethanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunson, Jr., James B. (Newark, DE); Elander, Richard T. (Evergreen, CO); Tucker, III, Melvin P. (Lakewood, CO); Hennessey, Susan Marie (Avondale, PA)

    2011-08-16

    Ethanol was produced using biocatalysts that are able to ferment sugars derived from treated biomass. Sugars were obtained by pretreating biomass under conditions of high solids and low ammonia concentration, followed by saccharification.

  4. Obtaining of polycrystalline silicon for semiconductor industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the project is to create pilot equipment and optimize the process of obtaining polycrystalline silicon on semi-industrial level. In the past several decades, the historical experience in the developing countries has shown that one of the most promising ways to improve the economy,of a country is to establish semiconductor industry. First of all, the results can help increase defense, national security and create industrial production. The silane method, which has been traditionally' used for obtaining technical and polycrystalline silicon, is to obtain and then to pyrolyzed mono-and poly silanes. Although the traditional methods of obtaining silicon hydrides have specific advantages, such as utilizing by-products, they also have clear shortcomings, i.e. either low output of the ultimate product ( through hydrolysis of Mg2Si) or high contents of by-products in it or high contents of dissolving vapors (through decomposing Mg2Si in non-water solutions)

  5. Advising patients about obtaining genomic profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Donna T; Shepherd, Lois L

    2011-12-01

    Neurologists, as all physicians, should begin to familiarize themselves with elements of genomic medicine to help their patients navigate the promises and pitfalls of obtaining genomic profiles. The neurologist should encourage a realistic assessment of the patient's expectations regarding the genetic information to be provided and apprise the patient of the challenges involved in obtaining interpretable, clinically useful information. A review of risks of obtaining genomic information is equally important. Discrimination, loss of privacy, receiving inaccurate or unwanted information, and learning information that may create obligations to disclose to others are all possibilities. As genomic research and direct-to-consumer opportunities to obtain genomic information expand, reliance on personal physicians for ethical advice based on current advancements in genomic profiling should be anticipated. PMID:23634354

  6. 47 CFR 54.615 - Obtaining services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... provided under 54.621, that the requester cannot obtain toll-free access to an Internet service provider... thing of value; (6) If the service or services are being purchased as part of an aggregated...

  7. Obtaining useful information from expert based sources.

    OpenAIRE

    Slawson, D. C.; Shaughnessy, A. F.

    1997-01-01

    Clinicians rely heavily on expert based systems-consultation with colleagues, journal reviews and textbooks, and continuing education activities-to obtain new information. The usefulness of sources such as these depends on the relevance and validity of the information and the work it takes to obtain it. Useful information can be distinguished from the useless by asking three questions: Does the information focus on an outcome that my patients care about? Is the issue common to my practice, an...

  8. Finite oscillator obtained through finite frame quantization

    OpenAIRE

    Cotfas, Nicolae; Dragoman, Daniela

    2013-01-01

    The Hamiltonian of the harmonic oscillator is usually defined as a differential operator, but an integral representation can be obtained by using the coherent state quantization. The finite frame quantization is a finite counterpart of the coherent state quantization and it allows us to define a finite oscillator by starting from the integral representation of the harmonic oscillator. Our purpose is to investigate the oscillator obtained in this way, and to present a possible application to t...

  9. Obtaining gravitational models from planetary ephemeris

    OpenAIRE

    Snchez Martn, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    Ephemerides describe the position and velocity of a celestial object as a function of time. The ephemerides data are obtained by solving the fundamental equations of motion of the body, which is obtained by applying the fundamental laws of motion postulated by Keppler and Newton. The objective of this project is to build a software package that manages JPL ephemerides. With this software, we will can select planets or natural satellites contained in the ephemerides file and we will can work w...

  10. Optimal Iron Oxides for Obtaining Hexaferrites

    OpenAIRE

    Dufour, J; Latorre, R; Negro, C.; Lpez-Mateos, F.; Alcal, E.; A Formoso

    1997-01-01

    Presently, the ferrites industry consumes large amount of iron oxides obtained by spray roasting of steel pickling liquors. The aim of this paper is to propose the synthesis of optimal iron oxides by oxyprecipitation of steel pickling liquors in order to obtain Ba-hexaferrite with high magnetic properties using the ceramic process. As a raw material, it was used sulphuric liquors with iron concentration of 43 g/l. The studied variables for the oxyprecipitation step were temperature, pH, stirr...

  11. Helicobacter pylori Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... using a procedure called endoscopy. Tests include: Without Endoscopy Stool/fecal antigen test Detects the presence of ... confirmed using stool antigen or breath test. With Endoscopy: tissue biopsy sample obtained; good tests but less ...

  12. Polyfluoroalkyl phosphate esters and perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids in target food samples and packaging--method development and screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebbink, Wouter A; Ullah, Shahid; Sandblom, Oskar; Berger, Urs

    2013-11-01

    Polyfluoroalkyl phosphate mono-, di-, and tri-esters (mono-, di-, and triPAPs) are used to water- and grease-proof food packaging materials, and these chemicals are known precursors to perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs). Existing analytical methods for PAPs lack sample clean-up steps in the sample preparation. In the present study, a method based on ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC/MS/MS) was developed and optimized for the analysis of mono-, di-, and triPAPs, including a clean-up step for the raw extracts. The method was applied to food samples and their PAP-containing packaging materials. The optimized UPLC/MS/MS method enabled the separation and identification of a total of 4 monoPAPs, 16 diPAPs, and 7 triPAPs in the technical mixture Zonyl-RP. For sample clean-up, weak anion exchange solid phase extraction columns were tested. PAPs standard solutions spiked onto the columns were separated into a fraction containing neutral compounds (triPAPs) and a fraction with ionic compounds (mono- and diPAPs) with recoveries between 72-110%. Method limits of quantification for food samples were in the sub to low picogram per gram range. For quantitative analysis of PAPs, compound-specific labeled internal standards showed to be essential as sorption and matrix effects were observed. Mono-, di-, and/or triPAPs were detected in all food packaging materials obtained from the Swedish market. Up to nine diPAPs were detected in the food samples, with the 6:2/6:2 and 6:2/8:2 diPAPs as the dominant compounds. DiPAP concentrations in the food samples ranged from 0.9 to 36 pg/g, which was comparable to individual PFCA concentrations in the same samples. Consumption of food packed in PAP-containing materials could be an indirect source of human exposure to PFCAs. PMID:23494682

  13. Atypical endometrial cells and atypical glandular cells favor endometrial origin in Papanicolaou cervicovaginal tests: Correlation with histologic follow-up and abnormal clinical presentations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Longwen Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The 2001 Bethesda system recommends further classifying atypical glandular cells (AGCs as either endocervical or endometrial origin. Numerous studies have investigated the clinical significance of AGC. In this study, we investigated the incidence of clinically significant lesions among women with liquid-based Papanicolaou cervicovaginal (Pap interpretations of atypical endometrial cells (AEMs or AGC favor endometrial origin (AGC-EM. More importantly, we correlated patients of AEM or AGC-EM with their clinical presentations to determine if AEM/AGC-EM combined with abnormal vaginal bleeding is associated with a higher incidence of significant endometrial pathology. All liquid-based Pap tests with an interpretation of AEM and AGC-EM from July, 2004 through June, 2009 were retrieved from the database. Women with an interpretation of atypical endocervical cells, AGC, favor endocervical origin or AGC, favor neoplastic were not included in the study. The most severe subsequent histologic diagnoses were recorded for each patient. During this 5-year period, we accessioned 332,470 Pap tests of which 169 (0.05% were interpreted as either AEM or AGC-EM. Of the 169 patients, 133 had histologic follow-up within the health care system. The patients ranged in age from 21 to 71 years old (mean 49.7. On follow-up histology, 27 (20.3% had neoplastic/preneoplastic uterine lesions. Among them, 20 patients were diagnosed with adenocarcinoma (18 endometrial, 1 endocervical, and 1 metastatic colorectal, 3 with atypical endometrial hyperplasia, and 4 with endometrial hyperplasia without atypia. All patients with significant endometrial pathology, except one, were over 40 years old, and 22 of 25 patients reported abnormal vaginal bleeding at the time of endometrial biopsy or curettage. This study represents a large series of women with liquid-based Pap test interpretations of AEM and AGC-EM with clinical follow-up. Significant preneoplastic or neoplastic endometrial lesions were identified in 20.3% of patients. Patients with Pap test interpretations of AEM or AGC-EM and the clinical presentation of abnormal vaginal bleeding should be followed closely.

  14. Obtain of uranium concentrates from fertil liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This research tried to encounter the form to remove uranium from the rock in the best way, for that it was used different process like leaching, extraction, concentration and precipitation. To leach the mineral was chosen basic leaching, using a mixture of carbonate-sodium bicarbonate, this method is more adequated for the basic nature of the mineral. In extraction was used specific uranium ionic interchanges, so was chosen a tertiary amine like Alamina 336. The concentration phase is intimately binding with the extraction by ionic interchange, for the capability of resine's extraction to obtain concentrated liquids. When the liquids were obtained with high concentration of uranium in the same time were purified and then were precipitated, for that we employed a precipitant agent like: Sodium hydroxide, Amonium hydroxide, Magnesium hydroxide, Hydrogen peroxide and phosphates. With all concentrates we obtain the YELLOW CAKE

  15. HPV Testing Among Providers

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-10-15

    Dr. Walter Kinney, a gynecologic oncologist with The Permanente Medical Group in Sacramento, California, talks about Pap and human papillomavirus (HPV) cotesting in women aged 30 and over.  Created: 10/15/2009 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP), Division of Cancer Prevention and Control (DCPC).   Date Released: 6/9/2010.

  16. Human papillomavirus (HPV) testing for normal cervical cytology in low-risk women age 3065 years by family physicians

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Cruz, Marisyl D.; Young, Alisa P.; Ruffin, Mack T.

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE To assess HPV ordering for normal cervical cytology among low-risk women age 3065 years. METHODS Audits of 833 cytology request forms of low-risk women completing a Pap smear, January 2008April 2011, from five Michigan Family Medicine clinics determined HPV orders completed by the Pap-smear performing clinician. Multivariate logistic regression models examined differences in HPV ordering by age at Pap and provider status, gender, and clinic across sites. A poisson regression model analyzed the annual number of HPV orders over time. RESULTS Cytology requests were completed by: 622 faculty (75%), 169 residents/fellows (20%), and 42 Nurse Practitioner/Physician Assistants (NP/PAs) (5%). HPV testing for any cytology result was ordered on 324 request forms (39%) by residents/fellows (48%), faculty (38%), and NP/PAs (10%). Female providers were twice as likely as males to order HPV for any cytology result across all clinics and provider status (pHPV ordering among clinics. Annually between 20082011 cytology requests increased 46% including HPV for any cytology result after adjusting for faculty provider gender. CONCLUSION HPV ordering at cytology collection varied by clinic and provider status and gender. HPV cotesting for any cytology result remains modest, but increasing over time in these clinics. PMID:24204068

  17. Experimentally obtaining metrics in general relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Teixeira, A F F

    2005-01-01

    It seems to be not well known that the metrics of general relativity (GR) can be obtained without integrating Einstein equations. To that, we need only define a unit for GR-interval $\\Delta s$, and observe 10 geodesics (out of which at least one must be nonnull). Even without using any unit, we can have $\\kappa g_{\\mu\

  18. Porous ceramics obtained from strontium zirconate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An attempt is made to obtain a two-layer refractory material of strontium zirconate consisting of a high density sintered layer and a porous one. Initial components for the synthesis are strontium carbonate, zirconium dioxide and baddeleyite powder. The synthesis is carried out in the temperature range of 1400-1700 deg C. The material of high density layers is produced by polystyrene additions burning-out. X-ray diffraction analysis and microstructural studies show that the ceramic obtained is single-phase, with uniform fine-grained structure in high density layers. In porous layers spherical (1-2 mm) and channel-type (5? in diameters pores with sharp surface roughness are observed. The data on thermal conductivity and high temperature creep testify that the strontium zirconate ceramics is of high quality)

  19. Superconductive ceramics obtained with sol gel method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several sol gel routes have been considered, studied and developed to produce large quantities of granulates which can be processed to obtain ceramics having good superconducting characteristics. In the considered process a mixture of commercial nitrates is atomized, at room temperature, in a solution 1:1 of Primene JMT and Benzene and a pale blue gel of the starting elements is suddently formed. The granulates obtained are free flowing, very reactive and well suited for pressing. For their intrinsic characteristics they could be very good precursors for the production of large quantities of superconductive ceramics in different forms. The precipitated gel is dried, calcinated, pressed in the form of cylindrical pellets which are sintered up to 960 degrees C. No griding or different thermal treatments are needed. The sintered material has low electric resistence, shows a clear Meissner effect and has a transition temperature of between 91 and 95 K

  20. Obtaining the borders of urban areas

    CERN Document Server

    Comin, Cesar Henrique; Costa, Luciano da Fontoura

    2015-01-01

    The access to an ever increasing amount of information in the modern world gave rise to the development of many quantitative indicators about urban regions in the globe. Therefore, there is a growing need for a precise definition of how to delimit urban regions, so as to allow proper respective characterization and modeling. Here we present a straightforward methodology to automatically detect urban region borders. The method is based on the density of street crossings around a single seed point associated to the urban area of interest. We exemplify the potential of the methodology by characterizing the geometry and topology of 21 urban regions obtained from 8 distinct countries. The geometry is studied by employing the lacunarity measurement, which is associated to the regularity of holes contained in a pattern. The topology is analyzed by associating the betweenness centrality of the streets with their respective class, such as motorway or residential, obtained from a database.

  1. Intelligent drug delivery systems obtained by radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation-induced polymerization of acryloyl-L-proline methyl ester, an ?-aminoacid-containing monomer, in the presence of a crosslinking agent and a hydrophilic monomer gave rise to polymer hydrogels whose water content at equilibrium was found to decrease as the swelling temperature increased. Some hydrogel samples were obtained with entrapped acetaminophen, an analgesic and antipyretic drug. It was ascertained that the release of the drug was controlled by both the hydrophilicity of the polymer matrices and the environmental temperature

  2. Intelligent drug delivery systems obtained by radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martellini, Flavia; Higa, Olga Z.; Takacs, Erzsebet; Safranj, Agneza; Yoshida, Masaru; Katakai, Ryoichi; Carenza, Mario

    1998-06-01

    Radiation-induced polymerization of acryloyl-L-proline methyl ester, an ?-aminoacid-containing monomer, in the presence of a crosslinking agent and a hydrophilic monomer gave rise to polymer hydrogels whose water content at equilibrium was found to decrease as the swelling temperature increased. Some hydrogel samples were obtained with entrapped acetaminophen, an analgesic and antipyretic drug. It was ascertained that the release of the drug was controlled by both the hydrophilicity of the polymer matrices and the environmental temperature.

  3. New process of tungsten carbide obtaining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research center (in Reno) of the Mining Section of the USA Department of the Interior has developed a new process of tungsten carbide production from wolframite concentrates, avoiding the stage of obtaining ammonium paratungstate. The process passes two stages: high-temperature concentrate decomposition in the melt of chloride and silicate salts (HTSX process) and production of tungsten carbide by chloride phase processing with the use of methane

  4. Process for obtaining ammonium uranyl tri carbonate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The procedure adopted for obtaining Ammonium Uranyl Carbonate (AUC) from uranium hexafluoride (U F6) in a aqueous solutions of ammonium hydrogen carbonate is described in this work. The precipitation is made in temperature and pH controlled. This process consists of three steps: evaporation of U F6, AUC precipitation and filtration of the AUC slurry. An attempt is made of correlate the parameters involved in the precipitation process of AUC with its and U O2 characteristics. (author)

  5. Intelligent drug delivery systems obtained by radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martellini, Flavia; Higa, Olga Z.; Takacs, Erzsebet; Safranj, Agneza; Yoshida, Masaru; Katakai, Ryoichi; Carenza, Mario

    1998-06-01

    Radiation-induced polymerization of acryloyl-L-proline methyl ester, an {alpha}-aminoacid-containing monomer, in the presence of a crosslinking agent and a hydrophilic monomer gave rise to polymer hydrogels whose water content at equilibrium was found to decrease as the swelling temperature increased. Some hydrogel samples were obtained with entrapped acetaminophen, an analgesic and antipyretic drug. It was ascertained that the release of the drug was controlled by both the hydrophilicity of the polymer matrices and the environmental temperature.

  6. A system for obtaining an optical spectrum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ndoni, Sokol Technical University of Denmark,

    The present invention relates to a system for obtaining an optical spectrum 648 of analytes in a fluid sample, wherein a porous filter 602a, 602b is arranged so that the fluid sample may be placed onto a first region of the porous filter, and a SERS-active material 610a, 610b having a SERS-active surface is placed at least partially within the pores of the porous filter within a second region of the porous filter. The first region and the second region of the porous filter are spatially separated and connected by through-going pores so that only sufficiently small analytes are able to reach the second region. Thereby, the porous filter enables that the fluid sample is filtered so that only sufficiently small entities in the fluid sample reach the second region where they may be probed so that an optical spectrum related to the analytes in the filtered sample may be obtained. The optical system also comprises a light source 634, a light detector 642, and the optical analysis system is arranged for obtaining the optical spectrum 648 of the analytes adjacent to the SERS-active material 610a, 610b exclusively from the second region of the porous filter 602a, 602b.

  7. Lifetime obtained by ion beam assisted deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chakaroun, M. [XLIM-MINACOM-UMR 6172, Faculte des Sciences et Techniques, 123 av. Albert Thomas, 87060 Limoges cedex (France); Antony, R. [XLIM-MINACOM-UMR 6172, Faculte des Sciences et Techniques, 123 av. Albert Thomas, 87060 Limoges cedex (France)], E-mail: remi.antony@unilim.fr; Taillepierre, P.; Moliton, A. [XLIM-MINACOM-UMR 6172, Faculte des Sciences et Techniques, 123 av. Albert Thomas, 87060 Limoges cedex (France)

    2007-09-15

    We have fabricated green organic light-emitting diodes based on tris-(8-hydroxyquinoline)aluminium (Alq3) thin films. In order to favor the charge carriers transport from the anode, we have deposited a N,N'-diphenyl-N,N'-bis (3-methylphenyl)-1,1'-diphenyl-4,4'-diamine (TPD) layer (hole transport layer) on a ITO anode. Cathode is obtained with a calcium layer covered with a silver layer. This silver layer is used to protect the other layers against oxygen during the OLED use. All the depositions are performed under vacuum and the devices are not exposed to air during their realisation. In order to improve the silver layer characteristics, we have realized this layer with the ion beam assisted deposition process. The aim of this process is to densify the layer and then reduce the permeation of H{sub 2}O and O{sub 2}. We have used argon ions to assist the silver deposition. All the OLEDs optoelectronic characterizations (I = f(V), L = f(V)) are performed in the ambient air. We compare the results obtained with the assisted layer with those obtained with a classical cathode realized by thermal unassisted evaporation. We have realized lifetime measurements in the ambient air and we discuss about the assisted layer influence on the OLEDs performances.

  8. Lifetime obtained by ion beam assisted deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have fabricated green organic light-emitting diodes based on tris-(8-hydroxyquinoline)aluminium (Alq3) thin films. In order to favor the charge carriers transport from the anode, we have deposited a N,N'-diphenyl-N,N'-bis (3-methylphenyl)-1,1'-diphenyl-4,4'-diamine (TPD) layer (hole transport layer) on a ITO anode. Cathode is obtained with a calcium layer covered with a silver layer. This silver layer is used to protect the other layers against oxygen during the OLED use. All the depositions are performed under vacuum and the devices are not exposed to air during their realisation. In order to improve the silver layer characteristics, we have realized this layer with the ion beam assisted deposition process. The aim of this process is to densify the layer and then reduce the permeation of H2O and O2. We have used argon ions to assist the silver deposition. All the OLEDs optoelectronic characterizations (I = f(V), L = f(V)) are performed in the ambient air. We compare the results obtained with the assisted layer with those obtained with a classical cathode realized by thermal unassisted evaporation. We have realized lifetime measurements in the ambient air and we discuss about the assisted layer influence on the OLEDs performances

  9. SCS118 Marques New rice cultivar obtained through induced mutation

    OpenAIRE

    Moacir Antonio Schiocchet; Jose Alberto Noldin; Juliana Vieira Raimondi; Augusto Tulmann Neto; Rubens Marschalek; Ester Wickert; Gabriela Neves Martins; Eduardo Hickel; Ronaldir Knoblauch; Klaus Konrad Scheuermann; Domingos Savio Eberhardt; Alexander de Andrade

    2014-01-01

    The new rice cultivar, SCS118 Marques, was obtained through gamma irradiation of SCSBRS Tio Taka cultivar. SCS118 Marques presents modern architecture, lodging resistance, late maturity cycle, moderate resistance to blast, high yield potential, long grains and very high cooking quality. Industrial tests performed with SCS118 Marques showed that grains are suitable for parboiling and white rice, and it is recommended to all rice-producing regions of Santa Catarina

  10. Thermal treatment of kaolin clay to obtain metakaolin

    OpenAIRE

    Ili? Biljana R.; Mitrovi? Aleksandra A.; Mili?i? Ljiljana R.

    2010-01-01

    The metakaolin was produced by thermal treatment (calcination) of the starting high-quality kaolin clay from Serbia. The optimal calcination parameters, for which nearly complete dehydroxylation of the material was achieved, are: temperature 650C and heating time of 90 min. The conversion of the kaolinite to metakaolin was confirmed by XRD and IR analyses of the starting and thermally treated kaolin samples. The pozzolanic activity was determined by Chapelle test. The obtained value 0.65 g C...

  11. Obtaining Parotid Saliva Specimens After Major Surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Good, Marion; Wotman, Stephen; Anderson, Gene Cranston; Ahn, Sukhee; Cong, Xiaomei

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and test a standard method of collecting saliva from postoperative patients. Saliva was collected from patients following major abdominal surgery from both parotid glands, in intraoral cups and measured in milliliters. Collection time was measured with a stopwatch and flow rate was calculated by dividing the amount in milliliters by the minutes. Trained research nurses stimulated saliva production with lemon juice and collected saliva at four time poin...

  12. Obtaining radionuclides of rare earth elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Radioactive nuclides of rare earth elements (REE) are widely used in various areas of science and technology, and recently in medicine also. Majority of REE radionuclides can be obtained in nuclear reactor. Obtaining of REE radionuclides in nuclear reactor is more productive than in cyclotron. First of all, their production in nuclear reactor requires less expenses and costs less to produce. Secondly, because of rather greater section of the nuclear reactions, received radionuclides possess high enough specific activity. It is possible to receive such important REE radionuclides as 147Pm, 153Sm, I52Eu, 154Eu, 153Gd, 160Tb, 166Ho, 170Tm, and I77Lu in nuclear reactor. Usually, radionuclides are received by irradiating appropriate metals or their oxides of high purity in a flow of neutrons of reactor The present work illustrates the preliminary results of researches on possibility of obtaining 53Sm, 166Ho and 177Lu radionuclides in nuclear reactor of WWR-SM Institute of Nuclear Physics AS RUz. On chemical properties, rare earth elements differ from each other little and always accompany each other both in chemical compounds and as metal. Therefore, at their irradiation in nuclear reactor, there are always radioisotopes of other REE as radioactive impurity along with the major radionuclides. At reception of radionuclide of certain REE, the principal problem is clearing it from radioactive impurity of other REE. The work shows extraction and extraction-chromatography methods of REE division using liquid anion exchanger (tri-n-octyl amine) and cation exchanger (di-2-ethylhexyl phosphoric acid). Distribution coefficients of REE and its separation factors in the investigated systems are presented. Opportunities of reception of radionuclides 53Sm, 166Ho and l77Lu in nuclear reactor are estimated

  13. A general scheme for obtaining graviton spectrums

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this contribution is to present a general scheme for obtaining graviton spectra from modified gravity theories, based on a theory developed by Grishchuk in the mid 1970s. We try to be pedagogical, putting in order some basic ideas in a compact procedure and also giving a review of the current trends in this arena. With the aim to fill a gap for the interface between quantum field theorists and observational cosmologist in this matter, we highlight two interesting applications to cosmology: clues as to the nature of dark energy; and the possibility of reconstruction of the scalar potential in scalar-tensor gravity theories

  14. Reliability of "Google" for obtaining medical information

    OpenAIRE

    Mihir Kothari; Samita Moolani

    2015-01-01

    Internet is used by many patients to obtain relevant medical information. We assessed the impact of “Google” search on the knowledge of the parents whose ward suffered from squint. In 21 consecutive patients, the “Google” search improved the mean score of the correct answers from 47% to 62%. We found that “Google” search was useful and reliable source of information for the patients with regards to the disease etiopathogenesis and the problems caused by the disease. The internet-based informa...

  15. Obtaining high purity silica from rice hulls

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Jos da, Silva Jnior; Carlo R. da, Cunha; Flvio L. S. de, Carvalho; Ubirajara P., Rodrigues Filho; Paulo R., Oliveira; Marcos A. Segatto, Silva.

    Full Text Available Many routes for extracting silica from rice hulls are based on direct calcining. These methods, though, often produce silica contaminated with inorganic impurities. This work presents the study of a strategy for obtaining silica from rice hulls with a purity level adequate for applications in electr [...] onics. The technique is based on two leaching steps, using respectively aqua regia and Piranha solutions, which extract the organic matrix and inorganic impurities. The material was characterized by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), powder x-ray diffraction (XRD), x-ray fluorescence (XRF), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), particle size analysis by laser diffraction (LPSA) and thermal analysis.

  16. Reliability of "Google" for obtaining medical information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihir Kothari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Internet is used by many patients to obtain relevant medical information. We assessed the impact of "Google" search on the knowledge of the parents whose ward suffered from squint. In 21 consecutive patients, the "Google" search improved the mean score of the correct answers from 47% to 62%. We found that "Google" search was useful and reliable source of information for the patients with regards to the disease etiopathogenesis and the problems caused by the disease. The internet-based information, however, was incomplete and not reliable with regards to the disease treatment.

  17. Nanocrystalline magnetic materials obtained by flash annealing

    OpenAIRE

    Murakami R.K.; Villas-Boas V.

    1999-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to produce enhanced-remanence nanocrystalline magnetic material by crystallizing amorphous or partially amorphous Pr4.5Fe77B18.5 alloys by the flash annealing process, also known as the dc-Joule heating process, and to determine the optimal conditions for obtaining good magnetic coupling between the magnetic phases present in this material. Ribbons of Pr4.5Fe77B18.5 were produced by melt spinning and then annealed for 10-30 s at temperatures 500 - 640 C by pas...

  18. Reliability of "Google" for obtaining medical information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kothari, Mihir; Moolani, Samita

    2015-03-01

    Internet is used by many patients to obtain relevant medical information. We assessed the impact of "Google" search on the knowledge of the parents whose ward suffered from squint. In 21 consecutive patients, the "Google" search improved the mean score of the correct answers from 47% to 62%. We found that "Google" search was useful and reliable source of information for the patients with regards to the disease etiopathogenesis and the problems caused by the disease. The internet-based information, however, was incomplete and not reliable with regards to the disease treatment. PMID:25971176

  19. Antimicrobial coatings — obtaining and characterization

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Cornelia Guran; Alexandra Pica; Denisa Ficai; Anton Ficai; Cezar Comanescu

    2013-04-01

    In this paper, we present inorganic–organic hybrid coatings with polymer matrix (water soluble) that contain silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). The structure and morphology of coating materials were determined by infrared spectroscopy (FT–IR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Therefore, the antimicrobial activities and mechanisms of coatings for several pathogenic bacteria (Bacilius cereus and Staphylococcus aureus) were investigated. It was demonstrated that the obtained material with silver nanoparticles keep their antimicrobial effect even if they are subjected to several cycles of washing with water and detergent.

  20. Experimental methodology for obtaining sound absorption coefficients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A. Macía M

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: the authors propose a new methodology for estimating sound absorption coefficients using genetic algorithms. Methodology: sound waves are generated and conducted along a rectangular silencer. The waves are then attenuated by the absorbing material covering the silencer’s walls. The attenuated sound pressure level is used in a genetic algorithm-based search to find the parameters of the proposed attenuation expressions that include geometric factors, the wavelength and the absorption coefficient. Results: a variety of adjusted mathematical models were found that make it possible to estimate the absorption coefficients based on the characteristics of a rectangular silencer used for measuring the attenuation of the noise that passes through it. Conclusions: this methodology makes it possible to obtain the absorption coefficients of new materials in a cheap and simple manner. Although these coefficients might be slightly different from those obtained through other methodologies, they provide solutions within the engineering accuracy ranges that are used for designing noise control systems.

  1. Acoustic barriers obtained from industrial wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Valles, M; Avila, G; Martinez, S; Terradas, R; Nogus, J M

    2008-07-01

    Acoustic pollution is an environmental problem that is becoming increasingly more important in our society. Likewise, the accumulation of generated waste and the need for waste management are also becoming more and more pressing. In this study we describe a new material--called PROUSO--obtained from industrial wastes. PROUSO has a variety of commercial and engineering, as well as building, applications. The main raw materials used for this environmentally friendly material come from slag from the aluminium recycling process, dust from the marble industry, foundry sands, and recycled expanded polystyrene from recycled packaging. Some natural materials, such as plastic clays, are also used. To obtain PROUSO we used a conventional ceramic process, forming new mineral phases and incorporating polluted elements into the structure. Its physical properties make PROUSO an excellent acoustic and thermal insulation material. It absorbs 95% of the sound in the frequency band of the 500 Hz. Its compressive strength makes it ideal for use in ceramic wall building. PMID:18514765

  2. Koan Ogata's obtainment of Dutch scientific books.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murata, T

    1999-01-01

    Koan Ogata (1810-1863), a medical doctor in Osaka, is renowned for his contribution to the spread of vaccination and for his private school Teki-juku, a Rangaku school where education of Western learning was done by means of the Dutch language. In many letters collected in "Ogata Koan no Tegami" (1980-1996), he asked help for obtaining various Dutch scientific books to his former students, Shuhei Mitsukuri and Ryotei Takeya during several years around 1859: Mitsukuri was a staff member of the Foreign Affairs and intermittently Bansho Shirabesho (Institute for Western Learning) of the Tokugawa Shogunate in Edo, while Takeya was a medical doctor of the Fukuoka Clan. Moreover, Ogata wrote to Mitsukuri in 1858 that he had asked Yukichi Fukuzawa in Edo to buy a Dutch wordbook for him. On the other hand, Genki Kusaka, a student at the Teki-juku, noted in a letter to his parents in 1854 that Ogata had bought Dutch books from Tsuji, official Dutch interpreter of Nagasaki, when the Tsuji stopped by in Osaka on the way to Edo in the February of the year. This paper outlines the above letters to show how Koan Ogata tried to obtain Dutch books from Edo and Nagasaki; their titles and areas are discussed in view of the history of Western learning, and identification is made on the two books that have been left unclarified. PMID:11623952

  3. Sisal cellulose acetates obtained from heterogeneous reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, cellulose obtained from sisal, which is a source of rapid growth, was used. Cellulose acetates were produced in heterogeneous medium, using acetic anhydride as esterifying agent and iodine as catalyst, to check if the procedure described in the literature for commercial cellulose also is adequate to sisal cellulose. The results indicated that iodine is an excellent catalyst to obtain sisal cellulose acetates, but the reaction is so fast as described in the literature when, instead of sisal, lower average molar weight cellulose (microcrystalline is used. The crystallinity index (Ic of sisal cellulose acetates diminished compared to sisal cellulose, but there was no direct correlation between their degree of substitution (DS and Ic. Probably acetyl groups were introduced more homogeneously along the short chains of microcrystalline cellulose, when compared to sisal cellulose, and then for microcrystalline cellulose acetates the Ic decreases as DS increases. Using the linear correlation that was found between degree of substitution (DS and time reaction is possible to control the DS of sisal cellulose acetates, considering a large interval of degrees of substitution (0.32.8.

  4. Comparacin de cuatro mtodos de restauracin del ADN en muestras de plasma y lminas de citologa crvico-uterina como una herramienta para mejorar la calidad de la muestra / Comparison of four methods of DNA restoration in samples from plasma and pap smears as a tool for better the samples

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Caterin, Mrquez; Dabeiba Adriana, Garca-Robayo; Marcos, Castillo; Ignacio, Briceo; Jairo, Amaya; Fabio Anczar, Aristizbal-Gutirrez.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: comparar cuatro mtodos de restauracin del ADN en plasma y lminas crvico-uterinas como una herramienta para mejorar la calidad de la muestra. Mtodos: a 20 muestras de plasma sanguneo y 20 muestras de lminas citolgicas, se les realiz aislamiento de ADN mediante kit comercial y feno [...] l-cloroformo. A todas las muestras se les realiz un tratamiento pre-PCR con cuatro diferentes tipos de actividad de ADN polimerasa: 1. Exonucleasa y endonucleasa 5'-3'. 2. Exonucleasa 5'-3'. 3. Klenow, y 4. Klenow ms ligasa. Los diferentes mtodos se evaluaron mediante PCR en tiempo real con el gen ALU. Resultados: todos los mtodos de restauracin mejoran la calidad del ADN en los dos tipos de muestras. El mtodo 3 mostr mejores resultados en plasma y en lmina, incrementando la concentracin del ADN de 0,0022 ng/L a 0,6474 ng/L en lminas de citologa y de 0,0039 ng/L a 0,435 ng/L en plasma sanguneo. Conclusiones: ADN de las muestras de plasma y lmina al ser tratadas con un proceso de restauracin aumenta la calidad del ADN en comparacin a las muestras no tratadas. Abstract in english Objetives: To compare four methods of restoration of DNA in plasma and PAP smears as a tool to improve the quality of the samples. Methods: 20 blood samples and 20 PAP smears samples, we performed DNA isolation by commercial kit and phenol-chloroform respectively. Then all samples underwent a pre-PC [...] R treatment with four different types of activity DNA polymerase: 1. Exonuclease and endonuclease 5'-3'. 2. Exonuclease 5'-3'. 3. Klenow, and 4. Klenow more ligase. Different restoration methods were evaluated quantitatively by real-time PCR with gene ALU. Results: All restoration methods improve the quality of DNA in both types of samples. However, the 3th method showed better results in both plasma and PAP smears, increasing the concentration of DNA from 0.0022 ng/mL to 0.6474 ng/mL in PAP smears and 0.0039 ng/mL to 0.435 ng/mL in blood plasma. Conclusions: DNA from plasma samples and PAP smears to be treated with a restoration process increases the quality of DNA compared to untreated samples.

  5. Measurements, error analyses, and calculations of water and steam individual mass flow rates, velocities, and related flow parameters obtained from single-phase and two-phase prototype tests of the PKL instrumented spool pieces for the US NRC-RSR 3-D program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The operation of the emergency core cooling system and its related steam-binding problems in pressurized water reactors are the subject of a cooperative study by the United States, Germany, and Japan. Lawrence Livermore Laboratory and EG and G, Inc., San Ramon Operations, are responsible for the design, hardware, and software of the 80.8-mm and 113-mm spool piece measurement systems for the German Primarkreislauf (PKL) Test Facility at Kraftwerk Union in Erlangen, West Germany. Four PKL spool pieces each containing a flow turbine, drag screen, three-beam densitometer, and pressure and temperature probes were constructed and tested to measure single-phase and two-phase steam and water flow parameters. Individual phase velocities, mass flow rates, and densities were calculated from the analytical relationships presented. These calculated and measured parameters were compared to those parameters determined from the test facility instrumentation at Wyle Laboratories. Error analyses were performed, and individual test results were presented for both horizontal and vertical flows. The various flow regimes tested included annular mist, slug, froth, stratified wavy, and homogeneous flow of water or superheated steam

  6. Improving the procedure for obtaining organophilic clays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was realized in order to improve the way to obtain organoclays using clay from clay a local industry. Thus, factors not yet well understood in regard to organoclays were optimized and elucidated in this work. In the preparation of organoclays, a sodium bentonite, from the Bentonit Uniao Nordeste-Campina Grande/PB, was purified and organically modified with quaternary ammonium salt, cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (Cetrimide), using different conditions of preparation (time of mixing and content of organic surfactant). For purposes of comparison it was used also a commercial sodium montmorillonite (Cloisite Na+), supplied by Southern Clay Products. Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X ray diffraction (XRD) data indicated that organoclays more thermally stable and with better cost/benefit ratio can be prepared using the lowest mixing time (30 min) and the lowest amount of surfactant (equivalent to 100% of CEC of clay). (author)

  7. Obtaining tetraploid plants of ruzigrass (Brachiaria ruziziensis)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ana Luiza de Oliveira, Timb; Patrcia Nirlane da Costa, Souza; Roselaine Cristina, Pereira; Juliane Dornellas, Nunes; Jos Eduardo Brasil Pereira, Pinto; Fausto de, Souza Sobrinho; Lisete Chamma, Davide.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present work was to induce chromosome doubling in genotypes of Brachiaria ruziziensis with potential for production of good-quality biomass and tolerance/resistance to stress caused by aluminum and spittlebugs. Germinated seeds of B. ruziziensis were immersed in 0.1% colchicine [...] solution for 2 or 3 hours. Ploidy level was determined by flow cytometry and confirmed by chromosome count. Fertility of the tetraploid plants was assessed through evaluation of pollen viability by staining. There was no statistical difference with regard to seedling survival and number of duplicate seedlings between the treatments. Survival rate was 8%, of which 11.45% were tetraploid genotypes. The mean viability of pollen grains from the evaluated tetraploid plants ranged from 51.75 to 55.50%. So, the tetraploids plants obtained from genotypes of a bred population of ruzigrass produce fertile pollen, in percentages that render crosses viable in genetic breeding programs.

  8. Polypropylene obtained through zeolite supported catalysts

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Queli C., Bastos; Maria de Ftima V., Marques.

    Full Text Available Propylene polymerizations were carried out with f2C(Flu)(Cp)ZrCl2 and SiMe2(Ind)2ZrCl2 catalysts supported on silica, zeolite sodic mordenite (NaM) and acid mordenite (HM). The polymerizations were performed at different temperatures and varying aluminium/zirconium molar ratios ([Al]/[Zr]). The effe [...] ct of these reaction parameters on the catalyst activity was investigated using a proposed statistical experimental planning. In the case of f2C(Flu)(Cp)ZrCl2, SiO2 and NaM were used as support and the catalyst performance evaluated using toluene and pentane as polymerization solvent. The molecular weight, molecular weight distribution, melting point and crystallinity of the polymers were examined. The results indicate very high activities for the syndiospecific heterogeneous system. Also, the polymers obtained had superior Mw and stereoregularity.

  9. Devices for obtaining information about radiation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The invention provides a sensitive, fast high-resolution device for obtaining information about the distribution of gamma and X-radiation sources and provides a radiation detector useful in such a device. It comprises a slit collimator with a multiplicity of slits each with slit-defining walls of material and thickness to absorb beam components impinging on them. The slits extend further in one direction than the other. The detector for separately detecting beam components passing through the slits also provides data output signals. It comprises a plurality of radiation transducing portions which are not photoconductor elements each at the end of a slit. A positioner operates to change the transverse position of the slits and radiation transducing portions relative to the source, wherein each radiation transducing element is positioned within its respective slit between the slit defining walls. Full details and preferred embodiments are given. (U.K.)

  10. Devices for obtaining information about radiation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The invention provides a sensitive, fast, high-resolution device for obtaining information about the distribution of gamma and X-radiation sources and provides a radiation detector useful in such a device. It comprises a slit collimator with a multiplicity of slits each with slit-defining walls of material and thickness to absorb beam components impinging on them. The slits extend further in one transverse direction than the other. The detector for separately detecting beam components passing through the slits also provides data output signals. It comprises a plurality of radiation transducing portions, each at the end of a slit. A positioner changes the transverse position of the slits and radiation transducer (a photoconductor) relative to the source. Applications are in nuclear medicine and industry. Full details and preferred embodiments are given. (U.K.)

  11. Polypropylene obtained through zeolite supported catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Propylene polymerizations were carried out with ?2C(Flu)(Cp)ZrCl2 and SiMe2(Ind)2ZrCl2 catalysts supported on silica, zeolite sodic mordenite (NaM) and acid mordenite (HM). The polymerizations were performed at different temperatures and varying aluminium/zirconium molar ratios ([Al]/[Zr]). The effect of these reaction parameters on the catalyst activity was investigated using a proposed statistical experimental planning. In the case of f2C(Flu)(Cp)ZrCl2, SiO2 and NaM were used as support and the catalyst performance evaluated using toluene and pentane as polymerization solvent. The molecular weight, molecular weight distribution, melting point and crystallinity of the polymers were examined. The results indicate very high activities for the syndiospecific heterogeneous system. Also, the polymers obtained had superior Mw and stereo regularity. (author)

  12. The method of obtaining of decorative varnish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The method of obtaining of decorative varnish allowing to remove inhibition action of air oxygen and to improve the varnish hardness is described. It is includes the impregnation of texture paper with mixture of PE-284 type polyether lacquer on the basis of unsaturated oligoethylenglycolfumarath resin and cation type salt, putting it on wooden or asbestos cement slabs and further hardening by pulsed beams of accelerated electrons on moving belt. The radiation dose for one pulse is 1,10-2 - 9,10-3 MGy, the number of pulses is 180 - 250, the duration of pulses is 2.3 ms, their frequency is 50 KHz. Chloride, bromide, benzylbromide or iodide of N, N-dialkylaminoethyl (benzil) (met)acrylate are used as cation type salt. (author)

  13. Technologies for obtaining large grain sintered pellets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A way to increase fuel burn-up is to use a large grains fuel pellets structure. The paper presents a literature review related to the technologies and the methods for large grains sintered pellets manufacturing. A flowsheet for large grains sintered pellets obtaining by Nb2O5 dopant addition in UO2 sinterable powder, pressing and sintering in H2 atmosphere is showed. In the diagrams are presented the dependency of the main sintered pellets characteristics (pore radius distribution, pores volume, density, grains size) as function of the Nb2O5 dopants concentration, UO2 sinterable powder nature and sintering temperature. Other sintered pellets characteristics (electrical conductivity, Seebeck coefficient, high temperature molar heat capacity and thermomechanical properties) are commented. The beneficial effects resulted from theoretical and practical projects are presented. (author)

  14. Obtaining Reliable Feedback for Sanctioning Reputation Mechanisms

    CERN Document Server

    Faltings, B; 10.1613/jair.2243

    2011-01-01

    Reputation mechanisms offer an effective alternative to verification authorities for building trust in electronic markets with moral hazard. Future clients guide their business decisions by considering the feedback from past transactions; if truthfully exposed, cheating behavior is sanctioned and thus becomes irrational. It therefore becomes important to ensure that rational clients have the right incentives to report honestly. As an alternative to side-payment schemes that explicitly reward truthful reports, we show that honesty can emerge as a rational behavior when clients have a repeated presence in the market. To this end we describe a mechanism that supports an equilibrium where truthful feedback is obtained. Then we characterize the set of pareto-optimal equilibria of the mechanism, and derive an upper bound on the percentage of false reports that can be recorded by the mechanism. An important role in the existence of this bound is played by the fact that rational clients can establish a reputation for...

  15. Ferroelectric perovskite nanopowders obtained by mechanochemical synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabela Szafraniak-Wiza

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Simple perovskite nanopowders were fabricated by mechanochemical synthesis. High-energy milling process of respective oxides, leading to production of ferroelectric perovskites, was carefully investigated and characterized by X-ray diffraction, electron microscopy and X-ray excited photoelectron spectroscopy. It has been found that: (i the powder consists of loosely packed grains with a broad distribution of sizes between a few nm and 45 nm, (ii the grains possess core/shell structure, (iii the grain core of sizes larger than about 20 nm exhibits well developed crystalline structure, (iv the grains are coated by structurally disordered (amorphous shell. Intermediate phases have been found in the process of PbTiO3 mechanosynthesis only. The obtained nanopowders were used for preparation of dense ceramics.

  16. Polypropylene obtained through zeolite supported catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Queli C. Bastos

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Propylene polymerizations were carried out with f2C(Flu(CpZrCl2 and SiMe2(Ind2ZrCl2 catalysts supported on silica, zeolite sodic mordenite (NaM and acid mordenite (HM. The polymerizations were performed at different temperatures and varying aluminium/zirconium molar ratios ([Al]/[Zr]. The effect of these reaction parameters on the catalyst activity was investigated using a proposed statistical experimental planning. In the case of f2C(Flu(CpZrCl2, SiO2 and NaM were used as support and the catalyst performance evaluated using toluene and pentane as polymerization solvent. The molecular weight, molecular weight distribution, melting point and crystallinity of the polymers were examined. The results indicate very high activities for the syndiospecific heterogeneous system. Also, the polymers obtained had superior Mw and stereoregularity.

  17. Speaker Identification From Youtube Obtained Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitesh Kumar Chaudhary

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available An efficient, and intuitive algorithm is presented for the identification of speakers from a long dataset (like YouTube long discussion, Cocktail party recorded audio or video.The goal of automatic speaker identification is to identify the number of different speakers and prepare a model for that speaker by extraction, characterization and speaker-specific information contained in the speech signal. It has many diverse application specially in the field of Surveillance , Immigrations at Airport , cyber security , transcription in multi-source of similar sound source, where it is difficult to assign transcription arbitrary. The most commonly speech parameterization used in speaker verification, K-mean, cepstral analysis, is detailed. Gaussian mixture modeling, which is the speaker modeling technique is then explained. Gaussian mixture models (GMM, perhaps the most robust machine learning algorithm has been introduced to examine and judge carefully speaker identification in text independent. The application or employment of Gaussian mixture models for monitoring & Analysing speaker identity is encouraged by the familiarity, awareness, or understanding gained through experience that Gaussian spectrum depict the characteristics of speaker's spectral conformational pattern and remarkable ability of GMM to construct capricious densities after that we illustrate 'Expectation maximization' an iterative algorithm which takes some arbitrary value in initial estimation and carry on the iterative process until the convergence of value is observed We have tried to obtained 85 ~ 95% of accuracy using speaker modeling of vector quantization and Gaussian Mixture model ,so by doing various number of experiments we are able to obtain 79 ~ 82% of identification rate using Vector quantization and 85 ~ 92.6% of identification rate using GMM modeling by Expectation maximization parameter estimation depending on variation of parameter.

  18. Obtaining superhydrophobicity using commercial razor blades

    CERN Document Server

    Yamamoto, Ken; Ogata, Satoshi

    2015-01-01

    Because the superhydrophobic characteristic appears by forming a composite surface consisting of solid and air underneath the droplets, a large number of rough surfaces that can trap air have been fabricated. Recently, the air trapping on materials whose equilibrium contact angles are less than 90 degrees was achieved by fabricating proper structures that lead energetic stability at the condition. Whereas these methods were proposed under the assumption of the static and equilibrium conditions, we take a dynamic and non-equilibrium approach in this study through droplet deposition and droplet impact experiments. By employing test surfaces that consist of commercially available stainless steel razor blades, we show the pinning effect brings the apparent water contact angle of approximately 160 degrees on a "hydrophilic" substrate. We call this state the "non-equilibrium Cassie state" and give theoretical explanations. Furthermore, the dynamic characteristics of the droplet impact on these surfaces are discusse...

  19. Biodegradable Polyelectrolyte Obtained by Radiation Polymerization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poly electrolytes are water-soluble polymers carrying ionic charge along the polymer chain. Depending upon the charge, these polymers are anionic or cationic. The inherent solid - liquid separating efficiency makes these poly electrolytes a unique class of polymers which find extensive application in potable water, industrial raw and process water, municipal sewage treatment, mineral processing and metallurgy, oil drilling and recovery, etc. Also, due to their ability to produce advanced induced coagulation, a considerable amount of bacteria and viruses are precipitated together with the suspended solids. Especially the acrylamide polymers are very efficacious for water treatment but acrylamide is a toxic monomer and therefore their use are governed by international standards that provide the residual acrylamide monomer content (RAMC) in them be less than 0.05%. Under these circumstances our attention was focused on the following research steps that are presented in this paper: 1) Preparation of a special class of poly electrolytes, named Pn, with very low RAMC values, based on electron beam (EB), microwave (MW) and EB + MW induced co-polymerization of aqueous solutions containing appropriate mixtures of acrylamide (AMD) and acrylic acid (AA) monomers (AMD - AA co-polymers). The Pn were obtained by radiation technology with very small RAMC (under 0.01%) as well as in a wide range of molecular weights and charge densities. Very low AMD monomer content of Pn is due to the major advantages of radiation induced polymerization in aqueous solution containing monomers. Due to water presence in the EB irradiated system, irradiated water radicals facilitate the polymerization process and increase rate and level of monomers conversion in co-polymers. Also, once again, by the presence of water, which absorbs MW energy very strongly, the MW polymerization reaction rate is much enhanced resulting in a reaction time about 50-100 times lowers than by conventional heating. Also, due to the rapid, volumetric and selective MW energy transfer, the molecular weight dispersion of the polymeric material is very low. 2) Development of more efficacious methods for Pn application to potable water (PW) and waste water (WW) treatment. The Pan obtained by EB and EB + MW induced polymerization give the best results for TSS (total suspended solid) and T (turbidity) indicators in the PW case while Pn types obtained by MW induced polymerization give always the best results for OM (organic matters) and TOC (total organic carbon) indicators in the WW case. Also, each quality indicator is associated with a certain amount and a certain type of Pn, which exhibits the maximum ability to its reduction. For a given Pn type there is a different amount for each quality indicator, which gives the best result. These aspects have suggested to mix several Pn types (the best for each quality indicator) and to use their mixture (Mn) for water treatment. The use of mixture (Mn) of several Pn types demonstrated the ability in the simultaneous reduction of several quality indicators for PW as well as for WW

  20. New informations obtained by energy filtered RHEED

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reflection high-energy electron diffraction (RHEED) patterns, so far observed, are mixtures of those due to elastically and inelastically scattered electrons from the specimen surface. The background of the RHEED pattern, which consists of the signals attributed to inelastic electrons, sometimes disturbs the observation of detail diffraction features. In order to exclude these inelastic electrons, a retarding field analyzer was used as the energy filter. By using this energy filtered RHEED (EF-RHEED) apparatus, new RHEED patterns and rocking curves were obtained. In the EF-RHEED pattern of Si(001)2x1 surface, a line pattern due to the disordering of the c(4x2) surface structure was clearly extracted from the background. In the EF-RHEED pattern of Si(111)7x7 surface, some additional diffuse patterns were observed. Energy filtered rocking curves of diffraction spots are presented, which are different from conventional ones in their relative intensities. Especially, there is a serious difference when a diffraction spot goes through an intense Kikuchi line. Energy loss spectra of diffraction spots can be measured by this apparatus. It was found that the diffraction beams with very grazing take-off angle suffers a great probability of inelastic scattering from surface plasmon excitation. (author)

  1. HOW TO OBTAIN BOOKS FOR YOUR GROUP

    CERN Multimedia

    Head Librarian

    2000-01-01

    The wide variety of scientific and technical activity engaged in by people working at CERN means that the Library cannot always provide a deep on-site coverage in areas which are outside the core subjects of particle physics and accelerators. As many of you have already experienced, one way of solving this is to borrow books from other libraries. Our Inter-Library Loan (ILL) service currently obtains about 1000 books on loan per year for readers at CERN. However, there may be books which groups need on a more permanent basis, in which case a loan from either our own collection or via ILL is not the appropriate solution. Instead, groups might prefer to purchase such books from their own budgets. To facilitate this, the CERN Library has set up a procedure with the SPL Division, by which you can submit your purchase request to us and be charged via a TID when you receive the book. In addition, via our database interface WebLib, we can provide you with a private virtual catalogue of your group's collection, which...

  2. Nano hydroxyapatite crystals obtained by colloidal solution

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    D, Meza; I.A., Figueroa; C, Flores-Morales; M.C., Pia-Barba.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se presenta un proceso de sntesis por solucin coloidal para obtener polvos nanocristalinos de hidroxiapatita usando nitrato de calcio tetrahidratado [Ca(NO3)2-4H2O] y pentoxido de fosforo [P2O5]. Los polvos obtenidos fueron lavados y calcinados a diferentes temperaturas para ser ca [...] racterizados empleando difraccin de rayos X (DRX), microscopa electrnica de barrido (MEB) y microscopa electrnica de trasmisin (MET). El tamao de los polvos se obtuvo comparando los resultados obtenidos por MET con los calculados por DRX usando la frmula de Scherrer. Abstract in english A process for synthesising nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite powders using calcium nitrate tetrahydrated [Ca(NO3)2-4H2O] and phosphorous pentoxide [P2O5] by colloidal solution, is presented and discussed. The powders were washed and calcinated at different temperatures and then characterised by X-ray d [...] iffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The powder size was compared with the results obtained from TEM and the calculated with the Scherrer's formula.

  3. Nanocrystalline magnetic materials obtained by flash annealing

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    R.K., Murakami; V., Villas-Boas.

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present work was to produce enhanced-remanence nanocrystalline magnetic material by crystallizing amorphous or partially amorphous Pr4.5Fe77B18.5 alloys by the flash annealing process, also known as the dc-Joule heating process, and to determine the optimal conditions for obtaining go [...] od magnetic coupling between the magnetic phases present in this material. Ribbons of Pr4.5Fe77B18.5 were produced by melt spinning and then annealed for 10-30 s at temperatures 500 - 640 C by passing current through the sample to develop the enhanced-remanence nanocrystalline magnetic material. These materials were studied by X-ray diffraction, differential thermal analysis and magnetic measurements. Coercivity increases of up to 15% were systematically observed in relation to furnace-annealed material. Two different samples were carefully examined: (i) a sample annealed at 600 C which showed the highest coercive field Hc and remanence ratio Mr/Ms and (ii) a sample annealed at 520 C which showed phase separation in the second quadrant demagnetization curve. Our results are in agreement with other studies which show that flash annealing improves the magnetic properties of some amorphous ferromagnetic ribbons.

  4. Nanocrystalline magnetic materials obtained by flash annealing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.K. Murakami

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present work was to produce enhanced-remanence nanocrystalline magnetic material by crystallizing amorphous or partially amorphous Pr4.5Fe77B18.5 alloys by the flash annealing process, also known as the dc-Joule heating process, and to determine the optimal conditions for obtaining good magnetic coupling between the magnetic phases present in this material. Ribbons of Pr4.5Fe77B18.5 were produced by melt spinning and then annealed for 10-30 s at temperatures 500 - 640 °C by passing current through the sample to develop the enhanced-remanence nanocrystalline magnetic material. These materials were studied by X-ray diffraction, differential thermal analysis and magnetic measurements. Coercivity increases of up to 15% were systematically observed in relation to furnace-annealed material. Two different samples were carefully examined: (i a sample annealed at 600 °C which showed the highest coercive field Hc and remanence ratio Mr/Ms and (ii a sample annealed at 520 °C which showed phase separation in the second quadrant demagnetization curve. Our results are in agreement with other studies which show that flash annealing improves the magnetic properties of some amorphous ferromagnetic ribbons.

  5. Shielding design to obtain compact marine reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The marine reactors equipped in previously constructed nuclear ships are in need of the secondary shield which is installed outside the containment vessel. Most of the weight and volume of the reactor plants are occupied by this secondary shield. An advanced marine reactor called MRX (Marine Reactor X) has been designed to obtain a more compact and lightweight marine reactor with enhanced safety. The MRX is a new type of marine reactor which is an integral PWR (The steam generator is installed in the pressure vessel.) with adopting a water-filled containment vessel and a new shielding design method of no installation of the secondary shield. As a result, MRX is considerably lighter in weight and more compact in size as compared with the reactors equipped in previously constructed nuclear ships. For instance, the plant weight and volume of the containment vessel of MRX are about 50% and 70% of those of the Nuclear Ship MUTSU, in spite of the power of MRX is 2.8 times as large as the MUTSU's reactor. The shielding design calculation was made using the ANISN, DOT3.5, QAD-CGGP2 and ORIGEN codes. The computational accuracy was confirmed by experimental analyses. (author)

  6. Functionally mullite materials obtained from composite particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have performed experiments of composites sintering from mullite-ZrO2 by using composite particles ?-Al2O3/SiO2 am. or substrates obtained by sol-gel method with varied components of ZrO2. The method of sintering composite particles causes so called transient viscous sintering (TVS) and the increase of temperature of synthesis the mullite up to above 1300 oC. We have observed another mechanism of the mullit-ZrO2 composites formation as well. The mullite-ZrO2 sinters with functional gradient have been prepared by using special method of formation from composite particles. Thin samples (? 3 mm high and 20 mm in diameter) with continuous variation of ZrO2 contents from 0 to 20 wt. % were preparing by special method of forming and sintering. In thin samples fracture toughness - K1c differ from 2.5 MPa0.5 (on the top layer with 0 ZrO2 contents) to 4.5 MPa0.5 (on the bottom layer with 20 wt. % ZrO2 contents). (author)

  7. Tailoring approach for obtaining molecular orbitals of large systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Anuja P Rahalkar; Shridhar R Gadre

    2012-01-01

    Molecular orbitals (MO’s) within Hartree-Fock (HF) theory are of vital importance as they provide preliminary information of bonding and features such as electron localization and chemical reactivity. The contemporary literature treats the Kohn-Sham orbitals within density functional theory (DFT) equivalently to the MO's obtained within HF framework. The high scaling order of ab initio methods is the main hurdle in obtaining the MO's for large molecular systems. With this view, an attempt is made in the present work to employ molecular tailoring approach (MTA) for obtaining the complete set of MO's including occupied and virtual orbitals, for large molecules at HF and B3LYP levels of theory. The energies of highest occupied and lowest unoccupied molecular orbitals, and hence the band gaps, are accurately estimated by MTA for most of the test cases benchmarked in this study, which include -conjugated molecules. Typically, the root mean square errors of valence MO's are in range of 0.001 to 0.010 a.u. for all the test cases examined. MTA shows a time advantage factor of 2 to 3 over the corresponding actual calculation, for many of the systems reported.

  8. Comparison of Vespula germanica venoms obtained from different sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, F; Blanca, M; Miranda, A; Carmona, M J; Garcia, J; Fernandez, J; Torres, M J; Rondon, M C; Juarez, C

    1994-08-01

    This study was carried out to compare the allergenic potency of Vespula germanica (VG) venoms extracted by different methods and commercially available venoms from Vespula species currently used for in vivo and in vitro studies including immunotherapy. Pure VG venom was used as the reference material. Protein content and enzymatic and allergenic properties of all venoms studied were determined by dye stain reagent, hyaluronidase and phospholipase A1B enzyme activities, and radioallergosorbent test inhibition studies, respectively. Radioallergosorbent test discs sensitized with commercial and pure VG venom were compared using specific IgE antibodies from subjects allergic to VG venom. The data obtained indicate that there were important differences in the allergenic potency between the Vespula species venoms employed for in vivo and/or in vitro assays, VG venom obtained by sac dissection, and pure VG venom. These results indicate that venoms from Vespula species used for in vitro and in vivo tests have a lower concentration of allergens and contain nonvenom proteins. These data should be taken into account when these vespid venoms are used for diagnostic purposes and also when evaluating immunotherapy studies. PMID:8038617

  9. Obtaining cementitious material from municipal solid waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Macas, A.

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The primary purpose of the present study was to determine the viability of using incinerator ash and slag from municipal solid waste as a secondary source of cementitious materials. The combustion products used were taken from two types of Spanish MSW incinerators, one located at Valdemingmez, in Madrid, and the other in Melilla, with different incineration systems: one with fluidised bed combustion and other with mass burn waterwall. The effect of temperature (from 800 to 1,200 C on washed and unwashed incinerator residue was studied, in particular with regard to phase formation in washed products with a high NaCl and KCl content. The solid phases obtained were characterized by X-ray diffraction and BET-N2 specific surface procedures.El principal objetivo del trabajo ha sido determinar la viabilidad del uso de las cenizas y escorias procedentes de la incineracin de residuos slidos urbanos, como materia prima secundaria para la obtencin de fases cementantes. Para ello se han empleado los residuos generados en dos tipos de incineradoras espaolas de residuos slidos urbanos: la incineradora de Valdemingmez y la incineradora de Melilla. Se ha estudiado la transformacin de los residuos, sin tratamiento previo, en funcin de la temperatura de calentamiento (desde 800 C hasta 1.200 C, as como la influencia del lavado de los residuos con alto contenido en NaCl y KCl en la formacin de fases obtenidas a las diferentes temperaturas de calcinacin. Las fases obtenidas fueron caracterizadas por difraccin de rayos X y rea superficial por el mtodo BET-N2.

  10. Obtaining of plasma impurities using atomistic simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plasma contamination is one of the most serious problems in the development of a commercial fusion reactor. A major fraction of the impurities originate from the plasma-facing components inside the vacuum chamber. However, the chemical distributions of eroded species of different types of materials, ranging from carbon-based diverter target plates to high-Z components, are not well known. Measurements during the device operation do not give direct results on the distributions of the eroded species. Experimental laboratory simulations of fusion device conditions are often marred by the fragmentation of the species studied. However, it is clear that the distributions of the species eroded from plasma-facing materials are very important in understanding the drifting, co-deposition and re-deposition of the impurities. Molecular dynamics simulations are widely used for modeling atom-scale processes in different materials. The central idea is to numerically solve the equations of motion for a system of atoms. The interatomic forces are derived from potential energy functions, which range from sophisticated quantum mechanical models to empirical formulations. We use molecular dynamics simulations to model various fusion-related materials under hydrogen bombardment and self-irradiation. As the trajectory of each atom is known throughout the simulations, we can estimate not only the sputtering yields for various irradiation conditions, but also the chemical compositions of the sputtered species. This approach has, already been used for modeling amorphous carbon surfaces under hydrogen bombardment. For hydrocarbons the chemical distributions of the eroded CxHy species are obtained. Similarly, for W and Mo self-sputtering the fractions of sputtered monomers, dimers and even larger clusters are determined. The results offer a point of comparison for experimental studies, and the chemical distributions can be used as input data for other modeling studies. (orig.)

  11. The 14th quality control survey for radioisotope in vitro tests in Japan, 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the results of the 14th quality control nationwide survey. Of 490 facilities performing RI in vitro tests as of December 1992, 261 (53.3%) participated in the present 1992 survey. Free testosterone and renin were added to the following conventional 37 test items: adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), growth hormone (GH), somatomedin C, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), prolactin, thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), triiodothyronine (T3), free T3, thyroxine (T4), free T4, T3 uptake, thyroglobulin, T3 binding globulin (TBG), parathyroid hormone (PTH), calcitonin, insulin, C-peptide, glucagon, gastrin, testosterone, estradiol, progesterone, 17α-hydroxyprogesterone, aldosterone, cortisol, immunoglobulin E (IgE), digoxin, α-fetoprotein, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), tissue polypeptide antigen (TPA), CA125, CA19-9, CA15-3, prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP), β2-microglobulin, and ferritin. Measurement data for each kit were analyzed by a mean value of measurements, standard deviation, and coefficient of variation (CV). Both 'within kit variation' between facilities and 'between kit variation' showed a CV of 20% or less for GH, somatomedin C, TSH, T3, T4, T3 uptake, TBG, cortisol, IgE, CA125, PAP, and β2-microglobulin, revealing satisfactory results. There was a great 'within kit variation' between facilities in ACTH, free T4, and calcitonin; and there was a great 'between kit variation' in ACTH, LH, free T4, thyroglobulin, PTH, calcitonin, and α-fetoprotein. (N.K.)

  12. Component Repair Times Obtained from MSPI Data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Information concerning times to repair or restore equipment to service given a failure is valuable to probabilistic risk assessments (PRAs). Examples of such uses in modern PRAs include estimation of the probability of failing to restore a failed component within a specified time period (typically tied to recovering a mitigating system before core damage occurs at nuclear power plants) and the determination of mission times for support system initiating event (SSIE) fault tree models. Information on equipment repair or restoration times applicable to PRA modeling is limited and dated for U.S. commercial nuclear power plants. However, the Mitigating Systems Performance Index (MSPI) program covering all U.S. commercial nuclear power plants provides up-to-date information on restoration times for a limited set of component types. This paper describes the MSPI program data available and analyzes the data to obtain median and mean component restoration times as well as non-restoration cumulative probability curves. The MSPI program provides guidance for monitoring both planned and unplanned outages of trains of selected mitigating systems deemed important to safety. For systems included within the MSPI program, plants monitor both train UA and component unreliability (UR) against baseline values. If the combined system UA and UR increases sufficiently above established baseline results (converted to an estimated change in core damage frequency or CDF), a ''white'' (or worse) indicator is generated for that system. That in turn results in increased oversight by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and can impact a plant's insurance rating. Therefore, there is pressure to return MSPI program components to service as soon as possible after a failure occurs. Three sets of unplanned outages might be used to determine the component repair durations desired in this article: all unplanned outages for the train type that includes the component of interest, only unplanned outages associated with failures of the component of interest, and only unplanned outages associated with PRA failures of the component of interest. The paper will describe how component repair times can be generated from each set and which approach is most applicable. Repair time information will be summarized for MSPI pumps and diesel generators using data over 2003 - 2007. Also, trend information over 2003 - 2012 will be presented to indicate whether the 2003 - 2007 repair time information is still considered applicable. For certain types of pumps, mean repair times are significantly higher than the typically assumed 24 h duration.

  13. Component Repair Times Obtained from MSPI Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eide, Steven A. [Curtiss-Wright/Scietech, Ketchum, ID (United States); Cadwallader, Lee [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-05-01

    Information concerning times to repair or restore equipment to service given a failure is valuable to probabilistic risk assessments (PRAs). Examples of such uses in modern PRAs include estimation of the probability of failing to restore a failed component within a specified time period (typically tied to recovering a mitigating system before core damage occurs at nuclear power plants) and the determination of mission times for support system initiating event (SSIE) fault tree models. Information on equipment repair or restoration times applicable to PRA modeling is limited and dated for U.S. commercial nuclear power plants. However, the Mitigating Systems Performance Index (MSPI) program covering all U.S. commercial nuclear power plants provides up-to-date information on restoration times for a limited set of component types. This paper describes the MSPI program data available and analyzes the data to obtain median and mean component restoration times as well as non-restoration cumulative probability curves. The MSPI program provides guidance for monitoring both planned and unplanned outages of trains of selected mitigating systems deemed important to safety. For systems included within the MSPI program, plants monitor both train UA and component unreliability (UR) against baseline values. If the combined system UA and UR increases sufficiently above established baseline results (converted to an estimated change in core damage frequency or CDF), a white (or worse) indicator is generated for that system. That in turn results in increased oversight by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and can impact a plants insurance rating. Therefore, there is pressure to return MSPI program components to service as soon as possible after a failure occurs. Three sets of unplanned outages might be used to determine the component repair durations desired in this article: all unplanned outages for the train type that includes the component of interest, only unplanned outages associated with failures of the component of interest, and only unplanned outages associated with PRA failures of the component of interest. The paper will describe how component repair times can be generated from each set and which approach is most applicable. Repair time information will be summarized for MSPI pumps and diesel generators using data over 2003 2007. Also, trend information over 2003 2012 will be presented to indicate whether the 2003 2007 repair time information is still considered applicable. For certain types of pumps, mean repair times are significantly higher than the typically assumed 24 h duration.

  14. Obtaining Stiffness Exponents from Bond-diluted Lattice Spin Glasses

    CERN Document Server

    Bttcher, S

    2005-01-01

    Recently, a method has been proposed to obtain accurate predictions for low-temperature properties of lattice spin glasses that is practical even above the upper critical dimension, $d_c=6$. This method is based on the observation that bond-dilution enables the numerical treatment of larger lattices, and that the subsequent combination of such data at various bond densities into a finite-size scaling Ansatz produces more robust scaling behavior. In the present study we test the potential of such a procedure, in particular, to obtain the stiffness exponent for the hierachical Migdal-Kadanoff lattice. Critical exponents for this model are known with great accuracy and any simulations can be executed to very large lattice sizes at almost any bond density, effecting a insightful comparison that highlights the advantages -- as well as the weaknesses -- of this method. These insights are applied to the Edwards-Anderson model in $d=3$ with Gaussian bonds.

  15. Cytoplasm T-maize tissue culture to obtain methomyl resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The calli of two cytoplasm T-maize hybrids were cultured in vitro with methomyl in the medium in order to obtain resistance. A mutagenic pretreatment was performed in one of the hybrids by injecting ethylmethane sulphonate (EMS) into the ear cob before fetilization. The atrophic tissue method was utilized to obtain totipotent callus. After treatment, coloured pericarp grains were observed in the regenerated plants. Different esterase electrophoretic patterns also appeared in one of them. In the methomyl resistance test, some nearly resistant (R-) and some less susceptible (S-) plants were detected within the same descendance (possibly due to mitochondrial variability). The interaction between mutagenic treatment with EMS and in vitro culture may be a suitable method for inducing changes of methomyl susceptibility in cms-T maize plants. (author)

  16. Experience obtained during the commissioning of the Leibstadt reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Commissioning proceeded in two steps: Preoperational phase, start-up phase. The first was intended to prove normal functioning of components and systems, and activities in the second were to test and check the functions of the entire plant. Disturbances have been induced at various power levels in order to test the reactor responses and the proper functioning of the protection and safety systems. The start-up phase covered eight different stages, for each of which a licence had to be obtained from the Swiss supervisory authority, HSK. Permits have been issued at every stage after the HSK was convinced by comparison of measured and design-based data that preceding trials were successfully completed and safety-related problems could be excluded. (orig./GL)

  17. DETERMINATION OF ELECTRODEPOSITION HARDNESS BY ANALYTICAL MODELING PART I - Ni-P COATINGS OBTAINED BY VARYING THE ELABORATION TIME -

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PAS?RE Minodora Maria

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Results obtained from Vickers hardness tests were used for analytical modeling models Buckle, Jnsson, Hogmark. Ni-P electrodeposition were obtained by varying the elaboration time. The analytic models obtained by theoretical means, by applying the corresponding formulas to each model have been compared to the experimental results obtained at hardness tests.

  18. Elastic modulus evaluation of Titania nanotubes obtained by anodic oxidation

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Luciane S., Santos; Nilson T. C., Oliveira; Carlos M., Lepienski; Cludia E. B., Marino; Neide K, Kuromoto.

    Full Text Available The use of titania (TiO2) nanotubes is becoming one of the most attractive techniques as surface treatment for implants due its combination of morphology (that accelerates osteoblast adhesion and proliferation), bioactivity and possibility of being use as a drug vehicle. Anodic oxidation is one of [...] the cheapest and simplest approaches to obtain highly ordered nanotubes. Parameters such as applied potential, reaction time and fluoride containing in the electrolyte define the nanotubes morphology. However, the mechanical properties of the nanotubes layer do not have been completely elucidated and they play a crucial role in the implant long term stability. The objective of this research was to obtain TiO2 nanotubes using anodic oxidation and to determine their elastic modulus and hardness. The TiO2 nanotubes layer was obtained in a fluoride containing electrolyte for 1 hour, one group at 15 V and another one at 25 V. The TiO2 nanotubes morphology was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The elastic modulus and hardness were evaluated by nanoindentation experiments using a spherical tip. SEM images showed highly ordered nanotubes on all titanium surfaces and it was observed that the nanotubes diameters are directly related with the applied potential. Nanotubes diameters are 66 9 nm and 131 22 nm for nanotubes obtained at 15 V and 25 V, respectively. Nanoindentation test results showed a decrease in the elastic modulus comparing with titanium reference and these values approach to cortical bone elastic modulus. These results demonstrate that it was possible to obtain a homogeneous TiO2 nanotubes layer that has mechanical properties adequate to improve implant long-term stability.

  19. The possible effects on socio-economic inequalities of introducing HPV-testing as primary test in cervical cancer screening programs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PaoloGiorgi Rossi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background HPV-test is more effective than Pap test in preventing cervical cancer. HPV-based screening will imply longer intervals and a triage test for HPV positive women. It will also permit the use of self-sampling devices. These innovations may affect population coverage, participation, and compliance to protocols, and likely in a different way for less educated, poorer, and disadvantaged women. Aim To describe the impact on inequalities, actual or presumed, of the introduction of HPV-based screening. Methods The putative HPV-based screening algorithm has been analysed to identify critical points for inequalities. A systematic review of the literature has been conducted searching PubMed on HPV screening coverage, participation, and compliance. Results were summarised in a narrative synthesis. Results Knowledge about HPV and cervical cancer was lower in women with low Socio-economic status and in disadvantaged groups. A correct communication can reduce differences. Longer intervals will make it easier to achieve high-population coverage, but higher cost of the test in private providers could reduce the use of opportunistic screening by disadvantaged women. There are some evidences that inviting for HPV test instead of Pap increases participation, but there are no data on social differences. Self-sampling devices are effective in increasing participation and coverage. Some studies showed that the acceptability of self-sampling is higher in more educated women, but there is also an effect on hard-to-reach women. Communication of HPV positivity may increase anxiety and impact on sexual behaviours, the effect is stronger in low educated and disadvantaged women. Many studies found indirect evidence that unvaccinated women are or will be more probably under-screened. Conclusions The introduction of HPV test may increase population coverage, but non-compliance to protocols and interaction with opportunistic screening can increase existing inequalities.

  20. Allergenic extracts from Metarhizium canisopliae: obtainment and characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbieri, R T; Croce, J; Gandra, R F; Gagete, E; Paula, C R; Gambale, W

    2005-01-01

    Metarhizium anisopliae is used as a biopesticide for insects that damage agricultural plantations like sugar cane and forage plants. In a previous study the sensitization to this fungus of asthmatic patients coming from sugar cane areas was showed. The aims of this work were: to compare crude extracts obtained with Tris-HCl and Coca liquid from several growth phases of M. anisopliae concerning the total content of proteins and their electrophoretic analysis profile; to evaluate in vivo allergic sensitization in Balb/c mice and allergic patients from a sugar cane area, and to characterize the allergenic fractions in the sera of patients positive for the prick test by means of Western-blotting. The extract obtained with Coca liquid on the 16th day was the one that presented the greatest number of proteic fractions, including all those present in the other extracts. Twelve fractions were verified in this extract with approximate molecular weights from 94 to 14 kDa. The allergenicity of the extract obtained on the 16th day was proven by the production of IgE antibodies in Balb/c mice, with titres of 200. Prick tests carried out with the extract of the 16th day in 79 atopic individuals (from sugar cane area), 35 atopic individuals (from urban area) and 11 non- atopic individuals showed respective positivity of 29%, 9% and 0%. The allergenic characterization in vitro was performed by means of Western blotting, and the fractions that reacted with the positive individuals' sera were those of approximate molecular weights of 67 kDa (95%); 20 kDa (55%); 94 kDa (36%); 34 and 36 kDa (23%); 43 and 48 kDa (14%); 16 kDa (9%) and 54kDa (5%). It was concluded that the crude allergenic extract, obtained with Coca liquid from the 16th day growth of Metarhizium anisopliae, contains allergenic fractions and can be used in diagnostic screening tests. PMID:16047714

  1. Synthesis and characterization of carbon fibers obtained through plasma techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study of carbon, particularly the nano technology is a recent field, the one which has important implications in the science of new materials. It investigation is of great interest for industries producers of ceramic, metallurgy, electronic, energy storage, biomedicine, among others. The diverse application fields are a reason at national as international level, so that many works are focused in the production of nano fibers of carbon. The Thermal plasma applications laboratory (LAPT) of the National Institute of Nuclear Research (ININ), it is carrying out works about carbon nano technology. The present work has as purpose to carry out the synthesis and characterization of the carbon nano fibers which are obtained by electric arch of alternating current (CA) to high frequencies and by a plasma gun of non transferred arch, where are used hydrocarbons like benzene, methane, acetylene like carbon source and ferrocene, nickel, yttrium and cerium oxide like catalysts. For both techniques its were thought about a relationship among hydrocarbon-catalyst that it favored to the nano fibers production. The obtained product of each experiment outlined it was analyzed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD), analysis with those were obtained pictures and diffraction graphs, which were observed to arrive to one conclusion on the operation conditions, same analysis with those were characterized the tests carried out according to the nano structures formation of carbon. (Author)

  2. Factores asociados a la prctica de la citologa de cuello uterino, en mujeres desplazadas y poblacin receptora en un asentamiento en Antioquia, Colombia, 2011 / Factors associated with pap smear among displaced women and host population in a settlement in Antioquia, Colombia, 2011

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Sara M., Ramos J; Isabel C., Garcs P.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: caracterizar los factores socioeconmicos, demogrficos y de aseguramiento en salud, asociados a la prctica de la citologa de cuello uterino, en mujeres en situacin de desplazamiento y poblacin receptora en el asentamiento Altos de Oriente, Bello, Colombia en el ao 2011. METODOLOGIA: [...] se realiz anlisis secundario de datos del estudio transversal ''caracterizacin histrica y sociodemogrfica del asentamiento Altos de Oriente''. En esta encuesta se indag acerca de la fecha de la ltima citologa de cuello uterino, aseguramiento en salud, y variables socioeconmicas y demogrficas. Se realiz un anlisis descriptivo y se construyeron modelos de regresin logstica. RESULTADOS: las mujeres del asentamiento tienen bajo nivel educativo, bajo nivel de ingresos y en su mayora son cabeza de hogar. Los factores que se asociaron a no tener citologas recientes fueron: tener entre 41 y 49 aos, no utilizar mtodos de planificacin familiar, no trabajar y haber cursado hasta la primaria o no tener ningn nivel educativo. CONCLUSION: los esfuerzos para aumentar cobertura de citologa crvico-uterina en este grupo de poblacin desplazada y receptora, deberan enfocarse en mujeres entre los 41 y 49 aos de edad, amas de casa y con bajo nivel educativo. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: to identify socioeconomic, demographic and health insurance factors , associated with Pap smear among displaced and host population in the settlement ''Altos de Oriente'', Antioquia, Colombia in 2011. METHODOLOGY: we conducted secondary data analysis of the cross-sectional study ''Histori [...] cal and socio-demographic description of the settlement Altos de Oriente''. The survey looked at date of last Pap smear, health insurance, and socioeconomic and demographic variables. We performed descriptive analysis and fitted logistic regression models. RESULTS: women of the settlement have low education, low income, and are mostly single mothers. Factors associated with not having a recent Pap were: being between 41 and 49 years of age, not using family planning methods, not having a job, and having only elementary school education or not education. CONCLUSION: efforts to increase coverage of Pap smear in this group of displaced and host population, should focus on women between 41 and 49 years old, housewives and poorly educated.

  3. Aplicacin de Seis Sigma y los Mtodos Taguchi para el Incremento de la Resistencia a la Prueba de Jaln de un Diodo Emisor de Luz / Implementing Six Sigma and Taguchi Methods to Obtain an Increased Resistance on a Pull Test of a Light Emitting Diode

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Yolanda A, Bez; Jorge, Limn; Diego A, Tlapa; Manuel A, Rodrguez.

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo trata sobre la aplicacin de la metodologa de seis sigma (DMAMC), as como los mtodos Taguchi para resolver el problema de baja resistencia a la prueba de jaln de un diodo emisor de luz (LED) de una compaa electrnica del noroeste de Mxico, el cual es utilizado en el ensamb [...] le de telfonos celulares. Al trmino de este proyecto se logr una mejora significativa al aumentar la capacidad del proceso de 0.56 a 1.45 y un impacto en la reduccin de los costos, tan solo por eliminacin de desperdicio, del orden de 130 mil dlares estadounidenses anuales. Para lo anterior no se requiri de inversin adicional, nicamente fue necesario controlar el ajuste de cada uno de los factores importantes del proceso. Abstract in english This paper deals with the application of six sigma methodology (DMAIC) and Taguchi methods to solve the problem of low resistance of the pulling test of a light emitting diode (LED), which is used in the assembly of cellular telephones in a northwest Mexican electronic company. After finishing this [...] project a significant improvement was achieved that made possible to increase process capability from 0.56 to 1.45 and the impact in cost reduction only by the elimination of waste was of 130 thousand US dollars in savings per year. This achievement did not require additional investment, it was only necessary to control each of the most important factors in the process.

  4. Aplicacin de Seis Sigma y los Mtodos Taguchi para el Incremento de la Resistencia a la Prueba de Jaln de un Diodo Emisor de Luz Implementing Six Sigma and Taguchi Methods to Obtain an Increased Resistance on a Pull Test of a Light Emitting Diode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yolanda A Bez

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo trata sobre la aplicacin de la metodologa de seis sigma (DMAMC, as como los mtodos Taguchi para resolver el problema de baja resistencia a la prueba de jaln de un diodo emisor de luz (LED de una compaa electrnica del noroeste de Mxico, el cual es utilizado en el ensamble de telfonos celulares. Al trmino de este proyecto se logr una mejora significativa al aumentar la capacidad del proceso de 0.56 a 1.45 y un impacto en la reduccin de los costos, tan solo por eliminacin de desperdicio, del orden de 130 mil dlares estadounidenses anuales. Para lo anterior no se requiri de inversin adicional, nicamente fue necesario controlar el ajuste de cada uno de los factores importantes del proceso.This paper deals with the application of six sigma methodology (DMAIC and Taguchi methods to solve the problem of low resistance of the pulling test of a light emitting diode (LED, which is used in the assembly of cellular telephones in a northwest Mexican electronic company. After finishing this project a significant improvement was achieved that made possible to increase process capability from 0.56 to 1.45 and the impact in cost reduction only by the elimination of waste was of 130 thousand US dollars in savings per year. This achievement did not require additional investment, it was only necessary to control each of the most important factors in the process.

  5. Introducing PAP: a plasma apprentice program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although current capabilities of symbolic computation and artificial intelligence are not adequate to do all the types of thinking a physicist does in solving physics problems, much of what the human theorist does can be effectively imitated by a computer. This paper describes an early stage of implementation of an apprentice program for aiding plasma theorists in developing plasma physics theory, by performing some of those tasks which the theorist normally must do, but which are now amenable to machine imitation. The apprentice has a ''knowledge base'' containing its understanding of plasma theory, which can be accessed by the human user for pedagogic purposes, as well as by the apprentice itself, and some ability to do the kinds of qualitative or heuristic reasoning necessary to the human theorist in solving problems. These facilities enable the apprentice itself to do plasma calculations, informing the user of the progress of the calculation, and prompting him when a decision is needed which the apprentice is not equipped to handle. Some extensions planned for the future are discussed

  6. Shock characteristics obtained by nanosecond analyses for aerospace materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Yasuhisa; Ueno, Taku

    2005-04-01

    For numerical designs of safety cabin and seats to maintain a survivable environment for passengers and crew in a crash occurrence, very high-strain-rate characteristics of many kinds aerospace materials are indispensable. So, stress-time histories are obtained in two glassy polymers (polymethyl methacrylate: PMMA and polycarbonate: PC) and two kinds of light metals (commercially pure aluminum: A1100-H14[JIS] and super duralumin: A2024-T3[JIS]) at impact velocity 600 to 700 m/s using polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) gauges in a plate impact testing by a powder gun. Nanosecond analyses are used to extract strain-time histories from experimental stress data. Then, stress-strain curves at very high-strain-rates (106 to 107 [1/s]) in shock wave region under conditions of uniaxial strain. A drop-hammer compression test is also used to determine stress-strain curves at medium strain rates (102 [1/s]) under conditions of uniaxial stress by using an extrapolation method. For low strain rates (ca. 10-4 [1/s]), stress-strain curves are determined under conditions of uniaxial stress by a universal testing machine combined with the extrapolation method. Power law relations between stress and strain-rate are observed with the glassy polymers under uniaxial strain conditions in a very wide strain-rate range.

  7. Comparison of Feature selection methods for diagnosis of cervical cancer using SVM classifier

    OpenAIRE

    Ashok, B; Dr. P. Aruna

    2016-01-01

    Even though a great attention has been given on the cervical cancer diagnosis, it is a tuff task to observe the pap smear slide through microscope. Image Processing and Machine learning techniques helps the pathologist to take proper decision. In this paper, we presented the diagnosis method using cervical cell image which is obtained by Pap smear test. Image segmentation performed by multi-thresholding method and texture and shape features are extracted related to cervical cancer...

  8. Ultrasonic testing X gammagraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The experience of 10 years for substituting gammagraphy tests by ultrasonic tests is related. A comparative evaluation of data obtained from both techniques applied to welded butt joints is presented. (author)

  9. Insensitive Munitions Testing

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Insensitive Munitions Testing at RTC is conducted (IAW MILSTD-2105) at Test Area 4. Our engineers and technicians obtain data for hazards classification and safety...

  10. Obtaining and storage of ready-to-use segments from traditional orange obtained by enzymatic peeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Bel, P; Egea, I; Serrano, M; Romojaro, A; Pretel, M T

    2012-02-01

    The aim of this study was to optimize all parameters implied in the process of obtaining orange segments as minimally processed product by enzymatic peeling, from the method of segment obtaining to the storage conditions, and also to evaluate two films with different permeability. Enzymatic peeling was carried out by fruit infusion under vacuum conditions in a commercial preparation of pectinases and cellulases (Peelzym II). The best condition to obtain Cadenera segments by enzymatic peeling was 1?mL/L of Peelzym II applied at 53?kPa with three vacuum pulses of 2?min and a subsequent period of 30 min in the enzymatic solution at atmospheric pressure. The segments were packaged in two films with different permeability and they were stored for 10 days at 4?C. Samplings were carried out after 4, 7 and 10 days of storage. The results showed that the concentration of CO(2) in the less permeable film (PA 120) ranged between 0.7 and 1.2?mL/100?mL, while in the most permeable one (PA 240) was around 0.2?mL/100?mL. Under these conditions, the weight loss was kept at low levels until day 7 of storage, showing a significant increase after 10 days. Colour (a/b) increased with the peeling process and it remained without significant changes during the whole storage period for both films. The antioxidant capacity slightly decreased after 10 days of storage. The microbial flora was reduced after the enzymatic peeling. Both the sensory and the microbiological quality were kept in adequate levels for consumption during 7 days. From this moment, they lost sweetness and aroma and the microbial development increased. Thus, the use of the most permeable film and a maximum storage time of 7 days are recommended to maintain the most quality of the segments. PMID:22328121

  11. The obtaining of giant laser pulses by optical pumping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From coherent pumping studies a laser of short pulse duration was developed. Further study of laser effects in organic substances was envisaged. The first part of the work yielded awaited results, and led to the development of a single mode emitter (due to the small dimensions of the cavity). The principles of laser action were enumerated and the relative parameters defined. Various methods of obtaining pulses were discussed; the reasons behind the particular choice mode were given. A theoretical study was then made leading to the establishment of the fundamental equations defining the pulse formation process. An important part of the test deals with technical implications and the experimental results, which have arisen. The conclusion reviews possible applications. (author)

  12. An antibacterial coating obtained through implantation of titanium ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delle Side, D.; Nassisi, V.; Giuffreda, E.; Velardi, L.; Alifano, P.; Tal, A.; Tredici, S. M.

    2014-04-01

    Everyday life is exposed to the risks of contracting severe diseases due to the diffusion of severe pathogens. For this reason, efficient antimicrobial surfaces becomes a need of primary importance. In this work we report the first evidences of a new technique to synthesize an antibacterial coating on Ultra High Molecular Weight Polyethylene (UHMWPE)samples, based on a non-stoichiometric, visible light responsive, titanium oxide. The coating was obtained through laser ablation of a titanium target, then the resulting ions were accelerated and implanted on the samples. The samples where tested against a Staphylococcus aureus strain, in order to assay their antimicrobial efficacy. Results show that this treatment strongly discourages bacterial adhesion to the treated surfaces.

  13. An antibacterial coating obtained through implantation of titanium ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Everyday life is exposed to the risks of contracting severe diseases due to the diffusion of severe pathogens. For this reason, efficient antimicrobial surfaces becomes a need of primary importance. In this work we report the first evidences of a new technique to synthesize an antibacterial coating on Ultra High Molecular Weight Polyethylene (UHMWPE)samples, based on a non-stoichiometric, visible light responsive, titanium oxide. The coating was obtained through laser ablation of a titanium target, then the resulting ions were accelerated and implanted on the samples. The samples where tested against a Staphylococcus aureus strain, in order to assay their antimicrobial efficacy. Results show that this treatment strongly discourages bacterial adhesion to the treated surfaces.

  14. Efecto del alcance del potencial en el comportamiento presin-temperatura en la transicin isotrpico-nemtico del 4-4'-bis(etiloxi) azoxibenceno (p-azoxifenetol, pap), 4-pentil-4'-cianobifenilo (5cb), p-metoxibenciliden-p-n-butilanilina (mbba) y del p-etoxibenciliden-p-n-butilanilina (ebba) / Effect of Potential Range in Pressure-Temperature Behavior in Isotropic-Nematic Transition of 4-4'-Bis(Ethyloxy) Azoxybenzene (P-Azoxyphenetole, Pap), 4-Pentyl-4'-Cyanobiphenyl (5cb), P-Methoxybenzydidene-P-N-Butylaniline (Mbba) and P-Ethoxybenzylidene-P-N-Butylaniline (Ebba)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    E, Garca-Snchez; C.H., Castaeda-Ramrez; J.M., Cervantes-Viramontes.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo utilizamos la teora de los funcionales de la densidad (modelo IPCM) para calcular el volumen molecular y k, as como la teora de perturbaciones propuesta por Garca-Snchez et al. (2002) para predecir el diagrama de fase y el comportamiento experimental presin-temperatura para la [...] transicin isotrpico-nemtico del 4-4'-bis(etiloxi)azoxibenceno (p-azoxifenetol, PAP), 4-pentil-4'-cianobifenilo (5CB), p-metoxibenciliden-p-n-butilanilina (MBBA) y del p-etoxibenciliden-p-n-butilanilina (EBBA) a 1 atm. Si se consideran en la prediccin terica valores cada vez ms grandes del alcance del potencial de pozo cuadrado (? > k) se tendrn mejores predicciones del comportamiento experimental. Lo antes mencionado est de acuerdo con el planteamiento terico de la teora de perturbaciones a segundo orden donde se incluye la aproximacin de largo alcance de Ponce y Renon. Abstract in english In this work we employed the Density Functional Theory (IPCM model) to calculate molecular volume and k, and the perturbation theory proposed by Garca-Snchez et al. (2002) to predict phase diagram and experimental behavior pressure-temperature for isotropic-nematic transition of 4-4'-bis(ethyloxy) [...] azoxybenzene (p-azoxyphenetole, PAP), 4-pentyl-4'-cyanobiphenyl (5CB), p-methoxybenzydidene-p-n-butylaniline (MBBA) and p-ethoxybenzylidene-p-n-butylaniline (EBBA) at 1 atm. If during the theoretical prediction bigger potential values of potential range of square well (? > k) are considered in the theoretical model, it is possible to get better prediction of the experimental behavior. The above mentioned is according with the theoretical formulation of the Second Order Perturbation Theory since Ponce-Renon approximation is included.

  15. Digital holographic interferometry as a tool to obtain shapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uribe Lpez, Ubaldo; Hernndez-Montes, Mara. del Socorro; Muoz-Sols, Silvino

    2015-08-01

    This work describes a new method to obtain shapes on surfaces based on digital holographic interferometry (DHI). Research has been reported with different methods, such as fringe projection. DHI, being a full-field technique, decreases the number of images to capture and the processing time, besides having a high resolution. Our proposed method consists in obtaining the shape of the object and a reference plane using an out-of-plane interferometer. The phase difference of the recorded holograms is achieved by means of the Fourier transform method. This resulting phase has a tilt produced by the angle of the object beam relative to the optical axis, which is removed by subtracting the phase difference from the reference plane. The method was tested in two cylinders, one with dimensions of 17.5x23.4mm reconstructed with a height sensitivity of 4.1mm, and another with two levels: one half with dimensions of 16.08x12.75mm, and the other half of 19.07x12.75mm; the result was a successfully reconstructed shape, with a height sensitivity of 2.7mm.

  16. STUDY OF PEROVSKITES OBTAINED BY THE SOL-GEL METHOD

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    LILIAN, BOUYSSIRES; REN, SCHIFFERLI; LORETO, URBINA; PAULO, ARAYA; JOS MARIA, PALACIOS.

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Perovskites are very thermally stable mixed oxides, frequently used as oxidation catalysts in spite of their relatively low surface area. In order to increase the area the sol-gel method has been used, with malic acid as complexing agent and pH adjustment of the starting solution, to prepare the LaC [...] oO3 perovskite, used as a reference, and other perovskites in which the La cation has been partially replaced (20% molar) by Ca, Sr or Ba cations. Additionally, the cooling rate of the fresh catalysts, from the calcination temperature to room temperature, has been used as a parameter in the method of preparation. The catalysts were characterized by BET area, DRX, TG, DTA, and SEM-EDX. Catalytic activity was tested in a fixed bed flow reactor using the oxidation of CO with O2 reaction. The DRX studies confirmed the presence of a single phase with perovskite structure in the catalysts calcined at 550 C, and the additional studies confirmed that very uniform catalysts with great thermal stability were obtained. Substitution of La by group II cations and the method of preparation make it possible to obtain perovskites with large surface area and excellent catalytic activity for CO oxidation, reaching maximum conversion values, close to 100%, at temperatures of about 200 C. Changes in post-calcination cooling rate did not produce significant changes in the surface area or in the catalytic activity of the catalysts, except when Ba-substituted catalysts were used

  17. Diagnostic value of prostatic acid phosphatase as determined by radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serum concentrations of prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP) were determined with 4 different radioimmunoassays and with the standard enzymatic method (p-nitrophenylphosphate) in 35 patients with prostatic carcinoma. Staging of localized tumors was based on histopathological evaluation after radial prostatectomy and pelvic lymphnode dissection (pTsub(1-3), pN0). In tumor lesions Tsub(1-2) N0 M0 elevated PAP-serum concentrations were found by RIA-determination in only one patient. Increased PAP serum levels were observed in 43-78% of carcinomas stage T3 N0 M0 and i