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1

The value of Pap test in women with endometrial cancer  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction: Endometrial cancer is the second most common gynecological tumor. There is still no recommended screening method for endometrial cancer. The application of transvaginal sonography, hysteroscopy and Pap test may prove useful in screening for this disease. Atypical glandular cells represent an important finding in Pap tests and they are related to histopathological verification of the endometrium. The aim of the study was to determine the usefulness of the Pap test in assessing the cervical infiltration, as well as to determine the significance of hormonal status and histopathological type of tumor in a pathological Pap test in patients with endometrial cancer.Methods: The study was retrospective. The analysis included the data obtained from 62 operated patients diagnosed with enometrial cancer, medical history (menopausal status, histopathological findings after surgery (type and stage of the disease and a preoperative Pap smear. The chi squared and Fisher’s test were used.Results: The difference in the prevalence of pathological Pap test in premenopausal and postmenopausal group of patients was not statistically significant. The difference in the prevalence of pathological Pap test in the group of endometrioid and non-endometrioid tumours of the uterine corpus had statistical significance. The difference in the prevalence of pathological Pap test compared to the present stage (I and II was not statistically significant.Conclusion: Pap smear does not correlate with menopausal status in women with endometrial carcinoma. Abnormal Pap test is more commonly found in cases of non-endometroid tumours. Pap smears cannot beused to assess cervical involvement.

Aleksandra Petri?

2011-12-01

2

Pap Tests and Foreign-Born Women  

Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

Foreign-born women living in the U.S. are less likely to have Pap tests to detect cervical cancer than women born in this country. The problem is worse for women from certain countries or regions. Find out why this is a disturbing trend, who these women are and why they are less likely to get a Pap test, and what CDC is doing about it.  Created: 11/26/2007 by National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program.   Date Released: 12/7/2007.

2007-11-26

3

Pap Smears  

Science.gov (United States)

... Healthy Weight: Your Personal Plan Dealing With Anger Pap Smears KidsHealth > Teens > Sexual Health > For Girls > Pap ... a Pap Smear? What Happens? What Is a Pap Smear? A Pap smear is a medical test ...

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Cervical and Vaginal Cancer Screening (Pap Test and Pelvic Exam)  

Science.gov (United States)

... it covered? Medicare Part B (Medical Insurance) covers Pap tests and pelvic exams to check for cervical ... of childbearing age and have had an abnormal Pap test in the past 36 months Who's eligible? ...

5

Johns Hopkins scientists use Pap test fluid to detect ovarian, endometrial cancers  

Science.gov (United States)

Using cervical fluid obtained during routine Pap tests, scientists at the Johns Hopkins Kimmel Cancer Center have developed a test to detect ovarian and endometrial cancers. In a pilot study, the “PapGene” test, which relies on genomic sequencing of cancer-specific mutations, accurately detected all 24 (100 percent) endometrial cancers and nine of 22 (41 percent) ovarian cancers. Results of the experiments are published in the Jan. 9 issue of the journal Science Translational Medicine.

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Evaluation of a nurse-designed mobile health education application to enhance knowledge of Pap testing.  

Science.gov (United States)

An experimental study was conducted using a 2-group randomized control pretest/ posttest design to determine if knowledge about Pap testing could be increased through use of a nurse-designed mobile smartphone app developed to educate individuals about the Pap test. A 14-item pretest survey of knowledge about Pap tests was distributed to women attending a university in New England. Participants in the intervention group were provided with an Android device on which a digital health education application on Pap testing had been downloaded. The control group was given a standard pamphlet on Pap testing., Paired t test results demonstrated that knowledge scores on the posttest increased significantly in both groups, but were significantly higher in the intervention group. User satisfaction with the app was high. The results of this study may enhance nursing care by informing nurses about a unique way of learning about Pap testing to recommend to patients. PMID:25000742

Christensen, Stacy

2014-01-01

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How Often to Get a Pap Test (A Cup of Health with CDC)  

Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

Cervical cancer has declined in the U.S., and the decline is largely due to Pap testing and follow-up. Screening recommendations have changed. In this podcast, Meg Watson discusses Pap testing.  Created: 1/10/2013 by MMWR.   Date Released: 1/10/2013.

2013-01-10

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A Comparison of 3 Ways of Conventional Pap Smear, Liquid-Based Cytology and Colposcopy vs Cervical Biopsy for Early Diagnosis of Premalignant Lesions or Cervical Cancer in Women with Abnormal Conventional Pap Test.  

Science.gov (United States)

The most cost effective method of prevention and detection of cervical cancer is the Pap smear. In abnormal Pap smear, colposcopy, endocervical curettage and biopsy will be done. Gold standard method in detecting cervical lesion is biopsy. Now in two ways conventional Pap smear and liquid base are routine diagnostic technique in Iran and given easily and cost-effectiveness of this method in the detection of cervical lesions to determine the sensitivity the objective of this study was compare three methods of Pap smear and colposcopy in detection of any lesion to gold standard biopsy in the positive ASC cases who referred to gynecologic Oncology Clinic of shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Science. This study is a descriptive analytic in 2009-2010 years on 150 cases of patients with Atypical Squamose Cell (ASC) results in previous pap smear ,conventional pap smear, liquid based pap smear, colposcopy and cervical biopsy had been done for all patient and finally data were analyzed with chi-square statistical test on spss ver 16 saftware. Average age of patients in this study was, 42 ± 9.9 year and reason for referring patients in 35.4% of cases was due to follow-up of abnormal results of previous Pap smear, in 30% bleeding, 12% Pain and 2.6% percent of cases was checking-up. In final results of sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV) and accuracy any of the methods conventional and liquid based Pap smear and colposcopy were compared with cervical biopsy as a gold standard. The conventional Pap smear method had a sensitivity 51%, specificity 66.6%, PPV 96%, NPV was 8% and accuracy was 92%, about the liquid base Pap smear method, sensitivity was 55.3%, specificity was 77.7%, PPV was 97.5%, NPV was 10% and accuracy was 56/6%. About the colposcopy, sensitivity was70/9 % specificity 44/4%, PPV was 95.2%, NPV was 8/8% and accuracy was 69.3%. The relationship between sensitivity results of conventional Pap smear and colposcopy, with p<0.001 and between the results of sensitivity of liquid based cytology and colposcopy with p<0.01 relationship was significant. Colposcopy has the best efficacy in detecting any cervical lesion in compared with any other diagnostic technique. so that further studies with more detailed plans and bigger sample sizes are suggested for obtaining reliable result. PMID:24711755

Karimi-Zarchi, Mojgan; Peighmbari, Fateme; Karimi, Neda; Rohi, Mitra; Chiti, Zohre

2013-12-01

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Recruitment of women by GPs for pap tests: a meta-analysis.  

OpenAIRE

General practitioners (GPs) have a pivotal role to play in recruiting women for Pap tests. In recent times, considerable attention has been paid to the role of reminder systems in encouraging women to have regular Pap tests. Although a number of studies have investigated the effectiveness of reminder systems, there has been no comprehensive review. This paper aims to determine the effectiveness of patient and GP reminders in increasing the proportion of women screened for cervical cancer. Two...

Pirkis, J. E.; Jolley, D.; Dunt, D. R.

1998-01-01

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Follow-up and Clinical Significance of Unsatisfactory Liquid-based Pap Tests  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Few studies have examined adherence to recommended guidelines for follow-up and outcomes after an unsatisfactory Pap test (UPT) with liquid-based technologies. Methods Within four US health plans median time to follow-up and percentage of patients with follow-up testing by 120 days was calculated following an UPT. Multivariable analyses evaluated the association of clinical factors on follow-up testing. We compared the risk of Cervical Intra-epithelial Neoplasia 2 or worse (CIN2+) diagnosis after UPT to risk after satisfactory Pap test while controlling for study site, test year, and other covariates. Results 634,644 Pap Tests between 2004 and 2010 were included in the study. Of 1,442 UPTs, 53.4% had follow-up testing within 120 days; follow-up differed across the health plans (P<.001); was higher with age <50 years old (57.2% vs. 48.8%, P=.01) and with positive Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) results (84.6% vs. 53.9, P<.01). CIN2+ risk was similar for both unsatisfactory and satisfactory Pap test. However, following an UPT, age <50 years, having no previous history of Pap testing, having a history of previous abnormal Pap test, and positive HPV status, were all risk factors for CIN2+; a positive HPV test was the strongest risk factor for development of CIN2+. Negative HPV test result was protective for CIN2+ diagnosis. Conclusions Various clinical factors associated with risk of CIN2+ appear to influence the receipt of follow-up after an UPT. HPV test results in UPTs might be used in follow-up strategies: specifically a negative test might reduce the urgency for repeat Pap testing. PMID:25346238

Owens, Christopher L.; Buist, Diana SM; Peterson, Daniel; Kamineni, Aruna; Weinmann, Sheila; Ross, Tyler; Williams, Andrew E.; Stark, Azadeh; Adams, Kenneth F.; Doubeni, Chyke A.; Field, Terry S.

2015-01-01

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A Shandon PapSpin liquid-based gynecological test: A split-sample and direct-to-vial test with histology follow-up study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Studies for liquid-based Papanicolaou (Pap tests reveal that liquid-based cytology (LBC is a safe and effective alternative to the conventional Pap smear. Although there is research on ThinPrep and SurePath systems, information is lacking to evaluate the efficiency and effectiveness of systems based on cytocentrifugation. This study is designed to determine the sensitivity and specificity of the Shandon PapSpin (ThermoShandon, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA liquid-based gynecological system. We used split-sample and direct-to-vial study design. Materials and Methods: 2,945 women referred to prophylactic check-up were enrolled in this study. Split sample design was used in 1,500 women and residual cervical cytology specimen from all these cases was placed in fluid for PapSpin preparation after performing conventional smear. The direct-to-vial study was carried out in another cohort of 1,445 women in whom the entire cervical material was investigated using only the PapSpin technique. Follow up histological diagnoses for 141 women were obtained from both study arms following 189 abnormal cytology cases. 80 LBC cases from the split sample group and 61 LBC cases in the direct-to-vial group were correlated with the histology results. The sensitivity and secificity of the conventional smear and PapSpin tests in both study arms were compared. Results: In the split sample group, conventional smears showed a higher proportion of ASC-US (atypical cells undetermined significance: 31 (2.1% vs 10 (0.7% in PapSpin (P = 0.001. A higher proportion of unsatisfactory samples was found in the conventional smear group: 25 (1.7% vs 6 (0.4% cases (P = 0.001. In the split sample group, the sensitivity of the conventional and PapSpin tests was 68.7% vs 78.1%, and the specificity 93.8% vs 91.8%, respectively. In the direct to vial group PapSpin sensitivity was 75.9% and specificity 96.5%. The differences in sensitivity and specificity were not significant. The positive predictive values for the conventional and PapSpin methods were not different in the split sample group: 88.0% vs 86.2% and 95.7% in the direct-to-vial group. Also, no differences were found for negative predictive value (82.1, 86.8% and 80.0% respectively. Conclusions: PapSpin showed good qualitative results in both study arms, even after the material splitting in the first study arm, and is a good alternative to the conventional Pap smear. Additionally, the PapSpin method offers several advantages such as the opportunity to prepare duplicate slides, option for HPV DNA testing and cell block preparations from residual material. Microscopic evaluation of thinner cell preparations is less time consuming than the conventional Pap smears.

Rimiene J

2010-01-01

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La coloración fluorescente con naranja de acridina y el PAP: validación de ambas técnicas para la detección de Trichomonas vaginalis FLUORESCENT STAINING WITH ACRIDINE ORANGE AND PAP SMEAR: VALIDATION TESTS OF BOTH TECNIQUES FOR THE DETECTION OF Trichomonas vaginalis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Se efectuó la validación de la coloración de Papanicolaou, utilizada para citología vaginal, frente a la coloración fluorescente con naranja de acridina, a fin de evaluar el valor de un resultado negativo para Trichomonas vaginalis obtenido en un PAP. Se estudiaron 80 muestras de flujo vaginal de mujeres entre 18 y 45 años, pacientes de consultorios externos de Ginecología del Hospital Municipal de la ciudad de Bahía Blanca, Provincia de Buenos Aires (Argentina. Las muestras se colorearon paralelamente por la técnica de Papanicolaou y por la coloración fluorescente con naranja de acridina. Los resultados mostraron que el PAP presenta una sensibilidad del 54,5% para la detección de T. vaginalis, validación efectuada frente a la coloración fluorescente con naranja de acridina, para una prevalencia de enfermedad en el grupo de mujeres estudiadas del 13,75% y un nivel de confianza del 95%. Para ensayos "en paralelo" con ambas coloraciones, el valor global de la prueba fue del 93,8%, con un valor predictivo del resultado negativo del 93,2%. Concluimos que si bien T. vaginalis es detectada en el PAP, éste no presenta sensibilidad significativamente elevada como para ser considerada como única prueba, debiéndose complementar siempre con una coloración fluorescente con naranja de acridina, u otra prueba de similar valorThe present study examined the validity of PAP staining, as used for vaginal cytology, against fluorescent staining with acridine orange in order to determine the value of a negative result of Trichomonas vaginalis obtained by a PAP smear. We examined eighty vaginal-secretion samples from 18- to 45-year-old female patients of the Hospital Municipal of the city of Bahía Blanca, Province of Buenos Aires, Argentina. The samples were stained in parallel by the PAP smear technique and the fluorescent staining technique with acridine orange described by Fripp in 1975. The results of our validation tests demonstrated that, against fluorescent staining with acridine orange, the PAP smear has a 54.5% sensitivity for the detection of T. vaginalis for a 13.75% prevalence of disease among the females in the study with a 95% confidence level. In assays conducted "in parallel" for both stainings, the global value of the test was 93.8%, with a predictive negative value of 93.2%. We conclude that, although the PAP smear can detect T. vaginalis, its sensitivity is not high enough for the test to be used as the sole diagnostic means and the test must always be supplemented with fluorescent staining with acridine orange or another test of similar value. Otherwise, the diagnostic sensitivity would not be any higher than that of vaginal discharge exams in vitro.

SIXTO RAUL COSTAMAGNA

2000-07-01

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Pap Tests Every Three Years: Cost-Effective in the Long Run?  

Science.gov (United States)

The American Cancer Society's guidelines, recommending that having Pap tests at three-year intervals is safe for many women, are questioned. Dangers to women with a high risk of cervical cancer, problems with faulty test results, and other gynecological problems that may be detected during pelvic examinations are discussed. (PP)

Amschler, Denise Hope

1983-01-01

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How Often to Get a Pap Test (A Minute of Health with CDC)  

Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

Cervical cancer has declined in the U.S., however every year over 12,000 women are diagnosed and 4,000 die. This podcast discusses the importance of Pap testing.  Created: 1/10/2013 by MMWR.   Date Released: 1/10/2013.

2013-01-10

15

Pap test use and cervical cancer incidence in First Nations women living in Manitoba.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examined Papanicolaou (Pap) test utilization, Pap test results, and cervical cancer incidence among First Nations (FN) women living in Manitoba, Canada taking into account age group, time period, and area of residence. Six population-based data sources were linked at an individual level. Negative binomial regression was used to compare Pap test utilization and results between FN and all other Manitoba (AOM) women. Poisson regression was used to compare cervical cancer incidence. Among women younger than 25 years, FN were more likely than AOM women to have had a Pap test [rate ratio (RR) = 1.37, 95% confidence intervals (CI), 1.22-1.53, 18-19 year olds; RR = 1.17, 95% CI, 1.05-1.31, 20-24 year olds]. There was no difference in Pap test use for women 25 to 29 or 30 to 39 years. FN 40 years and older were less likely to have a Pap test than AOM women (RR = 0.84, 95% CI, 0.75-0.93, 40-49 years old; RR = 0.71, 95% CI, 0.63-0.79, 50-59 years old; RR = 0.59, 95% CI, 0.52-0.66, 60-69 years old). FN were more likely than AOM women to have a high (RR = 1.88, 95% CI, 1.65-2.13) or low-grade Pap test result (RR = 1.60, 95% CI, 1.48-1.73). The invasive cervical cancer incidence rate was double for FN women 25 to 39 years of age (21.9 per 100,000, FN; 10.2 per 100,000, AOM, P = 0.006) and 40 to 69 years of age (24.3 per 100,000, FN; 12.3 per 100,000, AOM, P = 0.007). In conclusion, cervical cancer screening among FN women over 40 years of age must be increased to address the higher cervical cancer incidence. PMID:25403849

Decker, Kathleen M; Demers, Alain A; Kliewer, Erich V; Biswanger, Natalie; Musto, Grace; Elias, Brenda; Griffith, Jane; Turner, Donna

2015-01-01

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Changes in cervical cancer screening behavior for women attending Pap Test Week clinics  

OpenAIRE

V Poliquin,1 K Decker,2,3 AD Altman,1,2,4 R Lotocki1,2,4 1Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Sciences, University of Manitoba, Canada; 2CancerCare Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada; 3Department of Community Health Sciences, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, 4Division of Gynecologic Oncology, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada Objective: This retrospective study of all women who accessed the 2006 Manitoba Pap Test Week clinics was designed to det...

Poliquin V; Decker K; Ad, Altman; Lotocki R

2013-01-01

17

Pap Smear Screening Test and it’s Applications in Cervical Cancer Detection and Classification  

OpenAIRE

A large group of women population, in the world is affected by the cervical cancer in their different age groups. Hence, most of the researchers, pathologists and also more number of collegiate have provided more number of solutions, to identify this cancer from the test images of pap smear screening test. But their results represent, only to an extent, whether the patient is affected by cancer or not, and do not specially identify the exact nature and severity of the cancer. In this paper, i...

Athinarayanan, S.; Srinath, Dr M. V.

2013-01-01

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Pap Smear Screening Test and it’s Applications in Cervical Cancer Detection and Classification  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A large group of women population, in the world is affected by the cervical cancer in their different age groups. Hence, most of the researchers, pathologists and also more number of collegiate have provided more number of solutions, to identify this cancer from the test images of pap smear screening test. But their results represent, only to an extent, whether the patient is affected by cancer or not, and do not specially identify the exact nature and severity of the cancer. In this paper, it is proposed, to identify the cancer and classify the stage of the cancer from the pap smear test images with high accuracy. The proposed work is based on segmentation, enhancement, and feature extraction and classification process. Test results show the mean and area value based classification of the normal and abnormal cell and also to identify the stage of the cervical cancer. Hence the results would be more useful for the pathologists to reduce their work load and minimize the human error while improving the accuracy of diagnosis.

S.Athinarayanan

2013-06-01

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Evaluation of sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV of pap test versus colposcopic directed biopsies, 1995-97  

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Full Text Available 259 consecutive colposcopic examinations were done at colposcopic unit in Shariati Hospital during 1995-97. 58 cases were omitted due to lack of biopsy report. There were 167 cases of concordance and 34 cases of discordance between results of pap test colposcopic directed biopsy in these cases. We evaluated the value of pap test as a screening test versus colposcopic directed biopsy and found sensitivity of 42.4%, specificity of 94%, PPV (Positive predictive value of 60.8%, and NPV (Negative predictive value of 89.3%, false nagative and false positive rates were 57.8% and 5.3%, respectively. If pap test and HPV DNA screening were done simultaneously, almost all invasive cancer and HiSIL would be detected

Safdarian L

1998-06-01

20

HPV DNA and Pap smear test results in cases with and without cervical pathology  

OpenAIRE

Objective: The aim of the study was to determine the HPV prevalance and its relation to Pap smear, colposcopy and colposcopy directed biopsy in our region of Eskisehir, Turkey.Material and Methods: A total of 615 women who applied to the outpatient clinic between December 2009 and December 2010 constituted our study population. All patients underwent pelvic examination and Pap smear sampling. Patients who had pathological cervical appearance or Pap smear results of ASCUS, AGUS, LSIL or HSIL ...

Sabit Sinan Özalp; Tercan Us; Emine Arslan; Tufan Öge; Nilgün Ka?ifo?lu

2012-01-01

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ANALYSIS OF COVERAGE AND RESULTS OF PAP SMEAR TEST IN A BASIC HEALTH UNIT  

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Full Text Available Early diagnosis of uterine cervical cancer is extremely important to reduce morbidity and mortality caused by this type of cancer. This justifies a study to examine the coverage and results of the Pap smear test in SUS users, taking into account the alterations pattern and proposed treatment, and the women proportion who do not return to receive the results of such tests. With these aims, it was developed a quantitative, descriptive and exploratory research, using the records of a Basic Health Unit (UBS in the metropolitan region of Rio de Janeiro and databases (SISCOLO and IBGE of 2011. The results pointed total coverage of 11.25%, abnormal results in 78.66% of cases, proportion of 29.9% of exams undeliverable, average time between collection and arrival of the exam result into UBS of one month and 26 days and average time between collection and delivery of the results to the user of four months and six days.

Jéssica Fracalossi Feijó

2013-12-01

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Pap Smear Test Structures for Measuring Health Belief Model and Factors Affecting Women in Urban Centers Covered Zarandieh  

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Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Cervical cancer is one of the most common cancers in women worldwide and although pap smear is considered as an effective screening program, the level of using screening is low. The purpose of this study is pap smear test structures for measuring health belief model and factors affecting women in urban centers covered Zarandieh.Methods: This was a cross-sectional study (descriptive-analytical which included 265 Urban Women's in Zarandieh. Data collection instrument was a questionnaire included demographic variables and knowledge and health belief model questions. Data was analyzed using chi-square tests, Descriptive statistics, independent samples t-test, at the significance level of p<0.05.Results: Significant differences were detected between those tested and not tested in mean of score knowledge and all the variables HBM (sensitivity, benefits, barriers, threat and intensity perceived, p<0.001. The HBM constructs, age, level of study and knowledge accounted for 30.8% of the variance observed for Pap test. Perceived susceptibility and benefit were the most important predicting factors.Conclusion: These findings can be used to guide the development of more effective educational programs and increase the amount of women’s participation in Pap smear.

Karimy M.

2012-09-01

23

Mammography and Pap test screening among low-income foreign-born Hispanic women in the USA  

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Full Text Available Little is known about the factors influencing screening among low-income Hispanic women particularly among recent immigrants. A sample of 148 low-income, low-literate, foreign-born Hispanic women residing in the Washington DC metropolitan area participated in the study. The mean age of the sample was 46.2 (SD = 11.5, 84% reported annual household incomes<=$15,000. All women were Spanish speakers and had low acculturation levels. Ninety six percent had reported having a Pap smear, but 24% were not in compliance with recommended screening (Pap test within the last 3 years. Among women 40 and older, 62% had received a mammogram, but only 33% were compliant with age appropriate recommended mammography screening guidelines. Women in this study had more misconceptions about cancer than Hispanics in other studies. Multivariate logistic models for correlates of Pap test and mammography screening behavior indicate that factors such as fear of the screening test, embarrassment, and lack of knowledge influenced screening behavior. In conclusion, women in this study had lower rates of mammography screening than non-Hispanic women and lower rates of compliance with recommended Mammography and Pap test screening guidelines.

Fernandez Maria E.

1998-01-01

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Type-specific HPV and Pap test results among low-income, underserved women: providing insights into management strategies  

Science.gov (United States)

OBJECTIVE The primary cervical cancer screening strategy for women over age 30 is high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) testing combined with Papanicolaou (Pap) testing (cotesting) every 5 years. This combination strategy is a preventive service that is required by the Affordable Care Act to be covered with no cost-sharing by most health insurance plans. The cotesting recommendation was made based entirely on prospective data from an insured population that may have a lower proportion of women with HPV positive and Pap negative results (ie, discordant results). The discordant group represents a very difficult group to manage. If the frequency of discordant results among underserved women is higher, health care providers may perceive the cotesting strategy to be a less favorable screening strategy than traditional Pap testing every 3 years. STUDY DESIGN The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s Cervical Cancer Study was conducted at 15 clinics in 6 federally qualified health centers across Illinois. Providers at these clinics were given the option of cotesting for routine cervical cancer screening. Type-specific HPV detection was performed on residual extracts using linear array. RESULTS Pap test results were abnormal in 6.0% and HPV was positive in 7.2% of the underserved women screened in this study (mean age, 45.1 years). HPV prevalence decreased with age, from 10.3% among 30- to 39-year-olds to 4.5% among 50- to 60-year-olds. About 5% of the women had a combination of a positive HPV test and normal Pap test results; HPV 16/18 was identified in 14% of discordant women. CONCLUSION The rate of discordant results among underserved women was similar to those reported throughout the US in a variety of populations. Typing for HPV 16/18 appears to assist in the management in a small proportion of women with discordant results. PMID:24813971

Saraiya, Mona; Benard, Vicki B.; Greek, April A.; Steinau, Martin; Patel, Sonya; Massad, L. Stewart; Sawaya, George F.; Unger, Elizabeth R.

2015-01-01

25

Pap Smear  

Science.gov (United States)

... sexual partners, infrequent Pap smears, cigarette smoking, a history of DES exposure, previous diagnosis of cervical cancer, compromised immune system from organ transplant or HIV , and the presence of other sexually ...

26

¿Cómo afecta el tipo de seguro de salud a la realización del Papanicolaou en Perú? / How does type of health insurance affect receipt of Pap testing in Peru?  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Describir la asociación entre la realización de la citología del cuello uterino y el tipo de seguro de salud en las mujeres peruanas, y determinar el papel de las variables sociodemográficas y de salud sexual en esta relación. MÉTODOS: Se realizó un estudio transversal que utiliza la infor [...] mación de la Encuesta Demográfica y de Salud Familiar (ENDES), Perú, 2005-2008, correspondiente a una selección de 12 272 mujeres de 30 a 49 años de edad. La variable dependiente fue la realización de alguna prueba de Papanicolaou (PAP) en los últimos 5 años. Las variables independientes principales fueron el tipo de seguro de salud, el nivel educativo, el nivel socioeconómico del hogar, la etnia y el área de residencia. La asociación multivariada fue estimada a través de la razón de prevalencias, utilizando la regresión Poisson con varianza robusta. RESULTADOS: Se encontró que 62,7% de las mujeres sexualmente activas se habían realizado algún PAP en los últimos 5 años. Este porcentaje de participación variaba según el tipo de seguro de salud, donde las mujeres con seguro público tenían 1,27 (intervalo de confianza de 95% [IC95%]: 1,24-1,31) y las que tenían seguro privado 1,52 (IC95%:1,46-1,58) veces mayor probabilidad de haberse realizado un PAP que aquellas sin seguro. Esta asociación era explicada predominantemente por las variables de posición socioeconómica. Asimismo las mujeres que tenían la participación más baja eran las analfabetas o con educación primaria, de nivel socioeconómico bajo, con antecedente de lengua indígena y que vivían en la zonas rurales-siendo esta brecha aún mayor cuando además carecían de seguro de salud, llegando a ser hasta la tercera parte en relación con los grupos sociales más favorecidos. CONCLUSIONES: Se hallaron desigualdades según el tipo de seguro de salud en la realización del PAP, siendo las mujeres sin seguro las que menos lo utilizaron, lo cual supone una barrera para el acceso al cribado de cáncer de cérvix en Perú. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: Describe the association between receipt of cervical cytology and type of health insurance in Peruvian women, and determine the role of sociodemographic and sexual health variables in this relationship. METHODS: A cross-sectional study using information on a sample of 12 272 women aged 30 [...] to 49 years from the Demographic and Family Health Survey (ENDES), Peru, 2005-2008. The dependent variable was receipt of at least one Pap smear in the last five years. The primary independent variables were type of health insurance, educational level, household socioeconomic level, ethnicity, and place of residence. Prevalence ratio, obtained from Poisson regression with robust variance, was used to measure multivariate association. RESULTS: Among sexually active women, 62.7% had received at least one Pap test in the last five years. Percentage of women tested varied by type of health insurance. Women with public or private insurance had a greater probability of having received a Pap smear-1.27 (95% CI, 1.24-1.31) and 1.52 (95% CI, 1.46-1.58) times greater, respectively-than uninsured women. This association was primarily explained by socioeconomic status variables. In addition, women who participated the least in screening were characterized by illiteracy or only a primary education, low socioeconomic level, speaking an indigenous language, and living in a rural area. When they also lacked health insurance, the gap widened, rising to as much as one third compared to more advantaged social groups. CONCLUSIONS: Inequalities were found in receipt of Pap testing according to type of health insurance; women without insurance were least likely to be screened, implying existence of a barrier to cervical cancer screening in Peru.

Leslie, Barrionuevo-Rosas; Laia, Palència; Carme, Borrell.

2013-12-01

27

Human papillomavirus testing with Pap triage for cervical cancer prevention in Canada: a cost-effectiveness analysis  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background Recently published results from a large randomized trial (Canadian Cervical Cancer Screening Trial study group) suggest that human papillomavirus testing followed by Pap smear-based triage for human papillomavirus positive women may be an effective way to screen women for cervical cancer. We determined the potential cost-effectiveness of including human papillomavirus tests for cervical cancer screening for Canada and three provinces: Alberta, Newfoundland and Ontario. Met...

Victoria, Atwood C.; St Pierre Yvan; Rajan Raghu; Kulasingam Shalini L; Myers Evan R; Franco Eduardo L

2009-01-01

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Estimation of Pap-test coverage in an area with an organised screening program: challenges for survey methods  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The cytological screening programme of Viterbo has completed the second round of invitations to the entire target population (age 25–64. From a public health perspective, it is important to know the Pap-test coverage rate and the use of opportunistic screening. The most commonly used study design is the survey, but the validity of self-reports and the assumptions made about non respondents are often questioned. Methods From the target population, 940 women were sampled, and responded to a telephone interview about Pap-test utilisation. The answers were compared with the screening program registry; comparing the dates of Pap-tests reported by both sources. Sensitivity analyses were performed for coverage over a 36-month period, according to various assumptions regarding non respondents. Results The response rate was 68%. The coverage over 36 months was 86.4% if we assume that non respondents had the same coverage as respondents, 66% if we assume they were not covered at all, and 74.6% if we adjust for screening compliance in the non respondents. The sensitivity and specificity of the question, "have you ever had a Pap test with the screening programme" were 84.5% and 82.2% respectively. The test dates reported in the interview tended to be more recent than those reported in the registry, but 68% were within 12 months of each other. Conclusion Surveys are useful tools to understand the effectiveness of a screening programme and women's self-report was sufficiently reliable in our setting, but the coverage estimates were strongly influenced by the assumptions we made regarding non respondents.

Raggi Patrizio

2006-03-01

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Pap Test Adherence, Cervical Cancer Perceptions, and HPV Knowledge Among HIV-Infected Women in a Community Health Setting.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Health Belief Model (HBM) has been widely used as a framework to explain health behaviors in diverse populations, but little HBM research has focused on HIV-infected women and their increased risks for cervical cancer. We used Champion's Health Belief Model and Self-Efficacy scales to assess relationships between Pap test adherence and constructs of the HBM among 300 HIV-infected women. In addition, we assessed the relationship between HPV and cervical cancer knowledge and key HBM concepts. Participants reported low levels of knowledge regarding risk for cervical cancer and HPV. They perceived lower personal risk for cervical cancer. Women with higher perceived self-efficacy and lower perceived barrier scores reported better Pap test adherence. Findings indicate that HIV-infected women are not aware of the risk for cervical cancer and may not take preventive actions. Further research is needed to identify the full range of factors that impact adherence to cervical cancer screening. PMID:25769754

Lambert, Crystal Chapman; Chandler, Rasheeta; McMillan, Susan; Kromrey, Jeffrey; Johnson-Mallard, Versie; Kurtyka, Don

2015-01-01

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Estimation of Pap-test coverage in an area with an organised screening program: challenges for survey methods  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background The cytological screening programme of Viterbo has completed the second round of invitations to the entire target population (age 25–64). From a public health perspective, it is important to know the Pap-test coverage rate and the use of opportunistic screening. The most commonly used study design is the survey, but the validity of self-reports and the assumptions made about non respondents are often questioned. Methods From the target population, 940 women were sampled,...

Raggi Patrizio; Brachini Angela; Brezzi Silvia; Esposito Gennaro; Giorgi Rossi Paolo; Federici Antonio

2006-01-01

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HPV DNA and Pap smear test results in cases with and without cervical pathology  

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Full Text Available Objective: The aim of the study was to determine the HPV prevalance and its relation to Pap smear, colposcopy and colposcopy directed biopsy in our region of Eskisehir, Turkey.Material and Methods: A total of 615 women who applied to the outpatient clinic between December 2009 and December 2010 constituted our study population. All patients underwent pelvic examination and Pap smear sampling. Patients who had pathological cervical appearance or Pap smear results of ASCUS, AGUS, LSIL or HSIL were referred to colposcopy. Cervical samples for HPV DNA were taken from the patients before Pap smear sampling during the routine examination or before the colposcopic evaluation. Results: Twenty six of 615 patients (4% were HPV positive. Of these 26 patients, 12 were positive for HPV type 16, 3 for type 18, 3 for type 51, 2 for type 6, 1 for type 52, 1 for type 33, 1 for type 16 and type 31, 1 for type 6 and 52, 1 for type 56 and 90, 1 for type 39 and 66. In 4 patients with cervical cancer, and in 3 of 4 CIN III cases both HPV DNA and Pap smear were positive. In the Pap smear examination of 615 patients, cytology revealed 35 ASCUS (5.6% 4 AGUS (0.6%, 2 CIN I (0.3% results who were negative for HPV DNA. These patients with abnormal cytology (n=41 underwent colposcopy directed biopsy, there were 3 CIN I and 1 CIN III and all the other cervical biopsy results of these patients were benign (inflammation, chronic cervicitis. Conclusion: HPV positivity in our hospital setting is low which is compatible with other studies in Turkey. In positive HPV cases there is a good correlation between HPV type and positive cervical biopsy results.

Sabit Sinan Özalp

2012-03-01

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A molecular monopoly? HPV testing, the Pap smear and the molecularisation of cervical cancer screening in the USA.  

Science.gov (United States)

DNA-based molecular testing for human papillomavirus has emerged as a novel approach to cervical cancer screening in the context of well-entrenched existing technology, the Pap smear. This article seeks to elucidate the process of molecularisation in the context of screening programmes. We illustrate how, although Pap has long been problematised and could be seen as a competing technological option, the existing networks and regime for Pap were important in supporting the entrenchment process for the artefacts, techniques and new diagnostics industry entrant, Digene, associated with the new test. The article provides insights into how the molecularisation of screening unfolds in a mainstream market. We reveal an incremental and accretive, rather than revolutionary, process led by new commercial interests in an era when diagnostic innovation is increasingly privatised. We show Digene's reliance on patents, an international scientific network and their position as an obligatory point of passage in the clinical research field with regard to the new technology's role, as well as on controversial new marketing practices. The article is based on a mixed method approach, drawing on a wide range of contemporary sources (including patents, statutory filings by companies, scientific literature and news sources) as well as interviews. PMID:22118240

Hogarth, Stuart; Hopkins, Michael M; Rodriguez, Victor

2012-02-01

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The frequency of having pap-smear tests among women between 15-64 years old and the evaluation of the level of their knowledge  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: To determine the frequency of Pap smear testing among women and to evaluate their level of knowledge about the test and other relevant factors. Methods: The study comprised women who presented to the Gynaecology and Obstetrics Polyclinic of Sakarya Training and Research Hospital, Turkey, between April 1 and 30, 2012. The questionnaire was developed in line with the objectives of the study. They were filled by the participants who were supervised during the process. Women who had had at least one Pap smear test in life were considered to have taken a Pap smear test, and those who had heard of the test were accepted as women who knew of the Pap smear test. Data was analysed using SPSS 15.0. Chi-square test was used for analyses, and statistical significance was set at p<0.05. Results: The age of 601 subjects ranged between 15 and 64 years, with a mean of 31.09+-10.49 years. Of the total, 115 (19.1%) had taken a Pap smear test before and 293 (48.8%) knew of the test. The proportion of the women who had had a Pap smear test was higher among those who were over 30 years of age (n=73; 63.47%), had post-high school educational degrees (n=68; 59.13%), had moderate familial income status (n=74; 64.34%), were married (n=109; 94.78%), had first sexual experience after 25 years of age(n=42; 36.52%), and were not using a contraceptive method (n=97; 84.34%) (p<0.05 for each). Besides, more women with previous knowledge of the test had takith previous knowledge of the test had taken the test (p<0.05). Conclusion: The subjects did not have sufficient information on Pap smear and the frequency of having a test was low. Raising awareness would prove beneficial. (author)

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Clinical application of the SurePath liquid-based Pap test in cytological screening of bronchial brushing for the diagnosis of lung cancer  

OpenAIRE

The SurePath liquid-based Pap test (LPT) is successfully and widely used to assess sputum cytology. This study aimed to compare the cytological findings and diagnostic sensitivity of LPT with those of the conventional Pap smear (CPS) method for diagnosing lung cancer. Bronchial brushing specimens from 204 patients diagnosed with lung cancer were studied. LPT slides showed decreased areas of cell monolayers, a clearer background and distinct, stereoscopic cytological features. The LPT had a si...

Fan, Yi-bo; Wang, Qing-shan; Ye, Lin; Wang, Tian-yu; Wu, Guang-ping

2010-01-01

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LOW KNOWLEDGE OF CERVICAL CANCER AND CERVICAL PAP SMEARS AMONG WOMEN IN PERU, AND THEIR IDEAS OF HOW THIS COULD BE IMPROVED  

Science.gov (United States)

Estimates of the percentage of women who have had Pap smears in Peru vary between 7% and 43%. This study explores what women know about cervical cancer and Pap smears, as well as their barriers to obtaining Pap smears. Focus group discussions (FGD) were conducted with a total of 177 women in four Peruvian cities. Discussions reveal that most women did not know what causes cervical cancer. Most women did not know the purpose of Pap smears, although knowledge about Pap smears was higher than knowledge about cervical cancer. Fear, embarrassment, and lack of knowledge were the main barriers identified for not getting Pap smears. Programs and policies aiming to increase Pap smear coverage must start by educating women on cervical cancer and its prevention in order to improve women's perceptions about the screening test and increase Pap smear seeking behaviors in the long term. PMID:21988870

PAZ-SOLDÁN, VALERIE A.; NUSSBAUM, LAUREN; BAYER, ANGELA M.; CABRERA, LILIA

2013-01-01

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Utility of P16 expression and Ki-67 proliferation index in ASCUS and ASC-H pap tests.  

Science.gov (United States)

Current cervical screening uses a combination of cytology and high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) analysis in cases of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) and atypical squamous cells cannot exclude high-grade intraepithelial lesion (ASC-H). These diagnoses are subject to interobserver variability and HR-HPV analysis can be limited by sampling inadequacy. This study correlates immunoexpression of P16 and Ki-67 in residual cervicovaginal material against cytology category and HR-HPV status. Eighteen pap tests were selected: 8 ASCUS, 4 ASC-H, and 6 controls (2 LSIL and 4 HSIL). Digene Hybrid Capture II test was used to detect HR-HPV. The cytospins were stained for P16/Ki-67. Pap tests, P16, Ki-67, HR-HPV result and available biopsies were correlated. P16 expression correlated with HR-HPV status in 15/17 cases. Discordant cases (1 ASCUS and 1 ASC-H) were +P16/-HR-HPV. Ki-67 correlated with HR-HPV in 8/15 cases. Discordant cases were +HR-HPV/- Ki-67 (HSIL, LSIL, and ASC-H one each), and -HR-HPV/+Ki-67 (3 ASCUS, 1 LSIL, 1 ASC-H). Two cases were + P16/+ Ki-67/- HR-HPV. None were - P16/- Ki-67/+ HR-HPV. Histologic follow-up in 13 cases varied from benign to CIN III. Two cases of +P16/ - Ki-67/- HR-HPV had benign cervical biopcies. Although a small sample size, our findings show a utility for adjunct P16/ Ki-67 in addition to HR-HPV testing in cases of squamous atypia when HR-HPVs are non-detected due to low DNA copies, or missed lesions in cervical biopsies. PMID:24288264

Toll, Adam D; Kelly, Deidra; Maleki, Zahra

2014-07-01

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The influence of the professional’s gender in the periodicity of Pap Test - doi:10.5020/18061230.2010.p181  

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Full Text Available Methods: A descriptive study, with a qualitative approach, held in the period of September to November, 2008 with 83 users of the Family Health Strategy of Caio Prado, Itapiúna-Ceará, who had Pap test in delay. The data were collected through a semi-structured interview and organized according to the Content Analysis: (1 Professional gender and the periodicity of Pap test and (2 Test that causes pain and fear. Results: It was observed that 67 (80.72% were between 25 and 59 years, 52 (62.62% were married, 65 (78.31% had primary education, 45 (54.22% were farmers and 49 (59.04% earned less than minimum wage. Most users reported feelings of shame by male examiners as a reason for irregularity in the frequency of Pap test. On a smaller scale, the reason pointed out was to consider this a test that causes pain and fear. Final Considerations: The users reported that the presence of a male professional was a strong influence to irregularity in the frequency of Pap test in this health unit. Albeit to a lesser extent, prior negative experience with this exam and not the professional’s gender issue has been implicated as a reason not to perform periodic cytology.

Luis Rafael Leite Sampaio

2012-01-01

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Tecnologia e campos disciplinares: os citotécnicos e a implementação do teste de Papanicolaou no Brasil / Technology and disciplinary fields: cytotechnicians and implementation of the Pap test in Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A apropriação e utilização do teste de Papanicolaou como tecnologia fundamental para o controle do câncer de colo do útero no Brasil foi fruto de escolhas, acordos e embates entre determinados grupos profissionais (médicos de diferentes especialidades, farmacêuticos, biólogos, biomédicos e citotécni [...] cos). Na primeira parte do trabalho apresentamos o processo de formulação das primeiras campanhas de rastreamento populacional com uso do teste Papanicolaou no país e, consequentemente, o surgimento da profissão de citotécnicos (profissionais dedicados a leitura das lâminas de Papanicolaou). Num segundo momento, partimos de algumas questões levantadas pela historiografia internacional no campo da história das ciências e das técnicas para discutimos as peculiaridades do processo de apropriação do teste Papanicolaou no contexto brasileiro. Priorizamos as questões relativas aos debates entre diferentes grupos profissionais envolvidos com a lógica desse exame e às relações entre os setores públicos e privados de saúde. Demonstramos que as visões distintas sobre essa tecnologia no campo de diferentes disciplinas e a relação destas com a dinâmica do mercado de trabalho moldam a trajetória da profissão de citotécnico e a forma como o teste de Papanicolaou foi (e está sendo) apropriado como tecnologia central para o rastreio do câncer de colo do útero no Brasil. Abstract in english The implementation of the Pap test as a primary technology in the control of cervical cancer in Brazil was the result of choices, agreements and disputes among certain professional groups, including physicians from various specialisations, pharmacists, biologists, biomedical scientists and cytotechn [...] ologists. The first part of the paper describes the process of formulating Brazil’s first screening campaigns using the Pap smear, and the subsequent emergence of the profession of cytotechnology, whose practitioners interpret this test. Second, based on questions raised by international historiography in the field of science and technology, we explore in detail how the adoption of the Pap smear transpired within the Brazilian context, focussing on the debates among the various professional groups with an interest in the suitability of the test and on the relationships between the public and private healthcare sectors. We show that the professional career of cytotechnologists and the way in which the Pap smear has been implemented as a central technology for cervical cancer screening in Brazil have been shaped by the conflicting views of this technology held by different disciplines as well as by the relationship between these disciplines and labour market dynamics.

Luiz Antonio, Teixeira; Leticia, Pumar.

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Knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding the Pap test among women in northeastern Brazil / Conhecimentos, atitudes e praticas sobre o exame de Papanicolaou em mulheres do nordeste brasileiro  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese CONTEXTO E OBJETIVO: O exame de Papanicolaou já mostrou efetividade na prevenção de câncer do colo do útero. A literatura nacional e internacional tem mostrado que o exame de Papanicolaou não tem alcançado o índice de cobertura desejado. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar os conhecimentos, atitud [...] es e práticas entre mulheres em relação ao exame de Papanicolaou e verificar se existe associação entre esses comportamentos e as características sociodemográficas. TIPO DE ESTUDO E LOCAL: Estudo descritivo e transversal realizado em Floriano, Piauí. MÉTODOS: O estudo foi conduzido com 493 mulheres no período de novembro de 2009 a dezembro de 2010. Utilizou-se m questionário com perguntas precodificadas, cujas respostas foram analisadas quanto à adequação dos comportamentos em relação ao exame. RESULTADOS: Os graus de adequação dos conhecimentos, atitudes e práticas em relação ao exame foram de 36,7%, 67,2% e 69,6%, respectivamente. Dentre as principais barreiras para a sua realização, destacaram-se a ausência de sintomas e a vergonha. CONCLUSÃO: As mulheres que realizam consultas periodicamente apresentam prática mais adequada, porém com baixa adequação de conhecimentos frente ao procedimento, sugerindo que não estejam recebendo as informações adequadas sobre os benefícios da realização periódica do exame de Papanicolaou. Abstract in english CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: The Papanicolaou (Pap) test has been shown to be effective in preventing cervical cancer. However, both the national and international literature shows that Pap testing has not reached the level of coverage desired. The objective of this study was to assess women's knowledge [...] , attitudes and practices regarding the Pap test and to investigate whether there are any associations between these three factors and the women's sociodemographic characteristics. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional descriptive study conducted in Floriano, Piauí. METHODS : The study was conducted among 493 women between November 2009 and December 2010. A questionnaire with precoded questions was sed, and the responses were analyzed in terms of appropriateness in relation to the Pap test. RESULTS : The degrees of adequacy of knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding the Pap test were 36.7%, 67.2% and 69.6%, respectively. Among the main barriers against testing, absence of symptoms and a sense of embarrassment were the most notable. CONCLUSIONS: Women who visit doctors periodically had the most appropriate practices regarding the Pap test, but their knowledge of the procedure was poor. This suggests that these women were not receiving adequate information about the benefits of periodic testing.

Carla Lorenna Ferreira de, Albuquerque; Marla da Paschoa, Costa; Felipe Moreira, Nunes; Roberto Wagner Junior Freire de, Freitas; Paulo Roberto Medeiros de, Azevedo; Jose Verissimo, Fernandes; Juciane Vaz, Rego; Humberto Medeiros, Barreto.

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A Comparison of 3 Ways of Conventional Pap Smear, Liquid-Based Cytology and Colposcopy vs Cervical Biopsy for Early Diagnosis of Premalignant Lesions or Cervical Cancer in Women with Abnormal Conventional Pap Test  

OpenAIRE

The most cost effective method of prevention and detection of cervical cancer is the Pap smear. In abnormal Pap smear, colposcopy, endocervical curettage and biopsy will be done. Gold standard method in detecting cervical lesion is biopsy. Now in two ways conventional Pap smear and liquid base are routine diagnostic technique in Iran and given easily and cost-effectiveness of this method in the detection of cervical lesions to determine the sensitivity the objective of this study was compare ...

Karimi-zarchi, Mojgan; Peighmbari, Fateme; Karimi, Neda; Rohi, Mitra; Chiti, Zohre

2013-01-01

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Promoting health by empowering women, strengthening partnerships, and enhancing health care systems: one Pap test at a time.  

Science.gov (United States)

Invasive cervical cancer, a highly preventable disease, is the thirteenth most common form of cancer among Canadian women and third amongst those women 20 to 40 years of age (Public Health Agency of Canada [PHAC], 2009). Health care providers (HCP)s know that adherence to the Canadian recommendations for regular screening, using the Pap test, reduces incidence and mortality rates (Marcus & Crane, 1998). Yet, only 30% of women in Newfoundland and Labrador consistently participate in cervical screening (Newfoundland and Labrador CHI, 2006) and mortality rates are alarming. The most recent data reveal that the incidence in 1998 was 1.5 times the national average (Health Canada, 1998) while mortality was estimated at 2.5 times the national average (NLCHI, 2006). A two-phased study conducted in Newfoundland and Labrador sought an in-depth understanding of women's perceptions, beliefs and attitudes associated with cervical cancer screening, reasons for non-participation, and personal insights to improve the screening experience. Seven main themes are identified: physical factors, emotional factors, life gets in the way, lack of education, health care providers, cultural impact, and birth control/pregnancy. Implications for nursing practice and future research are discussed. PMID:23847841

Greenslade, M Victoria; Fitzgerald, Kathy; Barry, Irene Doyle; Power-Kean, Kelly

2013-01-01

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American College Health Association Annual Pap Test and Sexually Transmitted Infection Survey: 2006  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective: The authors describe the cervical cytology and sexually transmitted infection (STI) testing patterns of US college health centers. Participants and Methods: A total of 128 self-selected US college health centers--representing more than 2 million college students--completed an online survey during February and March 2007. Results: Almost…

Smith, P. Davis; Roberts, Craig M.

2009-01-01

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ASC-H in Pap test- definitive categorization of cytomorphological spectrum  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Objective The American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology (ASCCP) guidelines for management of ASC-H is colposcopic examination followed by biopsy. HPV testing (HPVT) is recommended after a negative biopsy result. More definitive interpretation of ASC-H could prevent discomfort and minimize the cost. The purpose of this study was to evaluate association of various cytomorphological patterns of ASC-H with various clinical scenarios. Methods We reviewed SurePath™ (TriP...

Chivukula Mamatha; Shidham Vinod B

2006-01-01

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ASC-H in Pap test- definitive categorization of cytomorphological spectrum  

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Full Text Available Abstract Objective The American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology (ASCCP guidelines for management of ASC-H is colposcopic examination followed by biopsy. HPV testing (HPVT is recommended after a negative biopsy result. More definitive interpretation of ASC-H could prevent discomfort and minimize the cost. The purpose of this study was to evaluate association of various cytomorphological patterns of ASC-H with various clinical scenarios. Methods We reviewed SurePath™ (TriPath Imaging, Inc. Burlington, NC, USA cervical smears interpreted as ASC-H in 161 women (mean age, 37 {15 to 78} years, over 24 months (2002 to 2003. HPVT (Digene, Hybrid Capture® II HPV test, Digene Corporation, Gaithersburg, MD, USA was performed in 20% of cases (33/161 and biopsy results were available in 54 cases (19 with and 35 without HPVT. Results HPVT was positive in 64% (21/33 cases, and negative in 36% (12/33 cases. In the follow-up biopsies of 71% (15/21 of cases with positive HPVT, 27% showed HPV changes or CIN1, 27% showed CIN2-3, and 46% were negative for epithelial abnormality. Follow-up biopsies from cases with negative HPVT (33%, 4/12 cases, 8% showed CIN1 and 25% were negative for any epithelial abnormality. Six cytomorphological patterns of ASC-H correlated with different clinical categories in relation to HPVT and biopsy results. 35% (19 out of 54 ASC-H cases in which biopsy results were available could be interpreted definitively as HSIL by cytopathology, 11% (6/54 cases as LSIL with cyanophilic atypical parakeratotic pattern, and 31% (17/54 cases as reactive, with HPV status. The interpretation had to be continued as ASC-H in 22% (12/54 cases. Conclusion ASC-H demonstrated a spectrum of cytomorphological patterns. Some of these patterns in liquid-based cervical smears may be more specifically interpreted as LSIL, HSIL, or benign if HPV status is known.

Shidham Vinod

2006-01-01

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Obtaining reliable quality data from fragility tests  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The parameters discussed in this paper are the same as those present in normal seismic qualification testing. These parameters behave differently in high level acceleration tests and their contribution in providing unreliable data is of major concern since there is a significant difference. These parameters need to be considered in developing methodology guidelines for future fragility standards. In seismic qualification testing, a predefined series of tests are performed and measured against a set of acceptance criteria. The response spectra generally has a peak acceleration of between 3-10 g's at a 2% damping value for the Design Basis Event (Safe Shutdown Earthquake). Fragility level testing has minimum starting point of 10 g's at 2% damping and is generally 20 g's at 2% damping. The dynamic characteristics of the simulated earthquake and the corresponding simulator hardware interfaces are the parameters discussed. There are two major parameter contributions in obtaining unreliable data. The first parameter is test specimen system hardware nonlinearities. The second major variable is electronic signal saturations

46

Pap and HPV Testing  

Science.gov (United States)

... A population-based study in routine clinical practice. Lancet Oncology 2011; 12(7):663-672. [PubMed Abstract] ... Rodriguez AC, Wacholder S. Human papillomavirus and cervical cancer. Lancet 2007; 370(9590):890-907. [PubMed Abstract] Schiffman ...

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Compreensão de usuárias de uma Unidade de Saúde da Família sobre o exame Papanicolaou / The understanding of users of a Family Health Unit about the pap smear test  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Na tentativa de prevenir o câncer de colo uterino, foram instituídas várias ações de prevenção, dentre as quais, o Exame Papanicolaou que cumpre com a função de detecção precoce de células cancerosas ou de seus precursores. Portanto, objetivou-se investigar o discurso sobre a compreensão, os sentime [...] ntos e as expectativas de mulheres em relação ao Exame Papanicolaou. Trata-se de um estudo do tipo exploratório com abordagem qualitativa, realizado junto a dez usuárias de uma Unidade Integrada de Saúde da Família, no município de João Pessoa (PB). A coleta de dados se deu em abril de 2011, através de entrevista gravada. Foram identificadas oito ideias centrais: prevenção de doenças; busca por conta própria; busca por estímulo de outra pessoa; sentimento de vergonha e constrangimento; sensação de dor; sentimento de satisfação; conversas durante o exame e troca de conhecimentos acerca da saúde da mulher. Frente aos relatos, muitas são as dificuldades a serem vencidas para proporcionar melhor adesão das mulheres ao exame Papanicolaou. Abstract in english In the attempt to prevent cervical cancer, various preventive measures have been instituted, notable among which is the pap smear test, which fulfills the function of early detection of cancer cells or their precursors. Therefore, the objective was to investigate the discourse on the knowledge, feel [...] ings and expectations of women regarding the pap smear test. This is an exploratory qualitative approach, conducted with ten users of a Integrated Family Health Unit in the city of João Pessoa in the State of Paraíba. Data collection was conducted through recorded interviews in April 2011. Eight core ideas were identified: prevention of disease; self-motivated search, search recommended by another person; sense of shame and embarrassment, sensation of pain, feeling of satisfaction; conversations during the examination and exchange of knowledge about women's health. Based on the reports, there are many difficulties to be overcome to ensure greater adherence of women to the pap smear test.

Smalyanna Sgren da Costa, Andrade; Fernanda Maria Chianca da, Silva; Maria do Socorro Sousa e, Silva; Simone Helena dos Santos, Oliveira; Kamila Nethielly Souza, Leite; Merifane Januário de, Sousa.

2301-23-01

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PapD, a periplasmic transport protein in P-pilus biogenesis.  

OpenAIRE

The product of the papD gene of uropathogenic Escherichia coli is required for the biogenesis of digalactoside-binding P pili. Mutations within papD result in complete degradation of the major pilus subunit, PapA, and of the pilinlike proteins PapE and PapF and also cause partial breakdown of the PapG adhesin. The papD gene was sequenced, and the gene product was purified from the periplasm. The deduced amino acid sequence and the N-terminal sequence obtained from the purified protein reveale...

Lindberg, F.; Tennent, J. M.; Hultgren, S. J.; Lund, B.; Normark, S.

1989-01-01

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Cobertura do exame citopatológico na cidade de Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil Pap test coverage in the city of Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil  

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Full Text Available No Brasil, a avaliação da efetividade de programas de prevenção e ações de saúde pública ainda são incipientes. Dessa forma, realizou-se um estudo transversal de base populacional envolvendo a saúde da população adulta residente na zona urbana da cidade de Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil, com o objetivo de verificar a evolução nos níveis de cobertura do exame citopatológico. Investigaram-se fatores associados com a não realização do procedimento. Considerou-se exame citopatológico atualizado aquele realizado nos últimos três anos. A amostra foi constituída por 1.122 mulheres entre 20 e 69 anos, sendo que 72,2% apresentavam exame citopatológico atualizado, 16,6% atrasado e 11,2% nunca o haviam realizado. A não realização do procedimento esteve associada com baixa inserção social e idade avançada. A regressão logística destacou o efeito independente de classe social, baixa renda familiar, idade, cor da pele, estado civil e ausência de consultas médicas no último ano. Contudo, desapareceu o efeito detectado em mulheres com doenças crônicas. Comparando-se os resultados do estudo realizado em 1992 com o atual, observa-se que a cobertura do exame aumentou de 65,0% para 72,2% (1992 para 1999/2000, entretanto, não atingiu os níveis efetivos para evitar câncer de colo uterino.In Brazil, the effectiveness of preventive public heath programs and actions is rarely evaluated. A cross-sectional study was thus performed in a population-based sample focused on several health characteristics of adults living in Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The study aimed to measure temporal trends in coverage of Pap smear testing in the city. The authors studied the factors associated with failure of women to submit to a Pap smear. An updated Pap smear was defined as one performed in the previous 3 years. The sample consisted of 1,122 women ages 20 to 69 years, 72.2% of whom had an updated Pap smear, 16.6% of whom were behind schedule for testing, and 11.2% of whom had never had a Pap smear. Risk factors for never having a test were low socioeconomic status and old age. Logistic regression showed an independent effect of social class, low family income, age, skin color, marital status, and no medical appointment in the previous year. However, the effect of chronic diseases disappeared in logistic regression. The authors compare the results of the study conducted in 1992 with the present. Pap smear coverage increased from 65.0% to 72.2% (1992 to 1999/2000 in the city, yet such figures had still not ensured the effectiveness of the program for uterine cervical cancer prevention.

Juvenal Soares Dias-da-Costa

2003-02-01

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Debris removal in Pap-smear images.  

Science.gov (United States)

Since its introduction in the 1940s the Pap-smear test has helped reduce the incidence of cervical cancer dramatically in countries where regular screening is standard. The automation of this procedure is an open problem that has been ongoing for over fifty years without reaching satisfactory results. Existing systems are discouragingly expensive and yet they are only able to make a correct distinction between normal and abnormal samples in a fraction of cases. Therefore, they are limited to acting as support for the cytotechnicians as they perform their manual screening. The main reason for the current limitations is that the automated systems struggle to overcome the complexity of the cell structures. Samples are covered in artefacts such as blood cells, overlapping and folded cells, and bacteria, that hamper the segmentation processes and generate large number of suspicious objects. The classifiers designed to differentiate between normal cells and pre-cancerous cells produce unpredictable results when classifying artefacts. In this paper, we propose a sequential classification scheme focused on removing unwanted objects, debris, from an initial segmentation result, intended to be run before the actual normal/abnormal classifier. The method has been evaluated using three separate datasets obtained from cervical samples prepared using both the standard Pap-smear approach as well as the more recent liquid based cytology sample preparation technique. We show success in removing more than 99% of the debris without loosing more than around one percent of the epithelial cells detected by the segmentation process. PMID:23582663

Malm, Patrik; Balakrishnan, Byju N; Sujathan, Vilayil K; Kumar, Rajesh; Bengtsson, Ewert

2013-07-01

51

Cobertura de la Citología de Cuello Uterino y Factores Relacionados en Colombia, 2005 / Pap test coverage and related factors in Colombia, 2005  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Objetivo Describir la cobertura de la citología en los últimos tres años y los principales factores relacionados, en la población de mujeres colombianas entre 25 y 69 años de edad. Materiales y métodos Se analizó la información de la Encuesta Nacional de Demografía y Salud 2005. Se calculó la variab [...] le "práctica de la citología en los últimos tres años". La descripción de la cobertura y factores asociados se hizo a través de porcentajes simples y se realizó un análisis multivariado utilizando un modelo de regresión logística incondicional. Resultados La cobertura de citología reciente en mujeres entre 25 y 69 años de edad para Colombia fue de 76,5 %. Las condiciones asociadas con la ausencia de toma reciente fueron ausencia de afiliación, afiliación al régimen subsidiado, no haber tenido hijos vivos ni una consulta de salud en el último año; las condiciones asociadas con la toma reciente fueron el nivel de riqueza, tener entre 35 y 44 años, tener un nivel educativo universitario o superior y estar en embarazo. Conclusión Los resultados indican la necesidad de esfuerzos por mejorar las coberturas en la población más pobre, no afiliada y afiliada al régimen subsidiado; la alta mortalidad a pesar de la buena cobertura general sugiere la necesidad de esfuerzos en la oportunidad del diagnóstico definitivo y el manejo de lesiones. Abstract in english Objective Describing the use of the Papanicolau (Pap) test and the main factors related to using screening amongst Colombian women aged 25 to 69 years. Methods Information was taken from the 2005 National Health and Demography Survey. The variable "pap test during the last three years" was calculate [...] d; coverage and related factors were described using simple percentages and multivariate analysis using conditional logistic regression. Results Recent Pap test coverage in Colombian women aged 25 to 69 years was 76.5 %. Factors associated with the absence of recent exam included non-affiliation to the health system, affiliation to the susbsidiary regimen, having no live-born children and no recent medical consultation. Factors associated with recent coverage were income level, being aged 35 to 44, a higher educational level and being pregnant. Conclusions Results indicated the need for efforts at increasing coverage amongst the poorer population as well as amongst women from the subsidiary regimen and those having no affiliation. Persistence of high mortality in spite of acceptable coverage suggested the need for more efforts regarding definitive diagnosis and opportune treatment.

Marion, Piñeros; Ricardo, Cendales; Raúl, Murillo; Carolina, Wiesner; Sandra, Tovar.

2007-07-17

52

Cobertura de la Citología de Cuello Uterino y Factores Relacionados en Colombia, 2005 / Pap test coverage and related factors in Colombia, 2005  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Objetivo Describir la cobertura de la citología en los últimos tres años y los principales factores relacionados, en la población de mujeres colombianas entre 25 y 69 años de edad. Materiales y métodos Se analizó la información de la Encuesta Nacional de Demografía y Salud 2005. Se calculó la variab [...] le "práctica de la citología en los últimos tres años". La descripción de la cobertura y factores asociados se hizo a través de porcentajes simples y se realizó un análisis multivariado utilizando un modelo de regresión logística incondicional. Resultados La cobertura de citología reciente en mujeres entre 25 y 69 años de edad para Colombia fue de 76,5 %. Las condiciones asociadas con la ausencia de toma reciente fueron ausencia de afiliación, afiliación al régimen subsidiado, no haber tenido hijos vivos ni una consulta de salud en el último año; las condiciones asociadas con la toma reciente fueron el nivel de riqueza, tener entre 35 y 44 años, tener un nivel educativo universitario o superior y estar en embarazo. Conclusión Los resultados indican la necesidad de esfuerzos por mejorar las coberturas en la población más pobre, no afiliada y afiliada al régimen subsidiado; la alta mortalidad a pesar de la buena cobertura general sugiere la necesidad de esfuerzos en la oportunidad del diagnóstico definitivo y el manejo de lesiones. Abstract in english Objective Describing the use of the Papanicolau (Pap) test and the main factors related to using screening amongst Colombian women aged 25 to 69 years. Methods Information was taken from the 2005 National Health and Demography Survey. The variable "pap test during the last three years" was calculate [...] d; coverage and related factors were described using simple percentages and multivariate analysis using conditional logistic regression. Results Recent Pap test coverage in Colombian women aged 25 to 69 years was 76.5 %. Factors associated with the absence of recent exam included non-affiliation to the health system, affiliation to the susbsidiary regimen, having no live-born children and no recent medical consultation. Factors associated with recent coverage were income level, being aged 35 to 44, a higher educational level and being pregnant. Conclusions Results indicated the need for efforts at increasing coverage amongst the poorer population as well as amongst women from the subsidiary regimen and those having no affiliation. Persistence of high mortality in spite of acceptable coverage suggested the need for more efforts regarding definitive diagnosis and opportune treatment.

Marion, Piñeros; Ricardo, Cendales; Raúl, Murillo; Carolina, Wiesner; Sandra, Tovar.

2007-09-01

53

Cobertura de la Citología de Cuello Uterino y Factores Relacionados en Colombia, 2005 Pap test coverage and related factors in Colombia, 2005  

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Full Text Available Objetivo Describir la cobertura de la citología en los últimos tres años y los principales factores relacionados, en la población de mujeres colombianas entre 25 y 69 años de edad. Materiales y métodos Se analizó la información de la Encuesta Nacional de Demografía y Salud 2005. Se calculó la variable "práctica de la citología en los últimos tres años". La descripción de la cobertura y factores asociados se hizo a través de porcentajes simples y se realizó un análisis multivariado utilizando un modelo de regresión logística incondicional. Resultados La cobertura de citología reciente en mujeres entre 25 y 69 años de edad para Colombia fue de 76,5 %. Las condiciones asociadas con la ausencia de toma reciente fueron ausencia de afiliación, afiliación al régimen subsidiado, no haber tenido hijos vivos ni una consulta de salud en el último año; las condiciones asociadas con la toma reciente fueron el nivel de riqueza, tener entre 35 y 44 años, tener un nivel educativo universitario o superior y estar en embarazo. Conclusión Los resultados indican la necesidad de esfuerzos por mejorar las coberturas en la población más pobre, no afiliada y afiliada al régimen subsidiado; la alta mortalidad a pesar de la buena cobertura general sugiere la necesidad de esfuerzos en la oportunidad del diagnóstico definitivo y el manejo de lesiones.Objective Describing the use of the Papanicolau (Pap test and the main factors related to using screening amongst Colombian women aged 25 to 69 years. Methods Information was taken from the 2005 National Health and Demography Survey. The variable "pap test during the last three years" was calculated; coverage and related factors were described using simple percentages and multivariate analysis using conditional logistic regression. Results Recent Pap test coverage in Colombian women aged 25 to 69 years was 76.5 %. Factors associated with the absence of recent exam included non-affiliation to the health system, affiliation to the susbsidiary regimen, having no live-born children and no recent medical consultation. Factors associated with recent coverage were income level, being aged 35 to 44, a higher educational level and being pregnant. Conclusions Results indicated the need for efforts at increasing coverage amongst the poorer population as well as amongst women from the subsidiary regimen and those having no affiliation. Persistence of high mortality in spite of acceptable coverage suggested the need for more efforts regarding definitive diagnosis and opportune treatment.

Marion Piñeros

54

Exame Papanicolaou: sentimentos relatados por profissionais de enfermagem ao se submeterem a esse exame Pap smear screening: sensations reported by nursing professionals when submitted to this test  

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Full Text Available Objetivou-se conhecer os sentimentos de auxiliares e técnicas de enfermagem ao se submeterem ao exame Papanicolaou. Trata-se de um estudo descritivo com abordagem qualitativa realizado nos meses de setembro a outubro de 2006, com 35 servidoras de uma instituição governamental referência em ginecologia na cidade de Fortaleza (CE. Os dados foram coletados através de entrevista semiestruturada, contendo uma questão norteadora gravada e analisada de acordo com referencial teórico metodológico da fenomenologia social. Os relatos foram agrupados em três temáticas: um exame que causa incômodo, medo e vergonha; um exame que gera ansiedade quanto aos resultados; e um exame que "me deixa calma e tranquila". Apesar de as entrevistadas pertencerem a uma instituição que cuida de mulheres na prevenção do câncer cérvico-uterino, elas não deixaram de emitir sentimentos negativos relacionados ao exame. Concluiu-se a importância de realizar projetos educativos, enfatizando a importância do empoderamento das usuárias a fim de minimizar essas questões.This work sought to record the impressions of nursing assistants and technicians after submitting to Pap smear screening. This is a descriptive study using a qualitative approach conducted in September and October of 2006 with 35 employees of a public institution, which is a benchmark in gynecology in Fortaleza in the State of Ceará (Brazil. The data was collected through semi-structured interviews containing a recorded leading question and analyzed according to the methodological-theoretical reference of social phenomenology. The testimonials were separated in three groups: an exam that causes discomfort, fear and shame; an exam that causes anxiety about the results; and an exam that "makes me calm and relaxed". Despite the interviewees being part of an institution that cares for the prevention of cervical-uterine cancer in women, negative feelings about the Pap smear test were nonetheless reported. The conclusion reached is that it is important to stage educational campaigns emphasizing the importance of empowerment of patients in order to minimize these aspects.

Roberta Jeane Bezerra Jorge

2011-05-01

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Exame Papanicolaou: sentimentos relatados por profissionais de enfermagem ao se submeterem a esse exame / Pap smear screening: sensations reported by nursing professionals when submitted to this test  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Objetivou-se conhecer os sentimentos de auxiliares e técnicas de enfermagem ao se submeterem ao exame Papanicolaou. Trata-se de um estudo descritivo com abordagem qualitativa realizado nos meses de setembro a outubro de 2006, com 35 servidoras de uma instituição governamental referência em ginecolog [...] ia na cidade de Fortaleza (CE). Os dados foram coletados através de entrevista semiestruturada, contendo uma questão norteadora gravada e analisada de acordo com referencial teórico metodológico da fenomenologia social. Os relatos foram agrupados em três temáticas: um exame que causa incômodo, medo e vergonha; um exame que gera ansiedade quanto aos resultados; e um exame que "me deixa calma e tranquila". Apesar de as entrevistadas pertencerem a uma instituição que cuida de mulheres na prevenção do câncer cérvico-uterino, elas não deixaram de emitir sentimentos negativos relacionados ao exame. Concluiu-se a importância de realizar projetos educativos, enfatizando a importância do empoderamento das usuárias a fim de minimizar essas questões. Abstract in english This work sought to record the impressions of nursing assistants and technicians after submitting to Pap smear screening. This is a descriptive study using a qualitative approach conducted in September and October of 2006 with 35 employees of a public institution, which is a benchmark in gynecology [...] in Fortaleza in the State of Ceará (Brazil). The data was collected through semi-structured interviews containing a recorded leading question and analyzed according to the methodological-theoretical reference of social phenomenology. The testimonials were separated in three groups: an exam that causes discomfort, fear and shame; an exam that causes anxiety about the results; and an exam that "makes me calm and relaxed". Despite the interviewees being part of an institution that cares for the prevention of cervical-uterine cancer in women, negative feelings about the Pap smear test were nonetheless reported. The conclusion reached is that it is important to stage educational campaigns emphasizing the importance of empowerment of patients in order to minimize these aspects.

Roberta Jeane Bezerra, Jorge; Maria Albertina Rocha, Diógenes; Francisco Antonio da Cruz, Mendonça; Luís Rafael Leite, Sampaio; Roberto, Jorge Júnior.

2443-24-01

56

Prevalence and typing of HPV DNA by hybrid capture II in women with ASCUS, ASC-H, LSIL, and AGC on ThinPrep Pap tests.  

Science.gov (United States)

Testing for human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA is now a viable option for the management of women with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS). The utility of reflexive HPV DNA testing for women with a cytologic diagnosis of atypical glandular cells-not otherwise specified (AGC-NOS), ASCUS subtypes, and low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL) has not been well established. In the present investigation, reflex Hybrid Capture II HPV DNA testing results were evaluated for HPV prevalence and type in 371 women with abnormal cytologic diagnoses of ASCUS-not otherwise specified (ASCUS-NOS), ASCUS-suspicious for low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (ASCUS-L), atypical squamous cells-cannot exclude high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (ASC-H), AGC-NOS, and LSIL on ThinPrep Pap tests. Positive high-risk HPV DNA was identified in 53.6% of the study samples, including ASCUS-NOS 40.2% ASCUS-L 71.4%, ASC-H 37.5%, LSIL 88.6%, and AGC-NOS 0%. We conclude that reflex HPV DNA testing appears to not be useful for colposcopy triage for cytologic diagnoses of LSIL or AGC-NOS. PMID:15176032

Rowe, Leslie R; Aldeen, William; Bentz, Joel S

2004-06-01

57

Performance of HPV E6/E7 mRNA RT-qPCR for screening and diagnosis of cervical cancer with ThinPrep Pap test samples.  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent research has shown that oncogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA, which is currently used in the screening and diagnosis of cervical cancer, can be detected not only in high-grade cervical lesions, but also in low-grade cervical lesions and normal tissues. For this reason, HPV tests targeting the E6 and E7 mRNA of five oncogenic HPV strains (HPV genotypes 16, 18, 31, 33, and 45), which are known to be responsible for the oncogenesis of cervical cancer, have been commercialized using a real-time nucleic acid sequence based amplification (NASBA) assay. Previous data has shown that the real-time NASBA assay has higher clinical specificity than HPV DNA testing (97.1% vs. 53.7%). However, the sensitivity of the real-time NASBA assay was lower than that of HPV DNA testing (41.1% vs. 100%). Despite the fact that there are more than 16 oncogenic HPV genotypes known to cause cervical cancer (HPV genotypes 16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 39, 45, 51, 52, 53, 56, 58, 59, 66, 68, and 69), the commercialized real-time NASBA kit was designed to detect only five genotypes (16, 18, 31, 33, and 45). Therefore, in the present study, CervicGen HPV RT-qDX (Optipharm), a commercial diagnostic kit targeting a HPV E6/E7 mRNA based on RT-qPCR assay was evaluated with RNA extracted from ThinPrep Pap samples, and the results were compared to real-time NASBA data. The sensitivity and specificity of the RT-qPCR assay were 91% and 98.6%, respectively, for the detection of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia CIN2(+) high-grade cervical lesions. Therefore, the CervicGen HPV RT-qDX assay showed a significantly higher sensitivity (91.1%) compared to the real-time NASBA assay (41.1%). In normal cytohistology cases, the specificity was 98.6% and 53.7% for HPV mRNA RT-qPCR and HPV DNA testing, respectively. These results demonstrate that HPV mRNA RT-qPCR better reflects clinical diagnosis. In conclusion, it is suggested that HPV mRNA RT-qPCR overcomes the shortcomings of lower specificity seen in the DNA assay and the lower sensitivity of the commercialized HPV mRNA real-time NASBA assay when testing from ThinPrep Pap samples. PMID:25102300

Munkhdelger, Jijgee; Kim, Geehyuk; Wang, Hye-young; Lee, Dongsup; Kim, Sunghyun; Choi, Yeonim; Choi, Eunhee; Park, Sunyoung; Jin, Hyunwoo; Park, Kwang Hwa; Lee, Hyeyoung

2014-10-01

58

Factores asociados a las Alteraciones del test de Papanicolaou Costa Rica, 2009 / Factors associated with changes in PAP Smears in a health center Costa Rica, 2009  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Costa Rica | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El cáncer cervicouterino es en el mundo y en Costa Rica una de las 3 primeras causas de cáncer en las mujeres. La detección temprana de lesiones premalignas o malignas mejora el pronóstico de las usuarias. Objetivo: Encontrar si hay factores asociados a las alteraciones de la citología vaginal en un [...] área de salud urbana de Costa Rica durante 2009. Metodología: Estudio de casos y controles en usuarias de una área de salud urbana de Costa Rica durante 2009. Se definió caso como toda mujer residente de esa área que presentara una citología vaginal alterada, displasia leve, moderada, severa o carcinoma durante 2009. Los controles se seleccionaron de forma aleatoria simple, tomando como marco muestral el registro de mujeres que se habían realizado citologías vaginales durante el 2009 en esa área. La recolección de la información se hizo a través de un cuestionario. Se calcularon medidas de frecuencia, de tendencia central y dispersión, OR, IC 95 %. Resultados: Se incluyeron 62 casos y 137 controles. La edad promedio de los casos fue 43 años (DE±17). El ASCUS fue la lesión más frecuente 39 % (IC 95 %=22,43-51,93). Los factores asociados a la aparición de lesiones fueron tabaco (OR=2.35; IC 95 %=1,26-4,31), inicio de actividad sexual antes de 18 años (OR=2;I C 95 %=1,06-3,64) y haber tenido 3 o más compañeros sexuales (OR=2, 10;IC 95 % 1,11-3,97). Discusión: Se encontró similitud entre lo descrito en la literatura y lo hallado en este estudio. Se recomendó dar a conocer este estudio a las mujeres de esa área de salud, ya que los factores encontrados son modificables y además se planteó a la dirección del área realizar campañas de promoción y prevención que fomenten conductas sexuales sanas. Abstract in english Cervical cancer is among the leading causes of cancer in women globally; in Costa Rica it is among the top three causes. Although the PAP smears is part of the guidelines of care for women, the coverage in some areas of health is low. Objective: Identify demographic and clinical factors associated w [...] ith abnormal Pap test results Methods: We conducted a health center-based case-control study. A case was defined as any woman seeking care in a health center during 2009, having a Pap test positive for either cells of undetermined significance (Atypical Squamous Cells of Undetermined Significance) mild, moderate or severe dysplasia. Controls were selected by simple random sampling using records of women seen at the same health centers in 2009 and having normal PAP smears. Odds ratios and 95 % confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated for associations between potential risk factors and abnormal PAP smears. Results: We identified 62 cases and 137 controls. The average age of cases was 43 was not significantly different from that of controls (Student t p = 0,90). ASCUS was the most frequent cause of abnormal cytology (39 %). Factors found to be significantly associated with abnormal cytology were: tobacco use (OR=2,35; 95 % CI=1,26-4,31), onset of sexual activity before age 18 (OR=2,0; 95 % CI=1,06-3,64) and having a history of > 3 sexual partners (OR=2,0; 95 % CI=1,11-3,97). Conclusions: There was similarity between risk factors we identified as described in the literature, like onset of sexual activity before age 18 and have history of 3 or more sexual parthers. These are common risk factors associated with HPV infection. Our study was limited by the failure to follow-up colposcopy results for definitive diagnoses and no HPV test. Considering these risk factors represent modifiable health behaviors, we recommended dissemination of our findings to local health authorities in order to generate intervention strategies to promote responsible, healthy sexual behaviors as how to reduce tobacco consumption and develop healthy sexual habits.

Leandra, Abarca Gómez; Maricela, Salas Estrada; Deyanira, Calvo León; Julia, Freer Vargas; Paula, Cordero.

2014-06-01

59

Frequência da colpocitologia oncótica em jovens com antecedentes obstétricos em Teresina, Piauí, Brasil / Frequency of Pap smear testing in young women with an obstetric history in Teresina, Piauí, Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: Analisar a frequência da colpocitologia oncótica em jovens com pelo menos uma gravidez completa em Teresina, capital do Estado do Piauí, Brasil. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal realizado de maio a dezembro de 2008. Foram coletados dados de 464 jovens, selecionadas por amostragem acidental, que [...] finalizaram uma gravidez no primeiro quadrimestre de 2006 em seis maternidades da Cidade de Teresina. Investigou-se a frequência da coleta de colpocitologia oncótica. A frequência inadequada foi definida como coleta em intervalos maiores do que 1 ano. RESULTADOS: A média de idade das participantes foi de 20 anos. A frequência da colpocitologia foi semestral em 180 jovens (39,0%) e anual em 160 (34,5%). Quinze jovens (3,2%) nunca haviam feito a colpocitologia. A regressão logística simples mostrou que o não uso de contraceptivo na primeira relação sexual e não poder optar por atendimento ginecológico por homem ou mulher aumentou o risco em 48,0% (P = 0,049) e 49,0% (P = 0,044), respectivamente, para frequência inadequada de coleta do exame. A regressão logística múltipla mostrou que ter tido mais de uma gravidez elevou em 71,4% a chance de inadequação da frequência de coleta em comparação com ter somente uma gestação (P = 0,011). CONCLUSÕES: O fato de muitas jovens realizarem o exame de colpocitologia oncótica em intervalos menores do que 1 ano não melhora o rastreamento do câncer de colo uterino e pode onerar o serviço público de saúde. A multiparidade foi fator de risco para a frequência inadequada de coleta do exame, devendo esse aspecto ser considerado na assistência à saúde ginecológica de jovens. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To analyze the frequency of Pap smear testing in young women with at least one pregnancy in Teresina, capital of the state of Piauí, Brazil. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was undertaken from May to December 2008. A convenience sample of 464 young women was selected, and data were colle [...] cted using a pre-tested questionnaire. Women giving birth in the first four months of 2006, in six hospitals in Teresina, were included. Inadequate Pap smear frequency was defined as an interval of more than 1 year between tests. RESULTS: Mean age was 20 years. The frequency of Pap smear testing was every 6 months in 180 women (39.0%) and yearly in 160 (34.5%). Fifteen women (3.2%) had never had a Pap smear test. Simple logistic regression showed an increase of 48.0% in the risk of inadequate Pap smear frequency (P = 0.049) in women who did not use any contraceptive method at their first sexual intercourse, and 49.0% (P = 0.044) in those who were not able to choose between a male or female gynecologist when seeking health care services. On multivariate logistic regression, having more than one pregnancy increased the risk of inadequate Pap smear frequency by 71.4% in comparison to having only one pregnancy (P = 0.011). CONCLUSIONS: The fact that many young women had Pap smear testing at intervals shorter than 1 year does not improve cervical cancer screening and may burden the health care system. Multiparity was a risk factor for inadequate Pap smear frequency, an aspect that must be taken into account when providing gynecological care to young women.

Michelina F., Barroso; Keila R. O., Gomes; Jesusmar Ximenes, Andrade.

2011-03-01

60

Pap-smear Classification Using Efficient Second Order Neural Network Training Algorithms  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In this paper we make use of two highly efficient second order neural network training algorithms, namely the LMAM (Levenberg-Marquardt with Adaptive Momentum) and OLMAM (Optimized Levenberg-Marquardt with Adaptive Momentum), for the construction of an efficient pap-smear test classifier. The algorithms are methodologically similar, and are based on iterations of the form employed in the Levenberg-Marquardt (LM) method for non-linear least squares problems with the inclusion of an additional adaptive momentum term arising from the formulation of the training task as a constrained optimization problem. The classification results obtained from the application of the algorithms on a standard benchmark pap-smear data set reveal the power of the two methods to obtain excellent solutions in difficult classification problems whereas other standard computational intelligence techniques achieve inferior performances.

Ampazis, Nikolaos; Dounias, George

2004-01-01

61

Pattern of epithelial cell abnormality in Pap smear: A clinicopathological and demographic correlation  

OpenAIRE

Background: In the low resource settings of a developing country, a conventional Papanicolaou (Pap) test is the mainstay screening system for cervical cancer. In order to counsel women and to organize a public health system for cervical cancer screening by Pap smear examination, it is imperative to know the pattern of premalignant and malignant lesions. This study was undertaken to find out the prevalence of an abnormal Pap smear, in a tertiary hospital of a developing country, and to carry o...

Banik Urmila; Bhattacharjee Pradip; Ahamad Shahab; Rahman Zillur

2011-01-01

62

Therapeutic effect of pilose antler polypeptides (PAP) on experimental fracture and its mechanism  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: To test the therapeutic effect of PAP on experimental fracture and its mechanism. Methods: Effect of PAP on the incorporation of [3H]-TdR into DNA syntheses in the cells of rabbits costal cartilage and human embryonic joint as well as osteoblast precursor cells of embryonic chick calvaria in vitro and effect of PAP on the experimental radius fracture in rats in vivo were observed. Results: PAP of 10?50 ?g·ml-1 showed mitogenic activities and significant promotion of DNA syntheses for various cartilage cells in vitro. In vivo experimental results revealed that PAP 10 and 20 mg·kg-1 could promote healing of radius fracture, accelerate osteotylus formation and increase contents of calcium and oxyproline. Conclusion: PAP accelerates fracture healing through promoting multiplications of cartilage and osteoblast precursor cells, collagen accumulation and calcium precipitation in osteotylus

63

Fractal analysis of weld defect patterns obtained by radiographic tests  

CERN Document Server

This paper presents a fractal analysis of radiographic patterns obtained from specimens with three types of inserted welding defects: lack of fusion, lack of penetration, and porosity. The study focused on patterns of carbon steel beads from radiographs of the International Institute of Welding (IIW). The radiographs were scanned using a greyscale with 256 levels, and the fractal features of the surfaces constructed from the radiographic images were characterized by means of Hurst, detrended-fluctuation, and minimal-cover analyses. A Karhunen-Loeve transformation was then used to classify the curves obtained from the fractal analyses of the various images, and a study of the classification errors was performed. The obtained results indicate that fractal analyses can be an effective additional tool for pattern recognition of weld defects in radiographic tests.

Tesser, J A; Vieira, A P; Gonçalves, L L; Rebello, J M A

2006-01-01

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Comparison of Human Papillomavirus Detection by Aptima HPV and cobas HPV Tests in a Population of Women Referred for Colposcopy following Detection of Atypical Squamous Cells of Undetermined Significance by Pap Cytology.  

Science.gov (United States)

Few studies have compared the cobas HPV test to the Aptima HPV assay (AHPV) and the Aptima HPV 16 18/45 genotype assay (AHPV GT) for high-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV) detection, clinical performance in detecting cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 (CIN2) or more severe (CIN2+) diagnoses, and risk stratification by partial HPV genotyping. The cobas HPV test is a DNA test that separately and concurrently detects HPV16, HPV18, and a pool of 12 other hrHPV types. AHPV is an RNA test for a pool of 14 hrHPV genotypes, and AHPV GT is an RNA test run on AHPV-positive results to detect HPV16 separately from HPV18 and HPV45, which are detected together. In a population of patients (n = 988) referred for colposcopy because of a cervical Pap cytology result of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US), a cervical scrape specimen was taken, placed into a ThinPrep Pap test vial containing PreservCyt liquid cytology medium, and tested in a blinded fashion with cobas and AHPV and with AHPV GT for AHPV-positive results. The final diagnoses were based on a consensus panel review of the biopsy specimen histology. AHPV and cobas were equally sensitive for CIN2+ diagnoses (89.4% each; P = 1.000), and AHPV was more specific than cobas (63.1% versus 59.3%; P ? 0.001). The percent total agreement, percent positive agreement, and kappa value were 90.9%, 81.1%, and 0.815, respectively. Risk stratification using partial HPV genotyping was similar for the two assays. AHPV and AHPV GT had similar sensitivity and risk stratification to cobas HPV, but they were more specific than cobas HPV. PMID:25653409

Castle, Philip E; Eaton, Barbara; Reid, Jennifer; Getman, Damon; Dockter, Janel

2015-04-01

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PAP1 signaling involves MAPK signal transduction  

OpenAIRE

Pancreatitis-associated protein 1 (PAP1) belongs to the Reg family of secretory proteins. Several important biological roles have been attributed to PAP1 but the signaling pathways activated by this protein remain only partially understood. Here, we describe the intracellular pathways triggered by PAP1 in a pancreatic acinar cell line. Taking advantage of the fact that PAP1 induces its own transcription, we performed ChIP assays to analyze the recruitment of transcriptional factors on its pro...

Ferre?s-maso?, Montse; Iovanna, Juan Lucio; Closa, Daniel; Folch-puy, Emma

2009-01-01

66

The predictive information obtained by testing multiple software versions  

Science.gov (United States)

Multiversion programming is a redundancy approach to developing highly reliable software. In applications of this method, two or more versions of a program are developed independently by different programmers and the versions are combined to form a redundant system. One variation of this approach consists of developing a set of n program versions and testing the versions to predict the failure probability of a particular program or a system formed from a subset of the programs. The precision that might be obtained, and also the effect of programmer variability if predictions are made over repetitions of the process of generating different program versions, are examined.

Lee, Larry D.

1987-01-01

67

TsPAP1 encodes a novel plant prolyl aminopeptidase whose expression is induced in response to suboptimal growth conditions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? A cDNA encoding a novel plant prolyl aminopeptidase, TsPAP1, was obtained from triticale. ? The cloned TsPAP1 cDNA is 1387 bp long and encodes a protein of 390 amino acids. ? The deduced TsPAP1 protein revealed characteristics of the monomeric bacterial PAPs. ? The TsPAP1 mRNA level increased under drought, salinity and in the presence of metal ions. -- Abstract: A triticale cDNA encoding a prolyl aminopeptidase (PAP) was obtained by RT-PCR and has been designated as TsPAP1. The cloned cDNA is 1387 bp long and encodes a protein of 390 amino acids with a calculated molecular mass of 43.9 kDa. The deduced TsPAP1 protein exhibits a considerable sequence identity with the biochemically characterized bacterial and fungal PAP proteins of small molecular masses (?35 kDa). Moreover, the presence of conserved regions that are characteristic for bacterial monomeric PAP enzymes (the GGSWG motif, the localization of the catalytic triad residues and the segment involved in substrate binding) has also been noted. Primary structure analysis and phylogenetic analysis revealed that TsPAP1 encodes a novel plant PAP protein that is distinct from the multimeric proteins that have thus far been characterized in plants and whose counterparts have been recognized only in bacteria and fungi. A significant increase in the TsPAP1 transcript level in the shoots of triticale plants was observed under drought and saline conditions as well as in the presence of cadmium and aluminium ions in the nutrient medium. This paper is the first report describing changes in the transcript levels of any plant PAP in response to suboptimal growth conditions.

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Profile of PAP smear cytology and its histopathological correlation at tertiary care center – A retrospective study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective: The Papanicolaou (Pap smear was introduced in 1941 and became the standard screening test for cervical cancer and premalignant lesions. Cervical cancer is the second most common cancer in women worldwide after breast cancer, and in developing countries, the leading cause of death by cancer. It is one of the most preventable and curable of all cancers. The Pap smear is the standard screening tool used to test for the presence of abnormal cells that could become cancerous. Its role in diagnosis of infective inflammatory conditions is no less successful. Methods: This retrospective study of 500 women with age group 18 to 90 years was carried out over a 2 years at cytology section of pathology department, M.P.Shah medical college, Jamnagar. This study had been divided into 2 groups. Group I included study of 400 women who attended gynaecological clinic at GGH hospital Jamnagar and Group II included study of 100 women who attended Pap smear screening camp  at Air force hospital, Jamnagar.Results: In group I, maximum number (212 of inflammatory lesions was obtained with incidence of 53%. 84(21% had SIN, 12(3% had squamous cell carcinoma. In group II, incidence of normal smear was high. Conclusion: Pap smear is a simple, cheap, safe and practical diagnostic tool for early detection of cervical cancer in high risk group population, so it should be established as a routine screening procedure. It also has a greater role in diagnosis of inflammatory lesions. It is recommended that The Bethesda System should be used for reporting as it improves the reproducibility and helps in identification of ASCUS and AGCUS lesions and plays a key role to diagnose various intraepithelial and invasive lesions at an early stage and manage them  properly.

Bhavika Vaghela

2014-01-01

69

Shape-based nuclei area of digitized pap smear images  

Science.gov (United States)

Nuclei of the epithelial of Pap smear cells are important risk indicator of cervical cancers. Pathologist uses the changing of the area of the nuclei to determine whether cells are normal or abnormal. It means that having correct measurement of the area of nuclei is important on the pap smears assessment. Our paper present a novel approach to analyze the shape of nuclei in pap smear images and measuring the area of nuclei. We conducted a study to measure the area of nuclei automatically by calculating the number of pixels contained in each of the segmented nuclei. For comparison, we performed measurements of nuclei area using the ellipse area approximation. The result of the t-test confirmed that there were similarity between elliptical area approximation and automatic segmented nuclei-area at 0.5% level of significance.

Muhimmah, Izzati; Kurniawan, Rahadian

2012-04-01

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The clinical value of serum PSA and PAP determinations in prostate cancer patients  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: To investigate the clinical value of serum PSA and PAP determinations in diagnosis of prostate cancer patients. Methods: The serum PSA and PAP levels of 98 prostate cancer patients, 45 prostate benign disease patients and 40 normal subjects were tested by IRMA. Results: The serum PSA and PAP levels of prostate cancer patients were significantly higher than those in prostate benign disease patients and normal controls (P < 0.01). The diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of serum PSA for prostate cancer were 93.9% and 93.3% respectively. The diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of serum PAP for prostate cancer were 71.4% and 91.1% respectively. Conclusion: The determination of serum PSA and PAP was of high clinical value for diagnosis of early prostate cancer. It could be used as an important reference parameter for the clinical staging, follow-up of treatment result and prediction of prognosis

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Modified PAP method to detect heteroresistance to vancomycin among methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates at a tertiary care hospital  

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Full Text Available This study was an attempt at developing, establishing, validating and comparing the modified PAP method for detection of hetero-vancomycin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (h-VRSA with the routine antimicrobial susceptibility testing (using the BSAC standardized disc diffusion method, minimum inhibitory concentrations of vancomycin using standard E-test methodology and the Hiramatsu?s screening method. A total of 50 methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus obtained from various clinical specimens, along with the Mu 3 and Mu 50 strains as controls, were studied. No VRSA isolates were obtained. However, four of the test strains were positive by the Hiramatsu?s screening method, of which only one isolate could be confirmed by the modified PAP analysis method. This isolate was a coloniser from the drain fluid of a liver transplant recipient. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and the overall efficiency of the Hiramatsu?s screening method with the modified PAP analysis as the gold standard were found to be 100, 93.8, 25 and 94%, respectively. It is very essential for clinical laboratories to screen for h-VRSA, given the increasing use of glycopeptide antibiotics in therapy and the potential for failed therapy in patients infected with these strains.

Iyer R

2008-01-01

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Analytical method for obtaining calibration dependences while testing gear wear  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

On the basis of the analysis of geometry of activation of device gears and teeth geometry an analytical method for obtaining calibration dependences being necessary for the teeth wear assesment using the method of surface activation. The calibration dependences obtained take into account the curve of involute surface of teeth in contrast to initial calibration curves for plane surfaces

73

Association of Pap Smear Abnormalities with Autoimmune Disorders  

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Full Text Available Recently, it is hypothesized that there might be an association between immunological disorders and cervical premalignant and malignant abnormalities. Related studies have been generally focused on some particular autoimmune disease, specially the Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE. This study aimed at comparing the rate of Pap smear abnormalities in female patients with autoimmune diseases and normal counterparts. In a case-control setting, 118 female patients with various autoimmune diseases (the case group and 118 healthy female counterparts (the control group were recruited in Tabriz Imam Reza Teaching Centre in a 24 months period of time. The two groups were matched for demographics and known risk factors of cervical malignancy. Frequencies of abnormal Pap smear testing were compared between the two groups. The autoimmune disorders were SLE (74 patients, rheumatoid arthritis or RA (32 patients, systemic sclerosis or SS (7 patients and ankylosing spondylitis or AS (5 patients in the case group. Frequency of abnormal Pap smear testing was significantly higher in the case group comparing with that in the controls (7.6% vs. 1.7%; p = 0.03. Frequency of abnormal Pap smear testing was higher in the patients with SLE (8.1% and RA (9.3% comparing with that in the controls; However, these differences were marginally nonsignificant (p = 0.06 and p = 0.07, respectively. Frequency of cases with abnormal Pap smear testing was not statistically different between the autoimmune disorders (p = 0.99. Based on these findings and in conclusion, there might be an association between the autoimmune disorders and occurrence of premalignant or malignant lesions in cervix. Further studies with larger samples sizes are recommended.

Kazem Ghahremanzadeh

2011-01-01

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Anal Pap smears and anal cancer: what dermatologists should know.  

Science.gov (United States)

Squamous epithelial cells are susceptible to infection by the human papillomavirus. Infection of squamous epithelium with oncogenic human papillomavirus types is associated with development of dysplasia and potential malignant transformation. Historically, cervical cancer has been the most prevalent human papillomavirus-induced squamous neoplasia. However, because of widespread screening via Pap smear testing, rates of cervical cancer in the United States have decreased dramatically during the past 50 years. Rates of anal cancer, in contrast, have doubled during the past 30 years. The groups at highest risk for development of anal cancer are men who have sex with men, HIV-positive patients, and patients immunosuppressed as a result of solid-organ transplantation. By detecting dysplasia before it develops into invasive cancer, anal Pap smears may be a potentially useful screening tool for anal cancer, particularly in individuals known to be at increased risk. However, at this time, sufficient data supporting the benefit of anal Pap smear screening are lacking. With insufficient evidence, no national health care organizations currently recommend the use of anal Pap smears as a routine screening test, even among high-risk groups. PMID:25088812

Liszewski, Walter; Ananth, Amy T; Ploch, Lauren E; Rogers, Nicole E

2014-11-01

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Exame citopatológico de colo uterino em mulheres com idade entre 20 e 59 anos em Pelotas, RS: prevalência, foco e fatores associados à sua não realização Pap smears of 20 - 59 year-old women in Pelotas, Southern Brazil: prevalence, approach and factors associated with not undergoing the test  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar a prevalência e o foco de realização do exame citopatológico do colo uterino e também fatores associados à sua não realização em mulheres com idade entre 20 e 59 anos residentes na cidade de Pelotas, RS. MÉTODOS: Entre outubro e dezembro de 2003 foi realizado um estudo transversal de base populacional. Através de amostragem por conglomerados foram sorteados 144 setores censitários em múltiplos estágios. Foram investigadas variáveis sociodemográficas e a realização de exame citopatológico do colo uterino. RESULTADOS: Dentre as 1404 mulheres que constituem a população-alvo dos programas de prevenção do câncer do colo uterino, 83,0% realizaram o exame citopatológico do colo uterino nos três anos antecedentes a este estudo. Mostraram-se significativamente associadas (POBJECTIVE: This study aims to determine the prevalence of and approach of Pap smear tests, as well as associated factors in women living in Pelotas, RS, Southern Brazil, within the 20 - 59 age range, who did not undergo a Pap smear. METHODS: A cross-sectional population-based study was carried out from October to December 2003. 144 census tracts were sampled through a multiple-stage clustered method. Socio-demographic variables were investigated, as well as women's Pap smear tests. RESULTS: Among the 1,404 women who were the target population included in the early detection program of uterine cervix cancer, 83% had had Pap smears in the three years before the study. Variables statistically associated (p<0.05 with women not undergoing the test in the previous three years were: ages ranging from 20-29 to 50-59 years compared with 40-49 year-old women, lower schooling level, lower social level, mixed and black skin color, not having seen a gynecologist in the previous 12 months. CONCLUSIONS: Although this study presents a high coverage of women undergoing Pap smears, women that present higher risk factors for this type of cancer had fewer tests.

Arnildo A. Hackenhaar

2006-03-01

76

Obtaining reliable quality data from fragility seismic tests  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The parameters discussed in this paper are the same as those present in normal seismic qualification testing. These parameters behave differently in high level acceleration tests and their contribution in providing unreliable data is of major concern since there is a significant difference. These parameters need to be considered in developing methodology guidelines for future fragility standards

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Comparison of PapType to Digene Hybrid Capture 2, Roche Linear Array, and Amplicor for Detection of High-Risk Human Papillomavirus Genotypes in Women with Previous Abnormal Pap Smears  

OpenAIRE

PapType human papillomavirus (HPV) assay was compared to Hybrid Capture 2 (HC2), Amplicor (Amp), and Linear Array (LA) HPV tests in 894 women undergoing management for a high-grade Pap smear abnormality. The sensitivity in detection of underlying high-grade histological diagnosis by PapType was 90.3% and by HC2 was 79.8%, while by Amp and LA it was 92.4% and 91.6%, respectively. The specificities were 52.5%, 55.3%, 49.4%, and 51.7% for PapType, HC2, Amp, and LA, respectively.

Tabrizi, Sepehr N.; Stevens, Matthew P.; Khan, Zaheer A.; Chow, Conan; Devitt, Martin A.; Garland, Suzanne M.

2012-01-01

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Factors related to failure to attend the consultation to receive the results of the Pap smear test / Fatores relacionados ao não comparecimento à consulta para receber o resultado do exame colpocitológico  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available OBJETIVO: identificar os fatores relacionados ao não comparecimento das mulheres à consulta de retorno para receber o resultado do exame colpocitológico. MÉTODO: estudo transversal, realizado com 775 pacientes que se submeteram ao exame colpocitológico no Centro de Saúde da Família de Fortalez [...] a, Ceará, entre setembro de 2010 e fevereiro de 2011. RESULTADOS: a maioria das pesquisadas era jovem (?35 anos), de baixa escolaridade (?7 anos de estudo), com início da vida sexual precoce (?20 anos) e 17,0% delas não retornaram para receber o resultado do exame. Resultados estatisticamente significantes para o não comparecimento ao retorno estiveram relacionados a: mulheres jovens (p=0,001), início precoce da atividade sexual (p=0,047) e conhecimento inadequado sobre o exame colpocitológico (p=0,029). CONCLUSÃO: o fato de a mulher não retornar para receber o resultado é um problema para o controle do câncer cervicouterino e deve ser combatido por meio de estratégias educativas que reforcem a importância do retorno para a detecção precoce desse câncer. Abstract in spanish OBJETIVO: identificar los factores relacionados a la no asistencia de las mujeres a la consulta de retorno para recibir el resultado de la prueba de Papanicolaou. MÉTODO: se trata de un estudio transversal, realizado con 775 pacientes que se sometieron a la prueba de Papanicolaou en el Centro [...] de Salud de la Familia de Fortaleza-CE, entre septiembre de 2010 y febrero de 2011. RESULTADOS: la mayoría de las encuestadas eran jóvenes (?35 años), de baja escolaridad (?7 años de estudio), iniciaron la vida sexual muy temprano (?20 años) y 17,0% de ellas no retornaron para recibir el resultado del examen. Los resultados estadísticamente significativos por no retornar estuvieron relacionados a: mujeres jóvenes (p=0,001); inicio precoz de la actividad sexual (p=0,047); y conocimiento inadecuado sobre la prueba de Papanicolaou (p=0,029). CONCLUSIÓN: el hecho de la mujer no retornar para recibir el resultado es un problema para el control del cáncer de cuello uterino y debe ser combatido por medio de estrategias educativas que refuercen la importancia del retorno para la detección precoz de ese cáncer. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: to identify the factors related to the failure of women to attend the follow-up consultation to receive the results of the Pap smear test. METHOD: a cross-sectional study, carried out with 775 patients who underwent the Pap smear test in the Centro de Saúde da Família of Fortaleza, [...] between September 2010 and February 2011. RESULTS: the majority of the women studied were young (?35 years), had low levels of education (?7 years of study), and commenced sexual activity early (?20 years), with 17.0% of them failing to return to receive the test results. Statistically significant results for the failure to return were related to: young women (p=0.001); early onset of sexual activity (p=0.047); and inadequate knowledge about the Pap smear test (p=0.029). Conclusion the fact that the women failed to return for the result is a problem for the control of cervical cancer and must be addressed through educational strategies that reinforce the importance of the return for the early detection of this cancer.

Camila Teixeira Moreira, Vasconcelos; Denise de Fátima Fernandes, Cunha; Cássia Fernandes, Coelho; Ana Karina Bezerra, Pinheiro; Namie Okino, Sawada.

2014-06-01

79

Specific binding of PapI to Lrp-pap DNA complexes.  

OpenAIRE

Expression of pyelonephritis-associated pili (Pap) varies between transcriptionally active (ON) and inactive (OFF) phase states. Pap phase variation is controlled by the binding of leucine-responsive regulatory protein (Lrp) to two pap regulatory DNA regions, each containing a deoxyadenosine methylase site and designated GATC-I and GATC-II. Methylation of these GATC sites modulates binding of Lrp and plays an essential role in phase variation. PapI, an 8.8-kDa pap-encoded regulatory protein, ...

Kaltenbach, L. S.; Braaten, B. A.; Low, D. A.

1995-01-01

80

Pap smear screening among Asian Pacific Islander women in a multisite community-based cancer screening program.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study assessed screening completion rates (SCR) and sociodemographic factors associated with Pap test screening among previously nonadherent, foreign-born Asian Pacific Islander (API) women across four sites participating in a community-based cancer screening program called ENCOREplus. At intake, 926 out of 1,140 women were nonadherent to recommended Pap test screening guidelines. Most participants were age 51 and older, had a high school education or higher, had been in the U.S. less than a decade, had annual household incomes less than $10,000, and were uninsured. Women with limited resources were more likely to get a Pap test after participating in ENCOREplus. Women from the Glendale site were almost 18 times more likely to get a Pap test than API women in other sites. Over half of the women in Glendale reported that help getting low cost Pap tests and having translators available were instrumental in completing screening. PMID:19372282

Fernandez, Maria E; Lin, Jennifer; Leong-Wu, Cindy; Aday, Luann

2009-04-01

81

Portable narcotics detector and the results obtained in field tests  

Science.gov (United States)

A compact integrated narcotics detection instrument (CINDI) has been developed at NOVA R&D, Inc. with funding provided by the U.S. Coast Guard. CINDI is designed as a portable sensitive neutron backscatter detector which has excellent penetration for thick and high Z compartment barriers. It also has a highly sensitive detection system for backscattered neutrons and, therefore, uses a very weak californium-252 neutron source. Neutrons backscatter profusely from materials that have a large hydrogen content, such as narcotics. The rate of backscattered neutrons detected is analyzed by a microprocessor and displayed on the control panel. The operator guides the detector along a suspected area and displays in real time the backscattered neutron rate. CINDI is capable of detecting narcotics effectively behind panels made of steel, wood, fiberglass, or even lead-lined materials. This makes it useful for inspecting marine vessels, ship bulkheads, automobiles, structure walls or small sealed containers. The strong response of CINDI to hydrogen-rich materials such as narcotics makes it an effective tool for detecting concealed drugs. Its response has been field tested by NOVA, the U.S. Coast Guard and Brewt Power Systems. The results of the tests show excellent response and specificity to narcotic drugs. Several large shipments of concealed drugs have been discovered during these trials and the results are presented and discussed.

Tumer, Tumay O.; Su, Chih-Wu; Kaplan, Christopher R.; Rigdon, Stephen W.

1997-02-01

82

A Comparison of Three Pap Smear Collection Methods  

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Full Text Available Background and Aim: Pap smear test is considered the best screening method for cervical disease, especially for malignant lesions. The crucial factor here is obtaining high-quality samples, as poorly-prepared ones cause a great deal of confusion for patients and physicians alike. Attempts to define an ideal sampling technique have been going on for many years, and in this study we compare three different sampling methods to determine which one provides the best quality. Materials and Methods: This interventional study was performed in a private obstetrics-gynecology clinic and involved 600 women who met the criteria for cervical screening. The Pap test was done by three different methods: "Swab spatula", "Cytobrush – spatula" and "Spatula only". Results: Each method was performed on 200 randomly-selected patients. Cytopathologic examination was done by a single pathologist and in a blind fashion. For each specimen, a quality rating was reported as "satisfactory" or "unsatisfactory". Among the 200 samples obtained by the "Swabspatula” method, 150 (75% were of satisfactory quality and the remaining 50 cases (25% were rated as unsatisfactory. As for the cytobrush–spatula group, 88 samples (94% were satisfactory and 12 (6% were unsatisfactory. Finally, 179 samples (88% in “Spatula-only” group were satisfactory and 24 (12% were unsatisfactory. The difference in the proportion of good-quality samples was significant in pairwise comparisons between the three methods: swab-spatula versus spatula-only (P = 0.0013, swab-spatula versus cytobrush-spatula (P = 0.0001 and cytobrush-spatula versus spatula-only (P = 0.036. Conclusion: The study revealed that the cytobrush-spatula sampling method yielded the highest proportion of high-quality samples. Hence, it would be desirable to familiarize physicians, midwives and other health care workers in this country with the technique of cytobrush cervical sampling and its potential advantages. However, financial and cultural aspects must be taken into account before adopting the procedure for routine cervical screening in Iran.

A Mesdaghinia

2006-07-01

83

Knowledge Attitudes and Practice about Pap Smear among Women Reffering to A Public Hospital  

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Full Text Available Objective: The Pap smear is a reliable, inexpensive and effective screening test for cervical cancer; the second most common cancer among women worldwide. We aimed to determine women’s knowledge, attitudes and practice towards Pap smear and barriers for the screening in a public hospital.Materials and methods: This study, was carried out on 350 outpatient married women reffering for a visit at the clinics of the Alzahra educational hospital, Rasht- Iran, 2011. A questionnaire including demographic characteristics (24 questions, knowledge (14 questions, attitudes (11 statments and practice (10 questions towards Pap smear was completed by interview with the women. The data were analyzed using SPSS ver.13.Results: Mean age of participants was 32 (SD 12 years. Of the respondents, only 44.3% were aware of the Pap smear and 27.1% had had it at least once in their life. The most common reason for having the test was physicians’ or other health workers’ advise and for not having the test was no recommendation by health providers and lack of knowledge about Pap smear. Embarrassing, fear of the test result or economic problems mentioned by only 12 (4.2% as the main barrier. Mean (±SD knowledge score of the women who had heard about the Pap smear was 59.4 (24.3 and attitudes score of all participants was 48.5 (11.6 from possible range score of 0-100. Women with a history of Pap smear had had higher awareness and attitudes score.Conclusion: The knowledge and practice of the women was inadequate and need to be promoted. Considering the main reason mentioned by the participants for not having the test, all health providers should educate and encourage women to do regular Pap smear.

Sakineh Mohammad-Alizadeh- Charandabi

2012-12-01

84

Pattern of epithelial cell abnormality in Pap smear: A clinicopathological and demographic correlation  

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Full Text Available Background: In the low resource settings of a developing country, a conventional Papanicolaou (Pap test is the mainstay screening system for cervical cancer. In order to counsel women and to organize a public health system for cervical cancer screening by Pap smear examination, it is imperative to know the pattern of premalignant and malignant lesions. This study was undertaken to find out the prevalence of an abnormal Pap smear, in a tertiary hospital of a developing country, and to carry out a clinicopathological and demographical analysis for establishing the pattern of epithelial cell abnormality in a Pap smear. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out in a total of 1699 patients who underwent Pap smear examination. The prevalence of epithelial cell abnormality in the Pap smear was calculated in proportions / percentages. Specimen adequacy and reporting was assessed according to the revised Bethesda system. Results: Among the total of 1699 patients who had their Pap smear done, 139 (8.18% revealed epithelial cell abnormality. Altogether 26 smears revealed high-grade lesions and malignancy, most of which were found to be in women belonging to the 30 - 39 and ? 45 age group. A total of 75 (53.96% women were in the 20 - 44 age group and 64 (46.04% were in the ? 45 age group. A bimodal age distribution was detected in the epithelial cell abnormality, with the bulk being diagnosed in patients aged 45 or above. Overall one-third of the patients with an abnormal Pap smear result showed healthy cervix in per vaginal examination. Conclusions: A raised prevalence of epithelial cell abnormality reflects the lack of awareness about cervical cancer screening. Women aged 45 or above harbor the bulk of premalignant and malignant lesions in the Pap smear, signifying that these women are among the under users of cytological screening.

Banik Urmila

2011-01-01

85

Cervical cancer: developments in screening and evaluation of the abnormal Pap smear.  

OpenAIRE

Of the more than 50 million Pap smears performed annually in the United States, about 5% of them are abnormal. Although the need for treatment of high-grade lesions is clear, the appropriate management of low-grade lesions remains controversial. New methods of screening for cervical cancer have become available, including testing for the human papilloma virus and improved methods of administering and evaluating the Pap smear. This review addresses new developments in cervical cancer screening...

Walsh, J. M.

1998-01-01

86

Comparison of visual inspection of cervix and pap smear for cervical cancer screening  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: To evaluate the performance of visual inspection of cervix (VIA) after application of 3% acetic acid in cervical cancer screening in comparison with PAP smear. Results: Out of 540 subjects, 356 were negative with both screening techniques. One hundred and fifty-six subjects were positive with VIA (28.9%) while PAP smear was positive in seventy-eight subjects (14.4%). The sensitivity of VIA was 93.9% and of PAP smear was 46.9%. Corresponding specificities were 30.4% and 69.5%. There was no significant difference between the positive predictive value (PPV) of both test (p<0.05). The accuracy of VIA was 77.5% compared to 52.8% of PAP smear. The difference was highly significant (p < 0.01). Conclusion: These results indicate that VIA is more sensitive and has a higher accuracy as compared to PAP smear. It could, therefore, be valuable in detection of precancerous lesions of cervix. Low cost, easy applicability and immediate results make VIA a useful screening test in developing countries like Pakistan as compared to PAP smear. (author)

87

PAP SMEAR RECEIPT AMONG VIETNAMESE IMMIGRANTS: THE IMPORTANCE OF HEALTH CARE FACTORS  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective Recent US data indicate that women of Vietnamese descent have higher cervical cancer incidence rates than women of any other race/ethnicity, and lower levels of Pap testing than white, black, and Latina women. Our objective was to provide information about Pap testing barriers and facilitators that could be used to develop cervical cancer control intervention programs for Vietnamese American women. Design We conducted a cross-sectional, community-based survey of Vietnamese immigrants. Our study was conducted in metropolitan Seattle, Washington. A total of 1,532 Vietnamese American women participated in the study. Demographic, health care, and knowledge/belief items associated with previous cervical cancer screening participation (ever screened and screened according to interval screening guidelines) were examined. Results Eighty-one percent of the respondents had been screened for cervical cancer in the previous three years. Recent Pap testing was strongly associated (p<0.001) with having a regular doctor, having a physical in the last year, previous physician recommendation for testing, and having asked a physician for testing. Women whose regular doctor was a Vietnamese man were no more likely to have received a recent Pap smear than those with no regular doctor. Conclusion Our findings indicate that cervical cancer screening disparities between Vietnamese and other racial/ethnic groups are decreasing. Efforts to further increase Pap smear receipt in Vietnamese American communities should enable women without a source of health care to find a regular provider. Additionally, intervention programs should improve patient-provider communication by encouraging health care providers (especially male Vietnamese physicians serving women living in ethnic enclaves) to recommend Pap testing, as well as by empowering Vietnamese women to specifically ask their physicians for Pap testing. PMID:19626504

Taylor, Victoria M.; Yasui, Yutaka; Nguyen, Tung T.; Woodall, Erica; Hoai, H.; Acorda, Elizabeth; Li, Lin; Choe, John; Jackson, J. Carey

2009-01-01

88

Exame citopatológico de colo uterino em mulheres com idade entre 20 e 59 anos em Pelotas, RS: prevalência, foco e fatores associados à sua não realização / Pap smears of 20 - 59 year-old women in Pelotas, Southern Brazil: prevalence, approach and factors associated with not undergoing the test  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: Determinar a prevalência e o foco de realização do exame citopatológico do colo uterino e também fatores associados à sua não realização em mulheres com idade entre 20 e 59 anos residentes na cidade de Pelotas, RS. MÉTODOS: Entre outubro e dezembro de 2003 foi realizado um estudo transvers [...] al de base populacional. Através de amostragem por conglomerados foram sorteados 144 setores censitários em múltiplos estágios. Foram investigadas variáveis sociodemográficas e a realização de exame citopatológico do colo uterino. RESULTADOS: Dentre as 1404 mulheres que constituem a população-alvo dos programas de prevenção do câncer do colo uterino, 83,0% realizaram o exame citopatológico do colo uterino nos três anos antecedentes a este estudo. Mostraram-se significativamente associadas (P Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: This study aims to determine the prevalence of and approach of Pap smear tests, as well as associated factors in women living in Pelotas, RS, Southern Brazil, within the 20 - 59 age range, who did not undergo a Pap smear. METHODS: A cross-sectional population-based study was carried out f [...] rom October to December 2003. 144 census tracts were sampled through a multiple-stage clustered method. Socio-demographic variables were investigated, as well as women's Pap smear tests. RESULTS: Among the 1,404 women who were the target population included in the early detection program of uterine cervix cancer, 83% had had Pap smears in the three years before the study. Variables statistically associated (p

Arnildo A., Hackenhaar; Juraci A., Cesar; Marlos R., Domingues.

2006-03-01

89

Exame citopatológico de colo uterino em mulheres com idade entre 20 e 59 anos em Pelotas, RS: prevalência, foco e fatores associados à sua não realização / Pap smears of 20 - 59 year-old women in Pelotas, Southern Brazil: prevalence, approach and factors associated with not undergoing the test  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: Determinar a prevalência e o foco de realização do exame citopatológico do colo uterino e também fatores associados à sua não realização em mulheres com idade entre 20 e 59 anos residentes na cidade de Pelotas, RS. MÉTODOS: Entre outubro e dezembro de 2003 foi realizado um estudo transvers [...] al de base populacional. Através de amostragem por conglomerados foram sorteados 144 setores censitários em múltiplos estágios. Foram investigadas variáveis sociodemográficas e a realização de exame citopatológico do colo uterino. RESULTADOS: Dentre as 1404 mulheres que constituem a população-alvo dos programas de prevenção do câncer do colo uterino, 83,0% realizaram o exame citopatológico do colo uterino nos três anos antecedentes a este estudo. Mostraram-se significativamente associadas (P Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: This study aims to determine the prevalence of and approach of Pap smear tests, as well as associated factors in women living in Pelotas, RS, Southern Brazil, within the 20 - 59 age range, who did not undergo a Pap smear. METHODS: A cross-sectional population-based study was carried out f [...] rom October to December 2003. 144 census tracts were sampled through a multiple-stage clustered method. Socio-demographic variables were investigated, as well as women's Pap smear tests. RESULTS: Among the 1,404 women who were the target population included in the early detection program of uterine cervix cancer, 83% had had Pap smears in the three years before the study. Variables statistically associated (p

Arnildo A., Hackenhaar; Juraci A., Cesar; Marlos R., Domingues.

2006-03-01

90

Comparison of PWR fuel assembly CHF tests obtained at three different test facilities  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text of publication follows: Critical Heat Flux (CHF) is a key phenomenon in the heat transfer process in the nuclear core of pressurized water reactors (PWR). CHF limits the power capability of the nuclear plant and also the core design fuel management. Framatome Cogema Fuels (formerly Babcock and Wilcox), Siemens Power Corporation (SPC) in the US, Kraftwerk Union (KWU/Siemens) in Germany and Framatome in France have all been carrying out CHF tests for qualifying the thermal-hydraulic performance of their fuel assemblies in several test loops. With the merging of these companies within Framatome-ANP and the AREVA group, it was decided to utilize the same test facility for all regions. The Karlstein Thermal Hydraulic facility (KATHY) loop located at Karlstein, Germany has been selected to be the reference loop of Framatome ANP. The other loops previously used were the OMEGA loop of the French CEA and the Heat Transfer Research Facility (HTRF) loop of Columbia University. In order to be able to use results from tests obtained at any of the facilities interchangeably, a comparison of experimental measurements was necessary to demonstrate the equivalence of these loops. These experiments have been performed both using an axially uniform flux shape and using an axially nonuniform flux shape. In this paper a short description of the test facilities is presented after which the results of this comparison between KATHY, OMEGA and the HTRF are described. The method used d the HTRF are described. The method used in the comparison is presented in detail. The results obtained using only experimental conditions do not account for small differences in the rod bundle radial peaking and axial flux shape. Theses differences can be modeled using a subchannel thermal-hydraulic analysis code and a CHF correlation. Such a technique permits a much more precise comparison of the results. This comparison demonstrates an excellent consistency of the results between the different loops. This conclusion is valid over a large range of thermal hydraulic parameters (pressure, mass flow rate and local quality).. Therefore the continuity of the CHF test results used in within the AREVA group for product performance demonstrations is completely ensured. (authors)

91

Differential binding of Lrp to two sets of pap DNA binding sites mediated by Pap I regulates Pap phase variation in Escherichia coli.  

OpenAIRE

Pyelonephritis-associated pili (Pap) expression in Escherichia coli is subject to a phase variation control mechanism that is regulated by the leucine-responsive regulatory protein (Lrp), PapI, and deoxyadenosine methylase (Dam). In previous work, we found that the differential Dam methylation of two target sites in pap regulatory DNA, GATC-I and GATC II, is essential for the transition between active and inactive pap transcriptional states. Here, we identify six Lrp binding sites within the ...

Nou, X.; Braaten, B.; Kaltenbach, L.; Low, D. A.

1995-01-01

92

Tests for Reproductive Health  

Science.gov (United States)

... active infection with the herpes virus. Pap test (Pap smear) A swab a tissue cervical to a lab is used to collect sample from the area, which is sent for testing. Abnormal cells that could be cancer or that could ...

93

Psychological impact, support and information needs for women with an abnormal Pap smear: comparative results of a questionnaire in three European countries  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background Extensive information on cervical cancer is currently available. Its effectiveness in reducing anxiety in women receiving abnormal Pap tests is not clear. We investigated current practices of communicating abnormal Pap results to evaluate women's reactions and determine the sources of information they use subsequently. Methods A self-administered questionnaire-based study was performed in 1475 women in France, Spain and Portugal who had received an abnormal Pap smear resul...

Jorge Anna; da Silva Daniel; Cortes Javier; Monsonego Joseph; Klein Patrick

2011-01-01

94

Evaluation of a Worksite Cervical Screening Initiative to Increase Pap Smear Uptake in Malaysia: A Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial  

OpenAIRE

Background. Despite the significant burden of cervical cancer, Malaysia like many middle-income countries relies on opportunistic cervical screening as opposed to a more organized population-based program. The aim of this study was to ascertain the effectiveness of a worksite screening initiative upon Papanicolaou smear test (Pap test) uptake among educated working women in Malaysia. Methods. 403 female teachers who never or infrequently attended for a Pap test from 40 public secondary school...

Fauziah Abdullah; Rorke, Michael O. Amp X.; Liam Murray; Tin Tin Su

2013-01-01

95

Immunization with the biologically active lectin domain of PapGII induces strong adhesion-inhibiting antibody responses but not protection against avian pathogenic Escherichia coli.  

OpenAIRE

Abstract The aim of this study was to investigate whether immunisation with the sugar binding domain of PapGII (PapGII196) was able to protect chickens against avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC). PapGII196 was expressed, purified by Ni-NTA column chromatography and shown to retain its biological activity, as demonstrated by binding to its receptor, globoside. PapGII196 was tested as a vaccine in specific pathogen free broilers and also by vaccinating breeders and assessing pr...

Vandemaele, Fre?deric; Bleyen, Nele; Abuaboud, Omran; Vandermeer, Ed; Jacobs, Anton; Goddeeris, Bruno

2006-01-01

96

Discrimination of different processed animal proteins (PAPs) by FT-IR spectroscopy based on their fat characteristics  

OpenAIRE

This study was undertaken to explore the potential of FT-IR technique for discriminating different species of processed animal proteins (PAPs) based on their fat characteristics. A total of 47 source-reliable PAPs samples containing fish meal, porcine, bovine, ovine and poultry meat and bone meal (MBM) were involved in the present study. The results obtained showed that the FT-IR differentiated quite well between the fat derived from different species of PAPs, especially at the bands of 3,006...

Pu, Q.; Han, L.; Liu, X.

2014-01-01

97

Presencia de algunos factores de riesgo de cáncer de cérvix en mujeres con citologías normales / Presence of some risk factors for cervix uteri cancer in women with normal Pap's smear test results  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Introducción: el cáncer del cuello del útero es un problema de salud que afecta a las mujeres, son múltiples los factores que lo predisponen. Objetivo: identificar la presencia de algunos factores de riesgo de Cáncer de cervix en mujeres de un Grupo Básico de Trabajo con citologías normales. Método: [...] se realizó un estudio observacional descriptivo, en mujeres pertenecientes al Grupo Básico de Trabajo 1 del Policlínico Docente "Tula Aguilera", del municipio Camagüey, desde septiembre a diciembre del año 2011. De las 997 mujeres registradas en las Historias Clínicas de Salud Familiar, se seleccionaron 191 utilizando el Programa EPIDAT, por muestreo aleatorio simple. Se les aplicó una encuesta y los datos recogidos fueron presentados en tablas de frecuencias. Resultados: se encontró que predominó el grupo de edades entre 35-39 años con un 24,0 %, el 90,0 % comenzaron a tener relaciones antes de los 20 años, el 64,3 % tuvieron tres y más compañeros sexuales, 70,7 % padecieron de infección vaginal. Conclusiones : al concluir el estudio, se aprecia la presencia elevada de factores de riesgo de cáncer del cérvix en las féminas estudiadas. Abstract in english Introduction: the cervix uteri cancer is a health problem affecting women and the number of predisposing factors is large. Objective: to identify some risk factors for cervix uteri cancer in females cared for by a basic work team with normal results in their Pap's smear tests. Methods: an observatio [...] nal and descriptive study was conducted in women, who were cared for by the basic work team no. 1 of "Tula Aguilera" teaching polyclinics in Camaguey municipality from September to December, 2011. The medical records of family health registered 997 from whom 191 were selected through the simple random sampling based on EPIDAT software. They were surveyed and their data presented in frequency tables. Results: it was found that 35-39 y age group predominated with 24%; 90% of them began their sexual relationships prior to being 20 years-old; 64.3% had three or more sexual partners and 70.7% suffered from vaginal infection. Conclusions: at the end of the study, we noticed the significant presence of risk factors for cervix uteri cancer in the studied women.

Yoimy, Díaz Brito; María Margarita, Báez Pupo; Jorge Luis, Pérez Rivero; Migdalia, García Placeres.

2014-06-01

98

Regulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis in Arabidopsis thaliana red pap1-D cells metabolically programmed by auxins.  

Science.gov (United States)

Red pap1-D cells of Arabidopsis thaliana have been cloned from production of anthocyanin pigmentation 1-Dominant (pap1-D) plants. The red cells are metabolically programmed to produce high levels of anthocyanins by a WD40-bHLH-MYB complex that is composed of the TTG1, TT8/GL3 and PAP1 transcription factors. Here, we report that indole 3-acetic acid (IAA), naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) regulate anthocyanin biosynthesis in these red cells. Seven concentrations (0, 0.2, 0.4, 2.2, 9, 18 and 27 ?M) were tested for the three auxins. IAA and 2,4-D at 2.2-27 ?M reduced anthocyanin levels. NAA at 0-0.2 ?M or above 9 ?M also decreased anthocyanin levels, but from 0.4 to 9 ?M, it increased them. HPLC-ESI-MS analysis identified seven cyanin molecules that were produced in red pap1-D cells, and their levels were affected by auxins. The expression levels of ten genes, including six transcription factors (TTG1, EGL3, MYBL2, TT8, GL3 and PAP1) and four pathway genes (PAL1, CHS, DFR and ANS) involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis were analyzed upon various auxin treatments. The resulting data showed that 2,4-D, NAA and IAA control anthocyanin biosynthesis by regulating the expression of TT8, GL3 and PAP1 as well as genes in the anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway, such as DFR and ANS. In addition, the expression of MYBL2, PAL1 and CHS in red pap1-D and wild-type cells differentially respond to the three auxins. Our data demonstrate that the three auxins regulate anthocyanin biosynthesis in metabolically programmed red cells via altering the expression of transcription factor genes and pathway genes. PMID:24370633

Liu, Zhong; Shi, Ming-Zhu; Xie, De-Yu

2014-04-01

99

Pap-smear Benchmark Data For Pattern Classification  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This case study provides data and a baseline for comparing classification methods. The data consists of 917 images of Pap-smear cells, classified carefully by cyto-technicians and doctors. Each cell is described by 20 numerical features, and the cells fall into 7 classes. A basic data analysis includes scatter plots and linear classification results, in order to provide domain knowledge and lower bounds on the acceptable performance of future classifiers. Students and researchers can access the database on the Internet, and use it to test and compare their own classification methods.

Jantzen, Jan; Norup, Jonas

2005-01-01

100

CIEMAT interlaboratories comparison of the results obtained in the proficiency test run by IAEA  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report contains the results obtained by two different laboratories from CIEMAT after participating in the Proficiency Test organised by IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency) in 1999. This test involves the analysis of fly ashes containing natural radionuclides and different amounts of added transuranics. The extraction techniques, counting methods and results obtained are detailed. This type of test are used for the labs to achieve their accreditation and check the reliability of the procedures routinely employed. (Author) 4 refs

101

Does PAPS generation determine the overall sulfate conjugation in human platelets?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The formation of 3'-phospho-adenosine-5'phosphosulfate (PAPS) depends on essentially two enzymic reactions catalyzed by ATP-sulfurylase and APS-kinase (adenosine 5'-phosphosulfate-kinase). In this paper, PAPS generation by human platelets was determined by the transfer of 35sulfate from PAP 35S formed in vitro to N-acetyldopamine (NADA), using the phenolsulfotransferase extracted from rat liver. A pre-requisite of this quantitative procedure was the prior inhibition of the sulfate-activating system in the latter enzyme preparation. This was accomplished by the addition of 10 mM EDTA and 14 mM pyrophosphate. The PAPS-generating system of human platelets exhibited two pH peaks with higher activity at pH 8 than pH 6. Optimal concentrations of ATP and Mg++ at 7 mM were required for the two reactions. PAPS generation so measured showed a highly significant correlation with the overall sulfate conjugation of NADA: a correlation coefficient of 0.96 was established from data obtained from 60 platelet preparations of normal subjects

102

Fracture parameters obtained from pre-cracked Charpy tests: state-of-the-art and beyond  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A pre-cracked Charpy specimen may be considered as just another fracture toughness specimen. In this context then both equivalent energy lower bound and J-integral techniques may be applied in testing specimens and interpreting data. It ids shown that lower bound estimates may be successfully obtained from pre-cracked Charpy specimens for static, dynamic and crack arrest toughnesses. Tearing and stability parameters may also be obtained. By judicious testing procedures several fracture toughness parameters may be obtained during a single test

103

Improving follow-up after an abnormal Pap smear: a randomized controlled trial.  

Science.gov (United States)

Less than 60% of women diagnosed with cervical abnormalities on Pap smears return for proper surveillance and timely treatment. Previous tactics used to motivate these women to return have mainly relied on costly intensive recall efforts. Using a framework based on psychological value expectancy theory, a pamphlet was designed to motivate women with abnormal Pap smears to return for a repeat Pap smear. The effect of this pamphlet was tested in a randomized controlled trial. A total of 161 women with abnormal Pap smears were randomized and received either the pamphlet plus a notification letter or the letter only. The compliance rate was 64.2% in the intervention group and 51.3% in the comparison group (P = 0.10; two-tailed). In addition, subgroups of women who do not practice health-related behaviors were identified as groups where more intensive interventions may be needed. These results have implications for future strategies used to recall women with abnormal Pap smears. PMID:2263574

Paskett, E D; White, E; Carter, W B; Chu, J

1990-11-01

104

Comparative study of visual inspection of the cervix using acetic acid (VIA) and Papanicolaou (Pap) smears for cervical cancer screening  

OpenAIRE

This article is a comparative study of two screening methods for pre-invasive lesions of the cervix. The Papanicolaou (Pap) smear, an old and tested screening method, is compared with the findings from visual inspection of the cervix following acetic acid (VIA) wash. VIA is a new screening method being advocated by the World Health Organization as an alternative to Pap smear in low-resource settings.

Albert, So; Oguntayo, Oa; Samaila, Moa

2012-01-01

105

Isolation and cloning of the Phytolacca americana anti-viral protein PAP-I gene  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: English Abstract in spanish La proteína antiviral del ginseng (PAP), aislada de plantas de Phytolacca americana y Phytolacca acinosa, inhibe la traducción proteica mediante la remoción catalítica de un residuo de adenina específico, en la cadena mayor de la subunidad 60S del ARN ribosomal eucariótico. En este estudio se aisló [...] y secuenció el gen PAP-I de P. americana, y posteriormente se comparó con los genes de otras proteínas inactivadoras de ribosomas (RIP), reportadas en GenBank(r). Se extrajo el ADN total de las hojas tardías del verano de las plantas de P. americana y el fragmento de 868 pb correspondiente al ADN del gen se amplificó con el uso de cebadores específicos, mediante reacción en cadena de la polimerasa (PCR). El producto de la PCR eluido se purificó, se clonó en el vector pTZ57R/T, y se movilizó en células de Escherichia coli cepa DH5a. Tras la secuenciación del producto de la PCR del gen PAP-I, la secuencia mostró una homología nucleotídica de 98 a 82 % y aminoacídica de 94 a 26 %, con las RIP reportadas. El análisis filogenético confirmó que el gen amplificado corresponde a la RIP tipo I de simple cadena (PAP-I). Abstract in english The pokeweed antiviral protein (PAP) isolated from Phytolacca americana and Phytolacca acinosa plants, inhibits protein translation by catalytically removing a specific adenine residue from the large rRNA of the 60S subunit of eukaryotic ribosomes. In this study, the P. americana PAP-I gene was isol [...] ated and sequenced, and further compared to other ribosome-inactivating proteins (RIPs) genes previously reported in GenBank(r). Total DNA was extracted from the late summer leaves of P. americana. A polymerase chain reaction (PCR) 868 bp-long DNA product was obtained, using gene specific primers, based on the expected gene size. The eluted product was purified and cloned into the pTZ57R/T vector, and mobilized into the Escherichia coli strain DH5a. After sequencing, the analysis of the PAP-I PCR product showed 98 to 82 % nucleotide and amino acid 94 to 26 % homologies, respectively, compared to previously reported RIPs. A phylogenetic analysis confirmed that the amplified PAP-I gene corresponds to the single chain Type-I RIP (PAP-I).

Heba A, Mahfouze; Khalid A, El-Dougdoug; Badawi A, Othman; Mostafa A, Gomaa.

2014-03-01

106

Cobertura do teste de Papanicolaou e fatores associados à não-realização: um olhar sobre o Programa de Prevenção do Câncer do Colo do Útero em Pernambuco, Brasil / Pap smear coverage and factors associated with non-participation in cervical cancer screening: an analysis of the Cervical Cancer Prevention Program in Pernambuco State, Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Buscou-se avaliar a cobertura do teste Papanicolaou no Estado de Pernambuco, Brasil, nos três anos anteriores à pesquisa, entre mulheres de 18-69 anos, e identificar fatores associados à sua não-realização. Trata-se de um estudo transversal, de base populacional, utilizando-se dados de inquérito rea [...] lizado no período 2005-2006 com 640 indivíduos, selecionados por amostragem por conglomerados em três estágios de seleção. Foram analisadas informações sobre 258 mulheres. A cobertura do Papanicolaou entre mulheres de 18-69 anos foi de 58,7% e de 25-59 anos de 66,2%. Viver sem companheiro, não ter dado à luz e não ter realizado consulta médica no último ano mostraram associação com a não-realização do teste. Na análise multivariada, o baixo grau de escolaridade mostrou também efeito significativo. A cobertura do Papani-colaou em Pernambuco foi satisfatória, porém insuficiente para impactar no perfil epidemiológico do câncer do colo uterino. É preciso fortalecer e qualificar as ações de promoção da saúde, visando reduzir as desigualdades e estimular o protagonismo das mulheres nas ações de prevenção do câncer do colo uterino. Abstract in english This research aimed to assess coverage of Pap smear screening in the State of Pernambuco, Brazil, during the three years prior to the study, among women 18 to 69 years of age, and to identify factors associated with women's lack of participation in screening. This was a cross-sectional, population-b [...] ased study, using data from a survey in 2005-2006 with 640 women, selected by three-stage cluster sampling. Information on 258 women was analyzed. Pap smear coverage was 58.7% for women 18 to 69 years of age and 66.2% for those 25 to 59. Single marital status, no history of childbirth, and not having consulted a physician in the previous year were associated with lack of Pap smear screening. In the multivariate analysis, low schooling also showed a significant effect. Pap smear coverage in Pernambuco was satisfactory, but insufficient to impact the epidemiological profile of cervical cancer. It is necessary to strengthen and upgrade health promotion activities in order to reduce the inequalities and encourage women's active participation in cervical cancer prevention.

Kamila Matos de, Albuquerque; Paulo Germano, Frias; Carla Lourenço Tavares de, Andrade; Estela M. L., Aquino; Greice, Menezes; Célia Landmann, Szwarcwald.

107

Cobertura do teste de Papanicolaou e fatores associados à não-realização: um olhar sobre o Programa de Prevenção do Câncer do Colo do Útero em Pernambuco, Brasil Pap smear coverage and factors associated with non-participation in cervical cancer screening: an analysis of the Cervical Cancer Prevention Program in Pernambuco State, Brazil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Buscou-se avaliar a cobertura do teste Papanicolaou no Estado de Pernambuco, Brasil, nos três anos anteriores à pesquisa, entre mulheres de 18-69 anos, e identificar fatores associados à sua não-realização. Trata-se de um estudo transversal, de base populacional, utilizando-se dados de inquérito realizado no período 2005-2006 com 640 indivíduos, selecionados por amostragem por conglomerados em três estágios de seleção. Foram analisadas informações sobre 258 mulheres. A cobertura do Papanicolaou entre mulheres de 18-69 anos foi de 58,7% e de 25-59 anos de 66,2%. Viver sem companheiro, não ter dado à luz e não ter realizado consulta médica no último ano mostraram associação com a não-realização do teste. Na análise multivariada, o baixo grau de escolaridade mostrou também efeito significativo. A cobertura do Papani-colaou em Pernambuco foi satisfatória, porém insuficiente para impactar no perfil epidemiológico do câncer do colo uterino. É preciso fortalecer e qualificar as ações de promoção da saúde, visando reduzir as desigualdades e estimular o protagonismo das mulheres nas ações de prevenção do câncer do colo uterino.This research aimed to assess coverage of Pap smear screening in the State of Pernambuco, Brazil, during the three years prior to the study, among women 18 to 69 years of age, and to identify factors associated with women's lack of participation in screening. This was a cross-sectional, population-based study, using data from a survey in 2005-2006 with 640 women, selected by three-stage cluster sampling. Information on 258 women was analyzed. Pap smear coverage was 58.7% for women 18 to 69 years of age and 66.2% for those 25 to 59. Single marital status, no history of childbirth, and not having consulted a physician in the previous year were associated with lack of Pap smear screening. In the multivariate analysis, low schooling also showed a significant effect. Pap smear coverage in Pernambuco was satisfactory, but insufficient to impact the epidemiological profile of cervical cancer. It is necessary to strengthen and upgrade health promotion activities in order to reduce the inequalities and encourage women's active participation in cervical cancer prevention.

Kamila Matos de Albuquerque

2009-01-01

108

Cobertura do teste de Papanicolaou e fatores associados à não-realização: um olhar sobre o Programa de Prevenção do Câncer do Colo do Útero em Pernambuco, Brasil / Pap smear coverage and factors associated with non-participation in cervical cancer screening: an analysis of the Cervical Cancer Prevention Program in Pernambuco State, Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Buscou-se avaliar a cobertura do teste Papanicolaou no Estado de Pernambuco, Brasil, nos três anos anteriores à pesquisa, entre mulheres de 18-69 anos, e identificar fatores associados à sua não-realização. Trata-se de um estudo transversal, de base populacional, utilizando-se dados de inquérito rea [...] lizado no período 2005-2006 com 640 indivíduos, selecionados por amostragem por conglomerados em três estágios de seleção. Foram analisadas informações sobre 258 mulheres. A cobertura do Papanicolaou entre mulheres de 18-69 anos foi de 58,7% e de 25-59 anos de 66,2%. Viver sem companheiro, não ter dado à luz e não ter realizado consulta médica no último ano mostraram associação com a não-realização do teste. Na análise multivariada, o baixo grau de escolaridade mostrou também efeito significativo. A cobertura do Papani-colaou em Pernambuco foi satisfatória, porém insuficiente para impactar no perfil epidemiológico do câncer do colo uterino. É preciso fortalecer e qualificar as ações de promoção da saúde, visando reduzir as desigualdades e estimular o protagonismo das mulheres nas ações de prevenção do câncer do colo uterino. Abstract in english This research aimed to assess coverage of Pap smear screening in the State of Pernambuco, Brazil, during the three years prior to the study, among women 18 to 69 years of age, and to identify factors associated with women's lack of participation in screening. This was a cross-sectional, population-b [...] ased study, using data from a survey in 2005-2006 with 640 women, selected by three-stage cluster sampling. Information on 258 women was analyzed. Pap smear coverage was 58.7% for women 18 to 69 years of age and 66.2% for those 25 to 59. Single marital status, no history of childbirth, and not having consulted a physician in the previous year were associated with lack of Pap smear screening. In the multivariate analysis, low schooling also showed a significant effect. Pap smear coverage in Pernambuco was satisfactory, but insufficient to impact the epidemiological profile of cervical cancer. It is necessary to strengthen and upgrade health promotion activities in order to reduce the inequalities and encourage women's active participation in cervical cancer prevention.

Kamila Matos de, Albuquerque; Paulo Germano, Frias; Carla Lourenço Tavares de, Andrade; Estela M. L., Aquino; Greice, Menezes; Célia Landmann, Szwarcwald.

109

Conhecimentos, atitudes e prática do exame de Papanicolaou por mulheres, Nordeste do Brasil Conocimientos, actitudes y práctica del examen de Papanicolaou en Noreste Knowledge, attitudes, and practices related to Pap test by women, Northeastern Brazil  

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Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar conhecimentos, atitudes e práticas das mulheres em relação ao exame citológico de Papanicolaou e a associação entre esses comportamentos e características sociodemográficas MÉTODOS: Inquérito domiciliar com abordagem quantitativa. Foram entrevistadas 267 mulheres com idade de 15 a 69 anos, selecionadas de forma estratificada aleatória, residentes no município de São José do Mipibu, RN, em 2007. Utilizou-se questionário com perguntas pré-codificadas e abertas, cujas respostas foram descritas e analisadas quanto à adequação dos conhecimentos, atitudes e prática das mulheres em relação ao exame preventivo de Papanicolaou. Foram realizados testes de associação entre as características sociodemográficas e os comportamentos estudados, com nível de significância de 5%. RESULTADOS: Apesar de 46,1% das mulheres entrevistadas terem mostrado conhecimento adequado, proporções de adequação significativamente maiores foram observadas em relação às atitudes e prática quanto ao exame: 63,3% e 64,4%, respectivamente. O maior grau de escolaridade apresentou associação com adequação dos conhecimentos, atitudes e prática, enquanto as principais barreiras para a realização do exame relatadas foram descuido, falta de solicitação do exame pelo médico e vergonha. CONCLUSÕES: O médico é a principal fonte de informação sobre o exame de Papanicolau. Entretanto, mulheres que vão a consultas com maior freqüência, embora apresentem prática mais adequada do exame, possuem baixa adequação de conhecimento e atitude frente ao procedimento, sugerindo que não estejam recebendo as informações adequadas sobre o objetivo do exame, suas vantagens e benefícios para sua saúde.OBJETIVO: Analizar conocimientos, actitudes y prácticas de las mujeres con relación al examen citológico de Papanicolaou y su asociación entre comportamientos y características sociodemográficas. MÉTODOS: Pesquisa domiciliar con abordaje cuantitativo. Fueron entrevistadas 267 mujeres con edad de 15 a 69 años, seleccionadas de forma estratificada aleatoria, residentes en el municipio de São José do Mipibu, Noreste de Brasil, en 2007. Se utilizó cuestionario con preguntas pre-codificadas y abiertas, cuyas respuestas fueron descritas y analizadas con relación a la adecuación de los conocimientos, actitudes y práctica de las mujeres con relación al examen preventivo de Papanicolaou. Fueron realizadas exámenes de asociación entre las características sociodemográficas y los comportamientos estudiados, con nivel de significancia de 5%. RESULTADOS: A pesar de 46,1% de las mujeres entrevistadas haber mostrado conocimiento adecuado, proporciones de adecuación significativamente mayores fueron observadas con relación a las actitudes y práctica con respecto al examen: 63,3% y 64,4%, respectivamente. El mayor grado de escolaridad presentó asociación con adecuación de los conocimientos, actitudes y práctica, con relación a las principales barreras para la realización del examen relatadas fueron descuido, falta de solicitud del examen por el médico y vergüenza. CONCLUSIONES: El médico es la principal fuente de información sobre el examen de Papanicolaou. Mientras tanto, mujeres que van a consultas con mayor frecuencia, a pesar de presentar práctica más adecuada del examen, poseen baja adecuación del conocimiento y actitud frente al procedimiento, sugiriendo que no están recibiendo las informaciones adecuadas sobre el objetivo del examen, sus ventajas y beneficios para su salud.OBJECTIVE: To assess the knowledge, attitudes and practices of women related to the Pap test and the association between these behaviors and sociodemographic characteristics. METHODS: A household survey with quantitative approach was conducted. A total of 267 women aged 15 to 69 years, randomly selected in a stratified manner, living in the city of São José de Mipibu, Northeastern Brazil, were interviewed in 2007. A questionnaire consisting of pre-coded open questions was administered and answers

José Veríssimo Fernandes

2009-10-01

110

Cervix Cancer Diagnosis from Pap Smear Images Using Structure Based Segmentation and Shape Analysis  

OpenAIRE

his work presents an approach for analysis of P AP s mear images of cervical region based on cell nuclei distribution and shape and size analysis. PAP smear test is an efficient and easy procedure to detect any abnor mality in cervical cells. But human observation is not always satisfying and it is a tedious task to manually analyze a large number of PAP smear images. The purpose of this study is to automate the screening process and to provide specific statistical data which will be helpful...

Mahanta, Lipi B.; Dilip Ch. Nath; Chandan Kr. Nath

2012-01-01

111

Vulnerability Analysis of PAP for RFID Tags  

CERN Document Server

In this paper, we analyze the security of an RFID authentication protocol proposed by Liu and Bailey [1], called Privacy and Authentication Protocol (PAP), and show its vulnerabilities and faulty assumptions. PAP is a privacy and authentication protocol designed for passive tags. The authors claim that the protocol, being resistant to commonly assumed attacks, requires little computation and provides privacy protection and authentication. Nevertheless, we propose two traceability attacks and an impersonation attack, in which the revealing of secret information (i.e., secret key and static identifier) shared between the tag and the reader is unnecessary. Moreover, we review all basic assumptions on which the design of the protocol resides, and show how many of them are incorrect and are contrary to the common assumptions in RFID systems.

Naser, Mu'awya; Rafie, Mohammd; van der Lubbe, Jan

2010-01-01

112

Pap Smear Practice Patterns of Family Physicians  

OpenAIRE

London, Ontario family physicians were surveyed, to compare the frequency of their Pap smear screening and their management of the abnormal smear with the recommendations of the 1982 Task Force report on cervical cancer screening. Considerable variation was observed between the Task Force recommendations and frequency of screening 36-60-year-old women, and the management of mild, recurrent mild, and moderate dysplasia. Many family physicians appeared to rely heavily on the cytopathologist's r...

Gerace, Toula M.; Sangster, John F.

1986-01-01

113

Cancer Screening: How Do Screening Tests Become Standard Tests?  

Science.gov (United States)

... colorectal cancer . Mammograms for breast cancer . Pap tests (Pap smears) for cervical cancer . Different types of research studies ... asked about how they check their skin for abnormal growths and how often they check it. Based ...

114

USING PARTIAL LEAST SQUARES REGRESSION TO OBTAIN COTTON FIBER LENGTH DISTRIBUTIONS FROM THE BEARD TESTING METHOD  

Science.gov (United States)

The beard testing method for measuring cotton fiber length is based on the fibrogram theory. However, in the instrumental implementations, the engineering complexity alters the original fiber length distribution observed by the instrument. This causes challenges in obtaining the entire original le...

115

PreservCyt Transport Medium Used for the ThinPrep Pap Test Is a Suitable Medium for Detection of Chlamydia trachomatis by the COBAS Amplicor CT/NG Test: Results of a Preliminary Study and Future Implications  

OpenAIRE

The commercial COBAS Amplicor CT/NG test (Roche Diagnostic Systems, Meylan, France) is a sensitive and specific method for detection of Chlamydia trachomatis infections. This test currently consists of using a nucleic acid amplification method to detect C. trachomatis in first-void urine specimens and in endocervical swabs collected in 2-sucrose-phosphate (2SP) transport medium. We conducted a prospective study to determine whether the automated COBAS Amplicor CT/NG test can detect C. trachom...

Bianchi, Anne; Moret, Franc?ois; Desrues, Jean-marc; Champenois, Thierry; Dervaux, Yves; Desvouas, Orlane; Oursin, Andre?; Quinzat, Dominique; Dachez, Roger; Bathelier, Christian; Ronsin, Christophe

2002-01-01

116

Effect of test procedure on shear strength obtained using the Newcastle dilatometer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A new dilatometer for in-situ soil testing has been developed which uses a rigid piston to load the soil. The new dilatometer 'called the Newcastle Dilatometer (NDMT)' uses a Hall effect transducer and a magnet system to measure the penetration of the piston during loading of the soil. The pressure required to penetrate the piston is recorded using a pressure transducer. The two transducers together can produce applied pressure-displacement curves for obtaining soil parameters which can be more reliable than those obtained based on just one or two contact pressures values as in the Marchetti dilatometer. Since the NDMT allows more control during in-situ testing, the same was carried out employing two test procedures, 'the stress increment controlled' and 'the constant rate of stress' at a site consisting of firm to stiff clay. This paper presents a comparison of the data obtained from the two test procedures and the effect the test procedure has on the various soil properties, in general and the shear strength, in particular. (author)

117

Nucleotide sequence of the papA gene encoding the Pap pilus subunit of human uropathogenic Escherichia coli.  

OpenAIRE

The papA gene of the uropathogenic strain Escherichia coli J96, coding for the Pap pili subunit, was subjected to DNA sequencing, and found to code for an 185-amino acid-long polypeptide with a 22-amino acid-long signal peptide. Here we present the primary sequence, the hydrophilicity profile, and the predicted polypeptide secondary structure of the Pap pili subunit.

Ba?ga, M.; Normark, S.; Hardy, J.; O Hanley, P.; Lark, D.; Olsson, O.; Schoolnik, G.; Falkow, S.

1984-01-01

118

The Structure of the PapD-PapGII Pilin Complex Reveals an Open and Flexible P5 Pocket  

OpenAIRE

P pili are hairlike polymeric structures that mediate binding of uropathogenic Escherichia coli to the surface of the kidney via the PapG adhesin at their tips. PapG is composed of two domains: a lectin domain at the tip of the pilus followed by a pilin domain that comprises the initial polymerizing subunit of the 1,000-plus-subunit heteropolymeric pilus fiber. Prior to assembly, periplasmic pilin domains bind to a chaperone, PapD. PapD mediates donor strand complementation, in which a beta s...

Ford, Bradley; Verger, Denis; Dodson, Karen; Volkan, Ender; Kostakioti, Maria; Elam, Jennifer; Pinkner, Jerome; Waksman, Gabriel; Hultgren, Scott

2012-01-01

119

A comparative analysis of conventional Pap smear cytology, liquid based cytology and colposcopy clinical impression with colposcopy biopsy histology as gold standard in women undergoing colposcopy in Kenyatta National Hospital  

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Results: A total of 73 patients referred with abnormal pap smears were recruited into the study. The mean age of the patients was 38 yrs (SD ±10. About 45% of the patients interviewed did not have knowledge of Pap smear testing. Both the results of referral Pap smear and repeat pap smear were predominantly low grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LGSIL or HGSIL. With biopsy results being the gold standard, Liquid based cytology had a higher specificity of 75% when compared with conventional pap smears? 11%. Conclusions: Even though colposcopy clinical impression has the highest agreement with colposcopy biopsy it?s a diagnostic and not a screening test, hence Liquid based cytology showed better performance as a screening test compared to conventional Pap smear. In general, there was good agreement for cytological results of repeat CPAP and LBC. We therefore recommend that for patients referred with abnormal pap smears requiring a repeat pap smear, liquid based cytology is used due to its higher specificity compared to conventional Pap smear. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2014; 3(1.000: 58-63

Macharia H. C.

2014-02-01

120

STUDY OF HIGH RISK CASES FOR EARLY DETECTION OF CERVICAL CANCER BY PAP’S SMEAR AND VISUAL INSPECTION BY LUGOL’S IODINE METHOD.  

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Full Text Available INTRODUCTION:Cervical cancer is the commonest genital tract cancer among Indian women. Screening programmes have claimed to reduce incidence and mortality of cervical carcinoma significantly, for which sensitization of women is required through community based approach.OBJECTIVES: Comparison of VILI and cytology by PAP smear for detection of low grade squamous intraepithelial lesion, high grade squamous intraepithelial lesion, carcinoma of cervix and correlation of results with the reference standards(colposcopy and biopsyMATERIAL & METHODS:Study was carried out in 50 women of high risk group, aged 20 to 65 years in the year of May 2008 to May 2010 in our hospital. All women were investigated with colposcopy and biopsy were taken who had abnormal colposcopy.RESULT:Sensitivity, Specificity, Positive predictive value, Negative predictive value of PAP test was 80%, 97%, 80%, 97% respectively, compared with reference standards.Sensitivity, Specificity, Positive predictive value, Negative predictive value of VILI test was 80%, 91.11%,50%,97.6% respectively, compared with reference standards.CONCLUSION:VILI and PAP test can be used effectively for detection of precancerous lesion of cervix at hospital set up as well as community level.

Harshad Ladola

2013-01-01

121

Results obtained from the inspection of test plates 1 and 2 of the defects detection trials  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The first phase of the UKAEA defect detection trials (DDT) (described previously) was aimed at determining the ability of selected non-destructive testing (NDT) techniques to detect and correctly classify defects throughout the thickness of an RPV circumferential weld. The techniques were tested on two specially prepared test plates. Each was 1500 x 1500 x 250 mm and contained a central butt weld. These have been designated plates 1 and 2. On completion of the inspections the plates were sectioned at Ispra and in this report the results obtained by the various inspectors are compared with the results of the destructive examination. The plates were scanned ultrasonically from both the clad and the unclad face. The results from the clad face were analysed first. The times required for the initial search and the subsequent analyses were noted, although in this context it is accepted that compared with an RPV inspection the defect population in these test plates is unrealistically high. (author)

122

Has the use of pap smears reduced the risk of invasive cervical cancer in Guadalajara, Mexico?  

Science.gov (United States)

In Mexico, cervical cancer is the leading cause of death due to cancer among women 35 years of age and older. Although cytologic screening for cervical cancer was introduced as a national program 24 years ago, the mortality rate for this disease has been increasing. A case-control study was undertaken. Cases were women younger than 70, with newly diagnosed invasive cervical cancer (ICC), who had been residing for at least the past year in the metropolitan area of Guadalajara. They were selected from 5 hospitals belonging to the Mexican National Health System. Controls were women without cervical cancer who were treated in the same health center as the corresponding case. Analysis included 143 cases and 311 controls. Information on risk factors for cervical cancer and prior cervical cytologic screening was obtained through a standardized personal interview. Overall, 54% of the cases reported having had a cervical cytology compared with 82% of controls. When compared with unscreened women, those who had ever had a Pap smear had a significantly lower risk of cervical cancer (OR = 0.3, 95% CI 0.2-0.4), and the protective effect persisted for over 5 years. Utilization of Pap smears in the metropolitan area of Guadalajara exerted a protective effect on ICC. Of the 65 women who reported a negative history of Pap smears, 45 would not have contracted cancer if they had ever had a Pap smear. PMID:10446445

Jiménez-P rez, M; Thomas, D B

1999-09-01

123

Cobertura e motivos para a realização ou não do teste de Papanicolaou no Município de São Paulo Cervical cancer screening in the Municipality of São Paulo: coverage and factors involved in submitting to the Pap test  

OpenAIRE

Investigou-se a prevalência da realização do teste de Papanicolaou alguma vez na vida e nos últimos três anos entre mulheres de 15 a 49 anos, o recebimento do resultado do último teste realizado e os motivos relatados para a realização ou não do exame. Um inquérito domiciliar foi realizado no Município de São Paulo em 2000, com uma amostra representativa de 1.172 mulheres selecionadas aleatoriamente em seus domicílios. Das mulheres que já tinham iniciado a vida sexual (n = 1.050...

Adriana de Araujo Pinho; Ivan França Junior; Lilia Blima Schraiber; Oliveira, Ana Fla?via P. L. D.

2003-01-01

124

Who is getting Pap smears in urban Peru?  

OpenAIRE

Background Cervical cancer, although usually preventable by Pap smear screening, remains the leading cause of cancer-related deaths among women in Peru. The percentages and characteristics of women in Peru who have or have not had a Pap smear have not been defined.

Paz Soldan, Valerie A.; Lee, Frank H.; Carcamo, Cesar; Holmes, King K.; Garnett, Geoff P.; Garcia, Patricia

2008-01-01

125

Summary of results obtained from the testing of reinforced concrete shear walls  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper summarizes the experimental results that have been obtained from the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Seismic Category 1 Structures program over the past eight years. As part of the program, we have been investigating the seismic response of noncontainment Category 1 structures (diesel generator buildings, auxiliary buildings, etc.) subjected to beyond-design-basis seismic events. The low-aspect-ratio (height/length), reinforced concrete shear wall is the primary lateral-load-carrying structural element in noncontainment Category 1 structures. Numerous static, monotonic, and cyclic tests have been performed on these types of structural elements and reported in the open literature. However, these tests have primarily been concerned with the walls' ultimate strength rather than with their dynamic properties, such as stiffness and damping. This program has extended the knowledge of low-aspect-ratio shear walls' dynamic properties by performing simulated seismic shake-table tests on scale-model Category 1 structures and scale-model shear wall elements. Scale models were employed because the enormous size of a prototype structure and the need to test into the nonlinear response region precluded the testing of an actual building. First, the paper briefly reviews the testing performed between FY1982 and FY1986. During this phase of the program, tests were performed almost exclusively on microconcrete scale-model structures. Included in this review is a summary of thIncluded in this review is a summary of the types of structural geometries that were investigated and the results obtained concerning stiffness, damping and similitude

126

Transcriptional activation of a pap pilus virulence operon from uropathogenic Escherichia coli.  

OpenAIRE

A gene cluster mediating production of pili in uropathogenic Escherichia coli was analysed with respect to regulation of pili synthesis. Two cistrons, papB and papI, were localized upstream of the major pilus subunit gene, papA. The papI-papB-papA region was characterized by nucleotide sequencing and by transcriptional analysis. The papA gene was primarily represented by an 800 nucleotide long transcript but was also co-transcribed with papB as a less abundant 1300 nucleotide long mRNA. Both ...

Ba?ga, M.; Go?ransson, M.; Normark, S.; Uhlin, B. E.

1985-01-01

127

Mutations affecting mRNA processing and fimbrial biogenesis in the Escherichia coli pap operon.  

OpenAIRE

The Escherichia coli pap genetic determinant includes 11 genes and encodes expression of Pap pili on the bacterial surface. An RNase E-dependent mRNA-processing event in the intercistronic papB-papA region results in the accumulation of a papA-gene-specific mRNA in considerable excess of the primary papB-papA mRNA transcription product. We have introduced mutations in the intercistronic region and studied the effect in vivo of these mutations on the processing event, PapA protein expression, ...

Nilsson, P.; Naureckiene, S.; Uhlin, B. E.

1996-01-01

128

Analysis of results obtained from field tracing test under natural rain condition  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As one of the tests arranged by the cooperative research between CIRP and JAERI, field tracing tests using 3H, 60Co, 85Sr and 134Cs were conducted in pits at the CIRP's field test site located on a loess tableland under natural rain condition. Precipitation amount and evaporation rate were measured to study complicated spatial-temporal behavior of soil water movement under that condition. The evaporation rate was obtained through an analysis on the measured data by a combined method of heat balance and eddy correlation. Numerical model, that is based on piston flow assumption of soil water movement, was developed and applied to determine the behavior of the soil water movement in the pits. Using the determined water movement, 3H migration was evaluated by numerical simulation. Change of 3H distribution as a function of elapsed time as well explained by careful evaluation of the soil water movement that carried out before the analysis. (5 figs.)

129

Testing for HPV  

Science.gov (United States)

... HPV test, what does it mean? Testing for HPV What’s the difference between a Pap test and an HPV test? A Pap test is used to find ... HPV is found. Should I be tested for HPV? If you are a woman under age 30 ...

130

Preoperative serum PSA and PAP levels and survival in curative prostatic cancer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Aim: It has been established that PSA and PAP are useful tumor markers in diagnosis and therapy follow-up of prostatic cancer. In this work we retrospectively evaluated whether there exists a relationship between preoperative PSA and PAP values and survival of patients following the transurethral resection of prostate. Material and Methods: It has been done a mainly simultaneous radioimmunoassay of PSA and PAP in 52 and 49 patients with carcinoma of prostate, respectively. Survival curves were computed by Kaplan-Meier method. Difference between 2 groups of patients were estimated by log rank test. Results: The values of PSA and PAP ranged 0,3-325,2 ng/ml (median 52,3) and 0,1-204,0 ng/ml (median 6,1), respectively. The mean survival time was 33,9±4,2 months (median 26,4±2,6). Based on optimal decision level in differentiation BPH and prostatic cancer, the patients were divided into 2 groups: PSA36,0ng/ml, PAP4,5ng/ml. No significant difference between survival curves was found concerning of PSA and PAP levels. However, in age groups70 years (age ratio 1,03) the mean survival was 45,05±6,23 (median 29,60±2,26) and 22,09±2,98(median 22,80±3,21 months, respectively. The difference is significant (p=0,002). The geometric mean values of PSA in 70 years group are 45,1 ng/ml and 24,1 ng/ml, respectively. The difference is significant (p70 years group are 7,8 ng/ml and 6,7 ng/ml, reroup are 7,8 ng/ml and 6,7 ng/ml, respectively. No significant difference. Conclusion: It couldn't be proved that preoperative PSA and PAP levels are prognostic indicators. Examination of age ranges reveals significant survival difference between age groups 70 years indicating age effect on survival

131

Obtaining Constitutive Relationship for Rate-Dependent Rock in SHPB Tests  

Science.gov (United States)

A large number of tests have recently been conducted with the Split Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB) method to determine the characteristics of rock dynamics. However, it is still impossible to get test results at a perfect constant strain rate from this set-up owing to the rate dependency of rock materials. For instance in most cases, dynamic behavior of rock can only be described with an average strain rate. The results from these methods, including rich strain rate information, frequently tend to be inexplicable or self-contradictory. The obtained stress-strain curves can then never be directly treated as constitutive curves as in static tests. In this paper, the reasons behind the controversial stress-strain results with current methods are analyzed. In addition, the requirement for the rock specimen to deform at a constant strain rate is demonstrated after theoretical analysis of correlations among specimen, deforming stress, incident stress, reflected stress and transmitted stress. With test results from SHPB by pulse shaper and special shape striker methods, the requirement is verified. Finally, the method of 3D scattergram considering stress-strain-strain rate simultaneously is brought up to get constitutive relationships of rate-dependent rock. The new method gives reasonable predictions for constitutive relationships of rock at different strain rates. At the same time, the new method has fewer requirements and has a wider application scope for SHPB tests.

Zhou, Zilong; Li, Xibing; Ye, Zhouyuan; Liu, Kewei

2010-11-01

132

Report of test and research results on atomic energy obtained in national institutes in fiscal 1981  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Since the budget was appropriated in 1954 fiscal year for the first time, many valuable results of research have been obtained regarding the peaceful use of atomic energy, and these have played important role for the promotion of the peaceful use of atomic energy in Japan. In this report, the outline of the test and research results on the peaceful use of atomic energy obtained in national institutes in fiscal 1981 is summarized. The first volume of this report was published in 1961, and this report is Volume 22. With this report, it is hoped to advance the understanding more about the recent trend and the accomplishment of the test and research on atomic energy utilization. 7 reports on nuclear fusion, 11 reports on technological safety, 6 reports on environmental radioactivity safety, 5 reports on food irradiation, 4 reports on the countermeasures against cancer, 31 reports on agriculture, forestry and fishery, 36 reports on medicine, 6 reports on mining and industry, 5 reports on power utilization, 1 report on construction engineering, 3 reports on radioactivation analysis and 1 report on injury prevention by about 60 national institutes are collected. Also the subjects of the test and research carried out in four other institutes are shown. (Kako, I.)

133

Mammography and Pap test screening among low-income foreign-born Hispanic women in the USA Mamografia e teste Papanicolau em mulheres latinas de baixa renda nos Estados Unidos  

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Full Text Available Little is known about the factors influencing screening among low-income Hispanic women particularly among recent immigrants. A sample of 148 low-income, low-literate, foreign-born Hispanic women residing in the Washington DC metropolitan area participated in the study. The mean age of the sample was 46.2 (SD = 11.5, 84% reported annual household incomesEste estudo determinou os fatores que influenciam a conduta de mulheres latinas de baixa renda nos EUA, em face do monitoramento pela mamografia (MM e por meio do teste de Papanicolau (TP, em uma amostra de 148 mulheres latinas, residentes na região metropolitana de Washington DC. A idade média na amostra foi de 46,2 anos (desvio padrão 11,5, e 84% relatavam renda familiar anual menor que quinze mil dólares. Todas as mulheres falavam espanhol e apresentavam níveis reduzidos de aculturação; 96% destas informavam ter realizado TP, mas 24% não relatavam adesão às normas recomendadas de rastreamento. Entre aquelas com quarenta anos ou mais, 62% haviam realizado MM, mas somente 33% de acordo com as normas de rotina. A freqüência de conceitos equivocados sobre o câncer neste grupo de mulheres foi maior que a observada para mulheres latinas em outros estudos. Modelos logísticos multivariados para variáveis correlacionadas à conduta no rastreamento pelo TP e MM indicam que fatores como o medo do teste, vergonha e desconhecimento tiveram influência. Concluiu-se que as mulheres nesse estudo apresentaram menor freqüência de rastreamento por MM que mulheres não latinas, além de apresentarem também níveis mais reduzidos de adesão às normas de rastreamento por TP e MM.

Maria E. Fernandez

1998-01-01

134

Analysis of data obtained in two-phase flow tests of primary heat transport pumps  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report analyzes data obtained in two-phase flow tests of primary heat transport pumps performed during the period 1980-1983. Phenomena which have been known to cause pump-induced flow oscillations in pressurized piping systems under two-phase conditions are reviewed and the data analyzed to determine whether any of the identified phenomena could have been responsible for the instabilities observed in those tests. Tentative explanations for the most severe instabilities are given based on those analyses. It is shown that suction pipe geometry probably plays an important role in promoting instabilities, so additional experiments to investigate the effect of suction pipe geometry on the stability of flow in a closed pipe loop under two-phase conditions are recommended

135

Report of test and research results on atomic energy obtained in national institutes in fiscal 1985  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As for the test and research on the utilization of atomic energy in national institutes, the budget was appropriated for the first time in fiscal year 1956, and since then, the many valuable results of research have been obtained so far in the diversified fields of nuclear fusion, safety research, the irradiation of foods, medicine and others, thus the test and research accomplished the large role for promoting the utilization of atomic energy in Japan. In this report, the gists of the results of the test and research on the utilization of atomic energy carried out by national institutes in fiscal year 1985 are collected. No.1 of this report was published in 1960, and this is No.26. It is desired to increase the understanding about the recent trend and the results of the test and research on atomic energy utilization with this book. The researches on nuclear fusion, engineering safety and environmental radioactivity safety, the irradiation of foods, the countermeasures against cancer, fertilized soil, the quality improvement of brewing and farm products, the protection of farm products and the improvement of breeding, diagnosis and medical treatment, pharmaceuticals, environmental hygiene, the application to physiology and pathology, radiochemistry, radiation measurement, process analysis, nuclear reactor materials, nuclear powered ships, civil engineering, radioactivation analysis and injury prevention are reported. (Kako, I.))

136

Test plan: Air intake shaft performance test -- Addendum for obtaining cores in the Culebra for radionuclide retardation studies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Core samples are needed for obtaining data on radionuclide retardation. The cores will be used to first determine local basic properties of Culebra rock such as permeability, structural integrity, fracture spacing, and fracture size. These quantities will then be used to design a laboratory experimental program to determine radionuclide retardation in a column flow apparatus using the cores obtained in this project. This addendum covers only the coring activities necessary to retrieve Culebra cores. The laboratory work will be documented in a separate test plan. It is anticipated that Culebra rock samples will be highly fractured, with a fracture spacing on the order of 2 to 3 inches To obtain representative core samples that are intact, horizontal cores about 6 inches in diameter and several feet long will be needed. These cores will provide a good indication of Culebra rock fracturing and provide several samples needed to conduct column flow experiments. If the rock is so fractured that only rubble is obtained, then the rubble will be used in the column experiments. In addition, as a byproduct of the coring operation, natural groundwater collected from the holes will be used to develop a synthetic brine for the laboratory experiments

137

Tests with Inconel 600 to obtain quantitative stress-corrosion cracking data for evaluating service performance  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Inconel 600 tubes in pressurized water reactor (PWR) steam generators form a pressure boundary between radioactive primary water and secondary water which is converted to steam and used for generating electricity. Under operating conditions the performance of alloy 600 has been good, but with some occasional small leaks resulting from stress corrosion cracking (SCC), related to the presence of unusually high residual or operating stresses. The suspected high stresses can result from either the deformation of tubes during manufacture, or distortion during abnormal conditions such as denting. The present experimental program addresses two specific conditions, i.e., (1) where deformation occurs but is no longer active, such as when denting is stopped and (2) where plastic deformation of the metal continues, as would occur during denting. Laboratory media consist of pure water as well as solutions to simulate environments that would apply in service; tubing from actual production is used in carrying out these tests. The environments include both normal and off chemistries for primary and secondary water. The results reported here were obtained in several different tests. The main ones are (1) split tube reverse U-bends, (2) constant extension rate tests (CERT), and (3) constant load. The temperature range covered is 290 to 3650C

138

Molecular testing of human papillomavirus in cervical specimens  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective was to improve the diagnosis of cervical neoplasia by early detection of human papillomavirus (HPV) in uterine cervix, by adding molecular testing of HPV using hybrid capture 2 (HC2) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) tests to Papanicoalou (Pap) test. One hundred women were enrolled in this study. The mean age (mean+-SD) was 41.97+- 8.76 years and range was 27-65 years. All women had undergone cervical cytological screening with cervical cytology, HPV DNA testing by HC2 and PCR, during the period from January to December 2006, at King Abdul-Aziz University Hospital (KAAUH) and King Fahd research Center, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. The results were obtained by HC2 for detection of HPV were 5(5%) high-risk HPV, one low-risk HPV (1%) and 94(94%) negative cases. The PCR detected only 4(4%) cases. Using the HC2 test as a reference, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive, negative predictive values and accuracy of base line Pap were 50, 85, 17.7, 96.4 and 83%; of final Pap smear were 100, 96.8, 66.7, 100, and 97% and for PCR were 66.7, 100, 100, 97.9 and 98%. The Pap test was repeated within a year for patients with abnormal Pap test with positive HPV DNA. Combined screening by cytology and HPV testing using both HC2 and PCR sensitively detects women with existing disease. The absence of HPV DNA provides reassurance that patients are unlikely to develop cancer for several years. We suggest using Pap with HC2 and PCR in screening programs to ensure that women witcreening programs to ensure that women with the double negative result at baseline might safely be screened at longer intervals. (author)

139

Solution structure of E.coli PapI, a key regulator of the pap pili phase variation  

OpenAIRE

Pyelonephritis-associated pili (pap) allow uropathogenic Escherichia coli to bind to epithelial cells and play an important role in urinary tract infection. Expression of pap pili is controlled by a phase-variation mechanism, based on the two distinct heritable states that are the result of adenine N6-methylation in either of the two GATC sequences in its regulatory region. Methylation status of these two sequences is sensed by the action of two proteins, Lrp and PapI, and they play a central...

Kawamura, Tetsuya; Le, Lisa Uyen K.; Zhou, Hongjun; Dahlquist, Frederick W.

2006-01-01

140

Analysis and interpretation of data obtained in tests of the geothermal aquifer at Klamath Falls, Oregon  

Science.gov (United States)

Water with temperatures to 130 C occurs in an extensive, heterogeneous aquifer at depths of a few hundred to nearly 2,000 feet. Chemical and isotopic analyses suggest that 190 C water mixes with cooler recharge water in a ratio of about 2 to 3 in zone within and beneath the aquifer. The water spreads from a fault zone and is tapped for space heating by more than 450 wells over a 2 square-mile area. Data obtained during a 50-day pumping and reinjection test in July and August, 1983, were fitted to theoretical double-porosity type curves. Predictions of water-level changes were made for two hypothetical pumping and reinjection schemes. It was determined that reinjection can generally offset declines due to pumping, although water levels will decline near pumped wells and will rise near injection wells. Tracer tests confirmed the double-porosity behavior of the aquifer. Discharge from thermal wells averages about 540 gallons per minute and heat discharge is about 18 x 10 to the 12th power British Thermal Units per year. Down-hole heat exchangers discharge about 13 x 10 to the 10th power British Thermal Units per year. Additional development probably is feasible. (USGS)

Sammel, E.A.

1984-01-01

141

Perception and Experience of Primary Care Physicians on Pap Smear Screening for Women with Intellectual Disabilities: A Preliminary Finding  

Science.gov (United States)

This study aims to establish evidence-based data to explore the perceptions and experience of primary care physicians in the Pap smear screening provision for women with intellectual disabilities (ID), and to analyze the associated factors in the delivery of screening services to women with ID in Taiwan. Data obtained by a cross-sectional survey…

Lin, Jin-Ding; Sung, Chang-Lin; Lin, Lan-Ping; Liu, Ta-Wen; Lin, Pei-Ying; Chen, Li-Mei; Chu, Cordia M.; Wu, Jia-Ling

2010-01-01

142

DIAGNOSTIC VALUE OF COLPOSCOPY IN PATIENTS WITH ABNORMAL PAP SMEAR  

OpenAIRE

 

Introduction: In order to reduce invasive cervical cancer, it is necessary to follow presisly the patients with abnormal pap smear. Simply, repeating the cytologic assessment in patints with atypical pap smear will result in missing 26-83 percent of squamous intraepithelial lesions and most alarming 50 percent of invasive cancers. Consi...

Allameh, T.

2001-01-01

143

Cervix Cancer Diagnosis from Pap Smear Images Using Structure Based Segmentation and Shape Analysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available his work presents an approach for analysis of P AP s mear images of cervical region based on cell nuclei distribution and shape and size analysis. PAP smear test is an efficient and easy procedure to detect any abnor mality in cervical cells. But human observation is not always satisfying and it is a tedious task to manually analyze a large number of PAP smear images. The purpose of this study is to automate the screening process and to provide specific statistical data which will be helpful for detecting abnormalities in cervical region. The proposed approach is implemented in MATLAB®, a high level, interactive environment for data visualization/analysis/computation. The MATLAB® Image Processing Toolbox was used to segment the digital images and calculate various statistical data. By comparing cell nuclei distribution and taking into account the shape and size features MATLAB® can be programmed to distinguish normal cervical cell to questionable ones.

Lipi B. Mahanta

2012-02-01

144

Mrassf1a-Pap, a Novel Methylation-Based Assay for the Detection of Cell-Free Fetal DNA in Maternal Plasma  

Science.gov (United States)

Objectives RASSF1A has been described to be differentially methylated between fetal and maternal DNA and can therefore be used as a universal sex-independent marker to confirm the presence of fetal sequences in maternal plasma. However, this requires highly sensitive methods. We have previously shown that Pyrophosphorolysis-activated Polymerization (PAP) is a highly sensitive technique that can be used in noninvasive prenatal diagnosis. In this study, we have used PAP in combination with bisulfite conversion to develop a new universal methylation-based assay for the detection of fetal methylated RASSF1A sequences in maternal plasma. Methods Bisulfite sequencing was performed on maternal genomic (g)DNA and fetal gDNA from chorionic villi to determine differentially methylated regions in the RASSF1A gene using bisulfite specific PCR primers. Methylation specific primers for PAP were designed for the detection of fetal methylated RASSF1A sequences after bisulfite conversion and validated. Results Serial dilutions of fetal gDNA in a background of maternal gDNA show a relative percentage of ?3% can be detected using this assay. Furthermore, fetal methylated RASSF1A sequences were detected both retrospectively as well as prospectively in all maternal plasma samples tested (n?=?71). No methylated RASSF1A specific bands were observed in corresponding maternal gDNA. Specificity was further determined by testing anonymized plasma from non-pregnant females (n?=?24) and males (n?=?21). Also, no methylated RASSF1A sequences were detected here, showing this assay is very specific for methylated fetal DNA. Combining all samples and controls, we obtain an overall sensitivity and specificity of 100% (95% CI 98.4%–100%). Conclusions Our data demonstrate that using a combination of bisulfite conversion and PAP fetal methylated RASSF1A sequences can be detected with extreme sensitivity in a universal and sex-independent manner. Therefore, this assay could be of great value as an addition to current techniques used in noninvasive prenatal diagnostics. PMID:24391879

van den Oever, Jessica M. E.; Balkassmi, Sahila; Segboer, Tim; Verweij, E. Joanne; van der Velden, Pieter A.; Oepkes, Dick; Bakker, Egbert; Boon, Elles M. J.

2013-01-01

145

CoPAP: Coevolution of Presence–Absence Patterns  

Science.gov (United States)

Evolutionary analysis of phyletic patterns (phylogenetic profiles) is widely used in biology, representing presence or absence of characters such as genes, restriction sites, introns, indels and methylation sites. The phyletic pattern observed in extant genomes is the result of ancestral gain and loss events along the phylogenetic tree. Here we present CoPAP (coevolution of presence–absence patterns), a user-friendly web server, which performs accurate inference of coevolving characters as manifested by co-occurring gains and losses. CoPAP uses state-of-the-art probabilistic methodologies to infer coevolution and allows for advanced network analysis and visualization. We developed a platform for comparing different algorithms that detect coevolution, which includes simulated data with pairs of coevolving sites and independent sites. Using these simulated data we demonstrate that CoPAP performance is higher than alternative methods. We exemplify CoPAP utility by analyzing coevolution among thousands of bacterial genes across 681 genomes. Clusters of coevolving genes that were detected using our method largely coincide with known biosynthesis pathways and cellular modules, thus exhibiting the capability of CoPAP to infer biologically meaningful interactions. CoPAP is freely available for use at http://copap.tau.ac.il/. PMID:23748951

Cohen, Ofir; Ashkenazy, Haim; Levy Karin, Eli; Burstein, David; Pupko, Tal

2013-01-01

146

Incontinência urinária em mulheres que buscam exame preventivo de câncer de colo uterino: fatores sociodemográficos e comportamentais / Urinary incontinence in women undergoing Pap smear test: socio-demographic and behavioral factors / Incontinencia urinaria en mujeres que solicitan un examen preventivo de cáncer de cuello uterino: factores socio-demográficos y de comportamiento  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Este estudo transversal objetivou investigar a associação entre, de um lado, fatores sociodemográficos e comportamentais e, de outro, a presença de incontinência urinária referida em 784 mulheres que buscam exame preventivo de câncer de colo uterino na Grande Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brasil. F [...] oram obtidos dados sociodemográficos, estado de saúde, atividade física, constipação e índice de massa corporal, sendo utilizado o International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire-SF. A prevalência de incontinência urinária foi de 30,7% (16,5% perdiam urina uma vez por semana ou menos e 23,8% em pequena quantidade). Na regressão de Poisson bruta, estiveram associados à incontinência urinária os seguintes fatores: baixa escolaridade, renda por pessoa da família até um salário mínimo, etnia não caucasiana, excesso de peso corporal, pior autoavaliação do estado de saúde, constipação e idade. Após ajuste, seguindo modelo hierarquizado, permaneceram associados: escolaridade, etnia, estado de saúde e idade. A alta prevalência de incontinência urinária em mulheres que buscam exame de rastreamento do câncer de colo uterino justifica abordagens preventivas nesses espaços de atuação. Abstract in spanish Este estudio transversal tuvo como objetivo investigar la asociación entre factores socio-demográficos y de comportamiento con la presencia de incontinencia urinaria, informada por 784 mujeres que solicitaron un examen preventivo de cáncer de cuello uterino en el área metropolitana de Florianópolis, [...] Santa Catarina, Brasil. Se obtuvieron datos socio-demográficos, estado de salud, actividad física, estreñimiento e índice de masa corporal, utilizándose el International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire-SF. La prevalencia de incontinencia urinaria fue de un 30,7% (16,5% perdían orina una vez por semana o menos y un 23,8% en pequeña cantidad). En la regresión de Poisson bruta se asoció a la incontinencia urinaria: la baja escolaridad; renta por persona de la familia de hasta un salario mínimo; etnia no caucásica; exceso de peso corporal; peor autoevaluación de estado de salud; estreñimiento y edad. Tras los ajustes, siguiendo un modelo jerarquizado, permanecieron asociados: escolaridad; etnia; estado de salud y edad. La alta prevalencia de incontinencia urinaria de mujeres que solicitaron un examen de indicios de cáncer de cuello uterino justifica aproximaciones preventivas en esos espacios. Abstract in english This cross-sectional study aimed to investigate the association between socio-demographic and behavioral factors and the presence of self-reported urinary incontinence in 784 women undergoing cervical cancer screening in Greater Florianópolis, Santa Catarina State, Brazil. Socio-demographic data, he [...] alth status, physical activity, constipation, and body mass index were obtained, and the International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire-SF was used. Prevalence of urinary incontinence was 30.7% (16.5% reported leakage once a week or less and 23.8% losses in small volumes). Poisson univariate regression showed the following factors associated with urinary incontinence: lower education, lower income, non-white skin color, overweight, worse health status, constipation, and older age. After adjustment, according to a hierarchical model, schooling, ethnicity, health status, and age remained significantly associated. The high prevalence of urinary incontinence in women seeking Pap smear tests justifies preventive approaches in these areas of intervention.

Cinara, Sacomori; Nubia Berenice, Negri; Fernando Luiz, Cardoso.

1251-12-01

147

Incontinência urinária em mulheres que buscam exame preventivo de câncer de colo uterino: fatores sociodemográficos e comportamentais Incontinencia urinaria en mujeres que solicitan un examen preventivo de cáncer de cuello uterino: factores socio-demográficos y de comportamiento Urinary incontinence in women undergoing Pap smear test: socio-demographic and behavioral factors  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Este estudo transversal objetivou investigar a associação entre, de um lado, fatores sociodemográficos e comportamentais e, de outro, a presença de incontinência urinária referida em 784 mulheres que buscam exame preventivo de câncer de colo uterino na Grande Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brasil. Foram obtidos dados sociodemográficos, estado de saúde, atividade física, constipação e índice de massa corporal, sendo utilizado o International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire-SF. A prevalência de incontinência urinária foi de 30,7% (16,5% perdiam urina uma vez por semana ou menos e 23,8% em pequena quantidade. Na regressão de Poisson bruta, estiveram associados à incontinência urinária os seguintes fatores: baixa escolaridade, renda por pessoa da família até um salário mínimo, etnia não caucasiana, excesso de peso corporal, pior autoavaliação do estado de saúde, constipação e idade. Após ajuste, seguindo modelo hierarquizado, permaneceram associados: escolaridade, etnia, estado de saúde e idade. A alta prevalência de incontinência urinária em mulheres que buscam exame de rastreamento do câncer de colo uterino justifica abordagens preventivas nesses espaços de atuação.Este estudio transversal tuvo como objetivo investigar la asociación entre factores socio-demográficos y de comportamiento con la presencia de incontinencia urinaria, informada por 784 mujeres que solicitaron un examen preventivo de cáncer de cuello uterino en el área metropolitana de Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brasil. Se obtuvieron datos socio-demográficos, estado de salud, actividad física, estreñimiento e índice de masa corporal, utilizándose el International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire-SF. La prevalencia de incontinencia urinaria fue de un 30,7% (16,5% perdían orina una vez por semana o menos y un 23,8% en pequeña cantidad. En la regresión de Poisson bruta se asoció a la incontinencia urinaria: la baja escolaridad; renta por persona de la familia de hasta un salario mínimo; etnia no caucásica; exceso de peso corporal; peor autoevaluación de estado de salud; estreñimiento y edad. Tras los ajustes, siguiendo un modelo jerarquizado, permanecieron asociados: escolaridad; etnia; estado de salud y edad. La alta prevalencia de incontinencia urinaria de mujeres que solicitaron un examen de indicios de cáncer de cuello uterino justifica aproximaciones preventivas en esos espacios.This cross-sectional study aimed to investigate the association between socio-demographic and behavioral factors and the presence of self-reported urinary incontinence in 784 women undergoing cervical cancer screening in Greater Florianópolis, Santa Catarina State, Brazil. Socio-demographic data, health status, physical activity, constipation, and body mass index were obtained, and the International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire-SF was used. Prevalence of urinary incontinence was 30.7% (16.5% reported leakage once a week or less and 23.8% losses in small volumes. Poisson univariate regression showed the following factors associated with urinary incontinence: lower education, lower income, non-white skin color, overweight, worse health status, constipation, and older age. After adjustment, according to a hierarchical model, schooling, ethnicity, health status, and age remained significantly associated. The high prevalence of urinary incontinence in women seeking Pap smear tests justifies preventive approaches in these areas of intervention.

Fernando Luiz Cardoso

2013-06-01

148

Evaluation and significance of hyperchromatic crowded groups (HCG in liquid-based paps  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Objective Hyperchromatic crowded groups (HCG, a term first introduced into the cytology literature by DeMay in 1995, are commonly observed in Pap tests and may rarely be associated with serious but difficult to interpret lesions. In this study, we specifically defined HCG as dark crowded cell groups with more than 15 cells which can be identified at 10× screening magnification. Methods We evaluated consecutive liquid-based (Surepath Pap tests from 601 women (age 17–74 years, mean age 29.4 yrs and observed HCG in 477 cases. In all 477 HCG cases, Pap tests were found to be satisfactory and to contain an endocervical sample. HCG were easily detectible at 10× screening magnification (size up to 400 um, mean 239.5 um and ranged from 1 to 50 (mean 19.5 per Pap slide. Results HCG predominantly represented 3-Dimensional groups of endocervical cells with some nuclear overlap (379/477 – 79%, reactive endocervical cells with relatively prominent nucleoli and some nuclear crowding (29/477 – 6%, clusters of inflammatory cells (25/477 – 5.2%, parabasal cells (22/477 – 4.6%, endometrial cells (1/477 – 0.2%. Epithelial cell abnormalities (ECA were present in only 21 of 477 cases (4.6%. 18 of 21 women with HCG-associated ECA were less than 40 years old; only 3 were =/> 40 years. HCG-associated final abnormal Pap test interpretations were as follows: ASCUS (6/21 – 28%, LSIL (12/21 – 57%, ASC-H (2/21 – 9.5%, and HSIL/CIN2-3 (3/21 – 14%. The association of HCG with ECA was statistically significant (p = 0.0174. chi-square test. In patients with ECA, biopsy results were available in 10 cases, and 4 cases of biopsy-proven CIN2/3 were detected. Among these four cases, HCG in the Pap tests, in retrospect represented the lesional high grade cells in three cases (one HSIL case and two ASC-H cases. Interestingly, none of the 124 cases without HCG were found to have an epithelial cell abnormality. Conclusion We conclude: a. HCG are observed in a high proportion of cervical smears. b. In the vast majority of cases, HCG are benign. c. ECA were only observed in cases with HCG. This observation is consistent with the hypothesis that the presence of HCG in Pap tests most often represents adequate sampling of the transformation zone, thus increasing the chances of detecting an epithelial cell abnormality. d. Only a few cases with HCG were associated with a serious ECA, but careful scrutiny of all HCG appears warranted to avoid the potential diagnostic pitfall of a significant false negative interpretation.

Chivukula Mamatha

2007-01-01

149

The Costs of an Outreach Intervention for Low-Income Women With Abnormal Pap Smears  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available IntroductionFollow-up among women who have had an abnormal Papanicolaou (Pap smear is often poor in public hospitals that serve women at increased risk for cervical cancer. This randomized controlled trial evaluated and compared the total cost and cost per follow-up of a tailored outreach intervention plus usual care with the total cost and cost per follow-up of usual care alone.MethodsWomen with an abnormal Pap smear (n = 348 receiving care at Alameda County Medical Center (Alameda County, California were randomized to intervention or usual care. The intervention used trained community health advisors to complement the clinic’s protocol for usual care. We assessed the costs of the intervention and the cost per follow-up within 6 months of the abnormal Pap smear test result.ResultsThe intervention increased the rate of 6-month follow-up by 29 percentage points, and the incremental cost per follow-up was $959 (2005 dollars. The cost per follow-up varied by the severity of the abnormality. The cost per follow-up for the most severe abnormality (high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion was $681, while the cost per follow-up for less severe abnormalities was higher.ConclusionIn a health care system in which many women fail to get follow-up care for an abnormal Pap smear, outreach workers were more effective than usual care (mail or telephone reminders at increasing follow-up rates. The results suggest that outreach workers should manage their effort based on the degree of abnormality; most effort should be placed on women with the most severe abnormality (high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion.

Todd H. Wagner, PhD

2007-01-01

150

Genetic tests obtainable through pharmacies: the good, the bad, and the ugly  

OpenAIRE

Genomic medicine seeks to exploit an individual’s genomic information in the context of guiding the clinical decision-making process. In the post-genomic era, a range of novel molecular genetic testing methodologies have emerged, allowing the genetic testing industry to grow at a very rapid pace. As a consequence, a considerable number of different private diagnostic testing laboratories now provide a wide variety of genetic testing services, often employing a direct-to-consumer (DTC) busin...

Patrinos, George P.; Baker, Darrol J.; Al-mulla, Fahd; Vasiliou, Vasilis; Cooper, David N.

2013-01-01

151

Cervical cancer screening in primary health care setting in Sudan : a comparative study of visual inspection with acetic acid and Pap smear  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

OBJECTIVE: To determine the feasibility of visual inspection with the use of acetic acid (VIA) as a screening method for cervical cancer, an alternative to the Pap smear used in primary health care setting in Sudan, and to compare sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, and histological diagnosis of positive cases of both tests. METHODS: A cross-sectional study of 934 asymptomatic women living in Khartoum, Sudan, was conducted during 2009-2010. A semi-structured questionnaire containing socio-economic and reproductive variables was used to collect data from each participant. Methods of screening used were VIA and conventional Pap smear, followed by colposcopy and biopsy for confirmation of the positive results of both screening tests. RESULTS: The tests identified altogether 119 (12.7%) positive women. VIA detected significantly more positive women than Pap smear (7.6% versus 5.1%; P = 0.004), with an overlap between the two screening tests in 19% of positive results. There was nosignificant difference between VIA and Pap smear findings and sociodemographic and reproductive factors among screened women. Use of colposcopy and biopsy for positive women confirmed that 88/119 (73.9%) were positive for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. VIA had higher sensitivity than Pap smear (74.2% versus 72.9%; P = 0.05) respectively. Out of 88 confirmed positive cases, 22 (25.0%) cases were invasive cervical cancer in stage 1, of which 19 versus three were detected by VIA and Pap smear respectively (P = 0.001). VIA had higher sensitivity and lower specificity than Pap smear (60.2% versus 47.7%) and (41.9% versus 83.8%) respectively. The combination of VIA/Pap has better sensitivity and specificity than each independent test (82.6% and 92.2%). CONCLUSION: The findings of this study showed that VIA has higher sensitivity and lower specificity compared to Pap smear, but a combination of both tests has greater sensitivity and specificity than each test independently. It indicates that VIA is useful forscreening of cervical cancer in the primary health care setting in Sudan, but positive results need to be confirmed by colposcopy and biopsy.

Ibrahim, Ahmed; Aro, Arja R

2012-01-01

152

The results obtained in the UKAEA defect detection trials on test pieces 3 and 4  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Test pieces 3 and 4 used in the Defect Detection Trials conducted by the UKAEA were specifically designed to test the ability of current non-destructive testing techniques to detect and accurately size defects in the near clad surface region of a pressurized water reactor (PWR) pressure vessels. Test piece 3 was a flat plate and 4 a PWR inlet nozzle simulation. Procedures used by the participating inspection teams are described and the intended defect sizes are compared with those determined from the destructive examination (DE) of the test pieces. The teams' results are tabulated and compared with those from the DE. Their performance is analyzed and conclusions drawn on the success of these trials. (author)

153

Association of Oral Contraceptives and Abnormal Pap Smear  

OpenAIRE

To assess the hypothesis that combined Oral Contraceptive (OCs) increase the risk of cervical neoplasia, we conducted a multicenter Case-Control study in Mashhad, the capital of Khorasan province. Seventy-eight women with moderate to severe dysplasia at Pap smear as case group and one hundred fifty nine women with normal Pap smear were selected as the control group for evaluation. The both case and control groups were matched by age, parity and socioeconomic status. All of the women in this s...

Sayedmohsen Sayednozadi; Mohammadreza Hassany; Ramezani, Mohammad A.

2005-01-01

154

Study on prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP) immunoradiometric assay kit  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This coat-antibody-count PAP IRMA is a solid-phase immunoradiometric assay based on two strains of monoclonal antibodies, designed for the quantitative measurement of prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP) in serum. The minimal detectable concentration is 0.1 ?g/L. The intra and inter coefficients of variation are 8.8%-9.6% and 7.7%-12.3%, respectively. The recovery is 96.3%-105.0% and the range of detection is 2.5-200.0 ?g/L

155

14 CFR 61.307 - What tests do I have to take to obtain a sport pilot certificate?  

Science.gov (United States)

...certificate? To obtain a sport pilot certificate, you must...take the knowledge test for a sport pilot certificate, you must...take the practical test for a sport pilot certificate, you must...who provided you with flight training on the areas of operation...

2010-01-01

156

Continuous stress-induced dopamine dysregulation augments PAP-I and PAP-II expression in melanotrophs of the pituitary gland  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Research highlights: ? We focused on the rat pituitary intermediate lobe (IL) under continuous stress (CS). ? CS induced PAP-I and PAP-II expression in melanotrophs of the IL. ? This gene induction was triggered by CS-related dopamine dysregulation. ? PAP-I and PAP-II may sustain homeostasis of the IL under CS. -- Abstract: Under continuous stress (CS) in rats, melanotrophs, the predominant cell-type in the intermediate lobe (IL) of the pituitary, are hyperactivated to secrete ?-melanocyte-stimulating hormone and thereafter degenerate. Although these phenomena are drastic, the molecular mechanisms underlying the cellular changes are mostly unknown. In this study, we focused on the pancreatitis-associated protein (PAP) family members of the secretory lectins and characterized their expression in the IL of CS model rats because we had identified two members of this family as up-regulated genes in our previous microarray analysis. RT-PCR and histological studies demonstrated that prominent PAP-I and PAP-II expression was induced in melanotrophs in the early stages of CS, while another family member, PAP-III, was not expressed. We further examined the regulatory mechanisms of PAP-I and PAP-II expression and revealed that both were induced by the decreased dopamine levels in the IL under CS. Because the PAP family members are implicated in cell survival and proliferation, PAP-I and PAP-II secreted from melanotrophs may function to sustain homeostasis of the IL under CS conditions in an autocrine or a paracrine manner.

157

Continuous stress-induced dopamine dysregulation augments PAP-I and PAP-II expression in melanotrophs of the pituitary gland  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Research highlights: {yields} We focused on the rat pituitary intermediate lobe (IL) under continuous stress (CS). {yields} CS induced PAP-I and PAP-II expression in melanotrophs of the IL. {yields} This gene induction was triggered by CS-related dopamine dysregulation. {yields} PAP-I and PAP-II may sustain homeostasis of the IL under CS. -- Abstract: Under continuous stress (CS) in rats, melanotrophs, the predominant cell-type in the intermediate lobe (IL) of the pituitary, are hyperactivated to secrete {alpha}-melanocyte-stimulating hormone and thereafter degenerate. Although these phenomena are drastic, the molecular mechanisms underlying the cellular changes are mostly unknown. In this study, we focused on the pancreatitis-associated protein (PAP) family members of the secretory lectins and characterized their expression in the IL of CS model rats because we had identified two members of this family as up-regulated genes in our previous microarray analysis. RT-PCR and histological studies demonstrated that prominent PAP-I and PAP-II expression was induced in melanotrophs in the early stages of CS, while another family member, PAP-III, was not expressed. We further examined the regulatory mechanisms of PAP-I and PAP-II expression and revealed that both were induced by the decreased dopamine levels in the IL under CS. Because the PAP family members are implicated in cell survival and proliferation, PAP-I and PAP-II secreted from melanotrophs may function to sustain homeostasis of the IL under CS conditions in an autocrine or a paracrine manner.

Konishi, Hiroyuki, E-mail: konishi@med.osaka-cu.ac.jp [Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka (Japan); The 21st Century COE Program ' Base to Overcome Fatigue' , Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka (Japan); Department of Anatomy and Neuroscience, Nagoya University, Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya (Japan); Ogawa, Tokiko, E-mail: togawa@med.osaka-cu.ac.jp [Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka (Japan); The 21st Century COE Program ' Base to Overcome Fatigue' , Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka (Japan); Kawahara, Shinichi, E-mail: kawahara@med.osaka-cu.ac.jp [Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka (Japan); Matsumoto, Sakiko, E-mail: s-matsumoto@med.osaka-cu.ac.jp [Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka (Japan); Department of Anatomy and Neuroscience, Nagoya University, Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya (Japan); Kiyama, Hiroshi, E-mail: kiyama@med.osaka-cu.ac.jp [Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka (Japan); The 21st Century COE Program ' Base to Overcome Fatigue' , Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka (Japan); Department of Anatomy and Neuroscience, Nagoya University, Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya (Japan)

2011-04-01

158

Selective indication for positive airway pressure (PAP) in sleep-related breathing disorders with obstruction  

OpenAIRE

Positive airway pressure (PAP) is the therapy of choice for most sleep-related breathing disorders (SRBD). A variety of PAP devices using positive airway pressure (CPAP, BiPAP, APAP, ASV) must be carefully considered before application. This overview aims to provide criteria for choosing the optimal PAP device according to severity and type of sleep-related breathing disorder. In addition, the range of therapeutic applications, constraints and side effects as well as alternative methods to PA...

Stasche, Norbert

2006-01-01

159

Comparison of fracture energy values obtained from 3PB, WST and CT test configurations.  

Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

Zurich : Trans Tech Publications, 2014 - (Kotrasová, K.; Kormanikova, E.), s. 89-92 ISBN 978-3-03835-147-4. ISSN 1022-6680. - (Advanced Materials Research. 969). [SPACE 2013 - International Conference on Structural and Physical Aspects of Civil Engineering /2./. Štrbské Pleso (SK), 27.11.2013-29.11.2013] R&D Projects: GA ?R(CZ) GAP104/11/0833 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : Fracture energy * Compact tension * Three-point bending test * Wedge-splitting test * Cement-based composite Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics

Holušová, Tá?a; Seitl, Stanislav; Canteli, A.

160

Test conditions of particulate emission from Diesel engine and the results obtained  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The proposed paper includes 4 main parts which describe and analyze the influence of: Dilution ratio value, methods of determination of dilution ratio, period of conditioning of filters used in the particulates emission tests and isokinetic sampling on the particulate emission results. (orig.)

Cisek, J.; Szlachta, Z.; Zablocki, M. [Krakow Univ. of Tech. (Poland)

1999-07-01

161

Results obtained with a Drift Chamber Prototype in the CERN H2 test beam area  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The performance of a small size prototype of the CMS barrel muon chamber detector has been studied in a test beam. Results on chamber efficiency, drift velocity and single wire resolution,under different experimental conditions are presented. The effects of the magnetic field on the chamber behaviour are also discussed. (Author)

162

Comparison of the Digene Hybrid Capture 2 Assay and Roche AMPLICOR and LINEAR ARRAY Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Tests in Detecting High-Risk HPV Genotypes in Specimens from Women with Previous Abnormal Pap Smear Results?  

OpenAIRE

The development of cervical cancer is strongly associated with the presence of persistent high-risk (HR) human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. Recently, the commercially manufactured PCR-based Roche AMPLICOR (AMP) and LINEAR ARRAY (LA) HPV tests have become available for HPV detection. However, knowledge of their clinical performance compared to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration-approved Hybrid Capture 2 (HC2) assay is limited. This study evaluated the concordance between the HC2, AMP, an...

Stevens, Matthew P.; Garland, Suzanne M.; Rudland, Elice; Tan, Jeffrey; Quinn, Michael A.; Tabrizi, Sepehr N.

2007-01-01

163

Report of test and research results on atomic energy obtained in national institutes in fiscal 1984  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The test and research regarding the utilization of atomic energy carried out in national institutions have produced many valuable results in diverse fields so far, such as nuclear fusion, safety research, food irradiation and medicine, since the budget had been appropriated for the first time in 1956. It has accomplished large role in the promotion of atomic energy utilization in Japan. This report is Volume 25, in which the results of the test and research on atomic energy utilization carried out by national institutions in fiscal year 1984 are summarized. It is hoped that the understanding about the recent trend and the results of the test and research on atomic energy utilization is further promoted by this report. The contents of this report are nuclear fusion; the research on engineering safety and environmental radioactivity safety; food irradiation; the countermeasures against cancer; fertilized soil, the improvement of quality, the protection of plants and the improvement of breeding in agriculture and fishery fields; diagnosis and medical treatment, pharmaceuticals, environmental hygiene and the application to physiology and pathology in medical field; radiation chemistry and radiation measurement in mining and industry fields; nuclear reactor materials and nuclear-powered ships; civil engineering; radioactivation analysis; and the research on the prevention of injuries. (Kako, I.)

164

Report of test and research results on atomic energy obtained in national institutes in fiscal 1982  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As for the test and research on the utilization of atomic energy by national organizations, the budget was appropriated for the first time in fiscal year 1956. Since then, many valuable results of research have been produced in the diverse fields of nuclear fusion, safety research, food irradiation, medicine and others, in this way, the test and research have played large roles in the promotion of the utilization of atomic energy in Japan. This is the 23rd report, in which the results of the test and research on the utilization of atomic energy carried out in fiscal year 1982 by national organizations are summarized. 5 researches on nuclear fusion, 12 researches on engineering safety, 5 researches on environmental radioactivity safety, 3 researches on food irradiation, 5 researches on the countermeasures to cancer, 8 researches on soil fertilization, 4 researches on quality improvement, 7 researches on crop protection, 5 researches on the improvement of breeding, 8 researches on diagnosis and treatment, 8 researches on pharmaceuticals, 10 researches on the application to pathology, 6 researches on mining and industry, 6 researches on power reactors and nuclear ships, 1 research on underground water, 6 researches on activation analysis and 3 researches on injury prevention are reported. (Kako, I.)

165

Report of test and research results on atomic energy obtained in national institutes in fiscal 1987  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The test and research regarding the utilization of atomic energy carried out in national institutions have produced many valuable results in diverse fields so far, such as nuclear fusion, safety research, food irradiation and medicine, since the budget had been appropriated for the first time in 1956. It has accomplished large role in the promotion of atomic energy utilization in Japan. This report is volume 28, in which the results of the test and research on atomic energy utilization carried out by national institutions in fiscal year 1987 are summarized. It is hoped that the understanding about the recent trend and the results of the test and research on atomic energy utilization is further promoted by this report. The contents of this report are nuclear fusion; the research on engineering safety and environmental radioactivity safety; food irradiation; the countermeasures against cancer; fertilized soil, the improvement of quality, the protection of plants and the improvement of breeding in agriculture and fishery fields; diagnosis and medical treatment, pharmaceuticals, environmental hygiene and the application to physiology and pathology in medical field; radiation measurement and process analysis in mining and industry fields; nuclear reactor materials and nuclear-powered ships; civil engineering; radioactivation analysis; the research on the prevention of injuries; and the basic researches on materials and acessment and reduction of irradiation risk. (J.P.N.)d reduction of irradiation risk. (J.P.N.)

166

Report of test and research results on atomic energy obtained in national institutes in fiscal 1986  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The test and research regarding the utilization of atomic energy carried out in national institutions have produced many valuable results in diverse fields so far, such as nuclear fusion, safety research, food irradiation and medicine, since the budget had been appropriated for the first time in 1956. It has accomplished large role in the promotion of atomic energy utilization in Japan. This report is volume 27, in which the results of the test and research on atomic energy utilization carried out by national institutions in fiscal year 1986 are summarized. It is hoped that the understanding about the recent trend and the results of the test and research on atomic energy utilization is further promoted by this report. The contents of this report are nuclear fusion; the research on engineering safety and environmental radioactivity safety; food irradiation; the countermeasures against cancer; fertilized soil, the improvement of quality, the protection of plants and the improvement of breeding in agriculture and fishery fields; diagnosis and medical treatment, pharmaceuticals, environmental hygiene and the application to physiology and pathology in medical field; radiation chemistry and radiation measurement in mining and industry fields; nuclear reactor materials and nuclear-powered ships; civil engineering; radioactivation analysis; and the research on the prevention of injuries. (Kako, I.)

167

Report of test and research results on atomic energy obtained in national institutes in fiscal 1989  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The test and research on atomic energy utilization in national institutions were begun in 1956, and valuable results have been produced in the fields of nuclear fusion, safety research, food irradiation, medicine and others, thus those have accomplished great roles for the promotion of atomic energy utilization in Japan. Atomic energy technology synthesizes various advanced technologies over wide technical domains, therefore at the time of its research and development, it is important to place emphasis on the creative and innovative regions which cause large technical innovation and in which the effect spreading to general science and technology can be expected. In addition to the test and research according to such recognition, also the basic technology of atomic energy field has been studied. At present foreign countries request Japan to contribute to the development of the world by creating the new technology and knowledge on atomic energy, and national institutions must meet the request. This is the report No. 30, in which the results of the test and research in the fields of nuclear fusion, safety research, food irradiation, the countermeasures to cancer, agriculture, forestry and fishery, medicine, mining and industry, power utilization, construction, radioactivation analysis and advanced basic research, carried out in 1989 are summarized. (J.P.N.)

168

Early detection of CIN3 and cervical cancer during long-term follow-up using HPV/Pap smear co-testing and risk-adapted follow-up in a locally organised screening programme.  

Science.gov (United States)

We evaluated compliance with human papillomavirus (HPV) testing and risk-adapted patient pathways and monitored changes in high-grade cervical disease during long-term follow-up. Women aged >30 years attending routine screening for cervical cancer were managed according to results from first-round screening tests (cytology and high-risk HPV; Hybrid Capture 2). Between February 2006 and January 2011, 19,795 of 19,947 women agreed to participate, of whom 4,067 proceeded to a second screening round 5 years after recruitment. Predefined endpoints were compliance, grade 3 cervical intraepithelial neoplasia or cancer (CIN3+), new HPV infection, HPV persistence and abnormal smears in round 2. A total of 765 of 19,795 women (3.9%) in round 1 and 41 of 4,067 (1.0%) in round 2 were referred for colposcopy. Compliance rates with colposcopy were 93.1 and 92.7%, respectively, while histological assessment was performed in 680 of 712 (95.5%) and 36 of 38 (94.7%), respectively. CIN3+ rates were 172 of 19,795 (0.87%; 95% confidence intervals: 0.7-1.0) in round 1 and 2 of 4,064 (0.05%; 95% confidence intervals: 0.006-0.2) in round 2; the difference was statistically significant (Fisher's exact test, p<0.001). After 5 years, the incidence of new HPV infection was 124 of 3,906 (3.2%) and HPV persistence was observed in 22 of 161 (13.7%). Locally organised HPV/cytology co-testing is feasible and acceptable to women. Risk-adapted management rapidly detected a high rate of prevalent CIN3+, while the subsequent long-term risk of new high-grade cervical disease was surprisingly low. It remains unclear if this phenomenon is explained by CIN3 mostly occurring early in life or by modifying the natural course of HPV infection with colposcopy and histological assessment. PMID:24519782

Luyten, Alexander; Buttmann-Schweiger, Nina; Luyten, Katrin; Mauritz, Claudia; Reinecke-Lüthge, Axel; Pietralla, Martina; Meijer, Chris J L M; Petry, Karl Ulrich

2014-09-15

169

Missed Opportunities for Health Education on Pap Smears in Peru  

Science.gov (United States)

Despite cervical cancer being one of the leading causes of cancer-related deaths among women in Peru, cervical Pap smear coverage is low. This article uses findings from 185 direct clinician observations in four cities of Peru (representing the capital and each of the three main geographic regions of the country) to assess missed opportunities for…

Bayer, Angela M.; Nussbaum, Lauren; Cabrera, Lilia; Paz-Soldan, Valerie A.

2011-01-01

170

The Popular Passion for Pap (Views and Reviews).  

Science.gov (United States)

Muses over how many books bought are actually read. Reflects on factors involved in the decision not merely to buy books but to read them. Notes that some people maintain that most of what is actually read is pap. Wonders whether reading teachers should pay more attention to what people read, as well as how people read. (SR)

Otto, Wayne

1991-01-01

171

Women who take pap smear in Fortaleza - social and sexual characterization.   

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available

Considering the epidemiological relevance and the mortality of Uterine Cervix Cancer, the aim of this study is know the gynecological profile of women who take Pap smear in a basic unit of a metropolitan area. This is an exploratory study, with quantitative approach and traversal outlining which took place in a Center of Natural Childbirth with 72 women. The data was collected during the women’s appointment and the through analysis of the charts. It was found that most women had up to 40 years of age (42; 58,5%, with low education degree (44; 61,1%, married (39; 54,2%, with menarche from 10 to 13 years (36; 50% and first sexual relation between 12 and 19 years (46; 63,9%. It was also found that some did not  use contraceptive method (30; 41,7%, maintained vaginal only sexual relations (39; 54,1% and did the Pap smear test annually (38; 53%. Its was observed a good adhesion to the Pap smear test by the women, even though not obeying a regular periodicity. These particular studies are of great importance, because it pounts out characteristics that interfere in the woman's health and make it possible for the health professionals to recognize what needs to be improved, together with the satisfactory characteristics in the development of these women's health.

Camila Félix Américo

2009-12-01

172

Load-bearing capacity of coating–substrate systems obtained from spherical indentation tests  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? Complex analysis of deformation and fracture of coating–substrate systems. ? Analysis of load bearing capacity of coating–substrate system-failure mechanisms: substrate yield and coating fracture. ? Analysis of wear at different load conditions. ? TEM and SEM studies of wear mechanisms of coating–substrate systems under contact load. - Abstract: Despite the numerous applications of tribological coatings, a methodology that estimates the load-bearing capacity of coating–substrate systems has not yet been developed. In this paper, the allowable loads for coated surfaces were determined using spherical indentation tests with a 20–500 ?m range of indenter tip radius. Titanium nitride (TiN) coatings, 0.7–2.4 ?m thick, deposited on steel substrates by the pulsed laser deposition (PLD) technique were tested. Indentation results allow to draw the map of deformation of this coating–substrate system and estimate the allowable loads, into avoid the destruction of the system by the substrate yield and coating fracture. Tribological studies, carried out in the ball-on-disc contact, showed a completely different character of wear of the systems for loads below and above the permissible level. The wear process was analyzed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) on thin films prepared from wear tracks by the focus ion beam technique (FIB)

173

Report of test and research results on atomic energy obtained in national institutes in fiscal 1990  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The tests and researches on the development and utilization of atomic energy in national laboratories were begun in 1956, and have accomplished the great role for the advance of the development and utilization of atomic energy in Japan by having produced many valuable results so far. Atomic energy has been utilized in diverse fields, and also in national laboratories, the research for expanding the development and utilization of atomic energy in food irradiation, medicine, agriculture, forestry, fishery and others in addition to the basic research on nuclear fusion and safety have been advanced. Further expecting the pervasive effect to general science and technology, the development of basic technology and integrated research are promoted from the viewpoint of new techical innovation and creative technology. This is 31st report in which the results of the tests and researches carried out by national laboratories in fiscal year 1990 are summarized. Nuclear fusion, safety research, food irradiation, cancer countermeasures, agriculture, forestry, fishery, medicine, mining and manufacture, power utilization, construction, radioactivation analysis and so on were the main subjects. (K.I.)

174

Report of test and research results on atomic energy obtained in national institutes in fiscal 1992  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The tests and researches on the development and utilization of atomic energy in national laboratories were begun in 1956, and have accomplished the great role for the advance of the development and utilization of atomic energy in Japan by having produced many valuable results so far. Atomic energy has been utilized not only in the field of nuclear power but also in diverse fields, and in national laboratories, the research for expanding the development and utilization of atomic energy in medicine, agriculture, forestry, fishery, radioactivation analysis and others in addition the basic research on nuclear fusion have been advanced. Further expecting the pervasive effect to general science and technology, the development of integrated research are promoted from the viewpoint of new technical innovation and creative technology. The safety research of nuclear facilities have been carried out to keep them high level on the basis of the yearly program enacted by Nuclear Safety Commission. This is the report No. 33, in which the results of the test and research in the fields of nuclear fusion safety research, food irradiation, cancer countermeasures, agriculture, forestry, fishery, medicine, mining and manufacture, power utilization, construction, radioactivation analysis carried on in fiscal 1992 are summarized. (J.P.N.)

175

How to obtain J-R curve from one test on one sample  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Operational definition of J concept is first examined. Then it is shown that conventional methods of experimental determination of J values are based on the following assumption: if the load-deflexion curve is known for one value of the crack length it is possible to know the load-deflexion curve for any value of the crack length. This assumption is generalized with the help of scale functions and formula giving J are deduced. Attention is given to the effect of crack propagation on J values. The same assumption is used to extract the crack length from the load-deflexion curve. As the real crack lengths are known before propagation occurs and at the end of the test, it is possible to achieve a good calibration of the material characteristic

176

Subcontracted R and D final report: analysis of samples obtained from GKT gasification test of Kentucky coal. Nonproprietary version  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A laboratory test program was performed to obtain detailed compositional data on the Gesellshaft fuer Kohle-Technologie (GKT) gasifier feed and effluent streams. GKT performed pilot gasification tests with Kentucky No. 9 coal and collected various samples which were analyzed by GKT and the Radian Corporation, Austin, Texas. The coal chosen had good liquefaction characteristics and a high gasification reactivity. No organic priority pollutants or PAH compounds were detected in the wash water, and solid waste leachates were within RCRA metals limits.

Raman, S.V.

1983-09-01

177

Outer-membrane PapC molecular usher discriminately recognizes periplasmic chaperone-pilus subunit complexes.  

OpenAIRE

P pili are highly ordered composite structures consisting of thin fibrillar tips joined end-to-end to rigid helical rods. The production of these virulence-associated structures requires a periplasmic chaperone (PapD) and an outer membrane protein (PapC) that is the prototype member of a newly recognized class of proteins that we have named "molecular ushers." Two in vitro assays showed that the preassembly complexes that PapD forms with the three most distal tip fibrillar proteins (PapG, Pap...

Dodson, K. W.; Jacob-dubuisson, F.; Striker, R. T.; Hultgren, S. J.

1993-01-01

178

CKI isoforms ? and ? regulate Star–PAP target messages by controlling Star–PAP poly(A) polymerase activity and phosphoinositide stimulation  

OpenAIRE

Star–PAP is a non-canonical, nuclear poly(A) polymerase (PAP) that is regulated by the lipid signaling molecule phosphatidylinositol 4,5 bisphosphate (PI4,5P2), and is required for the expression of a select set of mRNAs. It was previously reported that a PI4,5P2 sensitive CKI isoform, CKI? associates with and phosphorylates Star–PAP in its catalytic domain. Here, we show that the oxidative stress-induced by tBHQ treatment stimulates the CKI mediated phosphorylation of Star–PAP, which ...

Laishram, Rakesh S.; Barlow, Christy A.; Anderson, Richard A.

2011-01-01

179

Standard Test Method for Obtaining Char Density Profile of Ablative Materials by Machining and Weighing  

CERN Document Server

1.1 This test method covers the determination of the char density profile of a charred ablator that can be used with the following limitations: 1.1.1 The local surface imperfections must be removed, and the char must be able to be machined off in a plane parallel to the char-virgin material interface before the density profiles can be determined. 1.1.2 The char must be strong enough to withstand the machining and handling techniques employed. 1.1.3 The material should have orderly density variations. The total thickness of the char and degradation zone must be larger than the machining thicknesses required. 1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard. 1.2.1 Exception—Certain inch-pound equivalent units are included in parentheses for information only. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establis...

American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

1996-01-01

180

Automatic cervical cell segmentation and classification in Pap smears.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cervical cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer death in females worldwide. The disease can be cured if the patient is diagnosed in the pre-cancerous lesion stage or earlier. A common physical examination technique widely used in the screening is Papanicolaou test or Pap test. In this research, a method for automatic cervical cancer cell segmentation and classification is proposed. A single-cell image is segmented into nucleus, cytoplasm, and background, using the fuzzy C-means (FCM) clustering technique. Four cell classes in the ERUDIT and LCH datasets, i.e., normal, low grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL), high grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL), and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), are considered. The 2-class problem can be achieved by grouping the last 3 classes as one abnormal class. Whereas, the Herlev dataset consists of 7 cell classes, i.e., superficial squamous, intermediate squamous, columnar, mild dysplasia, moderate dysplasia, severe dysplasia, and carcinoma in situ. These 7 classes can also be grouped to form a 2-class problem. These 3 datasets were tested on 5 classifiers including Bayesian classifier, linear discriminant analysis (LDA), K-nearest neighbor (KNN), artificial neural networks (ANN), and support vector machine (SVM). For the ERUDIT dataset, ANN with 5 nucleus-based features yielded the accuracies of 96.20% and 97.83% on the 4-class and 2-class problems, respectively. For the Herlev dataset, ANN with 9 cell-based features yielded the accuracies of 93.78% and 99.27% for the 7-class and 2-class problems, respectively. For the LCH dataset, ANN with 9 cell-based features yielded the accuracies of 95.00% and 97.00% for the 4-class and 2-class problems, respectively. The segmentation and classification performances of the proposed method were compared with that of the hard C-means clustering and watershed technique. The results show that the proposed automatic approach yields very good performance and is better than its counterparts. PMID:24433758

Chankong, Thanatip; Theera-Umpon, Nipon; Auephanwiriyakul, Sansanee

2014-02-01

181

Insulin sensitivity obtained from the oral glucose tolerance test and its relationship with birthweight  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Glucose intolerance and insulin sensitivity in preadolescent children might predict the risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus in adult life in small for gestational age (SGA children. We aimed to investi-gate whether reduced birthweight is related to low insulin sensitivity in preadolescence. Subjects and Methods: Twenty-five SGA children and 29 appropriate for gestational age children (AGA children born between 1993 and 1994 were evaluated for insulin sensitivity in preadolescence. At the beginning of the study, body mass index (BMI was calculated and an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT was performed. Blood samples to measure glucose and insulin were taken every 30 minutes during OGTT. Homeostasis of model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR and composite index (CI values were measured to assess insulin sen-sitivity. Results: On the OGTT, 120-minute glucose and insulin levels were higher in SGA than AGA children ( P =0.02 and P =0.001, respectively. Although there was no difference between HOMA-IR values, the mean CI value was lower in SGA than AGA children ( P =0.001. There was an inverse correlation between birthweight and 120-min-ute glucose concentrations (r=-0.30, P =0.02. This correlation was stronger between birthweight and 120-min-ute insulin concentrations (r=-0.50, P =0.001. BMI was positively correlated with 120-minute insulin (r=0.50, P =0.001. There was no relationship between HOMA-IR values and birth size, but the CI index was positively correlated with birthweight (r=0.40, P =0.002. Conclusions: Birthweight may be a predictive factor for insulin sensitivity and CI is more reliable than HOMA-IR to assess this sensitivity in preadolescence.

Dallar Yildiz

2007-01-01

182

Intention to Obtain Genetic Testing for Melanoma among Individuals at Low to Moderate Risk for Hereditary Melanoma  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: Melanoma is a serious skin cancer that has been on the rise in the United States. Some genetic component is apparent. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to identify demographic, clinical, attitudinal, and health belief factors associated with intention to obtain genetic testing for hereditary melanoma among unaffected first-degree…

Vadaparampil, Susan T.; Azzarello, Lora; Pickard, Jennifer; Jacobsen, Paul B.

2007-01-01

183

SCREENING FOR HIGH-RISK HUMAN PAPILLOMAVIRUS BY REAL-TIME PCR AND ITS ASSOCIATION WITH CYTOLOGICAL ABNORMALITIES OF PAP SMEARS IN BAGHDAD  

OpenAIRE

Human Papillomaviruses (HPVs) are known to be etiological agents of cervical cancer and have been found in 99.7% of women with high-grade (HG) cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) pre-cancer. Testing of high-risk HPV (HR-HPV) has been proposed as a way of improving cervical screening, especially for women with low-grade (LG) Papanicolaou (Pap) smears. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the diagnostic correlation of real-time PCR technique with Pap smear results for 13 genot...

Saleh, D. S.; Fadhil, H. Y.; Al-hamdani, F. G.

2012-01-01

184

Making Sense of Your Pap and HPV Test Results  

Science.gov (United States)

... Exam to check the female reproductive organs. This exam is part of a woman’s routine health care visit. Your doctor will look at the outside of your genitals, or sex organs, to look for problems. Your ...

185

CT attenuation of paired HRCT scans obtained at full inspiratory/expiratory position: comparison with pulmonary function tests  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this prospective study was to measure lung attenuation at paired HRCT obtained at full inspiratory/expiratory position, to correlate with pulmonary function tests (PFTs) and to characterize different types of ventilatory impairment. One hundred fifty-five patients with and without pulmonary disease underwent paired HRCT obtained at full inspiratory/expiratory position. Three scan pairs were evaluated by densito- and planimetry using dedicated software. The PFTs were available for correlation in all patients (mean interval 5 days). Mean lung density (MLD) at full inspiration was -813 HU, and MLD at full expiration was -736 HU; both, as well as the expiratory attenuation increase, demonstrated significant correlations with static and dynamic lung volumes: up to r=0.68, p2 at inspiration, 190 cm2 at expiration), up to r=0.74 for the lung area in expiration and the intrathoracic gas volume. Inspiratory MLD and the expiratory attenuation increase were able to differentiate obstructive and restrictive ventilatory impairment from normal subjects, the best results were obtained from scans obtained at full expiratory position (p<0.05). In conclusion, scans obtaiition (p<0.05). In conclusion, scans obtained at full expiratory position reveal more functional information than scans obtained at full inspiratory position. Quantitative analysis of CT obtained at full expiratory position provides good estimations of static and dynamic lung volumes as well as significant differences between normal subjects and patients with ventilatory impairment. (orig.)

186

Missed Opportunities for Health Education on Pap Smears in Peru  

Science.gov (United States)

Despite cervical cancer being one of the leading causes of cancer-related deaths among women in Peru, cervical Pap smear coverage is low. This article uses findings from 185 direct clinician observations in four cities of Peru (representing the capital and each of the three main geographic regions of the country) to assess missed opportunities for health education on Pap smears and other preventive women’s health behaviors during women’s visits to a health care provider. Various types of health establishments, provider settings, and provider types were observed. Opportunities for patient education on the importance of prevention were rarely exploited. In fact, health education provided was minimal. Policy and programmatic implications are discussed. PMID:21464205

Bayer, Angela M.; Nussbaum, Lauren; Cabrera, Lilia; Paz-Soldan, Valerie A.

2013-01-01

187

Evidence for a methylation-blocking factor (mbf) locus involved in pap pilus expression and phase variation in Escherichia coli.  

OpenAIRE

Transcription of the pyelonephritis-associated pilus (pap) operon of Escherichia coli is subject to regulation by a phase variation control mechanism in which the pap pilin gene alternates between transcriptionally active (phase-on) and inactive (phase-off) states. Pap phase variation appears to involve differential inhibition of deoxyadenosine methylase (Dam) methylation of two pap GATC sites, GATC1028 and GATC1130, located in the regulatory region upstream of the papBA promoter. DNA from ph...

Braaten, B. A.; Blyn, L. B.; Skinner, B. S.; Low, D. A.

1991-01-01

188

Association of Pap Smear Abnormalities with Autoimmune Disorders  

OpenAIRE

Recently, it is hypothesized that there might be an association between immunological disorders and cervical premalignant and malignant abnormalities. Related studies have been generally focused on some particular autoimmune disease, specially the Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE). This study aimed at comparing the rate of Pap smear abnormalities in female patients with autoimmune diseases and normal counterparts. In a case-control setting, 118 female patients with various autoimmune disease...

Kazem Ghahremanzadeh; Heidarali Esmaeili

2011-01-01

189

Serum and urinary measurements of prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP) and prostatic specific antigen (PSA) in dogs / Mensurações sérica e urinária de fosfatase ácida prostática e antígeno prostático específico em cães  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Realizaram-se mensurações sérica e urinária de fosfatase ácida prostática (PAP) e antígeno prostático específico (PSA) de 20 cães. Os testes de PAP e PSA foram feitos em um equipamento automatizado, com o uso de kits comerciais para humanos. A média de PAP sérico foi de 0,7U/l e urinário 0,U/l. As m [...] édias do PSA sérico e urinário foram 0,005ng/dL e 0,004ng/dl, respectivamente. A determinação do dois biomarcadores in vivo é uma nova opção de diagnóstico na medicina veterinária e os valores obtidos devem ser correlacionados com a lesão morfológica da próstata. Abstract in english Serum and urinary prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP) and prostatic specific antigen (PSA) from 20 dogs were measured. PAP and PSA tests were carried out in authomatized equipment with commercial kits used for humans. Mean PAP serum value was 0.7U/l and urinary 0.1U/l. Mean serum and urinary PSA were 0 [...] .005ng/dl and 0.004ng/dl, respectively. In vivo determination of these two biomarkers in dogs is a new form of diagnosis in veterinary medicine and these values should be correlated with the morphological lesion of the prostate gland.

R.L., Amorim; V.M.B.D., Moura; G.W., Di Santis; E.P., Bandarra; C., Padovani.

2004-06-01

190

Serum and urinary measurements of prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP and prostatic specific antigen (PSA in dogs Mensurações sérica e urinária de fosfatase ácida prostática e antígeno prostático específico em cães  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Serum and urinary prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP and prostatic specific antigen (PSA from 20 dogs were measured. PAP and PSA tests were carried out in authomatized equipment with commercial kits used for humans. Mean PAP serum value was 0.7U/l and urinary 0.1U/l. Mean serum and urinary PSA were 0.005ng/dl and 0.004ng/dl, respectively. In vivo determination of these two biomarkers in dogs is a new form of diagnosis in veterinary medicine and these values should be correlated with the morphological lesion of the prostate gland.Realizaram-se mensurações sérica e urinária de fosfatase ácida prostática (PAP e antígeno prostático específico (PSA de 20 cães. Os testes de PAP e PSA foram feitos em um equipamento automatizado, com o uso de kits comerciais para humanos. A média de PAP sérico foi de 0,7U/l e urinário 0,U/l. As médias do PSA sérico e urinário foram 0,005ng/dL e 0,004ng/dl, respectivamente. A determinação do dois biomarcadores in vivo é uma nova opção de diagnóstico na medicina veterinária e os valores obtidos devem ser correlacionados com a lesão morfológica da próstata.

R.L. Amorim

2004-06-01

191

Fundamental studies of three radioimmunoassay kits measuring prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP) concentrations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Measurement of prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP) concentration is useful for the diagnosis and treatment of prostatic cancer. Fundamental studies of measurement of PAP concentration by radioimmunoassay were performed and values determined by three commercially available kits were compared, those are, PAP EIKEN RIA Kit (E kit), RIA Quant P.A.P. (M kit) and GammaDab PAP RIA Kit (C kit). Upper limits of normal PAP concentration were 3 ng/ml by E and M kits and 2 ng/ml by C kits, respectively. The reproducibility and the recovery studies of three kits were satisfactory. However, dilution curve of some patients was not strait. PAP concentration of 27 patients measured by three kits were correlated well to each other, but the discrepancy of values was noticed in high PAP concentrations. PAP concentration measured by RIA is more reliable than that by enzyme immunoassay. When keeping serum samples, the effect of time, temperature and freeze and thawing on PAP values was obvious. It is recommended that serum is separated at 40C as soon as possible after collecting blood and kept frozen until use. (author)

192

Viscoplastic-dynamic analyses of small-scale fracture tests to obtain crack arrest toughness values for PTS conditions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Reliable predictions of crack arrest at the high upper shelf toughness conditions involved in postulated pressurized thermal shock (PTS) events require procedures beyond those utilized in conventional fracture mechanics treatments. To develop such a procedure, viscoplastic-dynamic fracture mechanics finite element analyses, viscoplastic material characterization testing, and small-scale crack propagation and arrest experimentation are being combines in this research. The approach couples SwRI's viscoplastic-dynamic fracture mechanics finite element code VISCRK with experiments using duplex 4340/A533B steel compact specimens. The experiments are simulated by VISCRK computations employing the Bodner-Partom viscoplastic constitutive relation and the nonlinear fracture mechanics parameter T. The goal is to develop temperature-dependent crack arrest toughness values for A533B steel. While only room temperature KIa values have been obtained so far, these have been found to agree closely with those obtained from wide plate tests. (author)

193

Knowledge, attitude and practice related to the pap smear test among users of a primary health unit Conocimiento, actitud y práctica relacionada al examen de colposcopia entre usuarias de una unidad básica de salud Conhecimento, atitude e prática relacionada ao exame colpocitológico entre usuárias de uma unidade básica de saúde  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This KAP (knowledge, attitude and practice study, carried out from February to June 2008, aimed to evaluate the knowledge, attitude and practice regarding the Pap smear test among users of a primary health unit (PHU and to verify any association with sociodemographic variables. The sample was comprised of 250 women. The knowledge, attitude and practice related to the examination were adequate in 40.4%, 28% and 67.6% of respondents, respectively. The results demonstrate higher proportions of adequate knowledge and attitude with schooling (>9 years and age (>35 years. It is essential to seek specific answers regarding this issue in order to direct integrated actions of health education, thus ensuring greater access, adhesion and return of the women for the examination results.Estudio tipo encuesta CAP (conocimiento, actitud y práctica realizado en el período de febrero a junio de 2008, en el cual se objetivó evaluar el conocimiento, la actitud y la práctica del examen de colposcopia entre usuarias de una unidad básica de salud (UBS y verificar su asociación con variables sociodemográficas. La muestra estuvo constituida por 250 mujeres. El conocimiento, la actitud y la práctica sobre el examen fueron adecuadas en 40,4%, 28% y 67,6% de las entrevistadas, respectivamente. Los resultados encontrados evidenciaron proporciones más altas de conocimiento y actitud adecuados con la escolaridad (> 9 años y edad (> 35 años. Es esencial buscar respuestas específicas sobre esta problemática a fin de dirigir acciones integradas de educación en salud, garantizando, así, el mayor acceso, adhesión y retorno de las mujeres al examen.Este é um estudo tipo inquérito CAP (conhecimento, atitude e prática, realizado no período de fevereiro a junho de 2008, no qual se objetivou avaliar o conhecimento, a atitude e a prática do exame colpocitológico entre usuárias de uma unidade básica de saúde (UBS e verificar sua associação com variáveis sociodemográficas. A amostra foi composta por 250 mulheres. O conhecimento, a atitude e a prática sobre o exame foram adequados em 40,4, 28 e 67,6% das entrevistadas, respectivamente. Os resultados encontrados evidenciaram proporções mais altas de conhecimento e atitude adequados com escolaridade (>9 anos e idade (>35 anos. É essencial buscar respostas específicas a respeito dessa problemática, a fim de direcionar ações integradas de educação em saúde, garantindo, assim, o maior acesso, adesão e retorno das mulheres ao exame.

Camila Teixeira Moreira Vasconcelos

2011-02-01

194

New experimental limits on heavy neutrino mixing in 8B decay obtained with the BOREXINO counting test facility  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

If heavy neutrinos with mass m?H?2me are emitted in the decays of 8B in the Sun, then decays ?H??L+e++e- should be observed. The results of background measurements with the BOREXINO Counting Test Facility have been used to obtain bounds on the number of these decays. As a result, new limits on the coupling |UeH|2 of a massive neutrino in the range of 1.1 to 12 MeV have been derived (|UeH|2?10-3-10-5). The obtained limits on the mixing parameter are stronger than those obtained in the previous experiments using nuclear reactors and accelerators

195

Intelligent and nature inspired optimization methods in medicine : The Pap smear cell classification problem  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The classification problem consists of using some known objects, usually described by a large vector of features, to induce a model that classifies others into known classes. Feature selection is widely used as the first stage of the classification task to reduce the dimension of the problem, decrease noise and improve speed by the elimination of irrelevant or redundant features. The present paper deals with the optimization of nearest neighbour classifiers via intelligent and nature inspired algorithms for a very significant medical problem, the Pap smear cell classification problem. The algorithms used include tabu search, genetic algorithms, particle swarm optimization and ant colony optimization. The proposed complete algorithmic scheme is tested on two sets of data. The first consists of 917 images of Pap smear cells and the second set consists of 500 images, classified carefully by expert cyto-technicians and doctors. Each cell is described by 20 numerical features, and the cells fall into seven classesrepresenting a variety of normal and abnormal cases. Nevertheless, from the medical diagnosis viewpoint, a minimum requirement corresponds to the general two-class problem of correct separation between normal and abnormal cells.

Marinakis, Yannis; Marinaki, Magdalene

2009-01-01

196

Simulation of bright-field microscopy images depicting pap-smear specimen.  

Science.gov (United States)

As digital imaging is becoming a fundamental part of medical and biomedical research, the demand for computer-based evaluation using advanced image analysis is becoming an integral part of many research projects. A common problem when developing new image analysis algorithms is the need of large datasets with ground truth on which the algorithms can be tested and optimized. Generating such datasets is often tedious and introduces subjectivity and interindividual and intraindividual variations. An alternative to manually created ground-truth data is to generate synthetic images where the ground truth is known. The challenge then is to make the images sufficiently similar to the real ones to be useful in algorithm development. One of the first and most widely studied medical image analysis tasks is to automate screening for cervical cancer through Pap-smear analysis. As part of an effort to develop a new generation cervical cancer screening system, we have developed a framework for the creation of realistic synthetic bright-field microscopy images that can be used for algorithm development and benchmarking. The resulting framework has been assessed through a visual evaluation by experts with extensive experience of Pap-smear images. The results show that images produced using our described methods are realistic enough to be mistaken for real microscopy images. The developed simulation framework is very flexible and can be modified to mimic many other types of bright-field microscopy images. © 2015 The Authors. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of ISAC. PMID:25573002

Malm, Patrik; Brun, Anders; Bengtsson, Ewert

2015-03-01

197

Colposcopic evaluation of cervix with persistent inflammatory Pap smear: A prospective analytical study  

OpenAIRE

Background: Inflammatory Pap smear is the most common report received by a gynecologist. The cervical screening algorithm for benign cellular changes on the Pap smear recommends treatment of infection if indicated and a repeat Pap smear in 4 to 6 months time. If the inflammatory changes still persist, subject the patient to colposcopy. However, in practice, this is not followed, especially in developing countries like ours where proper screening protocols are not available. Hence, a good numb...

Dasari Papa; Rajathi S; Kumar Surendra

2010-01-01

198

The PapG tip adhesin of P fimbriae protects Escherichia coli from neutrophil bactericidal activity.  

OpenAIRE

Compared with Escherichia coli ORN103, a nonfimbriated K-12 strain, P-fimbriated E. coli ORN103/pPAP5 was found to interact poorly with human neutrophils and resist their bactericidal activity in vitro. PapG, the Gal alpha(1-->4)Gal binding moiety located at the distal end of the P fimbrial filament, appeared to be responsible for this effect because an isogenic PapG- mutant, E. coli ORN103/pPAP24, exhibited binding interactions with neutrophils that were similar to nonfimbriated E. coli ORN1...

Tewari, R.; Ikeda, T.; Malaviya, R.; Macgregor, J. I.; Little, J. R.; Hultgren, S. J.; Abraham, S. N.

1994-01-01

199

Genomic and Proteomic Analyses of the Terminally Redundant Genome of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa Phage PaP1: Establishment of Genus PaP1-Like Phages  

OpenAIRE

We isolated and characterized a new Pseudomonas aeruginosa myovirus named PaP1. The morphology of this phage was visualized by electron microscopy and its genome sequence and ends were determined. Finally, genomic and proteomic analyses were performed. PaP1 has an icosahedral head with an apex diameter of 68–70 nm and a contractile tail with a length of 138–140 nm. The PaP1 genome is a linear dsDNA molecule containing 91,715 base pairs (bp) with a G+C content of 49.36% and 12 tRNA genes. ...

Lu, Shuguang; Le, Shuai; Tan, Yinling; Zhu, Junmin; Li, Ming; Rao, Xiancai; Zou, Lingyun; Li, Shu; Wang, Jing; Jin, Xiaolin; Huang, Guangtao; Zhang, Lin; Zhao, Xia; Hu, Fuquan

2013-01-01

200

Fracture characteristics obtained from the instrumented impact test of A533B steel for reactor pressure vessel  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Analyses of the date obtained from the instrumented impact test and of its correlation with static and dynamic J integral values and various tensile properties are made in this study. It is shown that a dynamic bending yield load recorded in the instrumented Charpy V test can be easily converted to a dynamic tensile yield stress using Server's equation. It is also possible to estimate a true fracture strain, COD value, and SZW easily if the load point displacement is recorded. Temperature dependency of Charpy V energy and J integral values is rather well simulated by a curve fitting method. However, a half value transition temperture obtained in that method has no physical meaning. Dynamic J sub(ID) is larger than a static J sub(IC) in the ductile fracture range in this study. This rise is proportional to the yield stress ratio ?sub(yd)/?sub(y)(--1.2-1.3). It is found, therefore, that the following relation exists in the both cases; J sub(I)/?sub(y) = 1.6GOD. Gorrelation between the fracture toughness and tensile properties proposed by Hahn and Rosenfield shows a good result, but ROLFE-NOVAK'S equation on the impact value gives a poor one. (author)

201

To Test or Not to Test? The Role of Attitudes, Knowledge, and Religious Involvement among U.s. Adults on Intent-to-Obtain Adult Genetic Testing  

Science.gov (United States)

Genetic testing can advance cancer prevention if current screening behaviors improve. Increased prevalence of high-risk genotypes within specific religious groups, use of religious venues for recruiting to genetic screening, and ethical-religious considerations argue for exploring the role of religiosity in forming genetic testing decisions. This…

Botoseneanu, Anda; Alexander, Jeffrey A.; Banaszak-Holl, Jane

2011-01-01

202

An open-end burst test method to obtain uniaxial hoop tensile properties of fuel cladding in a hot cell  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The hoop stress–hoop strain relationship of fuel cladding is one of the essential input parameters for safety analysis of fuel rods. The three objectives of this paper were: to propose a burst test method for open-end tube specimens with the uniaxial hoop stress condition; to develop the necessary in-cell high temperature open-end burst (OEB) techniques to implement the method; and to determine the optimum specimen length for the proposed OEB test method. Silicone oil was selected as the pressurization medium, and it was sealed inside the specimens not by welding but by O-rings so that no axial tensile stress was induced in the specimens. The specimens with combined end plugs and O-rings were successfully assembled by manipulators in a hot cell, and a high temperature (?350 °C), high pressure (?100 MPa) seal was achieved. The optimum specimen length was determined by using ductile and embrittled tubes with various lengths of 30–60 mm and was found to be around 45 mm for typical BWR fuel rods. During the OEB test, internal pressure and diametral expansion were monitored to obtain the basic mechanical performance properties of the fuel cladding such as yield stress, ultimate strength, as well as the true hoop stress–hoop strain curve

203

Predictive permeability model of faults in crystalline rocks; verification by joint hydraulic factor (JH) obtained from water pressure tests  

Science.gov (United States)

In the present study, a new model is proposed to predict the permeability per fracture in the fault zones by a new parameter named joint hydraulic factor (JH). JH is obtained from Water Pressure Test (WPT) and modified by the degree of fracturing. The results of JH correspond with quantitative fault zone descriptions, qualitative fracture, and fault rock properties. In this respect, a case study was done based on the data collected from Seyahoo dam site located in the east of Iran to provide the permeability prediction model of fault zone structures. Datasets including scan-lines, drill cores, and water pressure tests in the terrain of Andesite and Basalt rocks were used to analyse the variability of in-site relative permeability of a range from fault zones to host rocks. The rock mass joint permeability quality, therefore, is defined by the JH. JH data analysis showed that the background sub-zone had commonly hydraulic tests (WPTs) and fracture frequency (FF) to calculate the JH parameter provides a possibility to describe a complex situation and compare, discuss, and weigh the hydraulic quality to make predictions as to the permeability models and permeation amounts of different zone structures.

Barani, Hamidreza Rostami; Lashkaripour, Gholamreza; Ghafoori, Mohammad

2014-08-01

204

An open-end burst test method to obtain uniaxial hoop tensile properties of fuel cladding in a hot cell  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The hoop stress–hoop strain relationship of fuel cladding is one of the essential input parameters for safety analysis of fuel rods. The three objectives of this paper were: to propose a burst test method for open-end tube specimens with the uniaxial hoop stress condition; to develop the necessary in-cell high temperature open-end burst (OEB) techniques to implement the method; and to determine the optimum specimen length for the proposed OEB test method. Silicone oil was selected as the pressurization medium, and it was sealed inside the specimens not by welding but by O-rings so that no axial tensile stress was induced in the specimens. The specimens with combined end plugs and O-rings were successfully assembled by manipulators in a hot cell, and a high temperature (?350 °C), high pressure (?100 MPa) seal was achieved. The optimum specimen length was determined by using ductile and embrittled tubes with various lengths of 30–60 mm and was found to be around 45 mm for typical BWR fuel rods. During the OEB test, internal pressure and diametral expansion were monitored to obtain the basic mechanical performance properties of the fuel cladding such as yield stress, ultimate strength, as well as the true hoop stress–hoop strain curve.

Nakatsuka, Masafumi, E-mail: nakatsuka@nfd.co.jp [Nippon Nuclear Fuel Development Co., Ltd., 2163 Narita-cho, Higashi-Ibaraki-gun, Ibaraki-ken 311-1313 (Japan); Aita, Makoto; Sakamoto, Kan; Higuchi, Toru [Nippon Nuclear Fuel Development Co., Ltd., 2163 Narita-cho, Higashi-Ibaraki-gun, Ibaraki-ken 311-1313 (Japan)

2013-03-15

205

An open-end burst test method to obtain uniaxial hoop tensile properties of fuel cladding in a hot cell  

Science.gov (United States)

The hoop stress-hoop strain relationship of fuel cladding is one of the essential input parameters for safety analysis of fuel rods. The three objectives of this paper were: to propose a burst test method for open-end tube specimens with the uniaxial hoop stress condition; to develop the necessary in-cell high temperature open-end burst (OEB) techniques to implement the method; and to determine the optimum specimen length for the proposed OEB test method. Silicone oil was selected as the pressurization medium, and it was sealed inside the specimens not by welding but by O-rings so that no axial tensile stress was induced in the specimens. The specimens with combined end plugs and O-rings were successfully assembled by manipulators in a hot cell, and a high temperature (?350 °C), high pressure (?100 MPa) seal was achieved. The optimum specimen length was determined by using ductile and embrittled tubes with various lengths of 30-60 mm and was found to be around 45 mm for typical BWR fuel rods. During the OEB test, internal pressure and diametral expansion were monitored to obtain the basic mechanical performance properties of the fuel cladding such as yield stress, ultimate strength, as well as the true hoop stress-hoop strain curve.

Nakatsuka, Masafumi; Aita, Makoto; Sakamoto, Kan; Higuchi, Toru

2013-03-01

206

Fluorescence Spectrum and Decay Measurement for Hsil VS Normal Cytology Differentiation in Liquid Pap Smear Supernatant  

Science.gov (United States)

Cervical smear material contains endo and exocervical cells, mucus and inflammative, immune cells in cases of pathology. Just not destroyed keratinocytes lay on the glass for microscopy. Liquid cytology supernatant apart other diagnostics could be used for photodiagnostic. The spectroscopic parameters suitable for Normal and HSIL cytology groups supernatant differentiation are demonstrated. The dried liquid PAP supernatant fractions—sediment and liquid were investigated. Excitation and emission matrices (EEM), supernatant fluorescence decay measured under 280 nm diode short pulse excitation and fluorescence spectroscopy by excitation with 355 nm laser light were analyzed. The differences between Normal and HSIL groups were statistically proven in the certain spectral regions. Fluorescence decay peculiarities show spectral regions consisting of few fluorophores. Obtained results on fluorescence differences in Normal and HSIL groups' supernatant shows the potency of photodiagnosis application in cervical screening.

Vaitkuviene, A.; Gegzna, V.; Juodkazis, S.; Jursenas, S.; Miasojedovas, S.; Kurtinaitiene, R.; Rimiene, J.; Vaitkus, J.

2009-06-01

207

Association of Oral Contraceptives and Abnormal Pap Smear  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available To assess the hypothesis that combined Oral Contraceptive (OCs increase the risk of cervical neoplasia, we conducted a multicenter Case-Control study in Mashhad, the capital of Khorasan province. Seventy-eight women with moderate to severe dysplasia at Pap smear as case group and one hundred fifty nine women with normal Pap smear were selected as the control group for evaluation. The both case and control groups were matched by age, parity and socioeconomic status. All of the women in this study were single partner as husband and no smoker. 30 percent of cases and 64.8 percent of controls were used OCs. The duration of OCs use was the same in both. The odds ratio for OCs consumption was 0.2 with 95% confidence interval 0.11-0.4 in Logistic regression analysis. In contrast to some other studies, our findings showed an association between OCs and cervical dysplasia and there was a protective effect of OCs for cervical dysplasia.

Sayedmohsen Sayednozadi

2005-01-01

208

DIAGNOSTIC VALUE OF COLPOSCOPY IN PATIENTS WITH ABNORMAL PAP SMEAR  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available  

Introduction: In order to reduce invasive cervical cancer, it is necessary to follow presisly the patients with abnormal pap smear. Simply, repeating the cytologic assessment in patints with atypical pap smear will result in missing 26-83 percent of squamous intraepithelial lesions and most alarming 50 percent of invasive cancers. Considering the contraversy of different study reports about the diagnostic value of colposcopy in confirming the abnormal papsmear, this study was conducted to determine the sensitivity and specificity of colposcopy based on the results of biopsy in women referred to hospitals of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences (IUMS.
Methods: In a prospective study, we selected randomly 210 women from 700 patints who reffered to the hospitals of IUMS. These women were examined and biopsied simultaneously. The data was collected by a structured interview according to the demographic characteristics and then was analyzed using EPI software.
Results. From 210 subjects, only 125 were reported to have abnormal cervical cytologic. The sensitivity came out to be 97.29 percent and specificity was 43.20 percent.
Discussion. In Iran, according to the sensitivity and specificity for colposcpic examination, it can be suggested that in final evaluation of abnormal papsmears, colposcopic assesment of the cervix can be considered as the next appropriate step.

T ALLAMEH

2001-12-01

209

Perfusion from angiogram and a priori (PAP) with temporal regularization  

Science.gov (United States)

Perfusion imaging is often used for diagnosis and for assessment of the response to the treatment. If perfusion can be measured during interventional procedures, it could lead to quantitative, more efficient and accurate treatment; however, imaging modalities that allow continuous dynamic scanning are not available in most of procedure rooms. Thus, we developed a method to measure the perfusion-time attenuation curves (TACs)-of regions-of-interest (ROIs) using xray C-arm angiography system with no gantry rotation but with a priori. The previous study revealed a problem of large oscillations in the estimated TACs and the lack of comparison with CT-based approaches. Thus the purposes of this study were (1) to reduce the variance of TDCs; and (2) to compare the performance of the improved PAP with that of the CT-based perfusion method. Our computer simulation study showed that the standard deviation of PAP method was decreased by 10.7-59.0% and that it outperformed (20× or 200× times) higher dose CT methods in terms of the accuracy, variance, and the temporal resolution.

Taguchi, Katsuyuki; Geschwind, Jean-Francois H.

2009-02-01

210

Factors related to the practice of breast self examination (BSE and Pap smear screening among Malaysian women workers in selected electronics factories  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The Malaysian Ministry of Health promotes breast self-examination (BSE for all women, and Pap smear screening every three years for all sexually active women ages 20 years and above. The objectives of this paper were to examine the practice of these two screening tests among women production workers in electronics factories, and to identify factors related to practice. Methods This was a cross-sectional survey of women production workers from ten electronics factories. Data was collected by a self-administered questionnaire from a total of 1,720 women. The chi-square test, odds ratio and binomial logistic regression were used in bivariate and multivariate analysis. Results Prevalence rates were 24.4% for BSE once a month, and 18.4% for Pap smear examination within the last three years. Women who were significantly more likely to perform BSE every month were 30 years and older, Malays, with upper secondary education and above, answered the BSE question correctly, and had a Pap smear within the last three years. The proportion of women who had a Pap smear within the last three years were significantly higher among those who were older, married, with young children, on the contraceptive pill or intra-uterine device, had a medical examination within the last five years, answered the Pap smear question correctly, and performed BSE monthly. Conclusion Screening practice rates in this study were low when compared to national rates. Socio-demographic and health care factors significantly associated with screening practice are indicative of barriers which should be further understood so that more effective educational and promotional strategies could be developed.

Shamsuddin K

2003-05-01

211

Determining the interobserver reproducibility of Pap smears in the diagnosis of epithelial cell abnormalities  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available "n 800x600 Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";} Background: Cancer of uterine cervix is the second cause of death in women in the world and the most common cause in developing countries. Because the majority of women with invasive cervical cancer of the uterine have not previously undergone screening, many clinicians assume that Pap smear has a high degree of accuracy; but problems such as false positive and false negative interpretations, as well as interobserver variability have questioned its validity."n"nMethods : We retrieved 162 positive cervical smears that had been originally interpreted as ASC-US, ASC-H, LSIL, HSIL, SCC, AGC and adenocarcinoma from the cytology archives of Women's Hospital in Tehran, Iran. The slides were rescreened by an experienced pathologist and reclassified in the mentioned categories. All the 162 slides were reviewed by three more pathologists in a blind study using interpretative criteria utilized in their daily routine to evaluate interobserver reproducibility. To increase the level of interobserver agreement, the diagnostic categories were reduced to squamous Vs. glandular abnormalities and invasive (SCC and adenocarcinoma Vs. non-invasive abnormalities."n"nResults : The results obtained in this study indicated slight interobserver agreement (k=0.26. The most reproducible category was the invasive category (SCC in addition to adenocarcinoma and the least agreement was seen for HSIL (k=0.19. "n"nConclusion: This study showed that reproducibility of cytological interpretation of conventional Pap smears varies among interpretive categories and the overall interobserver agreement is slight. Since convening on the reduction of interobserver discrepancy in Pap smear interpretations necessitates more reliable information of interpretative variability, larger studies need to be undertaken.

Izadi-Mood N

2011-07-01

212

IFPE/CAGR-UOX-SWELL, Fuel swelling Data Obtained from the AGR/Halden Ramp Test Programme  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Description: An extensive study of fuel swelling in oxide fuel has been performed on fuel which has been ramp-tested in the Halden Heavy Boiling Water Reactor. The ramp-tests were performed to study the mechanisms of P CI in Advanced Gas-cooled Reactor fuel (AGR) but the initial clad deformation measurements were later supplemented by the use of Transmission Electron Microscopy (Tem) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (Sem). The driving force for P CI arises from a combination of pellet thermal expansion and the creation of fission gas porosity during a temperature/rating transient. Fuel specimens from thirteen ramped rods and two control-reference rods have been examined using Tem and Sem. Swelling measurements have been made at four or five radial locations in the fuel. At least six full grain boundaries were used for the inter-granular study at each location and three complete trans-granular fractures employed for the intra-granular bubbles. In the latter case, the trans-granular regions were examined under very high magnifications to reveal pores as small as 20-25 nm diameter. The Sem study comprises nearly three thousand micrographs. The microscope study was augmented by use of the Enigma fuel modelling code to obtain estimates of the local temperatures and conditions from which the Sem/Tem samples were obtained. Nea-1705/02: The analysis from the 4135, 4136 and 4140 data has been incorporated. Data 4000, 4004, 4064, 4065, 4162, and 4163 have been revised. Many of 4162, and 4163 have been revised. Many of the tables have been improved. The main report has been extensively modified from the earlier version

213

Identification and Characterization of Inorganic Pyrophosphatase and PAP Phosphatase from Thermococcus onnurineus NA1?  

OpenAIRE

Two hypothetical genes were functionally verified to be a pyrophosphatase and a PAP phosphatase in Thermococcus onnurineus NA1. This is the first report of the pyrophosphatases and the PAP phosphatases being organized in the gene clusters of the sulfate activation system only in T. onnurineus NA1 and “Pyrococcus abyssi.”

Lee, Hyun Sook; Kim, Yun Jae; Lee, Jung-hyun; Kang, Sung Gyun

2009-01-01

214

CO2-opgørelse, 2010 for Stena Miljø : Genanvendelse af papir, pap og plast  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

CO2-opgørelsen for oparbejdning af papir, pap og plast fra genbrugspladser og virksomheder er udført med henblik på at kvantificere: • CO2-belastningen fra selve sorteringsanlægget og tilknyttet transport • CO2-belastningen fra de enkelte led i hele oparbejdningskæden inklusiv potentielle besparelser ved fremstilling af papir, pap og plast frem for fra jomfruelige ressourcer.

Pedersen, Henning; Leinikka Dall, Ole

215

Genomic and proteomic analyses of the terminally redundant genome of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa phage PaP1: establishment of genus PaP1-like phages.  

Science.gov (United States)

We isolated and characterized a new Pseudomonas aeruginosa myovirus named PaP1. The morphology of this phage was visualized by electron microscopy and its genome sequence and ends were determined. Finally, genomic and proteomic analyses were performed. PaP1 has an icosahedral head with an apex diameter of 68-70 nm and a contractile tail with a length of 138-140 nm. The PaP1 genome is a linear dsDNA molecule containing 91,715 base pairs (bp) with a G+C content of 49.36% and 12 tRNA genes. A strategy to identify the genome ends of PaP1 was designed. The genome has a 1190 bp terminal redundancy. PaP1 has 157 open reading frames (ORFs). Of these, 143 proteins are homologs of known proteins, but only 38 could be functionally identified. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry allowed identification of 12 ORFs as structural protein coding genes within the PaP1 genome. Comparative genomic analysis indicated that the Pseudomonas aeruginosa phage PaP1, JG004, PAK_P1 and vB_PaeM_C2-10_Ab1 share great similarity. Besides their similar biological characteristics, the phages contain 123 core genes and have very close phylogenetic relationships, which distinguish them from other known phage genera. We therefore propose that these four phages be classified as PaP1-like phages, a new phage genus of Myoviridae that infects Pseudomonas aeruginosa. PMID:23675441

Lu, Shuguang; Le, Shuai; Tan, Yinling; Zhu, Junmin; Li, Ming; Rao, Xiancai; Zou, Lingyun; Li, Shu; Wang, Jing; Jin, Xiaolin; Huang, Guangtao; Zhang, Lin; Zhao, Xia; Hu, Fuquan

2013-01-01

216

PapR peptide maturation: role of the NprB protease in Bacillus cereus 569 PlcR/PapR global gene regulation.  

Science.gov (United States)

The global transcriptional regulator PlcR controls gene expression in Bacillus cereus and Bacillus thuringiensis. Activity of PlcR is regulated by PapR, the product of an ORF located immediately downstream of plcR. To be active in B. cereus, PapR must be secreted and then processed to the mature peptide by an unknown protease. This peptide is transported by an oligopeptide permease into the cell, where it activates PlcR. In this study, we show that the neutral protease B (NprB) secreted by B. cereus 569 is required for extracellular PapR maturation. Purified recombinant NprB processed the synthetic PapR propeptide to produce a set of peptides derived from the C-terminal domain of PapR. Supplementation of growth media with synthetic PapR-derived C-terminal 5-, 7-, 8- and 27-amino acid (aa) peptides caused activation of intracellular PlcR in a PapR-deficient strain of B. cereus 569 while only the 5- and 7-aa peptides activated PlcR in a nprB mutant. The maximum activity was found for the 7-mer peptide. However, even the 7-mer peptide could not activate PlcR with a C-terminal truncation of as few as 6 aa. This indicates that interactions of the C-terminal regions of both PlcR and PapR are important in transcriptional activation of the B. cereus 569 PlcR regulon. PMID:19159431

Pomerantsev, Andrei P; Pomerantseva, Olga M; Camp, Andrew S; Mukkamala, Radhika; Goldman, Stanley; Leppla, Stephen H

2009-04-01

217

Manduca sexta proprophenoloxidase activating proteinase-3 (PAP3) stimulates melanization by activating proPAP3, proSPHs, and proPOs  

OpenAIRE

Melanization participates in various insect physiological processes including antimicrobial immune responses. Phenoloxidase (PO), a critical component of the enzyme system catalyzing melanin formation, is produced as an inactive precursor prophenoloxidase (proPO) and becomes active via specific proteolytic cleavage by proPO activating proteinase (PAP). In Manduca sexta, three PAPs can activate proPOs in the presence of two serine proteinase homologs (SPH1 and SPH2). While the hemolymph protei...

Wang, Yang; Lu, Zhiqiang; Jiang, Haobo

2014-01-01

218

Molecular cloning, genomic organization, and chromosomal localization of the human pancreatitis-associated protein (PAP) gene  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Pancreatitis-associated protein (PAP) is a secretory pancreatic protein present in small amounts in normal pancreas and overexpressed during the acute phase of pancreatitis. In this paper, the authors describe the cloning, characterization, and chromosomal mapping of the human PAP gene. The gene spans 2748 bp and contains six exons interrupted by five introns. The gene has a typical promoter containing the sequences TATAAA and CCAAT 28 and 52 bp upstream of the cap site, respectively. They found striking similarities in genomic organization as well as in the promoter sequences between the human and rat PAP genes. The human PAP gene was mapped to chromosome 2p12 using rodent-human hybrid cells and in situ chromosomal hybridization. This localization coincides with that of the reg/lithostathine gene, which encodes a pancreatic secretory protein structurally related to PAP, suggesting that both genes derived from the same ancestral gene by duplication. 35 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

Dusetti, N.J.; Frigerio, J.M.; Dagorn, J.C.; Iovanna, J.L. (U.315 Inserm, Marseille (France)); Fox, M.F.; Swallow, D.M. (Galton Lab., London (United Kingdom))

1994-01-01

219

Relation between serum PAP (prostate acid phosphatase) and bone scintigraphy in prostatic cancer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Seventy-seven patients with prostatic cancer were treated at our department in the last 5 years. Of these patients 30 cases were followed by bone scintigraphy and serum PAP. In 27 follow-up scintigraphy procedures changes of bone scintigraphy corresponded to changes in serum PAP levels. Changes of PAP levels did not always correspond to changes of scintigraphy, but almost all cases in which the level of PAP increased in a short period showed progression of bone metastasis. A 3-month interval between bone scintigraphy procedure in stage D2 prostatic cancer patients is generally recommended. However, we think that in prostatic cancer patients follow-up bone scintigraphy at regular short intervals is unnecessary if there is no change in serum PAP levels, symptoms or physical condition. Bone scintigraphy should be performed when the tumor marker changes rapidly or when any physical symptom appears. (author)

220

First experiences with commercial RIA kits for prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Five commercial PAP RIA kits were intercompared by common RIA quality control criteria. All RIAs performed basically well although some differences existed in respect to concentration range, specific and non-specific binding, 50%-intercept, sensitivity and measurements of serum PAP in male and female controls. The latter finding may have been due to differences in antigen purity, antiserum specificity and composition of the assay medium employed. Good correlation was found between PAP determination by RIA and by enzyme assay. First measurements of PAP in patients treated for prostatic carcinoma being performed for orientation purposes are demonstrated. The PAP RIA has been introduced into our routine diagnostic and follow-up of prostatic carcinoma. (orig.)

221

Relation between serum PAP (prostate acid phosphatase) and bone scintigraphy in prostatic cancer  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Seventy-seven patients with prostatic cancer were treated at our department in the last 5 years. Of these patients 30 cases were followed by bone scintigraphy and serum PAP. In 27 follow-up scintigraphy procedures changes of bone scintigraphy corresponded to changes in serum PAP levels. Changes of PAP levels did not always correspond to changes of scintigraphy, but almost all cases in which the level of PAP increased in a short period showed progression of bone metastasis. A 3-month interval between bone scintigraphy procedure in stage D2 prostatic cancer patients is generally recommended. However, we think that in prostatic cancer patients follow-up bone scintigraphy at regular short intervals is unnecessary if there is no change in serum PAP levels, symptoms or physical condition. Bone scintigraphy should be performed when the tumor marker changes rapidly or when any physical symptom appears. (author).

Aizawa, Taku; Itoh, Takaaki; Tsujino, Susumu; Namiki, Kazunori; Miki, Makoto (Tokyo Medical Coll. (Japan))

1992-11-01

222

Bone scintigraphy, plasma ALP, TAP and PAP in patients with prostatic cancer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study assessed the ability of bone scintigraphy, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), total acid phosphatase (TAP), and prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP) to diagnose bone metastasis in a series of 62 patients with histologically proven prostatic cancer. Abnormal uptake was seen on the bone scan in 49 patients (79 %). A final diagnosis of bone metastasis was made in 40 patients (65 %). The sensitivity and specificity were 100 % and 59 %, respectively, for bone scintigraphy; 50 % and 96 % for ALP; 65 % and 82 % for TAP; and 73 % and 77 % for PAP. For 40 patients with bone metastasis, all of the ALP, TAP, and PAP were positive in 17 patients (43 %) and negative in 8 patients (20 %). Higher levels of ALP, TAP, and PAP tended to be associated with more extensive bone metastasis. Although serological examination showed lower sensitivity than bone scintigraphy in the diagnosis of bone metastasis, PAP may be most frequently used as a screening procedure of bone metastasis. (Namekawa, K.)

223

Recombinant Mouse PAP Has pH-Dependent Ectonucleotidase Activity and Acts through A1-Adenosine Receptors to Mediate Antinociception  

OpenAIRE

Prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP) is expressed in nociceptive neurons and functions as an ectonucleotidase. When injected intraspinally, the secretory isoforms of human and bovine PAP protein have potent and long-lasting antinociceptive effects that are dependent on A1-adenosine receptor (A1R) activation. In this study, we purified the secretory isoform of mouse (m)PAP using the baculovirus expression system to determine if recombinant mPAP also had antinociceptive properties. We found that mP...

Sowa, Nathaniel A.; Vadakkan, Kunjumon I.; Zylka, Mark J.

2009-01-01

224

A novel scheme for abnormal cell detection in Pap smear images  

Science.gov (United States)

Finding malignant cells in Pap smear images is a "needle in a haystack"-type problem, tedious, labor-intensive and error-prone. It is therefore desirable to have an automatic screening tool in order that human experts can concentrate on the evaluation of the more difficult cases. Most research on automatic cervical screening tries to extract morphometric and texture features at the cell level, in accordance with the NIH "The Bethesda System" rules. Due to variances in image quality and features, such as brightness, magnification and focus, morphometric and texture analysis is insufficient to provide robust cervical cancer detection. Using a microscopic spectral imaging system, we have produced a set of multispectral Pap smear images with wavelengths from 400 nm to 690 nm, containing both spectral signatures and spatial attributes. We describe a novel scheme that combines spatial information (including texture and morphometric features) with spectral information to significantly improve abnormal cell detection. Three kinds of wavelet features, orthogonal, bi-orthogonal and non-orthogonal, are carefully chosen to optimize recognition performance. Multispectral feature sets are then extracted in the wavelet domain. Using a Back-Propagation Neural Network classifier that greatly decreases the influence of spurious events, we obtain a classification error rate of 5%. Cell morphometric features, such as area and shape, are then used to eliminate most remaining small artifacts. We report initial results from 149 cells from 40 separate image sets, in which only one abnormal cell was missed (TPR = 97.6%) and one normal cell was falsely classified as cancerous (FPR = 1%).

Zhao, Tong; Wachman, Elliot S.; Farkas, Daniel L.

2004-07-01

225

Pap smears for men: a vision of the future?  

LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

BACKGROUND: Anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN) rarely receives as much publicity as its neighbouring orifice, the cervix. As in the cervix, intraepithelial neoplasias are precursors to cancer in the anal canal. AIN and cervical interstitial neoplasia (CIN) undergo dysplasia as a consequence of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. Since the advent of screening with the Pap smear in CIN, cervical cancer has plummeted to a fifth of its initial incidence. Anal cancer, however, has been rising, with a predilection for human immunodeficiency virus-infected men. HPV causes a squamous epithelial dysplasia and converts healthy tissue into AINs of increasing severity until anal cancer manifests. CLINICAL CASE: This article describes a clinical case of anogenital HPV infection refractory to medical and surgical therapy. It also describes an effective surgical excision technique associated with a good cosmetic outcome. CONCLUSIONS: The paper concludes by briefly discussing the implications of a national screening programme against AIN in the future.

Oon, S F

2012-02-01

226

A very rare case of HPV-53-related cervical cancer, in a 79-year-old woman with a previous history of negative Pap cytology  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Roberta Zappacosta,1 Giuseppe Lattanzio,2 Patrizia Viola,2 Manuel Maria Ianieri,3 Daniela Maria Pia Gatta,1 Sandra Rosini11Cytopathology Unit, Experimental and Clinical Sciences Department, Gabriele d’Annunzio University of Chieti-Pescara, Chieti, Italy; 2Surgical Pathology Unit, 3Obstetrics and Gynecology Unit, SS Annunziata Hospital, Chieti, ItalyAbstract: The introduction of organized cervical cancer (CC screening programs has drastically reduced the prevalence of CC. However the incidence is still too high, especially among elderly women. All guidelines strongly recommend a regular Papanicolaou (Pap testing for young and middle-aged patients. On the other hand, many international professional societies no longer advise screening in women who have undergone hysterectomy, and in women aged 65 years and above, who have a previous history of regular Pap smears. Here we report the case of poorly differentiated CC, involving the pelvic lymph nodes and urinary bladder, occurring in a 79-year-old woman who regularly underwent Pap tests, with no reported cytological abnormalities. In this very rare case, the CC cells, as well as cells from metastatic lymph nodes and cells from urinary specimens, molecularly showed human papilloma virus (HPV-53. With the limitations of a single case, this report brings important information to prevent CC in elderly patients: the utility of molecular tests to increase sensitivity of Pap smears in postmenopausal women; the importance of HPV-53 as one of the four “emergent” genotypes having a possible role in oncogenesis; and the presence of HPV-53 in lymph node metastases from cervical carcinoma, which would support the role of this virus in the maintenance of malignant status.Keywords: old women, molecular tests, cervical cancer screening, HPV-DNA test, HPV genotyping

Zappacosta R

2014-04-01

227

Predominance of the PapGII allele among avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) with high sequence homology to human isolates.  

Science.gov (United States)

Avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) is often found in poultry and is responsible for a set of diseases, commonly referred to as avian colibacillosis. One of the important virulence factors is adhesion to different epithelial surfaces, which is mediated by pili. P pili are thought to play a role by means of their PapG adhesin, which occurs in three molecular variants: PapGI, PapGII and PapGIII. This study is the first to determine and analyze the distribution of the different papG alleles in avian E. coli strains. Our results show a significant predominance of allele papGII above all other alleles or allele combinations. No statistically significant associations could be found between papG allele distribution and the animal breed, organ of isolation and serotype. The papGII and papGIII sequences showed a high homology with mammalian (including human) papG sequences, implicating a possible zoonosis. Finally, due to its predominant character, papGII is a promising potential vaccine candidate for APEC. PMID:24757808

Vandemaele, F J; Mugasa, J P; Goddeeris, B M

2003-01-01

228

Quantum Properties of a General Path Deviation Equation in the Pap-Geometry  

CERN Document Server

A path deviation equation in the Parameterized Absolute Parallelism (PAP) geometry is derived. This equation includes curvature and torsion terms. These terms are found to be naturally quantized. The equation represents the deviation from a general path equation, in the PAP-geometry, derived by the author in a previous work. It is shown that, as the effect of the torsion, on the deviation, increases, the effect of the curvature decreases. It is also shown that the general path deviation equation can be reduced to the geodesic deviation equation if PAP-geometry becomes Riemannian. The equation can be used to study the deviation from the trajectories of spinning elementary particles.

Wanas, M I

2004-01-01

229

Correlation between extent of metastatic lesions in whole body bone scintigraphy of patients with prostatic cancer and prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP) in blood by PAP RIA kit 'Eiken'  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Whole body bone scintigraphy of thirteen patients who were pathohistologically confirmed prostatic cancer was processed by four colors, and then the extent of bone metastases was estimated quantitatively. On the basis of this estimation, the grade of the expansion of bone metastases was classified into 4 grades (0, 1, 2, and 3 grades). And then, correlations of the expantion of bone metastases with PAP, AcP and AlP levels in blood were investigated. The results are as follows: 1) Correlation between the extent of bone metastases and PAP levels was relatively high (r = 0.81). 2) As for the relation between the expansion grade of bone metastases and PAP levels, the levels did not increase in 0 and 1 grades, but markedly increased in 2 and 3 grades. AcP also showed a little similar tendency. 3) In the correlation of PAP with AcP and with AlP, AcP (r = 0.78) was higher than AlP (r = 0.42). 4) Therefore, PAP levels seem to be a good index of the extent of bone metastases in prostatic cancer. (author)

230

SCREENING FOR HIGH-RISK HUMAN PAPILLOMAVIRUS BY REAL-TIME PCR AND ITS ASSOCIATION WITH CYTOLOGICAL ABNORMALITIES OF PAP SMEARS IN BAGHDAD  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Human Papillomaviruses (HPVs are known to be etiological agents of cervical cancer and have been found in 99.7% of women with high-grade (HG cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN pre-cancer. Testing of high-risk HPV (HR-HPV has been proposed as a way of improving cervical screening, especially for women with low-grade (LG Papanicolaou (Pap smears. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the diagnostic correlation of real-time PCR technique with Pap smear results for 13 genotypes of HR-HPV in 415 of suspected women. Pap smear results showed the suspected women with abnormal and normal cytological changes were 79.3% (329/415 and 20.7% (86/415, respectively. In contrast, real-time PCR results showed that women with or without abnormal changes had HR-HPV DNA positive were 50.5% (166/329 and 10.5% (9/86, respectively. Thus, Pap smear results had no sensitive to predicate risky for LG-CIN women were observed. According to the real-time PCR results, the incident of HG or cancer was more associated with HR-HPV. Our findings indicated the real-time PCR test with the cytological test as a routine practice for women with LG-CIN reduces the incidence of HG or cancer. After that, the prospective studies should be appropriated to determine HR-HPV genotypes and viral load (copies/cell with real-time PCR test as predicate risk-factor.

SALEH D.S.

2012-12-01

231

PAP-1, the mutated gene underlying the RP9 form of dominant retinitis pigmentosa, is a splicing factor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

PAP-1 is an in vitro phosphorylation target of the Pim-1 oncogene. Although PAP-1 binds to Pim-1, it is not a substrate for phosphorylation by Pim-1 in vivo. PAP-1 has recently been implicated as the defective gene in RP9, one type of autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa (adRP). However, RP9 is a rare disease and only two missense mutations have been described, so the report of a link between PAP-1 and RP9 was tentative. The precise cellular role of PAP-1 was also unknown at that time. We now report that PAP-1 localizes in nuclear speckles containing the splicing factor SC35 and interacts directly with another splicing factor, U2AF35. Furthermore, we used in vitro and in vivo splicing assays to show that PAP-1 has an activity, which alters the pattern of pre-mRNA splicing and that this activity is dependent on the phosphorylation state of PAP-1. We used the same splicing assay to examine the activities of two mutant forms of PAP-1 found in RP9 patients. The results showed that while one of the mutations, H137L, had no effect on splicing activity compared with that of wild-type PAP-1, the other, D170G, resulted in both a defect in splicing activity and a decreased proportion of phosphorylated PAP-1. The D170G mutation may therefore cause RP by altering splicing of retinal genes through a decrease in PAP-1 phosphorylation. These results demonstrate that PAP-1 has a role in pre-mRNA splicing and, given that three other splicing factors have been implicated in adRP, thg factors have been implicated in adRP, this finding provides compelling further evidence that PAP-1 is indeed the RP9 gene

232

Predominance of the papGII allele with high sequence homology to that of human isolates among avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC).  

Science.gov (United States)

Avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) are often found in poultry and are responsible for a set of diseases, commonly referred to as avian colibacillosis. One of the important virulence factors is adhesion to different epithelial surfaces, which is mediated by pili. P pili are thought to play a role by means of their PapG adhesin, which occurs in three molecular variants: PapGI, PapGII and PapGIII. This study is the first to determine and analyse the distribution of the different papG alleles in APEC. Our results show a significant predominance of the papGII allele above all other alleles or allele combinations. No statistically significant associations could be found between papG allele distribution and the type of bird, organ of isolation and O serogroup. Finally, the papGII and papGIII sequences showed high homology with mammalian (including human) source papG sequences. PMID:14654294

Vandemaele, Fréderic J; Mugasa, Joseph Pascal; Vandekerchove, D; Goddeeris, Bruno Maria

2003-12-30

233

Comparison of HFNC, bubble CPAP and SiPAP on aerosol delivery in neonates: An in-vitro study.  

Science.gov (United States)

Aerosol drug delivery via high flow nasal cannula (HFNC), bubble continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP), and synchronized inspiratory positive airway pressure (SiPAP) has not been quantified in spontaneously breathing premature infants. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to compare aerosol delivery via HFNC, bubble CPAP, and SiPAP in a model of a simulated spontaneously breathing preterm infant. Working hypothesis: The types of CPAP systems and nebulizer positions used during aerosol therapy will impact aerosol deposition in simulated spontaneously breathing infants. Study design: Quantitative, comparative, in-vitro study. Methodology: A breath simulator was set to preterm infant settings (VT : 9?ml, RR: 50?bpm and Ti: 0.5?sec) and connected to the trachea of an anatomical upper airway model of a preterm infant via collecting filter distal to the trachea. The HFNC (Optiflow; Fisher & Paykel), Bubble CPAP (Fisher & Paykel), and SiPAP (Carefusion) were attached to the nares of the model via each device's proprietary nasal cannula and set to deliver a baseline of 5?cm H2 O pressure. Albuterol sulfate (2.5?mg/0.5?ml) was aerosolized with a mesh nebulizer (Aeroneb Solo) positioned(1) proximal to the patient and(2) prior to the humidifier (n?=?5). The drug was eluted from the filter with 0.1?N HCl and analyzed via spectrophotometry (276?nm). Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, t-tests, and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), with P?PAP (0.79?±?0.11) was lower compared to both HFNC (1.30?±?0.17; P?=?0.003) and bubble CPAP (1.24?±?0.24; p?=?0.008). Placement of the nebulizer prior to the humidifier increased deposition with all devices (P?

Sunbul, Fatemah S; Fink, James B; Harwood, Robert; Sheard, Meryl M; Zimmerman, Ralph D; Ari, Arzu

2014-12-01

234

The evaluation of clinical application for measurement of serum PSA and PAP  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The serum PSA and PAP were measured in 23 cases of prostatic carcinoma, 42 cases of benign prostatic hypertrophy and 21 cases of non-prostatic disease. Significant differences were found between prostatic carcinoma and benign prostatic hypertrophy or control group. According to the Decision Matrix for general clinical evaluation, the diagnostic index and availability of serum PSA and PAP were 135.8%, 138.3% and 0.36, 0.40, respectively. The study showed that the measurement of the serum PSA and PAP should be complementary each other for the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of prostatic carcinoma. Finally, it was considered that the measurement of the serum PSA is superior to that of PAP for therapeutic follow-up in patients with prostatic carcinoma

235

PAP and NT5E inhibit nociceptive neurotransmission by rapidly hydrolyzing nucleotides to adenosine  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background Prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP) and ecto-5'-nucleotidase (NT5E, CD73) produce extracellular adenosine from the nucleotide AMP in spinal nociceptive (pain-sensing) circuits; however, it is currently unknown if these are the main ectonucleotidases that generate adenosine or how rapidly they generate adenosine. Results We found that AMP hydrolysis, when measured histochemically, was nearly abolished in dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons and lamina II of spinal cord from Pap/N...

Vihko Pirkko; Guillot Thomas S; Taylor-Blake Bonnie; Sowa Nathaniel A; Walsh Paul L; Street Sarah E; Mark, Wightman R.; Zylka Mark J

2011-01-01

236

Cervical cancer screening with pattern of Pap smear. Review of multicenter studies.  

OpenAIRE

OBJECTIVES To estimate the frequency of abnormal cervical smears and to compare the findings with earlier reported data from Saudi Arabia. METHODS The study was divided into 2 parts. The prospective part was conducted at King Abdul-Aziz University Hospital and a private laboratory by using the Bethesda System criteria and diagnostic entities in evaluating all the pap smears that were received during the period of January 2000 to December 2004. All reliable published literature on pap...

Altaf, Fadwa J.

2007-01-01

237

Selective indication for positive airway pressure (PAP in sleep-related breathing disorders with obstruction  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Positive airway pressure (PAP is the therapy of choice for most sleep-related breathing disorders (SRBD. A variety of PAP devices using positive airway pressure (CPAP, BiPAP, APAP, ASV must be carefully considered before application. This overview aims to provide criteria for choosing the optimal PAP device according to severity and type of sleep-related breathing disorder. In addition, the range of therapeutic applications, constraints and side effects as well as alternative methods to PAP will be discussed. This review is based on an analysis of current literature and clinical experience. The data is presented from an ENT-sleep-laboratory perspective and is designed to help the ENT practitioner initiate treatment and provide support. Different titration methods, current devices and possible applications will be described. In addition to constant pressure devices (CPAP, most commonly used for symptomatic obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA without complicating conditions, BiPAP models will be introduced. These allow two different positive pressure settings and are thus especially suitable for patients with cardiopulmonary diseases or patients with pressure intolerance, increasing compliance in this subgroup considerably. Compliance can also be increased in patients during first night of therapy, patients with highly variable pressure demands or position-dependent OSA, by using self-regulating Auto-adjust PAP devices (Automatic positive airway pressure, APAP. Patients with Cheyne-Stokes breathing, a subtype of central sleep apnoea, benefit from adaptive servo-ventilation (ASV, which analyzes breathing patterns continually and adjusts the actual ventilation pressure accordingly. This not only reduces daytime sleepiness, but can also influence heart disease positively. Therapy with positive airway pressure is very effective in eliminating obstruction-related sleep diseases and symptoms. However, because therapy is generally applied for life, the optimal PAP device must be carefully selected, taking into account side effects that influence compliance.

Stasche, Norbert

2006-10-01

238

CKI? Is Associated with and Phosphorylates Star-PAP and Is Also Required for Expression of Select Star-PAP Target Messenger RNAs*  

OpenAIRE

We have recently identified Star-PAP, a nuclear poly(A) polymerase that associates with phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate 5-kinase I? (PIPKI?) and is required for the expression of a specific subset of mRNAs. Star-PAP activity is directly modulated by the PIPKI? product phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PI-4,5-P2), linking nuclear phosphoinositide signaling to gene expression. Here, we show that PI-4,5-P2-dependent protein kinase activity is also a part of the ...

Gonzales, Michael L.; Mellman, David L.; Anderson, Richard A.

2008-01-01

239

Colposcopic evaluation of cervix with persistent inflammatory Pap smear: A prospective analytical study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Inflammatory Pap smear is the most common report received by a gynecologist. The cervical screening algorithm for benign cellular changes on the Pap smear recommends treatment of infection if indicated and a repeat Pap smear in 4 to 6 months time. If the inflammatory changes still persist, subject the patient to colposcopy. However, in practice, this is not followed, especially in developing countries like ours where proper screening protocols are not available. Hence, a good number of patients in the premalignant stage are being missed. This study was undertaken to evaluate patients with persistent inflammatory Pap smears without atypia using colposcopy. Methods: A prospective analytical study of 150 gynecologial patients with persistent inflammatory Pap smear between 2006 and 2008 in an out-patient setting. All of them were subjected to colposcopy and biopsy from the abnormal areas. The incidence of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN/invasive carcinoma was calculated by proportions/percentages. Results: The incidence of invasive carcinoma was <1%. But, the incidence of pre-malignant lesions (CIN was high (20.9%. CIN 2/3 and carcinoma in situ were present in 6.9% of the cases. Conclusions: Patients with persistent inflammatory Pap smears can harbour a high proportion of CIN and hence these patients will need further evaluation.

Dasari Papa

2010-01-01

240

Cloning and expression analysis of an ovine PAP-like protein cDNA, a gene differentially expressed in scrapie.  

Science.gov (United States)

In a previous study, the mRNA level of a pancreatitis-associated protein (PAP)-like protein was found to be elevated in the ileal Peyer's patch of lambs during the early phase of scrapie infection. Here, we report the isolation of the ovine PAP-like protein cDNA which encodes a putative 178 amino acid protein with a signal peptide and a C-lectin binding domain. Comparisons of REG/PAP proteins between various species showed that the deduced amino acid sequences were conserved. The overall amino acid identity between the ovine PAP-like protein and bovine, human and rat REG/PAP proteins varied from 23% to 85%. In Northern blot analysis the expression of the ovine PAP-like protein mRNA was restricted to the ileal and jejunal Peyer's patches. The cellular expression of the PAP-like protein mRNA in the ovine intestine was further characterized by in situ hybridization. PAP-like protein mRNA was detected in cells of the epithelial lining in most crypts and in some intestinal villi in the ileum and jejunum while in the colon and rectum, the PAP-like protein mRNA expression was only detected in the deep portion of a few crypts. The data provided will offer the possibility to search for a link between this PAP-like protein and early events in the development of scrapie. PMID:16635555

Skretting, Grethe; Austbø, Lars; Olsaker, Ingrid; Espenes, Arild

2006-07-01

241

Acquirement of true stress-strain curve using true fracture strain obtained by tensile test and FE analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this work, we predict a true fracture strain using load-displacement curves from tensile test and Finite Element Analysis (FEA), and suggest a method for acquiring true Stress-Strain (SS) curves by predicted fracture strain. We first derived the true SS curve up to necking point from load-displacement curve. As the beginning, the posterior necking part of true SS curve is linearly extrapolated with the slope at necking point. The whole SS curve is then adopted for FE simulation of tensile test. The Bridgman factor or suitable plate correction factors are applied to pre and post FEA. In the load-true strain curve from FEA, the true fracture strain is determined as the matching point to test fracture load. The determined true strain is validated by comparing with test fracture strain. Finally, we complete the true SS curve by combining the prior necking part and linear part, the latter of which connects necking and predicted fracture points.

242

Acquirement of True Stress-strain Curve Using True Fracture Strain Obtained by Tensile Test and FE Analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this work, we predict a true fracture strain using load-displacement curves from tensile test and finite element analysis (FEA), and suggest a method for acquiring true stress-strain (SS) curves by predicted fracture strain. We first derived the true SS curve up to necking point from load-displacement curve. As the beginning, the posterior necking part of true SS curve is linearly extrapolated with the slope at necking point. The whole SS curve is then adopted for FE simulation of tensile test. The Bridgman factor or suitable plate correction factors are applied to pre and post FEA. In the load-true strain curve from FEA, the true fracture strain is determined as the matching point to test fracture load. The determined true strain is validated by comparing with test fracture strain. Finally, we complete the true SS curve by combining the prior necking part and linear part, the latter of which connects necking and predicted fracture points

243

ABNORMAL FINDINGS IN PAP SMEARS: ISFAHAN PROVIENCE 1997-1998  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background. Cervical cancer is a common female malignancy in developing countries. In our health care system, the screening program is performed by doing pap smears with the interval of three years. This study was designed to determine the prevalence and frequency disturbation of abnormal smears. Methods. This is a cross sectional study was done in 1997-1998. Sample group were all the under coverage married women aged 20-65 years who have a factor of referal criteria. Papsmears samples were interpreted by a pathologist. Papsmear results were documented by colposcopy and biopsy. Results. The prevalence of abnormal smears in under coverage women is 0.05 percent. Results of abnormal papsmears due to more investigations (colposcopy and biopsy were: Normal 25 percent, ASCUS 57 percent, CIN 14 percent, CIN 2 1 percent, CIN 3 1 percent invasive cancer 2 percent. Conclusion. Refering of women with abnormal signs such as leukoplakia, cervical erosion, and history of contact bleeding is necessary. The number of false positive results in cytotechnologlsts diagtlosfs is high. This result shows that on-job-training for cytotechnologists is important.

G.H SADRI

2001-06-01

244

Novel chromatin texture features for the classification of pap smears  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper presents a set of novel structural texture features for quantifying nuclear chromatin patterns in cells on a conventional Pap smear. The features are derived from an initial segmentation of the chromatin into bloblike texture primitives. The results of a comprehensive feature selection experiment, including the set of proposed structural texture features and a range of different cytology features drawn from the literature, show that two of the four top ranking features are structural texture features. They also show that a combination of structural and conventional features yields a classification performance of 0.954±0.019 (AUC±SE) for the discrimination of normal (NILM) and abnormal (LSIL and HSIL) slides. The results of a second classification experiment, using only normal-appearing cells from both normal and abnormal slides, demonstrates that a single structural texture feature measuring chromatin margination yields a classification performance of 0.815±0.019. Overall the results demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed structural approach and that it is possible to detect malignancy associated changes (MACs) in Papanicoloau stain.

Bejnordi, Babak E.; Moshavegh, Ramin; Sujathan, K.; Malm, Patrik; Bengtsson, Ewert; Mehnert, Andrew

2013-03-01

245

ABNORMAL FINDINGS IN PAP SMEARS: ISFAHAN PROVIENCE 1997-1998  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background. Cervical cancer is a common female malignancy in developing countries. In our health care system, the screening program is performed by doing pap smears with the interval of three years. This study was designed to determine the prevalence and frequency disturbation of abnormal smears. Methods. This is a cross sectional study was done in 1997-1998. Sample group were all the under coverage married women aged 20-65 years who have a factor of referal criteria. Papsmears samples were interpreted by a pathologist. Papsmear results were documented by colposcopy and biopsy. Results. The prevalence of abnormal smears in under coverage women is 0.05 percent. Results of abnormal papsmears due to more investigations (colposcopy and biopsy were: Normal 25 percent, ASCUS 57 percent, CIN 14 percent, CIN 2 1 percent, CIN 3 1 percent invasive cancer 2 percent. Conclusion. Refering of women with abnormal signs such as leukoplakia, cervical erosion, and history of contact bleeding is necessary. The number of false positive results in cytotechnologlsts diagtlosfs is high. This result shows that on-job-training for cytotechnologists is important.

GH SADRI

2001-03-01

246

Time-dependent effect of p-Aminophenol (PAP) toxicity in renal slices and development of oxidative stress  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

p-Aminophenol (PAP), a metabolite of acetaminophen, is nephrotoxic. This study investigated PAP-mediated changes as a function of time that occur prior to loss of membrane integrity. Experiments further evaluated the development of oxidative stress by PAP. Renal slices from male Fischer 344 (F344) rats (N = 4-6) were exposed to 0.1, 0.25, and 0.5 mM PAP for 15-120 min under oxygen and constant shaking at 37 oC. Pyruvate-stimulated gluconeogenesis, adenine nucleotide levels, and total glutathione (GSH) levels were diminished in a concentration- and time-dependent manner prior to detection of a rise in lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) leakage. Glutathione disulfide (GSSG) levels were increased by PAP suggesting the induction of oxidative stress. Western blot analysis confirmed a rise in 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE)-adducted proteins in tissues exposed to 0.1 and 0.25 mM PAP for 90 min. The appearance of 4-HNE-adducted proteins at the 0.1 mM concentration of PAP occurred prior to development of increased LDH leakage. Pretreatment with 1 mM glutathione (GSH) for 30 min only partially reduced PAP toxicity as LDH values were less severely depleted relative to tissues not pretreated with GSH. In contrast, pretreatment for 15 min with 2 mM ascorbic acid completely protected against PAP toxicity. Further studies showed that ascorbic acid pretreatment prevented PAP-mediated depletion of GSH. In summary, PAP rapidly depletes GSH and adenine nucleotides and inhibits gluconeogenenine nucleotides and inhibits gluconeogenesis prior to a rise in LDH leakage. PAP induces oxidative stress as indicated by an increase in GSSG and 4-HNE-adducted proteins. Ascorbic acid pretreatment prevents PAP toxicity by maintaining GSH status

247

Flavonoid production in transgenic hop (Humulus lupulus L.) altered by PAP1/MYB75 from Arabidopsis thaliana L.  

Science.gov (United States)

Hop is an important source of secondary metabolites, such as flavonoids. Some of these are pharmacologically active. Nevertheless, the concentration of some classes as flavonoids in wild-type plants is rather low. To enhance the production in hop, it would be interesting to modify the regulation of genes in the flavonoid biosynthetic pathway. For this purpose, the regulatory factor PAP1/AtMYB75 from Arabidopsis thaliana L. was introduced into hop plants cv. Tettnanger by Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation. Twenty kanamycin-resistant transgenic plants were obtained. It was shown that PAP1/AtMYB75 was stably incorporated and expressed in the hop genome. In comparison to the wild-type plants, the color of female flowers and cones of transgenic plants was reddish to pink. Chemical analysis revealed higher levels of anthocyanins, rutin, isoquercitin, kaempferol-glucoside, kaempferol-glucoside-malonate, desmethylxanthohumol, xanthohumol, ?-acids and ?-acids in transgenic plants compared to wild-type plants. PMID:21912858

Gatica-Arias, A; Farag, M A; Stanke, M; Matoušek, J; Wessjohann, L; Weber, G

2012-01-01

248

A Hybrid Computational Intelligence Approach Combining Genetic Programming And Heuristic Classification for Pap-Smear Diagnosis  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The paper suggests the combined use of different computational intelligence (CI) techniques in a hybrid scheme, as an effective approach to medical diagnosis. Getting to know the advantages and disadvantages of each computational intelligence technique in the recent years, the time has come for proposing successful combinations of CI tools and techniques for the improvement of decision making, Diagnosis and classification in complex domains of application. In the current approach genetic programming is embedded within a heuristic scheme for classification of medical records into different diagnoses. The final result is a short but robust rule based classification scheme, achieving high degree of classification accuracy (exceeding 90% of accuracy for most classes) in a meaningful and user-friendly representation form for the medical expert. The domain of application analyzed through the paper is the well-known Pap-Test problem, corresponding to a numerical database, which consists of 450 medical records, 25 diagnostic attributes and 5 different diagnostic classes. Experimental data are divided in two equal parts for the training and testing phase, and 8 mutually dependent rules for diagnosis are generated. Medical experts comment on the nature, the meaning and the usability of the acquired results.

Tsakonas, Athanasios; Dounias, Georgios

2001-01-01

249

Signaling-State Formation Mechanism of a BLUF Protein PapB from the Purple Bacterium Rhodopseudomonas palustris Studied by Femtosecond Time-Resolved Absorption Spectroscopy.  

Science.gov (United States)

We studied the signaling-state formation of a BLUF (blue light using FAD) protein, PapB, from the purple bacterium Rhodopseudomonas palustris, using femtosecond time-resolved absorption spectroscopy. Upon photoexcitation of the dark state, FADH(•) (neutral flavin semiquinone FADH radical) was observed as the intermediate before the formation of the signaling state. The kinetic analysis based on singular value decomposition showed that FADH(•) mediates the signaling-state formation, showing that PapB is the second example of FADH(•)-mediated formation of the signaling state after Slr1694 (M. Gauden et al. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 2006, 103, 10895-10900). The mechanism of the signaling-state formation is discussed on the basis of the comparison between femtosecond time-resolved absorption spectra of the dark state and those obtained by exciting the signaling state. FADH(•) was observed also with excitation of the signaling state, and surprisingly, the kinetics of FADH(•) was indistinguishable from the case of exciting the dark state. This result suggests that the hydrogen bond environment in the signaling state is realized before the formation of FADH(•) in the photocycle of PapB. PMID:25406769

Fujisawa, Tomotsumi; Takeuchi, Satoshi; Masuda, Shinji; Tahara, Tahei

2014-12-10

250

DEVELOPMENT OF A PEROXIDASE-ANTIPEROXIDASE (PAP) TECHNIQUE FOR THE IDENTIFICATION OF HAEMOPHILUS-SOMNUS IN PNEUMONIC CALF LUNGS IN DENMARK  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

A peroxidase-antiperoxidase (PAP) technique was developed for the identification of Haemophilus somnus bacteria in lung tissues of calves. Antisera raised against somatic and wall antigens of a Danish and American strain of H. somnus were produced. Experimentally infected murine tissues were used for the determination of the sensitivity and specificity of antiserum that had been heterologously absorbed with antigens of cross-reacting bacteria, i.e. Pasteurella haemolytica and Pasteurella multocida. None of the antisera reacted with Actinomyces pyogenes. An antiserum raised against somatic antigens of the Danish strain of H. somnus revealed the highest sensitivity in the PAP technique and became specific following absorption. Heterologous absorption also rendered this antiserum specific in crossed immunoelectrophoresis. Subsequently, the PAP technique was applied on formalin-fixed pneumonic lung tissues of 86 calves. An immunodiagnosis of H. somnus pneumonia was obtained in 15 of 17 lungs from which the bacterium had been isolated. Moreover, immunostained bacteria were also demonstrated in 20 lungs from which H. somnus had not been isolated. Thus, application of immunohistochemistry significantly enhanced the diagnostic sensitivity of H. somnus pneumonia of calves and should be used as a potent supplementary tool for the routine screening of suspected lung tissues of calves from which bacterial isolation is negative.

Tegtmeier, Conny; Jensen, N.E.

1995-01-01

251

Reliability and Validity of Physiological Data Obtained Within a Cycle-Run Transition Test in Age-Group Triathletes  

OpenAIRE

This study examined the validity and reliability of a sequential “Run-Bike-Run” test (RBR) in age-group triathletes. Eight Olympic distance (OD) specialists (age 30.0 ± 2.0 years, mass 75.6 ± 1.6 kg, run VO2max 63.8 ± 1.9 ml· kg-1· min-1, cycle VO2peak 56.7 ± 5.1 ml· kg-1· min-1) performed four trials over 10 days. Trial 1 (TRVO2max) was an incremental treadmill running test. Trials 2 and 3 (RBR1 and RBR2) involved: 1) a 7-min run at 15 km· h-1 (R1) plus a 1-min transition to 2) ...

Veronica Vleck; Millet, Gregoire P.; Francisco Bessone Alves; Bentley, David J.

2012-01-01

252

Constructing kinetics fatigue diagrams using testing results obtained on a machine with rigid loading for specimens of various thickness  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Bending tests of 40KhS steel specimens, tempered at 200 and 500 deg C, are conducted to investigate the possible effects of specimen thickness on fatigue crack growth. Kinetic fatigue diagrams are constructed using the investigation results. An increase in crack growth with thickness is observed only in high-tempered specimens. Changes in specimen thickness do not affect crack growth in 40KhS low-tempered steel

253

A condition to obtain the same decision in the homogeneity testing problem from the frequentist and Bayesian point of view  

OpenAIRE

We develop a Bayesian procedure for the homogeneity testing problem of r populations using r×s contingency tables. The posterior probability of the homogeneity null hypothesis is calculated using a mixed prior distribution. The methodology consist of choosing an appropriate value of ?0 for the mass assigned to the null and spreading the remainder, 1 ? ?0, over the alternative according to a density function. With this method, a theorem which shows when the same conclusion is reached f...

Go?mez Villegas, Miguel A?ngel; Gonza?lez Pe?rez, Beatriz

2006-01-01

254

A recursive spectral selection scheme for unsupervised segmentation of multispectral Pap smear image sets  

Science.gov (United States)

Efficient computer-aided cervical cancer detection can improve both the accuracy and the productivity of cytotechnologists and pathologists. Nuclear segmentation is essential to automated screening, and is still a challenge. We propose and demonstrate a novel approach to improving segmentation performance by multispectral imaging followed by unsupervised nuclear segmentation relying on selecting a useful subset of spectral or derived image features. In the absence of prior knowledge, feature selection can be negatively affected by the bias, present in most unsupervised segmentation, to erroneously segment out small objects, yielding ill-balanced class samples. To address this issue, we first introduce a new measurement, Criterion Vector (CV), measuring the distances between the segmentation result and the original data. This efficiently reduces the bias generated by feature selection. Second, we apply a novel recursive feature selection scheme, to generate a new feature subset based on the corresponding CV, ensuring that the correct part of the initial segmentation results is used to obtain better feature subsets. We studied the speed and accuracy of our two-step algorithm in analyzing a number of multispectral Pap smear image sets. The results show high accuracy of segmentation, as well as great reduction of spectral redundancy. The nuclear segmentation accuracy can reach over 90%, by selecting as few as 4 distinct spectra out of 30.

Zhao, Tong; Wachman, Elliot S.; Geyer, Stanley J.; Farkas, Daniel L.

2004-07-01

255

DNA sequences of three papA genes from uropathogenic Escherichia coli strains: evidence of structural and serological conservation.  

OpenAIRE

Pyelonephritis-associated pili (Pap) are important in the pathogenesis of ascending, unobstructive Escherichia coli-caused renal infections because these surface bacterial organelles mediate digalactoside-specific binding to host uroepithelial cells. Pap are composed of many different polypeptides, of which only the tip proteins mediate specific binding. The PapA moiety polymerizes to form the bulk of the pilus structure and has been employed in vaccines despite its lack of Gal alpha(1-4)Gal ...

Denich, K.; Blyn, L. B.; Craiu, A.; Braaten, B. A.; Hardy, J.; Low, D. A.; O Hanley, P. D.

1991-01-01

256

Manduca sexta prophenoloxidase activating proteinase-1 (PAP-1) gene: Organization, expression, and regulation by immune and hormonal signals  

OpenAIRE

Insect phenoloxidase (PO) participates in melanotic encapsulation, wound healing, and cuticle sclerotization. It is converted from prophenoloxidase (proPO) by a proPO-activating proteinase (PAP). Manduca sexta PAP-1, the final component of a serine proteinase cascade, cleaves proPO to generate active PO. In an effort to understand the transcriptional regulation, we isolated a genomic clone of the PAP-1 gene, determined its nucleotide sequence, and elucidated its exon–intron organization. Co...

Zou, Zhen; Wang, Yang; Jiang, Haobo

2005-01-01

257

CNS activity of Pokeweed Anti-viral Protein (PAP) in mice infected with Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis Virus (LCMV)  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background Others and we have previously described the potent in vivo and in vitro activity of the broad-spectrum antiviral agent PAP (Pokeweed antiviral protein) against a wide range of viruses. The purpose of the present study was to further elucidate the anti-viral spectrum of PAP by examining its effects on the survival of mice challenged with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV). Methods We examined the therapeutic effect of PAP in CBA mice inoculated with intracerebral inj...

Tibbles Heather E; Vassilev Alexei O; Rustamova Larisa; Uckun Fatih M; Petkevich Alexander S

2005-01-01

258

Structure and copy number of gene clusters related to the pap P-adhesin operon of uropathogenic Escherichia coli.  

OpenAIRE

The structurally related pap and prs operons of the uropathogenic Escherichia coli isolate J96 encode a P and an F adhesin that mediate bacterial attachment to the human P blood group antigen and the Forssman antigen, respectively. Using probes prepared from different segments of the pap operon, Southern blot hybridizations were performed to characterize pap-related sequences of 30 E. coli clinical isolates expressing different adhesin phenotypes. Gene clusters encoding P and F adhesins displ...

Arthur, M.; Campanelli, C.; Arbeit, R. D.; Kim, C.; Steinbach, S.; Johnson, C. E.; Rubin, R. H.; Goldstein, R.

1989-01-01

259

Distribution of the P-associated-pilus (pap) region among Escherichia coli from natural sources: evidence for horizontal gene transfer.  

OpenAIRE

Variation in chromosomal DNA in Escherichia coli was studied with probes specific for the P-associated-pilus (pap) region. The presence of DNA homologous to pap was determined by dot blots. Variation in the number of copies of pap and in the organization of internal and flanking sequences was determined by Southern blot hybridization. The 229 strains studied were also classified by O:K:H serotyping and multilocus enzyme electrophoresis. There was considerable heterogeneity in the presence of ...

Plos, K.; Hull, S. I.; Hull, R. A.; Levin, B. R.; Orskov, I.; Orskov, F.; Svanborg-ede?n, C.

1989-01-01

260

RELIABILITY AND VALIDITY OF PHYSIOLOGICAL DATA OBTAINED WITHIN A CYCLE-RUN TRANSITION TEST IN AGE-GROUP TRIATHLETES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study examined the validity and reliability of a sequential "Run-Bike-Run" test (RBR in age-group triathletes. Eight Olympic distance (OD specialists (age 30.0 ± 2.0 years, mass 75.6 ± 1.6 kg, run VO2max 63.8 ± 1.9 ml·kg-1·min-1, cycle VO2peak 56.7 ± 5.1 ml·kg-1·min-1 performed four trials over 10 days. Trial 1 (TRVO2max was an incremental treadmill running test. Trials 2 and 3 (RBR1 and RBR2 involved: 1 a 7-min run at 15 km·h-1 (R1 plus a 1-min transition to 2 cycling to fatigue (2 W·kg-1 body mass then 30 W each 3 min; 3 10-min cycling at 3 W·kg-1 (Bsubmax; another 1-min transition and 4 a second 7-min run at 15 km·h-1 (R2. Trial 4 (TT was a 30-min cycle - 20-min run time trial. No significant differences in absolute oxygen uptake (VO2, heart rate (HR, or blood lactate concentration ([BLA] were evidenced between RBR1 and RBR2. For all measured physiological variables, the limits of agreement were similar, and the mean differences were physiologically unimportant, between trials. Low levels of test-retest error (i.e. ICC <0.8, CV<10% were observed for most (logged measurements. However [BLA] post R1 (ICC 0.87, CV 25.1%, [BLA] post Bsubmax (ICC 0.99, CV 16.31 and [BLA] post R2 (ICC 0.51, CV 22.9% were least reliable. These error ranges may help coaches detect real changes in training status over time. Moreover, RBR test variables can be used to predict discipline specific and overall TT performance. Cycle VO2peak, cycle peak power output, and the change between R1 and R2 (deltaR1R2 in [BLA] were most highly related to overall TT distance (r = 0.89, p < 0. 01; r = 0.94, p < 0.02; r = 0.86, p < 0.05, respectively. The percentage of TR VO2max at 15 km·h-1, and deltaR1R2 HR, were also related to run TT distance (r = -0.83 and 0.86, both p < 0.05

Veronica Vleck

2012-12-01

261

Importance of a 5? Stem-Loop for Longevity of papA mRNA in Escherichia coli  

OpenAIRE

High-level expression of the major pilus subunit (PapA) of uropathogenic strains of Escherichia coli results in part from the unusually long lifetime of the mRNA that encodes this protein. Here we report that the longevity of papA mRNA derives in large measure from the protection afforded by its 5? untranslated region. This papA RNA segment can prolong the lifetime of an otherwise short-lived mRNA to which it is fused. In vivo alkylation studies indicate that, in its natural milieu, the pap...

Bricker, Angela L.; Belasco, Joel G.

1999-01-01

262

Novel Molecular Variants of Allele I of the Escherichia coli P Fimbrial Adhesin Gene papG  

OpenAIRE

P fimbriae of extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli mediate digalactoside-specific adherence via the tip adhesin molecule PapG, which occurs in three known variants (I to III), which are encoded by the corresponding three alleles of papG. In the present study, newly discovered variants of papG allele I and the respective wild-type source strains were characterized. One of the new papG allele I variants conferred a unique agglutination phenotype that combined the phenotypes associated wi...

Johnson, James R.; Stell, Adam L.; Kaster, Nicholas; Fasching, Claudine; O Bryan, Timothy T.

2001-01-01

263

Thermal isocreep curves obtained during multi-axial creep tests on recrystallized Zircaloy-4 and M5™ alloy  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Zirconium alloys are widely used in the nuclear industry. Several components, such as cladding or guide tubes, undergo strong mechanical loading during and after their use inside the pressurized water reactors. The current requirements on higher fuel performances lead to the developing on new Zr based alloys exhibiting better mechanical properties. In this framework, creep behaviors of recrystallized Zircaloy-4 and M5™, have been investigated and then compared. In order to give a better understanding of the thermal creep anisotropy of Zr-based alloys, multi-axial creep tests have been carried out at 673 K. Using a specific device, creep conditions have been set using different values of ? = ?{sub zz}/?{sub ??}, ?{sub zz} and ?{sub ??} being respectively the axial and hoop creep stresses. Both axial and hoop strains are measured during each test which is carried out until stationary creep is stabilized. The steady-state strain rates are then used to build isocreep curves. Considering the isocreep curves, the M5™ alloy shows a largely improved creep resistance compared to the recrystallized Zircaloy-4, especially for tubes under high hoop loadings (0 < ? < 1). The isocreep curves are then compared with simulations performed using two different mechanical models. Model 1 uses a von Mises yield criterion, the model 2 is based on a Hill yield criterion. For both models, a coefficient derived from Norton law is used to assess the stress dependence.

Rautenberg, M., E-mail: mrautenb@gmail.com [AREVA, AREVA NP, 10 rue Juliette Récamier, 69456 Lyon (France); CIRIMAT, CNRS/UPS/INPT, 4 allée Emile Monso, 31030 Toulouse (France); Poquillon, D. [CIRIMAT, CNRS/UPS/INPT, 4 allée Emile Monso, 31030 Toulouse (France); Pilvin, P. [LIMATB, University Bretagne-Sud, rue de Saint-Maudé, 56321 Lorient (France); Grosjean, C. [AREVA, AREVA NP, 10 rue Juliette Récamier, 69456 Lyon (France); CIRIMAT, CNRS/UPS/INPT, 4 allée Emile Monso, 31030 Toulouse (France); Cloué, J.M. [AREVA, AREVA NP, 10 rue Juliette Récamier, 69456 Lyon (France); Feaugas, X. [LEMMA, Université de La Rochelle, Avenue Michel Crépeau, 17042 La Rochelle (France)

2014-04-01

264

New experimental limits on violations of the Pauli exclusion principle obtained with the Borexino Counting Test Facility  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Pauli exclusion principle (PEP) has been tested for nucleons (n,p) in 12C and 16O nuclei, using the results of background measurements with the prototype of the Borexino detector, the Counting Test Facility (CTF). The approach consisted of a search for ?, n, p and/or ?'s emitted in a non-Paulian transition of 1P- shell nucleons to the filled 1S1/2 shell in nuclei. Similarly, the Pauli-forbidden ?± decay processes were searched for. Due to the extremely low background and the large mass (4.2 tons) of the CTF detector, the following most stringent up-to-date experimental bounds on PEP violating transitions of nucleons have been established: ?(12C?12C+?)>2.1.1027y, ?(12C?11B+p)>5.0.1026y, ?(12C(16O)?11C(15O)+n)>3.7.1026y, ?(12C?8Be+?)>6.1.1023y, ?(12C?12N+e-+?e)>7.6.1027y and ?(12C?12B+e++?e)>7.7.1027y, all at 90 % C.L. (orig.)

265

Thermal isocreep curves obtained during multi-axial creep tests on recrystallized Zircaloy-4 and M5™ alloy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Zirconium alloys are widely used in the nuclear industry. Several components, such as cladding or guide tubes, undergo strong mechanical loading during and after their use inside the pressurized water reactors. The current requirements on higher fuel performances lead to the developing on new Zr based alloys exhibiting better mechanical properties. In this framework, creep behaviors of recrystallized Zircaloy-4 and M5™, have been investigated and then compared. In order to give a better understanding of the thermal creep anisotropy of Zr-based alloys, multi-axial creep tests have been carried out at 673 K. Using a specific device, creep conditions have been set using different values of ? = ?zz/???, ?zz and ??? being respectively the axial and hoop creep stresses. Both axial and hoop strains are measured during each test which is carried out until stationary creep is stabilized. The steady-state strain rates are then used to build isocreep curves. Considering the isocreep curves, the M5™ alloy shows a largely improved creep resistance compared to the recrystallized Zircaloy-4, especially for tubes under high hoop loadings (0 < ? < 1). The isocreep curves are then compared with simulations performed using two different mechanical models. Model 1 uses a von Mises yield criterion, the model 2 is based on a Hill yield criterion. For both models, a coefficient derived from Norton law is used to assess the stress dep

266

Reconstruction of $^{60}$Co Radiation Source Locations Using Goodness-of-Fit Tests on Spectra Obtained from an HPGe Detector  

CERN Document Server

High purity germanium (HPGe) detectors are ubiquitous in nuclear physics experiments and are also used in numerous low radioactive background detectors, including the proposed {\\sc Majorana} experiment. Spatial reconstruction of the location of radiation sources from spectral distortions could be used to locate unwanted backgrounds or "hot-spots" inside the detector shield. The effect of the position of a $^{60}$Co point source on the shape of spectra was studied with both Monte Carlo and HPGe detector measurements. We briefly confirm previous work on the position dependence of relative heights of peaks. Spectra taken with the radiation source placed at locations around the detector were then compared using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov (K-S) goodness-of-fit test. We discuss the position reconstruction accuracy of this statistical method, which is promising.

Evans, L T; De, R; Henning, R; Morgan, E D

2009-01-01

267

Structure and copy number analyses of pap-, sfa-, and afa-related gene clusters in F165-positive bovine and porcine Escherichia coli isolates.  

OpenAIRE

Pathogenic F165-positive Escherichia coli isolates of porcine and bovine origin possess gene clusters related to extraintestinal E. coli fimbrial operons pap, sfa, and afaI. Probes from different segments of the pap, sfa, and afaI operons were used in Southern hybridization to analyze 18 F165-positive, mannose-resistant hemagglutinating E. coli isolates possessing pap- and sfa-, pap- and afa-, or pap-related sequences. Only single copies of the pap-, sfa-, or afa-related sequences were found ...

Maiti, S. N.; Harel, J.; Fairbrother, J. M.

1993-01-01

268

Microspores irradiation in anther culture: testing a new technique to obtain mutations immediatly detected and fixed (Application to Nicotiana tabacum)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In order to consider the effects of microspores irradiation on embryo development, and in order to observe the morphological responses of haploid plantlets derived from androgenetic anthers to ionizing irradiation, 1000, 1500 and 2000r of gamma rays were delivered on anthers of Nicotiana tabacum (DL50 range calculated: 1500r). The cytological studies of embryo development revealed an apparent increase in irradiated microspores: cell division is stimulated but followed by an early mortality. A sharp rise in lethality effects was observed when gamma rays were applied beyond the seventh day of culture, when the proembryo contains an average of 4 cells. Morphological aberrations and colour changes in the Mo progeny derived from irradiated microspores are diverse. But after chromosome doubling and mutation checking out, all the plants were not recorded to have transmitted their aberrant characters. Thus, heritable character 'mutations) and not heritable character (variations) were obtained. The variations characters include dwarfing, excessive branching, fasciation and dichotomy of the stems, altered flower form, especially of petals. As to the leaves, they usually show induced changes in their colour (chlorotic areas, mosaic-colour changes, or an over-all colour changes), in their form (irregularity in outline) and in their texture (thickening, hairless leaf). Among the mutants, a monster tobacco, with excrescences on the leaves and the flowers is certainly thehe leaves and the flowers is certainly the most conspicuous. But mutants also include altered leaf colour (over-all pale green) and altered flower colour, (dark red, clear pink, white)

269

Ten years of sodium cooled steam generator tests on the C.G.V.S. Synthesis of the results obtained on these equipments and operation experiments of an industrial size test facility  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

From 1970 to 1980, Electricite de France carried out tests on four steam generators of the fast neutron reactor series on an industrial size testing equipment, the C.G.V.S. (large power testing Circuit for Steam Generators heated by Sodium). After a presentation of the testing installation, types of tests carried out and tested apparatus, a balance of lessons drawn from the circuit exploitation, and from the main results obtained on the tested equipments and on the means of calculation COPI and SICLE codes developed or adopted to simulate steam generator operation. 33 figs., 50 refs

270

Outline of test and research results obtained with research commissioning expense for peaceful use of atomic energy in fiscal 1981  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report was compiled by the Atomic Energy Bureau, Science and Technology Agency. Six reports on radiation injury prevention, six reports on radiation utilization, and three reports on nuclear fuel cycle are collected, and the outline of respective tests and research is described. In radiation injury prevention, the scattering of radioisotopes, the evaluation of gaseous radioactive nuclides, the distribution and the behavior of natural and artificial radioactive nuclides, the risk estimation of delayed injuries and hereditary injuries due to low dose radiation, and the epidemiologic study of the group repeatedly exposed to low dose for radiation risk estimation were taken up. In radiation utilization, the hereditary safety of irradiated foods, the automation of the production of short life, RI-labeled compounds, the safety of radioisotope-using facilities in earthquakes, the techniques of treating radioactive wastes in RI utilization, the cleaning of radioactivity-contaminated things with organic solvent, and the facility for treating radioactive liquid using a new filter were studied. In nuclear fuel cycle, the behavior of uranium hexafluoride in fire, the dynamic concentrated management system for the information on safeguard measures and the low level radioactive wastes produced in fuel fabrication establishments were researched. (Kako, I.)

271

Biochemical and molecular characterization of PvPAP3, a novel purple acid phosphatase isolated from common bean enhancing extracellular ATP utilization.  

Science.gov (United States)

Purple acid phosphatases (PAPs) play diverse physiological roles in plants. In this study, we purified a novel PAP, PvPAP3, from the roots of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) grown under phosphate (Pi) starvation. PvPAP3 was identified as a 34-kD monomer acting on the specific substrate, ATP, with a broad pH range and a high heat stability. The activity of PvPAP3 was insensitive to tartrate, indicating that PvPAP3 is a PAP-like protein. Amino acid sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis suggest that PvPAP3 belongs to the group of plant PAPs with low molecular mass. Transient expression of 35S:PvPAP3-green fluorescent protein in onion (Allium cepa) epidermal cells verified that it might anchor on plasma membrane and be secreted into apoplast. Pi starvation led to induction of PvPAP3 expression in both leaves and roots of common bean, and expression of PvPAP3 was strictly dependent on phosphorus (P) availability and duration of Pi starvation. Furthermore, induction of PvPAP3 expression was more rapid and higher in a P-efficient genotype, G19833, than in a P-inefficient genotype, DOR364, suggesting possible roles of PvPAP3 in P efficiency in bean. In vivo analysis using a transgenic hairy root system of common bean showed that both growth and P uptake of bean hairy roots from the PvPAP3 overexpression transgenic lines were significantly enhanced when ATP was supplied as the sole external P source. Taken together, our results suggest that PvPAP3 is a novel PAP that might function in the adaptation of common bean to P deficiency, possibly through enhancing utilization of extracellular ATP as a P source. PMID:19955264

Liang, Cuiyue; Tian, Jiang; Lam, Hon-Ming; Lim, Boon Leong; Yan, Xiaolong; Liao, Hong

2010-02-01

272

Radioimmunological and enzymatic assay for prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP) in prostatic cancer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Serum prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP) level was determined by radioimmunoassay (RIA) in 272 patients. For comparative purposes PAP was also measured by an enzymatic assay. In prostate adenocarcinoma 55% of the values were elevated. In early stages (A and B) 17% of patients were found to be positive; at later stages (C and D) the percentage increased to 78%. The enzymatic method yielded 46% positive values in these patients: 17% in the former group (A+B), and 64% in the latter one (C+D). False positive values were observed in 10% of the patients with prostate adenoma, and 22% of the patients with prostatis. The data confirm the low sensitivity of RIA (and enzymatic assay) for detecting early intracapsular disease. RIA determination of PAP is a good diagnostic tool for advanced cancer of the prostate. (author)

273

Factors predicting the persistence of genital human papillomavirus infections and PAP smear abnormality in HIV-positive and HIV-negative women during prospective follow-up.  

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As part of an extensive multi-institutional DIANAIDS study focused on assessing the risk factors, natural history, diagnosis and follow-up of genital human papillomavirus (HPV) infections in HIV-infected women, the present communication reports a sub-cohort of 142 women (89 HIV+ and 48 HIV-), followed-up for a mean of 14.07 (+/-10.84) months to analyse the factors predicting the persistence and clearance of HPV infections (polymerase chain reaction [PCR] and sequencing) and cervical Papanicolaou (PAP) smear abnormalities, using both univariate (Kaplan-Meier) and multivariate (Cox) survival analysis. The appearance of new HPV infections during the follow-up was significantly more frequent in HIV-positive than in HIV-negative women, odds ratio (OR) 8.800 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.199-64.611), and also the clearance rate was significantly less frequent in HIV-positive than in HIV-negative women, 69.2% vs 22.8%, respectively (OR 0.330; 95% CI: 0.163-0.670). These two groups were also markedly different with respect to the clinical course of the cervical lesions, in the frequency of progressive disease (determined by PAP smear) was higher in HIV-positive group (12/89) than in HIV-negative women (2/52) (OR 3.506; 95% CI 0.816-15.055) (P = 0.055), in whom the disease regressed more frequently than in HIV-positive women (13.5% vs 7.9%) (OR 0.584; 95% CI 0.217-1.573). Using (1) HPV-positivity, (2) oncogenic HPV-type and (3) significant PAP smear abnormality at the end of follow-up as outcome measures, (1) was significantly (P HIV-positivity. The significant predictors of (2) were age and mode of contraception. The outcome measure (3) was significantly predicted by CD4 count, PAP smear abnormality and PCR status at entry. In the multivariate analysis, the significant independent predictive factors for HPV-positivity proved to be only the HIV status (P HIV-infected women, even on highly active antiretroviral therapy, demonstrate a more aggressive clinical course of cervical HPV infections, and fail to eradicate the disease more frequently than HIV-negative women. This persistence of HPV-positivity, oncogenic HPV type and significant PAP smear abnormality can be predicted by the results of PAP test and HPV typing in univariate analyses, and partly retain their independent predictive value also in multivariate analysis. Clearly, in addition to regular monitoring by PAP smear, HPV testing for the oncogenic HPV types seems to provide additional prognostic information in the management of cervical lesions in HIV-infected women. PMID:12816671

Branca, M; Garbuglia, A R; Benedetto, A; Cappiello, T; Leoncini, L; Migliore, G; Agarossi, A; Syrjänen, K

2003-06-01

274

Comparative study of visual inspection of the cervix by 3% acetic acid (VIA versus Pap smear by Bethesda method in sexually active women aged 25-50 years as an equally or more effective cervical cancer screening method in a low resource setup  

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Full Text Available Background: Cervical cancer is the most common cancer in Indian women and is a preventable cancer. Pap smear being an expensive screening test, increased emphasis is being laid on the development of a reliable and cost effective screening method for cervical cancer. This study aims at early detection of cervical dysplastic lesions using a simple and cost-effective screening test like visual inspection of cervix with 3% acetic acid (VIA and comparing its diagnostic efficacy with the more expensive Pap screening by Bethesda method. Methods: Ours was a prospective study carried out on a 100 sexually active women aged 25-50 years, coming to our OPD. The women were subjected to both a VIA and Pap smear. All Pap and VIA positive women were subjected to a cervical biopsy, whose histopathological report was taken as the gold standard. Results: In our study the sensitivity of VIA was more than that of cytology (100% versus 66.67% but the specificity was significantly lesser (47.83% compared to the 73.91%. The negative predictive value of VIA was comparable with Pap smear (100% and 85% respectively as was the positive predictive value (42.86% and 50%. However the diagnostic accuracy of VIA was lower than that of Pap smear (66.67% and 81.25% in our study. Conclusions: In this study VIA was found to have efficacy comparable to Pap smear in screening cervical cancer. Thus we recommend that VIA could be used as an alternative screening tool to detect early cervical dysplasia - especially in poor resource settings. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2014; 3(3.000: 688-691

Mohit Rajendra Saraogi

2014-06-01

275

Automated segmentation and analysis of fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) signals in interphase nuclei of pap-smear specimens  

Science.gov (United States)

Interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) technology is a potential and promising molecular imaging tool, which can be applied to screen and detect cervical cancer. However, manual FISH detection method is a subjective, tedious, and time-consuming process that results in a large inter-reader variability and possible detection error (in particular for heterogeneous cases). Automatic FISH image analysis aims to potentially improve detection efficiency and also produce more accurate and consistent results. In this preliminary study, a new computerized scheme is developed to automatically segment analyzable interaphase cells and detect FISH signals using digital fluorescence microscopic images acquired from Pap-smear specimens. First, due to the large intensity variations of the acquired interphase cells and overlapping cells, an iterative (multiple) threshold method and a feature-based classifier are applied to detect and segment all potentially analyzable interphase nuclei depicted on a single image frame. Second, a region labeling algorithm followed up a knowledge-based classifier is implemented to identify splitting and diffused FISH signals. Finally, each detected analyzable cell is classified as normal or abnormal based on the automatically counted number of FISH signals. To test the performance of this scheme, an image dataset involving 250 Pap-smear FISH image frames was collected and used in this study. The overall accuracy rate for segmenting analyzable interphase nuclei is 86.6% (360/424). The sensitivity and specificity for classifying abnormal and normal cells are 88.5% and 86.6%, respectively. The overall cell classification agreement rate between our scheme and a cytogeneticist is 86.6%. The testing results demonstrate the feasibility of applying this automated scheme in FISH image analysis.

Wang, Xingwei; Zheng, Bin; Li, Shibo; Zhang, Roy R.; Li, Yuhua; Mulvihill, John J.; Chen, Wei R.; Liu, Hong

2009-02-01

276

The Costs of an Outreach Intervention for Low-Income Women With Abnormal Pap Smears  

OpenAIRE

IntroductionFollow-up among women who have had an abnormal Papanicolaou (Pap) smear is often poor in public hospitals that serve women at increased risk for cervical cancer. This randomized controlled trial evaluated and compared the total cost and cost per follow-up of a tailored outreach intervention plus usual care with the total cost and cost per follow-up of usual care alone.MethodsWomen with an abnormal Pap smear (n = 348) receiving care at Alameda County Medical Center (Alameda County,...

Todd H Wagner, Phd; Linda P Engelstad, Md; Stephen J Mcphee, Md; Rena J Pasick, Drph

2007-01-01

277

Crystal Structure of the P Pilus Rod Subunit PapA  

OpenAIRE

P pili are important adhesive fibres involved in kidney infection by uropathogenic Escherichia coli strains. P pili are assembled by the conserved chaperone-usher pathway, which involves the PapD chaperone and the PapC usher. During pilus assembly, subunits are incorporated into the growing fiber via the donor-strand exchange (DSE) mechanism, whereby the chaperone's G(1) beta-strand that complements the incomplete immunoglobulin-fold of each subunit is displaced by the N-terminal extension (N...

Verger, D.; Bullitt, E.; Hultgren, S. J.; Waksman, G.

2007-01-01

278

The accuracy of Pap smear utilization self-report: a methodological consideration in cervical screening research.  

OpenAIRE

One method used to determine utilization rates of cervical screening is women's self-report. Few studies have assessed the accuracy of this measure--none has been conducted in Australia--although there are a number of reasons for suspecting its validity. This study examined and quantified the accuracy of self-report of Pap smear use among a randomly selected sample of women from an Australian community. Accuracy of Pap smear utilization self-report within a three-year period was assessed by c...

Bowman, J. A.; Redman, S.; Dickinson, J. A.; Gibberd, R.; Sanson-fisher, R. W.

1991-01-01

279

RRS Discovery Cruise 306, 23 Jun-06 Jul 2006. Pelagic biogeochemistry of the PAP Site  

OpenAIRE

The aim of this cruise was to develop a better understanding of carbon cycling in the pelagic waters of the Porcupine Abyssal Plain (PAP). There were three objectives 1) Turnaround moorings at the PAP Observatory; 2) Conduct a 1-D time series on the central station of a wide range of biogeochemical processes and to back this up with a mesoscale survey of key variables; 3) To trial the use of Autosub for mesoscale surveys in conjunction with the ship. All objectives were met, although the tops...

Burkill, P. H.

2006-01-01

280

Potential application of electronic nose in processed animal proteins (PAP detection in feedstuffs  

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Full Text Available Electronic nose and olfactometry techniques represent a modern analytical approach in food industry since they could potentially improve quality and safety of food processing. The aim of this study was to evaluate possible application of electronic nose in PA P detection and recognition in feed. For this purpose 6 reference feedstuffs (CRA-W / UE STRAT F E E D Project were used. The basis of the test samples was a compound feed for bovine fortified with processed animal proteins ( PAP consisting of meat and bone meal (MBM and/or fish meal at different concentrations. Each feed sample was tested in glass vials and the odour profile was determined by the ten MOS (metal oxide semi-conductor sensors of the electronic nose. Ten different descriptors, representing each ten sensors of electronic nose, were used to characterise the odour of each sample. In the present study, electronic nose was able to discriminate the blank sample from all other samples containing PA P ( M B M , fish meal or both. Samples containing either 0.5% of MBM or 5% of fish meal were identified, while samples containing a high fish meal content (5% associated with a low MBM content (0.5% were not discriminated from samples containing solely fish meal at that same high level (5%. This latter indicates that probably the high fish meal level, in samples containing both MBM and fish meal, tended to mask MBM odour. It was also evident that two odour descriptors were enough to explain 72.12% of total variability in odour pattern. In view of these results, it could be suggested that electronic nose and olfactometry techniques can provide an interesting approach for screening raw materials in feed industry, even though further studies using a wider set of samples are needed.

Dell'Orto V.

2004-01-01

281

In silico Comparative Modeling of PapA1 and PapA2 Proteins Involved in Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Sulfolipid-1 Biosynthesis Pathway  

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Full Text Available Tuberculosis is one of the most serious health problems, as globally; around 2 billion or one third of the world's total population has been infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a unique among bacterial pathogens in that it displays a wide array of complex lipids and lipoglycans on its cell surface. One such glycolipid, sulfolipid-1 (SL-1, is the most sulfatide, consists of a trehalose core, four fatty acyl groups, and a sulfate ester. Several proteins involved in SL-1 biosynthesis have been identified, the enzymes that acylate the T2S core to form SL1278 and SL-1, and the biosynthetic order of these acylation reactions, are unknown. Here we studied the in silico identification of PapA2 and PapA1, proteins responsible for the sequential acylation of T2S to form SL1278 and are essential for SL-1 biosynthesis, by applying different bioinformatics tools. Benchmark, of 3 different homology modeling programs Modeller, Swiss-Model (Deep View, and ESyPred3D, has been performed used to transform the alignment to a 3D model. The 3D structures of targeted proteins were evaluated by evaluation tools, ANOLEA and Verify3D. It is concluded that in SL-1 biosynthesis pathway, PapA1 and PapA2 proteins could be used as drug target, drug lead design and to find out the other proteins involved in this pathway that not yet have been identified and may be used to the cure of tuberculosis infection.

Rana Adnan Tahir

2012-09-01

282

STUDY OF HIGH RISK CASES FOR EARLY DETECTION OF CERVICAL CANCER BY PAP’S SMEAR AND VISUAL INSPECTION BY LUGOL’S IODINE METHOD.  

OpenAIRE

INTRODUCTION:Cervical cancer is the commonest genital tract cancer among Indian women. Screening programmes have claimed to reduce incidence and mortality of cervical carcinoma significantly, for which sensitization of women is required through community based approach.OBJECTIVES: Comparison of VILI and cytology by PAP smear for detection of low grade squamous intraepithelial lesion, high grade squamous intraepithelial lesion, carcinoma of cervix and correlation of results with the reference ...

Harshad Ladola; Ami Mehta; Kamlesh Kotadiya; Rebecca Edwin; Vibhuti Patel; Vaibhavi Patel

2013-01-01

283

Clinical Implications of the Cervical Papanicolaou Test Results in the Management of Anal Warts in HIV-Infected Women  

OpenAIRE

The Papanicolaou test (or Pap test) has long been used as a screening tool to detect cervical precancerous/cancerous lesions. However, studies on the use of this test to predict both the presence and change in size of genital warts are limited. We examined whether cervical Papanicolaou test results are associated with the size of the largest anal wart over time in HIV-infected women in an on-going cohort study in the US. A sample of 976 HIV-infected women included in a public dataset obtained...

Luu, Hung N.; Amirian, E. Susan; Beasley, R. Palmer; Piller, Linda; Chan, Wenyaw; Scheurer, Michael E.

2013-01-01

284

Pap smears of patients with extramammary Paget's disease of the vulva.  

Science.gov (United States)

Extramammary Paget's disease (EMPD) of the vulva is a rare entity. The diagnosis is almost always made on biopsy. Tumor cells are seen rarely in Papanicolaou (Pap) smears. We encountered three cases of EMPD that were detected in Pap smears. One patient had vulvar and vaginal involvement and the abnormal cells seen in the vaginal smear initially were interpreted as high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion. Retrospective review showed scattered single atypical cells with enlarged hyperchromatic nuclei, coarse chromatin, inconspicuous nucleoli, high nuclear/cytoplasmic (N:C) ratio, and scanty basophilic cytoplasm. Rare signet ring cells and cells within cells were present. In the other two patients who had cervical involvement, the correct diagnosis was made on Pap smears. The slides showed both single and cohesive sheets of glandular cells with enlarged round to oval nuclei, coarse chromatin, prominent nucleoli, and abundant basophilic cytoplasm containing prominent vacuoles with signet ring-cell appearance. Cells within cells were abundant. EMPD has distinct cytomorphological features. Although infrequently encountered, EMPD can be diagnosed on Pap smears with adequate clinical history. PMID:15880697

Gu, Mai; Ghafari, Sophie; Lin, Fritz

2005-06-01

285

Spatial structure of oligopeptide PAP(248-261), the N-terminal fragment of the HIV enhancer prostatic acid phosphatase peptide PAP(248-286), in aqueous and SDS micelle solutions  

Science.gov (United States)

Prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP) is an enzyme that facilitates infection of cells by HIV. Its peptide fragment PAP(248-286) forms amyloid fibrils known as SEVI, which enhance attachment of the virus by viral adhesion to the host cell prior to receptor-specific binding via reducing the electrostatic repulsion between the membranes of the virus and the target cell. The secondary structure of PAP(248-286) in aqueous and SDS solutions can be divided into an N-terminal disordered region, an ?-helical central part and an ?/310-helical C-terminal region (Nanga et al., 2009). In this work, we used NMR spectroscopy to study the spatial structure of the isolated N-terminal fragment of PAP(248-286), PAP(248-261) (GIHKQKEKSRLQGG), in aqueous and SDS micelle solutions. Formation of a PAP(248-261)-SDS complex was confirmed by chemical shift alterations in the 1H NMR spectra of the peptide, as well as by the signs and values of Nuclear Overhauser Effect (NOE). In addition, the PAP(248-261) peptide does not form any specified secondary structure in either aqueous or SDS solutions.

Blokhin, Dmitriy S.; Filippov, Andrei V.; Antzutkin, Oleg N.; Karataeva, Farida Kh.; Klochkov, Vladimir V.

2014-07-01

286

CIR, a corepressor of CBF1, binds to PAP-1 and effects alternative splicing  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We have reported that PAP-1, a product of a causative gene for autosomal retinitis pigmentosa, plays a role in splicing. In this study, CIR, a protein originally identified as a CBF1-interacting protein and reported to act as a transcriptional corepressor, was identified as a PAP-1 binding protein and its function as a splicing factor was investigated. In addition to a basic lysine and acidic serine-rich (BA) domain and a zinc knuckle-like motif, CIR has an arginine/serine dipeptide repeat (RS) domain in its C terminal region. The RS domain has been reported to be present in the superfamily of SR proteins, which are involved in splicing reactions. We generated CIR mutants with deletions of each BA and RS domain and studied their subcellular localizations and interactions with PAP-1 and other SR proteins, including SC35, SF2/ASF, and U2AF35. CIR was found to interact with U2AF35 through the BA domain, with SC35 and SF2/ASF through the RS domain, and with PAP-1 outside the BA domain in vivo and in vitro. CIR was found to be colocalized with SC35 and PAP-1 in nuclear speckles. Then the effect of CIR on splicing was investigated using the E1a minigene as a reporter in HeLa cells. Ectopic expression of CIR with the E1a minigene changed the ratio of spliced isoforms of E1a that were produced by alternative selection of 5'-splice sites. These results indicate that CIR is a member of the family of SR-related proteins and that CIR plays a role in splicingeins and that CIR plays a role in splicing regulation

287

PAP and NT5E inhibit nociceptive neurotransmission by rapidly hydrolyzing nucleotides to adenosine  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP and ecto-5'-nucleotidase (NT5E, CD73 produce extracellular adenosine from the nucleotide AMP in spinal nociceptive (pain-sensing circuits; however, it is currently unknown if these are the main ectonucleotidases that generate adenosine or how rapidly they generate adenosine. Results We found that AMP hydrolysis, when measured histochemically, was nearly abolished in dorsal root ganglia (DRG neurons and lamina II of spinal cord from Pap/Nt5e double knockout (dKO mice. Likewise, the antinociceptive effects of AMP, when combined with nucleoside transport inhibitors (dipyridamole or 5-iodotubericidin, were reduced by 80-100% in dKO mice. In addition, we used fast scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV to measure adenosine production at subsecond resolution within lamina II. Adenosine was maximally produced within seconds from AMP in wild-type (WT mice but production was reduced >50% in dKO mice, indicating PAP and NT5E rapidly generate adenosine in lamina II. Unexpectedly, we also detected spontaneous low frequency adenosine transients in lamina II with FSCV. Adenosine transients were of short duration (60% in frequency in Pap-/-, Nt5e-/- and dKO mice, suggesting these ectonucleotidases rapidly hydrolyze endogenously released nucleotides to adenosine. Field potential recordings in lamina II and behavioral studies indicate that adenosine made by these enzymes acts through the adenosine A1 receptor to inhibit excitatory neurotransmission and nociception. Conclusions Collectively, our experiments indicate that PAP and NT5E are the main ectonucleotidases that generate adenosine in nociceptive circuits and indicate these enzymes transform pulsatile or sustained nucleotide release into an inhibitory adenosinergic signal.

Vihko Pirkko

2011-10-01

288

Manduca sexta prophenoloxidase activating proteinase-1 (PAP-1) gene: organization, expression, and regulation by immune and hormonal signals.  

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Insect phenoloxidase (PO) participates in melanotic encapsulation, wound healing, and cuticle sclerotization. It is converted from prophenoloxidase (proPO) by a proPO-activating proteinase (PAP). Manduca sexta PAP-1, the final component of a serine proteinase cascade, cleaves proPO to generate active PO. In an effort to understand the transcriptional regulation, we isolated a genomic clone of the PAP-1 gene, determined its nucleotide sequence, and elucidated its exon-intron organization. Computer analysis revealed several immune and hormone responsive elements in the upstream region. Southern blot analysis suggested that the M. sexta genome contains a single copy of PAP-1 gene. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction showed that PAP-1 was constitutively expressed in fat body, trachea, and nerve tissue of the fifth instar larvae. The mRNA levels in hemocytes and fat body markedly increased in response to a bacterial challenge. We also observed tissue-specific and developmental regulation of the gene's transcription. Treating M. sexta fat body culture with 20-hydroxyecdysone reduced the PAP-1 mRNA level. These data indicated that the expression of PAP-1 gene is under the dual control of immune and hormonal signals. PMID:15857768

Zou, Zhen; Wang, Yang; Jiang, Haobo

2005-06-01

289

Molecular basis for group-specific activation of the virulence regulator PlcR by PapR heptapeptides.  

Science.gov (United States)

The transcriptional regulator PlcR and its cognate cell-cell signalling peptide PapR form a quorum-sensing system that controls the expression of extra-cellular virulence factors in various species of the Bacillus cereus group. PlcR and PapR alleles are clustered into four groups defining four pherotypes. However, the molecular basis for group specificity remains elusive, largely because the biologically relevant PapR form is not known. Here, we show that the in vivo active form of PapR is the C-terminal heptapeptide of the precursor, and not the pentapeptide, as previously suggested. Combining genetic complementation, anisotropy assays and structural analysis we provide a detailed functional and structural explanation for the group specificity of the PlcR-PapR quorum-sensing system. We further show that the C-terminal helix of the PlcR regulatory domain, specifically the 278 residue, in conjunction with the N-terminal residues of the PapR heptapeptide determines this system specificity. Variability in the specificity-encoding regions of plcR and papR genes suggests that selection and evolution of quorum-sensing systems play a major role in adaptation and ecology of Bacilli. PMID:18492723

Bouillaut, L; Perchat, S; Arold, S; Zorrilla, S; Slamti, L; Henry, C; Gohar, M; Declerck, N; Lereclus, D

2008-06-01

290

Pap pili as a vector system for surface exposition of an immunoglobulin G-binding domain of protein A of Staphylococcus aureus in Escherichia coli.  

OpenAIRE

Fusion genes between papA, the gene coding for the major Pap pilus subunit, and fragments coding for an immunoglobulin G-binding domain of the Staphylococcus aureus protein A were constructed in such a way that the spa fragments were inserted following either codon 7 or 68 of the coding sequence for the mature portion of PapA. Peptides in the area of amino acids 7 and 68 of PapA are localized at the external side of the pilus. A set of pL expression plasmids containing papA and derivatives su...

Steidler, L.; Remaut, E.; Fiers, W.

1993-01-01

291

Use of a Two-Color Genetic Screen To Identify a Domain of the Global Regulator Lrp That Is Specifically Required for pap Phase Variation  

OpenAIRE

The global regulator Lrp plays a central role as both a repressor and an activator in Pap phase variation. Unlike most other members of the Lrp regulon such as ilvIH, activation of papBA transcription requires the coregulator PapI and is methylation dependent. We developed a two-color genetic screen to identify Lrp mutations that inhibit Pap phase variation but still activate ilvIH transcription, reasoning that such mutations might identify PapI binding or methylation-responsive domains. Amin...

Kaltenbach, Linda; Braaten, Bruce; Tucker, Julie; Krabbe, Margareta; Low, David

1998-01-01

292

Frequency and organization of papA homologous DNA sequences among uropathogenic digalactoside-binding Escherichia coli strains.  

OpenAIRE

The frequency of selected papA DNA sequences among 89 digalactoside-binding, uropathogenic Escherichia coli strains was evaluated with 12 different synthetic 15-base probes corresponding to papA genes from four digalactoside-binding piliated recombinant strains (HU849, 201B, and 200A). The papA probes encode amino acids which are common at the carboxy terminus of all strains, adjacent to the proximal portion of the intramolecular disulfide loop of strain 210B, or predicted to constitute the t...

Denich, K.; Craiu, A.; Rugo, H.; Muralidhar, G.; O Hanley, P.

1991-01-01

293

The N-acetyltransferase RimJ responds to environmental stimuli to repress pap fimbrial transcription in Escherichia coli.  

Science.gov (United States)

In uropathogenic Escherichia coli, P pili (Pap) facilitate binding to host epithelial cells and subsequent colonization. Whereas P pili can be produced at 37 degrees C, the expression of these fimbriae is suppressed at 23 degrees C. Previously, insertion mutations in rimJ, a gene encoding the N-terminal acetyltransferase of ribosomal protein S5, were shown to disrupt this thermoregulatory response, allowing papBA transcription at low temperature. In this study, we created an in-frame deletion of rimJ. This deletion relieved the repressive effects not only of low temperature but also of rich (Luria-Bertani [LB]) medium and glucose on papBA transcription, indicating that RimJ modulates papBA transcription in response to multiple environmental stimuli. papI transcription was also shown to be regulated by RimJ. papBA transcription is also controlled by a phase variation mechanism. We demonstrated that the regulators necessary to establish a phase ON state--PapI, PapB, Dam, Lrp, and cyclic AMP-CAP-are still required for papBA transcription in a rimJ mutant strain. rimJ mutations increase the rate at which bacteria transition into the phase ON state, indicating that RimJ inhibits the phase OFF-->ON transition. A DeltarimJ hns651 mutant is viable on LB medium but not on minimal medium. This synthetic lethality, along with transcriptional analyses, indicates that RimJ and H-NS work through separate pathways to control papBA transcription. Mutations in rimJ do not greatly influence the transcription of the fan, daa, or fim operon, suggesting that RimJ may be a pap-specific regulator. Overexpression of rimJ under conditions repressive for papBA transcription complements the DeltarimJ mutation but has little effect on transcription under activating conditions, indicating that the ability of RimJ to regulate transcription is environmentally controlled. PMID:12142402

White-Ziegler, Christine A; Black, Alia M; Eliades, Stacie H; Young, Sarah; Porter, Kimberly

2002-08-01

294

Psychological impact, support and information needs for women with an abnormal Pap smear: comparative results of a questionnaire in three European countries  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Extensive information on cervical cancer is currently available. Its effectiveness in reducing anxiety in women receiving abnormal Pap tests is not clear. We investigated current practices of communicating abnormal Pap results to evaluate women's reactions and determine the sources of information they use subsequently. Methods A self-administered questionnaire-based study was performed in 1475 women in France, Spain and Portugal who had received an abnormal Pap smear result in the 12 months prior to completing the questionnaire. Questions covered methods of communication of the result, emotional reactions, support received (from the physician and entourage, and information sources, using pre-specified check box options and rating scales. Data were analyzed by country. Results Pap test results were mostly communicated by phone to Spanish women (76%, while physician letters were common in France (59% and Portugal (36%. Frequent reactions were anxiety, panic and stress, which were less common in Spanish women than their French and Portuguese counterparts. After discussing with their physician, half of the participants were worried, despite rating highly the psychological support received. Over 90% of women in each country discussed their results with family or friends. Partners provided a high level of support. Overall, the abnormal diagnosis and consequences had a low to medium impact on daily, professional and family life and their relationships with their partner. Impact was higher in Spanish women than the French or Portuguese. Information on the diagnosis and its treatment was rated average, and nearly 80% of participants wanted more information, notably French women. Preferred sources were the physician and the Internet. Conclusions Women expressed a strong wish for more information about cervical cancer and other HPV-related diseases, and that their physician play a major role in its provision and in support. There was a heavy reliance on the close entourage and the Internet for information, highlighting the need for dissemination of accurate material. Differences between countries suggest information management strategies may need to be tailored to different geographical regions.

Jorge Anna

2011-05-01

295

HPV Reflex Testing in Menopausal Women  

OpenAIRE

Objective. To determine the frequency of high risk (HR) HPV and intraepithelial neoplasia following ASCUS pap cytology screens in menopausal women. Study Design. Following IRB approval, we performed a retrospective review of all cases of ASCUS pap tests, HPV results, and relevant clinical-pathologic data in women age 50 or over from November 2005 to January 2007 within a tertiary care center. Statistical analyses were performed in EXCEL. Results. 344 patients were an...

Annekathryn Goodman; David Wilbur; Rosemary Tambouret; Ko, Emily M.

2011-01-01

296

Generador de flujo con presión binivelada (BiPAP) a través de traqueostomía / Flow generator with double level pressure (BiPAP) through Tracheostomy  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Introducción: El Programa Chileno de Ventilación No Invasiva en domicilio (AVNI) extendió su cobertura utilizando generadores de flujo con presión bi-nivelada (BiPAP) en niños con ventilación mecánica prolongada (VMP) y traqueostomía (TQT). Objetivo: Reportar la experiencia de esta estrategia descri [...] biendo criterios de selección, modalidades de uso y tecnologías complementarias. Pacientes y Métodos: Estudio descriptivo, transversal y prospectivo durante un año desde Junio 2006, en 20 pacientes manejados en el Hospital Josefina Martínez, otros centros de la red asistencial del Ministerio de Salud y en domicilio. Se registraron las características clínicas, modos ventilatorios, evolución y complicaciones. Resultados: La mediana de edad fue de 3,5 años (rango 3 meses a 17 años). La duración de la VMP fue lm a 5a, 6 pacientes (30%) se encuentran en domicilio y 14 (70%) hospitalizados. La principal causa para VMP fue enfermedad neuromuscular (14, 70%). No hubo mortalidad y 4 pacientes tuvieron complicaciones menores. Conclusión: El BiPAP a través de TQT, usado con criterios estrictos de selección, es un método de VMP que puede ser factible. Se requieren estudios comparativos para definir costos, beneficios y riesgos de estos equipos comparándolos con ventiladores licenciados para soporte vital. Abstract in english Background: The Chilean Program of Noninvasive Home Ventilation started using flow generating equipment with differential pressure at 2 levels (BiPAP) through tracheostomies for prolonged mechanical ventilation (PMV). Objective: Describe the experience of this ventilatory support, reporting selectio [...] n criteria, procedure and technological requirements. Method: Descriptive-transversal study that includes 20 patients treated at Hospital Josefina Martínez, other pediatric hospitals and at home, for 12 months since June 2006. The clinical features, ventilation support, technical characteristics, follow-up and complications were reported. Results: The mean age was 3.5 years-old (range 3 months - 17 years). The duration of PMV ranged between 1 month to 5 years. Six patients (30%) are at home and 14 (70%) are hospitalized. In 14 patients (70%), the need of PMV was due to neuromuscular diseases. There was no mortality related to the use of Bipap through tracheostomy; only 4 patients had minor complications. Conclusions: This report suggests that the use of BiPAP through tracheostomy in patients with selection criteria is an applicable PVM method. However, comparative systematic trials are necessary to define costs, benefits and risks of this type of ventilation.

SOLEDAD, MONTES F; MIREYA, MÉNDEZ R; PATRICIO, BARAÑAO G; PAMELA, SALINAS F; FRANCISCO, PRADO A.

2008-10-01

297

Generador de flujo con presión binivelada (BiPAP a través de traqueostomía Flow generator with double level pressure (BiPAP through Tracheostomy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introducción: El Programa Chileno de Ventilación No Invasiva en domicilio (AVNI extendió su cobertura utilizando generadores de flujo con presión bi-nivelada (BiPAP en niños con ventilación mecánica prolongada (VMP y traqueostomía (TQT. Objetivo: Reportar la experiencia de esta estrategia describiendo criterios de selección, modalidades de uso y tecnologías complementarias. Pacientes y Métodos: Estudio descriptivo, transversal y prospectivo durante un año desde Junio 2006, en 20 pacientes manejados en el Hospital Josefina Martínez, otros centros de la red asistencial del Ministerio de Salud y en domicilio. Se registraron las características clínicas, modos ventilatorios, evolución y complicaciones. Resultados: La mediana de edad fue de 3,5 años (rango 3 meses a 17 años. La duración de la VMP fue lm a 5a, 6 pacientes (30% se encuentran en domicilio y 14 (70% hospitalizados. La principal causa para VMP fue enfermedad neuromuscular (14, 70%. No hubo mortalidad y 4 pacientes tuvieron complicaciones menores. Conclusión: El BiPAP a través de TQT, usado con criterios estrictos de selección, es un método de VMP que puede ser factible. Se requieren estudios comparativos para definir costos, beneficios y riesgos de estos equipos comparándolos con ventiladores licenciados para soporte vital.Background: The Chilean Program of Noninvasive Home Ventilation started using flow generating equipment with differential pressure at 2 levels (BiPAP through tracheostomies for prolonged mechanical ventilation (PMV. Objective: Describe the experience of this ventilatory support, reporting selection criteria, procedure and technological requirements. Method: Descriptive-transversal study that includes 20 patients treated at Hospital Josefina Martínez, other pediatric hospitals and at home, for 12 months since June 2006. The clinical features, ventilation support, technical characteristics, follow-up and complications were reported. Results: The mean age was 3.5 years-old (range 3 months - 17 years. The duration of PMV ranged between 1 month to 5 years. Six patients (30% are at home and 14 (70% are hospitalized. In 14 patients (70%, the need of PMV was due to neuromuscular diseases. There was no mortality related to the use of Bipap through tracheostomy; only 4 patients had minor complications. Conclusions: This report suggests that the use of BiPAP through tracheostomy in patients with selection criteria is an applicable PVM method. However, comparative systematic trials are necessary to define costs, benefits and risks of this type of ventilation.

SOLEDAD MONTES F

2008-10-01

298

The Pap smear screening as an occasion for smoking cessation and physical activity counselling: effectiveness of the SPRINT randomized controlled trial  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The organized Cervical Cancer Screening Programme (CCSP in Italy might represent an occasion to deliver smoking cessation (SC counselling to women attending the Pap test examination. Evidence of effectiveness of physical activity (PA promotion and intervention in adjunct to SC counselling is not strong. Objective of the SPRINT trial was to evaluate the effectiveness of a standard SC counselling intervention delivered by trained midwives in the CCSP, and whether the adjunct of a PA counselling to the SC counselling might increase quit rates. Methods/Design We undertook a randomized controlled trial of 1,100 women undergoing the Pap examination in the three study centres Florence, Turin, and Mantua: 363 were randomly assigned to the SC counselling arm, 366 to the SC?+?PA counselling arm, and 371 to the control group. The intervention was a standard brief SC counselling combined with a brief counselling on increasing PA, and was tailored according to the Di Clemente-Prochaska motivational stages of change for SC and/or PA. Primary outcomes were quit rates, improvement in the motivational stages of change for SC, and reduced daily cigarette consumption. Analysis was by intention to treat. Results Participants randomized in both intervention arms and in the preparation stage of change for SC doubled their likelihood of quitting at 6-month follow-up in comparison to controls (odds ratio [OR]=2.1, 95% confidence interval [95% CI]:1.0-4.6. Moreover, participants in the intervention arms and in the contemplation stage were more likely to reduce their daily cigarette consumption after the intervention (OR=1.8, 95% CI:1.1-3.0. Our study did not show any effect of PA counselling on various outcomes. Conclusions Smoking cessation counselling delivered by midwives to smokers in preparation and contemplation stages of change during the Pap-smear screening was effective and should be recommended, given the high number of women attending the cervical cancer screening programme in Italy. Moreover, the daily number of women invited for the Pap-smear examination should be slightly lowered, in order to let midwives deliver SC counselling to smokers. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN52660565

Gorini Giuseppe

2012-09-01

299

Citopatológico de colo uterino entre gestantes no Sul do Brasil: um estudo transversal de base populacional Pap smears among pregnant women in Southern Brazil: a representative cross-sectional survey  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar a prevalência e identificar fatores associados ao não rastreamento voluntário para citopatológico (CP de colo uterino entre puérperas em Rio Grande (RS. MÉTODOS: Entrevistadores previamente treinados aplicaram questionário padronizado, ainda na maternidade, em busca de informações sobre características demográficas da gestante, nível socioeconômico da família e tipo de assistência recebida durante o pré-natal para todas aquelas residentes nesse município que tiveram filhos entre 1º de janeiro e 31 de dezembro de 2010. Foram utilizados o teste do ?² para comparar proporções e a regressão de Poisson com ajuste robusto da variância na análise multivariável. RESULTADOS: Dentre as 2.288 entrevistadas, 33% não se submeteram ao CP de colo uterino. Destas, dois terços disseram desconhecer a necessidade de realizá-lo, 18% não fizeram este exame por medo ou vergonha e as demais por outras razões. Após ajuste para diversos fatores de confusão, as maiores razões de prevalência (RP para não buscar por CP ocorreram entre aquelas de menor idade (RP=1,5; IC95% 1,25 - 1,80 e escolaridade (RP=1,5; IC95% 1,12 - 2,12, que viviam sem companheiro (RP=1,4; IC95% 1,24 - 1,62, fumantes (RP=1,2; IC95% 1,07 - 1,39, que não planejaram a gravidez (RP=1,3; IC95% 1,21 - 1,61, que completaram menos de seis consultas durante pré-natal (RP=1,4; IC95% 1,32 - 1,69 e usuárias de contraceptivo oral (RP=1,2; IC95% 1,04 - 1,38. CONCLUSÕES: Quanto maior o risco para câncer de colo uterino, menor a probabilidade de a gestante se submeter ao CP de colo uterino. Isso, certamente, tem contribuído para o aumento da morbimortalidade por esta doença nesta localidade.PURPOSE: To determine the prevalence and risk factors associated with failure of voluntary screening for cervical cancer during the gestational period in Rio Grande, Rio Grande do Sul State, Southern Brazil. METHODS: Previously trained interviewers applied a standardized questionnaire in the maternity to all mothers from this municipality who had delivered from January 1st to December 31st 2010 to obtain information about the demographic characteristics of the pregnant women, family socioeconomic status, and prenatal care received. The ?² test was used to compare proportions and Poisson regression with robust adjustment of variance was used in the multivariate analysis. RESULTS: Among the 2,288 respondents, 33% were not submitted to the Pap smear during pregnancy. Two thirds of these women stated that they were not aware of the need to perform it, 18% were not screened out of fear or shame, and the rest for other reasons. After adjustment, the highest prevalence ratios (PR for noncompliance with the Pap smear occurred among young women (PR=1.5; 95%CI 1.25 - 1.80, with lower educational level (PR=1.5; 95%CI 1.12 - 2.12, who were living without a partner (PR=1.4; 95%CI 1.24 - 1.62, smokers (PR=1.2; 95%CI 1.07 - 1.39, who did not plan the current pregnancy (PR=1.3; 95%CI 1,21 - 1.61, who had attended less than six medical visits during the prenatal period (PR=1.4; 95%CI 1.32 - 1.69 and among users of oral contraceptives (PR=1.2; 95%CI 1.04 - 1.38. CONCLUSIONS: The higher the risk for uterine cervical cancer, the less likely a pregnant woman is to undergo a Pap smear. This definitely contributed to the increased morbidity and mortality from this disease in this setting.

Juraci Almeida Cesar

2012-11-01

300

Mutations in E coli cistrons affecting adhesion to human cells do not abolish Pap pili fiber formation.  

OpenAIRE

A chromosomal DNA fragment which mediates Pap (pili associated with pyelonephritis) pili formation, mannose-resistant hemagglutination ( MRHA ) and binding to uroepithelial cells has been isolated from the uropathogenic Escherichia coli clinical isolate J96 , and genetically studied. Analysis of polypeptides expressed by the Pap DNA led to detection of a number of polypeptides ranging in mol. wt. from 13 000 to 81 000 daltons. The gene order and transcriptional orientation for four of the cor...

Norgren, M.; Normark, S.; Lark, D.; O Hanley, P.; Schoolnik, G.; Falkow, S.; Svanborg-ede?n, C.; Ba?ga, M.; Uhlin, B. E.

1984-01-01

301

Associations of demographic variables and the Health Belief Model constructs with Pap smear screening among urban women in Botswana  

OpenAIRE

Ditsapelo M McFarland College of Nursing and Public Health, Adelphi University, Garden City, NY, USA Purpose: Papanicolaou (Pap) smear services are available in most urban areas in Botswana. Yet most women in such areas do not screen regularly for cancer of the cervix. The purpose of this article is to present findings on the associations of demographic variables and Health Belief Model constructs with Pap smear screening among urban women in Botswana. Sample and methods: The study included a...

McFarl; DM

2013-01-01

302

No increased risk for cervical cancer after a broader definition of a negative pap smear  

OpenAIRE

The definition of minimal relevant Pap smear abnormality is crucial for balancing the beneficial effects of screening (prevented mortality) with negative side-effects (the high positivity rate). After inflammation ceased to be defined as a borderline abnormal smear outcome in The Netherlands in 1996, the proportion of these smears dropped from 10% to less than 2%. Because this may have caused a loss in smear sensitivity, we analysed the changes in the incidence of cervical cancer after a nega...

Rebolj, M.; Ballegooijen, M.; Kemenade, F.; Looman, C. W. N.; Boer, R.; Habbema, J. D. F.

2008-01-01

303

The Social Ecology of Cervical Cancer: The Challenges to Pap Smear Screening  

OpenAIRE

Cervical cancer is a preventable disease. The risk factors for the development of cervical cancer include both biologic factors and social factors. In the United States, the leading risk factor for the development of cervical cancer is not having a Pap smear for five years prior to the diagnosis of cancer. In low and middle income countries, cervical cancer incidence and mortality are directly related to the lack of both screening programs and cancer treatment facilitie...

Annekathryn Goodman

2013-01-01

304

plcR papR-independent expression of anthrolysin O by Bacillus anthracis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cholesterol-dependent cytolysins (CDCs) are secreted, pore-forming toxins that are associated with pathogenesis in a variety of gram-positive bacteria. Bacillus anthracis produces anthrolysin O (ALO), a CDC that is largely responsible for the hemolytic activity of culture supernates when the bacterium is cultured in appropriate conditions. B. cereus and B. thuringiensis, species closely related to B. anthracis, produce CDCs with significant amino acid sequence homology to ALO. Transcription of the B. cereus and B. thuringiensis CDC genes is controlled by PlcR, a transcription regulator that requires a pentapeptide derived from the papR gene product for binding to a consensus sequence (PlcR box) and transcriptional activation of downstream genes. A PlcR box precedes the B. anthracis alo gene, and the B. anthracis genome contains three plcR-like genes, one of which harbors a nonsense mutation that is predicted to result in a truncated, nonfunctional protein. We detected mRNA of alo, papR, and the three plcR-like genes in spleens of B. anthracis-infected mice, indicating gene expression in vivo. Analysis of alo transcription in batch culture revealed a potential transcription start located between the PlcR box and the translational start. Nevertheless, steady-state levels of alo transcripts and ALO protein were unaffected by deletion of papR or disruption of the PlcR box. Our data indicate that despite the presence of the transcriptionally active plcR and papR genes in B. anthracis and a PlcR box in the promoter region of the alo gene, alo expression is independent of this control system. PMID:16980467

Ross, Caná L; Koehler, Theresa M

2006-11-01

305

Early detection of oral cancer: PAP and AgNOR staining in brush biopsies  

OpenAIRE

Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the diagnostic accuracy of routine Papanicolaou stain (PAP) and Silver stained Nucleolar Organizer Regions (AgNOR) staining in brush biopsies taken from suspected oral lesions for early detection of oral cancer. Materials and Methods: Brush biopsies were collected from macroscopically suspicious lesions of the oral cavity of 34 patients and 10 normal-aged and sex-matched controls. The numbers of AgNORs were counted in 100 squamous epithelial cell nu...

Rajput Dinesh; Tupkari Jagdish

2010-01-01

306

Abnormal gallium scintigraphy in pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A patient with medulloblastoma of the cerebellum developed dyspnea and hypoxemia. Pulmonary function tests showed decreased lung volume and diffusing capacity, while the chest radiographs initially showed only mild interstitial infiltrates. Repeated gallium scans showed diffuse lung uptake and diagnosis of pulmonary alveolar proteinosis was made by open lung biopsy

307

Influence of the intermolecular interaction on photo-induced spin-transition of [Fe(R-pap)2]X  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Iron(III) spin-crossover complexes [Fe(pap)2]ClO4 x H2O, [Fe(pap)2]BF4 x H2O, [Fe(pap)2]PF6 x CH3OH), [Fe(CH3-pap)2]ClO4 x H2O, [Fe0.5Al0.5(pap)2]ClO4 x CH3OH and [Fe0.25Al0.75(pap)2] ClO4 x CH3OH were prepared and the spin transition behaviors of the complexes have been studied from magnetic susceptibility and Moessbauer spectroscopy measurements. The magnetic properties of light-induced metastable state are measured using Hg-Xe light source. T1/2 is temperature at which the populations of the high-spin and low-spin species are fifty-fifty. Metastable HS is produced by light irradiation at 5 K. T(LIESST) is the temperature at which the populations of the metastable high-spin species decrease to one half and cooperativity factor Cis defined as the parameter which presents the strength of cooperativity. The value of T(LIESST) decreases as T1/2 increases and the plots of T(LIESST) vs. C show linear correlation. The effect of cooperativity of the complexes on the relaxations in solid was confirmed for the iron(III) complexes. (author)

308

Determination of crack arrest toughness in A508 CL.3 forging steel from ASTM E1221-88 procedure. Comparison with the values obtained from thermal loading tests  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A crack arrest study is under way at Electricite de France as part of the analysis of the risk of fast fracture of PWR vessels in emergency conditions. The first objective of this study is to evaluate the toughness which characterizes crack arrest through tests on reduced-size specimens. Some of the tests on a forging steel (A508 Cl.3) were conducted in conformity with two experimental methods. One method recommended by the ASTM calls for the use of an imposed-displacement mechanical loading on specimens kept under homogeneous temperature. Since the stress intensity factor K applied to the outside loading decreases along the crack growth, we can observe the arrest of the crack. In order to obtain brittle crack initiations in cleavage in the whole studied range of temperature and crack propagation of a sufficient length, the application of a weld point at the top of the notch is done. The other experimental method is based on a thermal loading. It requires the use of a disk or a cylinder with a longitudinal initial crack of the external surface. We dip this specimen in liquid nitrogen and we heat its internal surface with inducing current. There is a temperature gradient in the thickness of the specimen which produces a stress field which tends to open the crack. When the value of K is reached the crack initiation takes place. Several phenomena act to oppose the crack growth, they even go as far as stopping it. First the value of K, after increasing, gets steady then decreases, then, the rate of energy dissipated by plasticity at the top of the crack increases because the crack meets warmer and warmer areas on its way. The arrest toughness values which were obtained were then analyzed and compared to one another and with values proposed by RCC-m code. (authors). 12 refs., 11 figs., 3 tabs

309

The Anal Pap Smear: Cytomorphology of squamous intraepithelial lesions  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background Anal smears are increasingly being used as a screening test for anal squamous intraepithelial lesions (ASILs). This study was undertaken to assess the usefulness and limitations of anal smears in screening for ASILs. Methods The cytomorphological features of 200 consecutive anal smears collected in liquid medium from 198 patients were studied and findings were correlated with results of surgical biopsies and/or repeat smears that became available for 71 patients within six...

Arain Shehla; Walts Ann; Thomas Premi; Bose Shikha

2005-01-01

310

Use of data obtained from core tests in the design and operation of spent brine injection wells in geopressured or geothermal systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The effects of formation characteristics on injection well performance are reviewed. Use of data acquired from cores taken from injection horizons to predict injectivity is described. And methods for utilizing data from bench scale testing of brine and core samples to optimize injection well design are presented. Currently available methods and equipment provide data which enable the optimum design of injection wells through analysis of cores taken from injection zones. These methods also provide a means of identifying and correcting well injection problems. Methods described in this report are: bulk density measurement; porosity measurement; pore size distribution analysis; permeability measurement; formation grain size distribution analysis; core description (lithology) and composition; amount, type and distribution of clays and shales; connate water analysis; consolidatability of friable reservoir rocks; grain and pore characterization by scanning electron microscopy; grain and pore characterization by thin section analysis; permeability damage and enhancement tests; distribution of water-borne particles in porous media; and reservoir matrix acidizing effectiveness. The precise methods of obtaining this information are described, and their use in the engineering of injection wells is illustrated by examples, where applicable. (MHR)

Jorda, R.M.

1980-03-01

311

Evaluation of two transport aircraft and several ground test vehicle friction measurements obtained for various runway surface types and conditions. A summary of test results from joint FAA/NASA Runway Friction Program  

Science.gov (United States)

Tests with specially instrumented NASA Boeing 737 and 727 aircraft together with several different ground friction measuring devices were conducted for a variety of runway surface types and conditions. These tests are part of joint FAA/NASA Aircraft/Ground Vehicle Runway Friction Program aimed at obtaining a better understanding of aircraft ground handling performance under adverse weather conditions and defining relationships between aircraft and ground vehicle tire friction measurements. Aircraft braking performance on dry, wet, snow and ice-covered runway conditions is discussed as well as ground vehicle friction data obtained under similar runway conditions. For a given contaminated runway surface condition, the correlation between ground vehicles and aircraft friction data is identified. The influence of major test parameters on friction measurements such as speed, test tire characteristics, type and amount of surface contaminant, and ambient temperature are discussed. The effect of surface type on wet friction levels is also evaluated from comparative data collected on grooved and ungrooved concrete and asphalt surfaces.

Yager, Thomas J.; Vogler, William A.; Baldasare, Paul

1990-01-01

312

Combined Hierarchical Watershed Segmentation and SVM Classification for Pap Smear Cell Nucleus Extraction / Extracción de núcleos de células en imágenes de la prueba de Papanicolaou usando watershed jerárquico y máquinas de vectores soporte  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se presenta un método en dos etapas para la segmentación y clasificación de núcleos de células en imágenes tomadas de la prueba de Papanicolaou. La primera etapa, la etapa de segmentación, está formada por un algoritmo morfológico (watershed o marcas de agua) y un algoritmo je [...] rárquico de mezclado (waterfall o salto de agua). Para realizar el mezclado de regiones, waterfall usa información espectral, de forma y de las regiones que se separarán. En la segunda etapa, la etapa de clasificación, el objetivo es obtener los núcleos a partir de las clasificaciones de las regiones obtenidas en la primera etapa. Antes de realizar la clasificación, fueron probadas tres medidas no supervisadas de calidad de la segmentación para determinar el mejor resultado de la mezcla de regiones. La clasificación de las regiones se realizó usando Máquinas de Vector Soporte. Los resultados fueron comparados con las segmentaciones realizadas por patólogos demostrándose la eficacia del método propuesto. Abstract in english In this paper, we propose a two-phase approach to nuclei segmentation/classification in Pap smear test images. The first phase, the segmentation phase, includes a morphological algorithm (watershed) and a hierarchical merging algorithm (waterfall). In the merging step, waterfall uses spectral and sh [...] ape information as well as the class information. In the second phase, classification, the goal is to obtain nucleus regions and cytoplasm areas by classifying the regions resulting from the first phase based on their spectral and shape features, merging of the adjacent regions belonging to the same class. Between the two phases, three unsupervised segmentation quality criteria were tested in order to determine the best one selecting the best level after merging. The classification of individual regions is obtained using a Support Vector Machine (SVM) classifier. The segmentation and classification results are compared to the segmentation provided by expert pathologists and demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed method.

Maykel, Orozco-Monteagudo; Cosmin, Mihai; Hichem, Sahli; Alberto, Taboada-Crispi.

2012-06-01

313

Bacterial curli protein promotes the conversion of PAP248-286 into the amyloid SEVI: cross-seeding of dissimilar amyloid sequences  

OpenAIRE

Fragments of prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP248-286) in human semen dramatically increase HIV infection efficiency by increasing virus adhesion to target cells. PAP248-286 only enhances HIV infection in the form of amyloid aggregates termed SEVI (Semen Enhancer of Viral Infection), however monomeric PAP248-286 aggregates very slowly in isolation. It has therefore been suggested that SEVI fiber formation in vivo may be promoted by exogenous factors. We show here that a bacterially-produced ext...

Kevin Hartman; Brender, Jeffrey R.; Kazuaki Monde; Akira Ono; Margery L. Evans; Nataliya Popovych; Chapman, Matthew R.; Ayyalusamy Ramamoorthy

2013-01-01

314

Interactive surface in the PapD chaperone cleft is conserved in pilus chaperone superfamily and essential in subunit recognition and assembly.  

OpenAIRE

The assembly of adhesive pili in Gram-negative bacteria is modulated by specialized periplasmic chaperone systems. PapD is the prototype member of the superfamily of periplasmic pilus chaperones. Previously, the alignment of chaperone sequences superimposed on the three dimensional structure of PapD revealed the presence of invariant, conserved and variable amino acids. Representative residues that protruded into the PapD cleft were targeted for site directed mutagenesis to investigate the pi...

Slonim, L. N.; Pinkner, J. S.; Bra?nde?n, C. I.; Hultgren, S. J.

1992-01-01

315

Análise da cobertura e dos exames colpocitológicos não retirados de uma Unidade Básica de Saúde Análisis de la cobertura y de los exámenes de papanicolaou no retirados de una Unidad Basica de Salud Analysis of coverage and of the pap test exams not retired of a Basic Health Unit  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Analisar a cobertura e os exames colpocitológicos não retirados de uma Unidade de Saúde. Pesquisa documental retrospectiva, na qual foram avaliados os dados de cobertura de 2007 e os 225 exames realizados e não retirados da unidade até janeiro de 2008. Para a análise estatística foi aplicado o cálculo da freqüência das variáveis pesquisadas. A média mensal de exames realizados foi de 102,6 exames. A cobertura do exame em 2007 foi de 11,22% entre as mulheres de 25 a 59 anos. Dos 938 exames realizados entre fevereiro e novembro de 2007, 225 (23,98% mulheres não receberam o resultado. A maioria das mulheres (67,5%, que realizou o exame e não retornou, tinha até 30 anos de idade. O não retorno das mulheres para receber o resultado do exame dificulta o acompanhamento, a integralidade e continuidade da assistência, contribuindo para uma intervenção em fases mais avançadas da doença.Analizar la cobertura y los resultados de los exámenes colpocitológicos no retirados de una Unidad de Salud. Investigación documental retrospectiva, en la que fueron evaluados los datos de cobertura de 2007 y las 225 pruebas realizadas y no retiradas en la unidad hasta enero de 2008. Para el análisis estadístico se utilizó el cálculo de la frecuencia de las variables estudiadas. El promedio mensual de exámenes efectuados fue 102,6. La cobertura del examen en 2007 fue del 11,22% entre las mujeres de 25 a 59 años. Sobre los 938 análisis realizados entre febrero y noviembre de 2007, 225 (23,98% mujeres no retiraron el resultado. La mayoría de las mujeres (67,5% que llevaron a cabo el examen y no retornaron tenían 30 años de edad o menos. El no retorno de la mujer a recibir el resultado del examen dificulta el seguimiento, la integralidad y la continuidad de la atención, lo cual aumenta la posibilidad de una intervención en etapas más avanzadas de la enfermedad.To analyze the coverage and the colpocytology exams that were not collected from a Health Center. This is a retrospective documentary study, in which the data were evaluated for coverage of 2007 and all 225 tests that were performed but were not collected by the patients unit until January 2008. Statistical analysis was performed using the frequency of the studied variables. The average monthly number of tests was 102.6 examinations. The coverage of the examination in 2007 was 11.22% among women with 25 to 59 years of age. Of the 938 tests conducted between February and November 2007, 225 (23.98% women did not receive the result. Most women (67.5% who performed the examination and had not returned were 30 years old or younger. The women's attitude of not returning to collect their exam results increases the difficulty of follow up, and providing comprehensive and continuity of care, contributing with an intervention in advanced stages of the disease.

Camila Teixeira Moreira Vasconcelos

2010-06-01

316

Automated detection and analysis of fluorescent in situ hybridization spots depicted in digital microscopic images of Pap-smear specimens  

Science.gov (United States)

Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) technology has been widely recognized as a promising molecular and biomedical optical imaging tool to screen and diagnose cervical cancer. However, manual FISH analysis is time-consuming and may introduce large inter-reader variability. In this study, a computerized scheme is developed and tested. It automatically detects and analyzes FISH spots depicted on microscopic fluorescence images. The scheme includes two stages: (1) a feature-based classification rule to detect useful interphase cells, and (2) a knowledge-based expert classifier to identify splitting FISH spots and improve the accuracy of counting independent FISH spots. The scheme then classifies detected analyzable cells as normal or abnormal. In this study, 150 FISH images were acquired from Pap-smear specimens and examined by both an experienced cytogeneticist and the scheme. The results showed that (1) the agreement between the cytogeneticist and the scheme was 96.9% in classifying between analyzable and unanalyzable cells (Kappa=0.917), and (2) agreements in detecting normal and abnormal cells based on FISH spots were 90.5% and 95.8% with Kappa=0.867. This study demonstrated the feasibility of automated FISH analysis, which may potentially improve detection efficiency and produce more accurate and consistent results than manual FISH analysis.

Wang, Xingwei; Zheng, Bin; Li, Shibo; Zhang, Roy; Mulvihill, John J.; Chen, Wei R.; Liu, Hong

2009-03-01

317

The PapG protein is the alpha-D-galactopyranosyl-(1----4)-beta-D-galactopyranose-binding adhesin of uropathogenic Escherichia coli.  

OpenAIRE

Uropathogenic Escherichia coli adhere to uroepithelial cells by their digalactoside alpha-D-galactopyranosyl-(1----4)-beta-D-galactopyranose [alpha-D-Galp-(1----4)-beta-D-Galp or Gal alpha (1----4)Gal]-binding pili, which are composed of repeating identical subunits. The major subunit (PapA) of these pili is not required for binding, but the papF and papG gene products are essential for adhesion. Transcomplementation analysis between the pap gene cluster and a related gene cluster encoding a ...

Lund, B.; Lindberg, F.; Marklund, B. I.; Normark, S.

1987-01-01

318

Regulation of the pap epigenetic switch by CpxAR: phosphorylated CpxR inhibits transition to the phase ON state by competition with Lrp.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pap pili gene expression is controlled by a reversible OFF/ON phase switch that is orchestrated by binding of Lrp to pap pilin promoter proximal sites 1, 2, and 3 (OFF) or pap promoter distal sites 4, 5, and 6 (ON). Movement of Lrp between proximal and distal sites controls pap pilin transcription and is modulated by PapI and DNA adenine methylase. Here we show that activation of the environmentally responsive CpxAR two-component regulatory system inhibits Pap phase variation by generation of phosphorylated CpxR (CpxR-P). CpxR-P competes with Lrp for binding to both promoter proximal and distal pap DNA binding sites, inhibiting pap transcription in vitro and pili expression in vivo. In contrast to Lrp, CpxR-P is methylation insensitive and does not form DNA methylation patterns in vivo. CpxAR-dependent repression of pap transcription is also observed in response to alkaline growth conditions. These results provide insight into a mechanism for environmental control of epigenetically regulated gene expression. PMID:15546614

Hernday, Aaron D; Braaten, Bruce A; Broitman-Maduro, Gina; Engelberts, Patrick; Low, David A

2004-11-19

319

CIEMAT Interlaboratories Comparison of the Results obtained in the Proficiency Test Run by IAEA; Comparacion Interlaboratorios del CIEMAT de los Resultados Obtenidos en la Prueba de Capacitacion de Analisis de Transuranicos en Cenizas propocionadas por el OIEA  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report contains the results obtained by two different laboratories from CIEMAT after participating in the Proficiency Test organised by IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency) in 1999. This test involves the analysis of fly ashes containing natural radionuclides and different amounts of added transuranics. The extraction techniques, counting methods and results obtained are detailed. This type of test are used for the labs to achieve their accreditation and check the reliability of the procedures routinely employed. (Author) 4 refs.

Gasco, C.; Anton, M. P.; Alvarez, A.; Navarro, N.; Meral, J.; Gonzalez, A.; Higueras Lafaja, E. [Ciemat. Madrid (Spain)

2000-07-01

320

Interspecies interaction of signal peptide PapR secreted by Bacillus cereus and its effect on production of antimicrobial peptide.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study was carried out to investigate the interspecies interaction of PapR peptide secreted by Bacillus cereus on production of BSAP-254, an antimicrobial peptide produced by Bacillus subtilis SC-8 isolated from the Korean fermented soybean paste and exhibited narrow antagonistic activity against the B. cereus group, but not against other foodborne pathogens. PapR is a signal peptide that activates PlcR, which is a pleiotropic regulator controlling the expression of various virulence factors in B. cereus. When B. subtilis SC-8 was co-cultured with B. cereus, it completely inhibited the growth of B. cereus within 12 h, and the rate of BSAP-254 production was increased 34.2% at 12 h. Furthermore, 5 ?M of synthetic PapR peptide added to the culture of B. subtilis SC-8 increased the rate of BSAP-254 production up to 59.7%. The growth of B. subtilis SC-8, however, was not significantly different with or without the addition of PapR. When B. cereus papR mutant was co-cultured with B. subtilis SC-8, the growth of the mutant was not inhibited and the rate of BSAP-254 production was decreased by 45%. PMID:22101448

Yeo, In-Cheol; Lee, Nam Keun; Cha, Chang-Jun; Hahm, Young Tae

2012-02-01

321

Specificity and polymorphism of the PlcR-PapR quorum-sensing system in the Bacillus cereus group.  

Science.gov (United States)

The expression of extracellular virulence factors in various species of the Bacillus cereus group is controlled by the plcR and papR genes, which encode a transcriptional regulator and a cell-cell signaling peptide, respectively. A processed form of PapR, presumably a pentapeptide, specifically interacts with PlcR to facilitate its binding to its DNA targets. This activating mechanism is strain specific, with this specificity being determined by the first residue of the pentapeptide. We carried out in vivo complementation assays and compared the PlcR-PapR sequences of 29 strains from the B. cereus group. Our findings suggested that the fifth amino acid of the pentapeptide is also involved in the specificity of activation. We identified four classes of PlcR-PapR pairs, defining four distinct pherotypes in the B. cereus group. We used these findings to look at the evolution of the PlcR-PapR quorum-sensing system with regard to the phylogeny of the species forming the B. cereus group. PMID:15659693

Slamti, Leyla; Lereclus, Didier

2005-02-01

322

Knowledge Attitude and Practice of Women in Shiraz about Cervical Cancer and Pap Smear 2009  

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Full Text Available Background: Cervical cancer is one of the prevalent and mortal cancers. The aim of the study is to assess knowledge, atti tude and practice of women toward this cancer and Pap smear. Methods: We carried out a cross-sectional study among 402 women through a questionnaire with 5 socio-demographi c parameters and 14 questions about knowledge, attitude and practice. We ai med to know how knowledge, attitude and practice are affected by socio-demographic stat us and how practice is affected by knowledge and attitude. Results: The mean score was 4.09. Knowledge and age did not correlate directly. Old aged women had the best knowledg e. As the number of children rose, knowledge deteriorated, vi ce versa about the age of marriage and education. The clerks were better than housewives and businesswomen. Just 3.5% did not consider the regular Pap as necessary (with the lower educational level. Almost 99% intended to get more information. The minority (28.1% had the incorrect attitude toward the curability of the c ancer. Most of the women referred to do Pap due to health center personnel’s advice. About 80% had undesired practice. Discussion: The educated ones had more approp riate and optimistic incorrect attitude compared to the uneducated ones . As more years pass from the age of marriage, practice gets worse. All the newly married women had the desired practice, correct attitude and intended to get more inform ation. All the women who knew it unnecessary had undesired practice . Women with the desired practice had 9% more correct attitude and 9% more optimistic incorre ct attitude compared to the undesirably practicing ones. Totally, prac tice is not much influenced by attitude.

Hadi N

2010-08-01

323

Women who take pap smear in Fortaleza - social and sexual characterization.   

OpenAIRE

Considering the epidemiological relevance and the mortality of Uterine Cervix Cancer, the aim of this study is know the gynecological profile of women who take Pap smear in a basic unit of a metropolitan area. This is an exploratory study, with quantitative approach and traversal outlining which took place in a Center of Natural C...

Camila Félix Américo; Lydia Vieira Freitas; Levânia Maria Benevides Dias; Ana Carolina Maria Araújo Chagas; Thaís Marques Lima; Escolástica Rejane Ferreira Moura; Ana Karina Bezerra Pinheiro

2009-01-01

324

Examen oftálmico para trámite de la licencia de conducción en Santiago de Cuba / Ophthalmic test for the procedure to obtain a driving licence in Santiago de Cuba  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se evaluó la experiencia acumulada durante los años 2003-2009 por la Comisión Municipal de Chequeo Oftalmológico de Santiago de Cuba; grupo de trabajo evaluador de los aspirantes a obtener la licencia de conducción, que radica en el Policlínico Docente "Frank País García". En tal sentido, el examen [...] ocular a los presuntos futuros conductores reviste suma importancia, de modo que constituye una gran responsabilidad, tanto para el médico como para los interesados, que esa revisión de la agudeza visual se realice con la calidad requerida y periódicamente para brindar una mayor seguridad en la vía pública. En el municipio de Santiago de Cuba, donde se dispone de vastos conocimientos prácticos al respecto y capital humano capacitado, se han logrado buenos resultados hasta el 2010; éxito en esta esfera que se ha extendido a las restantes comisiones de la provincia y contribuido a alcanzar la excelencia en los servicios. Abstract in english The experience gathered during the years 2003-2009 from the Municipal Committee of Ophthalmic Examination in Santiago de Cuba was assessed; this work group is settled in the Teaching General Hospital "Frank País Garcia" and evaluates the candidates for obtaining a driving license. In this way, the o [...] phthalmic test to the presumptive future drivers involves great significance, so it constitutes a great responsibility for both, the doctor and the interested person, to carry out this ophthalmic examination with the required quality and periodically, to provide a major safety in the public highway. In the municipality of Santiago de Cuba, where wide practical knowledge on the topic and qualified human staff is stipulated. Good results have been achieved up to 2010 in Santiago de Cuba municipality where wide practical knowledge and qualified human staff exist; and this success was broaden to the other committees of the province, which has contributed to reach excellence on the services.

Eglis Esteban, García Alcolea; Gaspar, González Deruville; Magalis, Despaigne Revilla; María del Carmen, Ruiz Álvarez.

2011-03-01

325

Preliminary interpretations of geologic results obtained from boreholes UE25a-4, -5, -6, and -7, Yucca Mountain, Nevada Test Site  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Since 1978, the USGS (US Geological Survey) has been providing technical assistance in characterizing suitable rock masses at or contiguous to the NTS (Nevada Test Site) for long-term storage of high-level nuclear waste. Current efforts have been focused on investigating Yucca Mountain, a volcanic highland situated along the western boundary of NTS in southern Nevada. Detailed stratigraphic and structural studies have been in progress along a northeastern segment of the highland in a wedge-shaped area bounded by Basin and Range faults, most of which trend north-northeast. A series of four locally steep-walled, nearly parallel, linear washes transect the northeastern half of the area of interest and display trends similar to major faults to the northeast. Prior to the present study, drill hole UE25a-1, located about 1600 feet southeast of the edge of the area of interest, was cored to a depth of 2500 feet. Subsurface information derived from the upper 500 feet of this drill hole is included in this report to compare with recently acquired data. Surface electrical surveys have been conducted by both the University of Utah and the USGS perpendicular to the trend of the washes in an attempt to better understand factors that have influenced the present drainage pattern. Preliminary data of both pole-dipole and dipole-dipole resistivity/IP electrical methods indicate numerous vertical and horizontal discontinuities between adjacent resistive bodies that strongly suggest a bresistive bodies that strongly suggest a broad zone of faulting, fracturing, and (or) brecciation. To verify the existence of structural discontinuities suggested by the linear washes and electrical anomalies, a drilling program was initiated in June 1979, to obtain geologic information within the southernmost of four northwest-trending washes

326

Pap smear  

Science.gov (United States)

... risk of cervical cancer is greater with HSIL Carcinoma in situ (CIS): This result most often means the abnormal changes are likely to lead to cervical cancer if not treated Atypical squamous cells (ASC): Abnormal changes have been ...

327

Alpha particle effects as a test domain for PAP, a Plasma Apprentice Program  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A new type of computational tool under development, employing techniques of symbolic computation and artificial intelligence to automate as far as possible the research activities of a human plasma theorist, is described. Its present and potential uses are illustrated using the area of the theory of alpha particle effects in fusion plasmas as a sample domain. (orig.)

328

Training of health personnel to improve knowledge and skills in taking Pap: Effect of an educational intervention to prevent cervical cancer  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of an educational intervention to improve knowledge and skills in taking Pap smear conducted by health staff implementing the program on Early Detection of Cervical Cancer. Methods: A quasiexperimental, longitudinal and prospective study, held from October 25 2010 to April 11, 2011 at a hospital in San Luis Potosi, Mexico. To select groups applied a non-probabilistic convenience sampling that was composed of 28 people, 15 for the study group and 13 to the control group. The study group received training that was divided into three phases in which assessed the knowledge and skills taking the smear, the control group received conventional training offered by your workplace. Papanicolaou quality was measured before and after the intervention. The reference used international classification system Bethesda 2001. For data analysis we used the Student t test. Results: The study group increased knowledge (t = 8.768, p = 0.000 in the management of official standards, in the anatomy of the lower female genital tract and in the form of testing. Technical skills (t = 8.639, p = 0.000 also increased in the study group after the intervention. The control group showed no significant changes. The quality report of the samples in the study group increased from 60% to 86.7% and in the control group decreased from 92.3% to 84.6%. Conclusions: The training is effective in improving the knowledge and skills in taking Pap. Health staff who received the training improved their performance and showed more interest in providing high quality service to women.

Terán-Figueroa Yolanda

2013-07-01

329

Pap Smear Diagnosis Using a Hybrid Intelligent Scheme Focusing on Genetic Algorithm Based Feature Selection and Nearest Neighbor Classification  

OpenAIRE

The term pap-smear refers to samples of human cells stained by the so-called Papanicolaou method. The purpose of the Papanicolaou method is to diagnose pre-cancerous cell changes before they progress to invasive carcinoma. In this paper a metaheuristic algorithm is proposed in order to classify the cells. Two databases are used, constructed in different times by expert MDs, consisting of 917 and 500 images of pap smear cells, respectively. Each cell is described by 20 numerical features, and ...

Marinakis, Yannis; Dounias, Georgios; Jantzen, Jan

2008-01-01

330

The N-Acetyltransferase RimJ Responds to Environmental Stimuli To Repress pap Fimbrial Transcription in Escherichia coli  

OpenAIRE

In uropathogenic Escherichia coli, P pili (Pap) facilitate binding to host epithelial cells and subsequent colonization. Whereas P pili can be produced at 37°C, the expression of these fimbriae is suppressed at 23°C. Previously, insertion mutations in rimJ, a gene encoding the N-terminal acetyltransferase of ribosomal protein S5, were shown to disrupt this thermoregulatory response, allowing papBA transcription at low temperature. In this study, we created an in-frame deletion of rimJ. This...

White-ziegler, Christine A.; Black, Alia M.; Eliades, Stacie H.; Young, Sarah; Porter, Kimberly

2002-01-01

331

NMR Structure in a Membrane Environment Reveals Putative Amyloidogenic Regions of the SEVI Precursor Peptide PAP248–286  

OpenAIRE

Semen is the main vector for HIV transmission worldwide. Recently, a peptide fragment (PAP248–286) has been isolated from seminal fluid that dramatically enhances HIV infectivity by up to four to five orders of magnitude. PAP248–286 appears to enhance HIV infection by forming amyloid fibers known as SEVI, which are believed to enhance the attachment of the virus by bridging interactions between virion and host-cell membranes. We have solved the atomic-level resolution structure of the SEV...

Nanga, Ravi P.; Brender, Jeffrey R.; Vivekanandan, Subramanian; Popovych, Nataliya; Ramamoorthy, Ayyalusamy

2009-01-01

332

Pharmacokinetics, toxicity and functional studies of the selective Kv1.3 channel blocker PAP-1 in rhesus macaques1  

OpenAIRE

The small molecule PAP-1 (5-(4-phenoxybutoxy)psoralen) is a selective blocker of the voltage-gated potassium channel Kv1.3 that is highly expressed in cell membranes of activated effector memory T-cells (TEM). The blockade of Kv1.3 results in membrane depolarization and inhibition of TEM cell proliferation and function. In this study, the in vitro effects of PAP-1 on rhesus macaques (RM) T cells and the in vivo toxicity and pharmacokinetics (PK) were examined in RM with the ultimate aim of ut...

Pereira, L. E.; Villinger, F.; Wulff, H.; Sankaranarayanan, A.; Raman, G.; Ansari, A. A.

2007-01-01

333

Fødevareemballager af trykt papir og pap : Udvikling og validering af analysekoncept  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Der er i dette projekt udviklet et analysekoncept der kan anvendes som et led i trykkeriernes vurdering af om fødevareemballager af trykt pap og papir lever op til lovgivningens krav. Der er arbejdet med vurderinger baseret på såvel ”worst-case” ekstraktion af de trykte materialer som på migrationstest foretaget med fødevaresimulatoren for tørre fødevarer. Fødevaresimulatoren er en adsorbent (polymeren Tenax) som effektivt optager stoffer der via gasfasen afgives fra tryksagen. Der er valideret og sammenlignet analysemetoder baseret på ekstraktioner af både tryksagerne og Tenax med henholdsvis ethanol og superkritisk kuldioxid. I alle tilfælde er slutbestemmelsen sket ved gaskromatografi med massespektrometrisk detektion (GC-MS). Med det anvendte udstyr kunne vi i nogle tilfælde detektere kendte stoffer i koncentrationer svarende til 10 ?g/kg fødevare. Følsomheden i en screeningsanalyse for ukendte stoffer ligger desværre en del højere. På baggrund af flere fødevareskandaler de senere år, stilles der fra forbrugere, fødevareproducenter og myndighederne stadig større krav til trykkerier af emballager af pap og papir om at levere produkter af høj og dokumenteret kvalitet. I rapporten gennemgås derfor summarisk de gældende europæiske regler på området som trykkerierne skal leve op til og der henvises til relevante vejledninger fra myndigheder og brancheforeninger. Det er væsentligt at trykkerierne arbejder efter god fremstillingsmæssig praksis (GMP) og det beskrives hvordan dette kan organiseres. Ved fremstillingen af en tryksag indgår mange processer, materialer og kemikalier. Det er derfor fundet nødvendigt at give en oversigt over de forskellige trykteknikker som er relevante for pap og papir ligesom råvarerne, fra forskellige papkvaliteter over trykfarverne til det fugtevand som indgår i produktionen af en tryksag bliver gennemgået. Som et led i trykkeriernes GMP vil det være naturligt at indsamle informationer om råvarenes eventuelle indhold af sundhedsskadelige stoffer. Trykfarve- og lakproducenternes manglende vilje til at oplyse om deres produkters sammensætning vanskeliggør desværre trykkeriernes opgave med at dokumentere, at den færdige emballage er i overensstemmelse med lovgivningen. Det ville derfor være ønskeligt, at man havde en generel kemisk analysemetode som kunne sikre at en tryksag er i orden. Men der findes desværre ikke en metode der kan sikre at bare migrationsgrænserne bliver overholdt for de mere end 6000 stoffer, der eksempelvis står opført i den svejtsiske lovgivning om trykfarver. Men jo mere trykkerierne ved om råvarernes sammensætning, jo simplere metoder kan man bruge til at dokumentere overensstemmelse med reglerne. Ved analyse af en række tryksager gennem projektforløbet fandt vi flere problematiske forhold. Eksempelvis førte anvendelsen af de såkaldt UV-hybrid-farver til en for høj migration af to fotoinitiatorer. Trykkeriet har derfor valgt at lade disse farver udgå af sortimentet. Selv om projektet handlede om trykfarver er kvaliteten af materialet der trykkes på meget væsentligt for slutproduktet. Det skal derfor nævnes at pap og papir ofte fremstilles helt eller delvis af genbrugsfibre som potentielt indeholder forureninger der kan give anledning til forurening af fødevarerne. I afsnit 9 opsummeres en samling anbefalinger til trykkerierne om GMP, valg af egnet pap og trykfarver og en strategi for arbejdet med analytisk at sikre overensstemmelse med reglerne.

Petersen, Jens HØjslev; Jensen, Lisbeth Krüger

2013-01-01

334

A heterodimer of human 3'-phospho-adenosine-5'-phosphosulphate (PAPS) synthases is a new sulphate activating complex  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

3'-Phospho-adenosine-5'-phosphosulphate (PAPS) synthases are fundamental to mammalian sulphate metabolism. These enzymes have recently been linked to a rising number of human diseases. Despite many studies, it is not yet understood how the mammalian PAPS synthases 1 and 2 interact with each other. We provide first evidence for heterodimerisation of these two enzymes by pull-down assays and Foerster resonance energy transfer (FRET) measurements. Kinetics of dimer dissociation/association indicates that these heterodimers form as soon as PAPSS1 and -S2 encounter each other in solution. Affinity of the homo- and heterodimers were found to be in the low nanomolar range using anisotropy measurements employing proteins labelled with the fluorescent dye IAEDANS that - in spite of its low quantum yield - is well suited for anisotropy due to its large Stokes shift. Within its kinase domain, the PAPS synthase heterodimer displays similar substrate inhibition by adenosine-5'-phosphosulphate (APS) as the homodimers. Due to divergent catalytic efficacies of PAPSS1 and -S2, the heterodimer might be a way of regulating PAPS synthase function within mammalian cells.

335

14 CFR 61.405 - What tests do I have to take to obtain a flight instructor certificate with a sport pilot rating?  

Science.gov (United States)

...instructor certificate with a sport pilot rating? To obtain...instructor certificate with a sport pilot rating you must pass the...aeronautical knowledge areas for a sport pilot certificate applicable...who provided you with flight training on the areas of...

2010-01-01

336

Heterologous expression of AtPAP2 in transgenic potato influences carbon metabolism and tuber development.  

Science.gov (United States)

Changes in carbon flow and sink/source activities can affect floral, architectural, and reproductive traits of plants. In potato, overexpression (OE) of the purple acid phosphatase 2 of Arabidopsis (AtPAP2) resulted in earlier flowering, faster growth rate, increased tubers and tuber starch content, and higher photosynthesis rate. There was a significant change in sucrose, glucose and fructose levels in leaves, phloem and sink biomass of the OE lines, consistent with an increased expression of sucrose transporter 1 (StSUT1). Furthermore, the expression levels and enzyme activity of sucrose-phosphate synthase (SPS) were also significantly increased in the OE lines. These findings strongly suggest that higher carbon supply from the source and improved sink strength can improve potato tuber yield. PMID:25173632

Zhang, Youjun; Sun, Feng; Fettke, Joerg; Schöttler, Mark Aurel; Ramsden, Lawrence; Fernie, Alisdair R; Lim, Boon Leong

2014-10-16

337

In Silico Identification of PAP-1 Binding Sites in the Kv1.2 Potassium Channel.  

Science.gov (United States)

Voltage-gated potassium channels of the Kv1 family play a crucial role in the generation and transmission of electrical signals in excitable cells affecting neuronal and cardiac activities. Small-molecule blockage of these channels has been proposed to occur via a cooperative mechanism involving two main blocking sites: the inner-pore site located below the selectivity filter, and a side-pocket cavity located between the pore and the voltage sensor. Using 0.5 ?s molecular dynamics simulation trajectories complemented by docking calculations, the potential binding sites of the PAP-1 (5-(4-phenoxybutoxy)psoralen) blocker to the crystal structure of Kv1.2 channel have been studied. The presence of both mentioned blocking sites at Kv1.2 is confirmed, adding evidence in favor of a cooperative channel blockage mechanism. These observations provide insight into drug modulation that will guide further developments of Kv inhibitors. PMID:25734225

Jorgensen, Christian; Darré, Leonardo; Vanommeslaeghe, Kenno; Omoto, Kiyoyuki; Pryde, David; Domene, Carmen

2015-04-01

338

No increased risk for cervical cancer after a broader definition of a negative Pap smear  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The definition of minimal relevant Pap smear abnormality is crucial for balancing the beneficial effects of screening (prevented mortality) with negative side-effects (the high positivity rate). After inflammation ceased to be defined as a borderline abnormal smear outcome in The Netherlands in 1996, the proportion of these smears dropped from 10% to less than 2%. Because this may have caused a loss in smear sensitivity, we analysed the changes in the incidence of cervical cancer after a negative Pap smear. All negative smears made at ages 30-64 in 1990-1995 (n = 1,546,252) and 1998-2006 (n = 3,552,716), registered in the national registry of histo- and cytopathology (PALGA), were followed for up to 9 years. During follow-up of the 1990-1995 smears, 377 women developed cervical cancer within 5,232,959 woman-years at risk, while during the follow-up of the 1998-2006 smears, 619 women developed cervical cancer within 11,210,675 woman-years at risk. The cumulative incidence after the definition change was not significantly higher than before: e.g. at 6 years, the cumulative incidence for smears made in 1990-1995 was 46 per 100,000 (95% CI: 41-52), and for smears in 1998-2006 was 48 per 100,000 (95% CI: 43-54), p = 0.59. The hazard ratio for 1998-2006 compared to 1990-1995 adjusted for age, number of previous negative smears and history of abnormalities was 0.90 (95% CI: 0.78-1.03). In The Netherlands, a setting with high-quality cytological screening, treating smears with only signs of inflammation as negative leads to a considerably lower positivity rate without increasing the risk for cervical cancer after a negative smear.

Rebolj, Matejka; van Ballegooijen, Marjolein

2008-01-01

339

Early detection of oral cancer: PAP and AgNOR staining in brush biopsies  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the diagnostic accuracy of routine Papanicolaou stain (PAP and Silver stained Nucleolar Organizer Regions (AgNOR staining in brush biopsies taken from suspected oral lesions for early detection of oral cancer. Materials and Methods: Brush biopsies were collected from macroscopically suspicious lesions of the oral cavity of 34 patients and 10 normal-aged and sex-matched controls. The numbers of AgNORs were counted in 100 squamous epithelial cell nuclei per slide after silver staining of the smears (Ploton?s one-step method. Results: Sensitivity and specificity of PAP analysis in the oral smears for detection of oral cancer and normal cells was 91.176% and 100%. The positive and negative prediction values were 100% and 76.92%, respectively. Sensitivity and specificity of AgNOR analysis in the oral smears for detection of oral cancer and normal cells was 100%. The positive and negative prediction values were 100% each. Conclusion: Based on the above facts, we conclude that brush biopsy in conjunction with AgNOR staining is an easily practicable, non-invasive, safe and accurate screening method for the detection of macroscopically suspicious oral cancerous lesions. Because of its simple technique and high reliability for cellular proliferation, AgNOR staining in brush smears can be used as an adjunct to other routine cytological diagnoses for the early detection of oral cancer. However, further investigations with more number of study samples will be needed to establish this correlation beyond doubt.

Rajput Dinesh

2010-01-01

340

NMR measurement of dynamic nuclear polarization: a technique to test the quality of its volume average obtained with different NMR coil configurations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the NMR measurement of dynamic nuclear polarization, a volume average is obtained where the contribution from different parts of the sample is weighted according to the local intensity of the RF field component perpendicular to the large static field. A method of mapping this quantity is described. A small metallic object whose geometry is chosen to perturb the appropriate RF component is scanned through the region to be occupied by the sample. The response of the phase angle of the impedance of a tuned circuit comprising the NMR coil gives a direct measurement of the local weighting factor. The correlation between theory and experiment was obtained by using a circular coil. The measuring method, checked in this way, was then used to investigate the field profiles of practical coils which are required to be rectangular for a proposed experimental neutron polarizing filter. This method can be used to evaluate other practical RF coils. (author)

341

Comparison of leaching test results obtained on several vendor-prepared waste forms using the ANSI/ANS-16.1-1986 and MCC-1 protocols  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Solid waste forms prepared by vendors of solidification systems (cement or asphalt) were leached using ANSI/ANS-16.1-1986 standard 90-day test and a modified MCC-1 test (4 separate, but identical specimens, sampled sequentially after 3, 7, 14, and 28 days). The simulated wastes incorporated in these solids represent several of those designated for immobilization on the Oak Ridge Reservation of the US Department of Energy. Four nonradioactive (since radioactivity would pose a problem for the vendors) surrogate waste types were prepared: (1) a carbonate-based sludge; (2) a CaCO3-Mg(OH)2 based sludge; (3) a metal plating sludge; and (4) a liquid containing high nitrates. The waste forms supplied by each vendor for leaching using the MCC-1 and ANS-16.1 procedures were right circular cylinders (2.3-cm diameter x 4.5-cm length)

342

Evaluation of the relationship between capillary and venous plasma glucose concentrations obtained by the HemoCue Glucose 201+ system during an oral glucose tolerance test  

OpenAIRE

Abstract In 55 women with previous gestational diabetes mellitus, simultaneous capillary and venous plasma glucose concentrations were measured at 0, 30 and 120 min during a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). The aims of the study were to examine the relationship between capillary and venous glucose measurements, and to establish equations for the conversion of capillary and venous glucose concentrations using the HemoCue Glucose 201+ system. Additionally, the correlation between the ca...

Ignell, Claes; Berntorp, Kerstin

2011-01-01

343

Evaluation of p16 immunostaining to predict high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia in women with Pap results of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance.  

Science.gov (United States)

p16 immunostaining has been examined to detect high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade (CIN2+) in Pap cytology specimens. However, the utility of p16 in predicting CIN2+ in Pap specimens with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US) or atypical squamous cells, cannot exclude high-grade squamous intraepithelial neoplasm (ASC-H), is controversial. In this study, we evaluated the utility of p16 immunostaining for predicting CIN2+ in 78 Pap specimens with ASC-US/ASC-H and compared the results in high-risk HPV DNA and the follow-up biopsies. p16 immunostaining was positive in 47% (37/78) of the Pap specimens. Of the 13 Pap specimens with follow-up biopsy results of CIN2+, 7 (54%) were positive for p16. p16 positivity in the Pap specimens was not significantly associated with a CIN2+ biopsy result (P = 0.76). The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) of p16 immunostaining for predicting CIN2+ were 54%, 52%, 19%, and 85%, respectively. High-risk HPV DNA was detected in 40% (31/78) of the Pap specimens. The sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV of HPV DNA for predicting CIN2+ were 100%, 72%, 42%, and 100%, respectively. High-risk HPV genotypes were detected in six p16-negative specimens with follow-up biopsy results of CIN2+. Our findings suggest that the utility of p16 immunostaining for predicting CIN2+ in Pap specimens with ASC-US/ASC-H is limited. Scant abnormal cells in Pap specimens with ASC-US/ASC-H may have contributed to the low p16 sensitivity. PMID:20607682

Guo, Ming; Warriage, Irfan; Mutyala, Bramara; Patel, Shobha; Lin, E; Gong, Yun; Sneige, Nour

2011-07-01

344

The contrast medium Amipaque and its effects on selected chemical and hematologic parameters of human blood. Data obtained by laboratory tests and electron microscopy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The contribution presents results of examinations made in connection with angiographies of the carotid, for determination of the effects of Amipaque on the water content and individual volumes of erythrocytes, on electrolyte concentration in the plasma and erythrocytes, and on the morphology of erythrocytes. The selected parameters were determined at intervals of 1, 10, and 30 min. after injection of the contrast medium. At one and ten min. p.i., measured data showed a significant increase of water content in the erythrocytes, and simultaneous reduction of single volume of erythrocytes. Electron microscopy was applied to interpret these data which could not be explained by the chemical laboratory tests

345

Vertical profiles of ozone, carbon monoxide, and dew-point temperature obtained during GTE/CITE 1, October-November 1983. [Chemical Instrumentation Test and Evaluation  

Science.gov (United States)

A set of 14 pairs of vertical profiles of ozone and carbon monoxide, obtained with fast-response instrumentation, is presented. Most of these profiles, which were measured in the remote troposphere, also have supporting fast-response dew-point temperature profiles. The data suggest that the continental boundary layer is a source of tropospheric ozone, even in October and November, when photochemical activity should be rather small. In general, the small-scale vertical variability between CO and O3 is in phase. At low latitudes this relationship defines levels in the atmosphere where midlatitude air is being transported to lower latitudes, since lower dew-point temperatures accompany these higher CO and O3 concentrations. A set of profiles which is suggestive of interhemispheric transport is also presented. Independent meteorological analyses support these interpretations.

Fishman, Jack; Gregory, Gerald L.; Sachse, Glen W.; Beck, Sherwin M.; Hill, Gerald F.

1987-01-01

346

Test procedures for obtaining representative extracts suitable for reliable in vitro toxicity assessment of paper and board intended for food contact.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper describes the use of a suite of extraction procedures applicable to the assessment of the in vitro toxicity of paper/board samples intended for food-contact applications. The sample is extracted with ethanol, water, or exposed to modified polyphenylene oxide (Tenax) for fatty, non-fatty and dry food applications, respectively. The water extracts are directly suitable for safety assessment using in vitro bioassays. The ethanol extracts of the paper/board and of the exposed Tenax require pre-concentration to give acceptable sensitivity. This is because the in vitro bioassays can tolerate only a small percentage of added organic solvent before the solvent itself inhibits. The extraction procedures have been selected such that they mimic the foreseeable conditions of use with foods and that they are also fully compatible with the battery of in vitro biological assays for the safety assessment of the total migrate. The application of the extraction protocols is illustrated by the results for one of the many paper/board samples provided by the BIOSAFEPAPER project industrial platform members. The assessment indicated that this sample should not be considered as suitable for use with fatty foodstuffs but was suitable for dry and non-fatty foods. Information subsequently received from the manufacturer revealed that this was a non-food-grade product included in the project to test the capabilities of the bioassay procedures. The selection criteria for the test conditions and the suite of methods developed have been prepared in Comité Européen de Normalisation (CEN) format and is currently being progressed by CEN/TC172 as a European Standard. PMID:20013449

Bradley, E L; Stammati, A; Salkinoja-Salonen, M; Andersson, M; Bertaud, F; Hoornstra, D; Zucco, F; Weber, A; Turco, L; Traussnig, H; Hakulinen, P; Speck, D R; Von Wright, A J; Honkalampi-Hamalainen, U; Maki-Paakkanen, J; Severin, I; Lhuguenot, J-C; Dahlman, O

2010-02-01

347

Constitutive equations of Li2TiO3 and Li4SiO4 pebble Beds obtained by means of standard triaxial tests: implementation of the model in a FEM code  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

During the ITER operation, some Test Breeding Modules (TBM) will be tested in the equatorial ports of the reactor. Presently, these TBM are being developed in different research centres in the world. The Helium-Cooled Pebble Bed (HCPB) blanket is one of two breeder blanket concepts developed in Europe. The HCPB uses Beryllium pebbles as neutron multiplier and. Li4SiO4 or Li2TiO3 pebbles as breeder material. The analysis of the breeding blanket is complex for the geometry as well as for the loading conditions. Advanced computer codes are needed in order to determine the reliability of the different designs. In this context the mechanical characterisation of pebble beds is important in order to simulate their behaviour. This paper illustrates the standard tests, performed in order to obtain the effective properties of the pebble beds, and the implementation of a constitutive model of the granular material in a FEM code. Several Authors have analyzed the pebble bed by meand uniaxial compression tests (oedometer tests). This test permits to obtain an effective displacement- load law under lateral constraint, but no data are obtained about the pebble bed shear resistance or about the three-dimensional behaviour of the bed. In the soil (made of sand, gravel or clay) qualification, triaxial tests are used for determining all their constitutive properties. In these test the soil is loaded by axial and lateral loads which can be varied independently. The measurement of the loa independently. The measurement of the load and the displacement in both the directions permits to obtain the material constants f the constitutive models elaborated for describing the soil behaviour. The classic soil models are the Cam-Clay model and the Drucker-Prager with cap model. These models are implemented in several commercial FEM codes and they could be easily used for simulating the pebble beds. But the pebble bed behaviour is different from that of the soil. The soil models describe in detail the behaviour dependent on the water pressure and on the drainage conditions. These aspects have not any meaning for the pebble bed. Moreover the soil consolidation is different from the creep of the pebble bed. The paper demonstrates the limits of applying the soil model to the pebble bed. In fact the triaxial tests have been simulated numerically by means a commercial FEM code considering the classic soil models and the material constants obtained by the tests. Moreover the paper emphasizes the relative importance of the material constants (about 10), contained in the classic soil model, in order to fit the experimental results of the tests on the pebble beds. (orig.)

348

Constitutive equations of Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3} and Li{sub 4}SiO{sub 4} pebble Beds obtained by means of standard triaxial tests: implementation of the model in a FEM code  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

During the ITER operation, some Test Breeding Modules (TBM) will be tested in the equatorial ports of the reactor. Presently, these TBM are being developed in different research centres in the world. The Helium-Cooled Pebble Bed (HCPB) blanket is one of two breeder blanket concepts developed in Europe. The HCPB uses Beryllium pebbles as neutron multiplier and. Li4SiO4 or Li2TiO3 pebbles as breeder material. The analysis of the breeding blanket is complex for the geometry as well as for the loading conditions. Advanced computer codes are needed in order to determine the reliability of the different designs. In this context the mechanical characterisation of pebble beds is important in order to simulate their behaviour. This paper illustrates the standard tests, performed in order to obtain the effective properties of the pebble beds, and the implementation of a constitutive model of the granular material in a FEM code. Several Authors have analyzed the pebble bed by meand uniaxial compression tests (oedometer tests). This test permits to obtain an effective displacement- load law under lateral constraint, but no data are obtained about the pebble bed shear resistance or about the three-dimensional behaviour of the bed. In the soil (made of sand, gravel or clay) qualification, triaxial tests are used for determining all their constitutive properties. In these test the soil is loaded by axial and lateral loads which can be varied independently. The measurement of the load and the displacement in both the directions permits to obtain the material constants f the constitutive models elaborated for describing the soil behaviour. The classic soil models are the Cam-Clay model and the Drucker-Prager with cap model. These models are implemented in several commercial FEM codes and they could be easily used for simulating the pebble beds. But the pebble bed behaviour is different from that of the soil. The soil models describe in detail the behaviour dependent on the water pressure and on the drainage conditions. These aspects have not any meaning for the pebble bed. Moreover the soil consolidation is different from the creep of the pebble bed. The paper demonstrates the limits of applying the soil model to the pebble bed. In fact the triaxial tests have been simulated numerically by means a commercial FEM code considering the classic soil models and the material constants obtained by the tests. Moreover the paper emphasizes the relative importance of the material constants (about 10), contained in the classic soil model, in order to fit the experimental results of the tests on the pebble beds. (orig.)

Zaccari, N. [Pisa Univ. (Italy)

2007-07-01

349

Interpretation of data obtained from non-destructive and destructive post-test analyses of an intact-core column of culebra dolomite  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has been developing a nuclear waste disposal facility, the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), located approximately 42 km east of Carlsbad, New Mexico. The WIPP is designed to demonstrate the safe disposal of transuranic wastes produced by the defense nuclear-weapons program. Pefiormance assessment analyses (U.S. DOE, 1996) indicate that human intrusion by inadvertent and intermittent drilling for resources provide the only credible mechanisms for significant releases of radionuclides horn the disposal system. These releases may occur by five mechanisms: (1) cuttings, (2) cavings, (3) spallings, (4) direct brine releases, and (5) long- term brine releases. The first four mechanisms could result in immediate release of contaminant to the accessible environment. For the last mechanisq migration pathways through the permeable layers of rock above the Salado are important, and major emphasis is placed on the Culebra Member of the Rustler Formation because this is the most transmissive geologic layer in the disposal system. For reasons of initial quantity, half-life, and specific radioactivity, certain isotopes of T~ U, Am, and Pu would dominate calculated releases from the WIPP. In order to help quantifi parameters for the calculated releases, radionuclide transport experiments have been carried out using five intact-core columns obtained from the Culebra dolomite member of the Rustler Formation within the Waste Isolation Pilot Pknt (WIPP) site in southeastern New Mexico. This report deals primarily with results of analyses for 241Pu and 241Am distributions developed during transport experiments in one of these cores. All intact-core column transport experiments were done using Culebra-simukmt brine relevant to the core recovery location (the WIPP air-intake shaft - AK). Hydraulic characteristics (i.e., apparent porosity and apparent dispersion coefficient) for intact-core columns were obtained via experiments using conservative tracer `Na. Elution experiments carried out over periods of a few days with tracers `2U and `?Np indicated that these tracers were weakly retarded as indicated by delayed elution of these species. Elution experiments with tracers 24% and 24*Arn were performed, but no elution of either species was observed in any flow experiment to date, including experiments of many months' duration. In order to quanti~ retardation of the non-eluted species 24*Pu and 241Arn afler a period of brine flow, non-destructive and destructive analyses of an intact-core column were carried out to determine distribution of these actinides in the rock. Analytical results indicate that the majority of the 241Am is present very near the top (injection) surface of the core (possibly as a precipitate), and that the majority of the 241Pu is dispersed with a very high apparent retardation value. The 24]Pu distribution is interpreted using a single-porosity advection-dispersion model, and an approximate retardation value is reported for this actinide. The specific radionuclide isotopes used in these experiments were chosen to facilitate analysis. Even though these isotopes are not necessarily the same as those that are most important to WIPP performance, they are isotopes of the same elements, and their chemical and transport properties are therefore identical to those of isotopes in the inventory.

Lucero, Daniel L.; Perkins, W. George

1998-09-01

350

Advisers Endorse HPV Test for Cervical Cancer Checks  

Science.gov (United States)

... new recommendations also state that women with a negative result for a primary HPV test should not be ... combination of the HPV test and the Pap smear. The reason? HPV ... its own, so a positive test result might lead to too many invasive follow-up ...

351

Pap Smear Diagnosis Using a Hybrid Intelligent Scheme Focusing on Genetic Algorithm Based Feature Selection and Nearest Neighbor Classification  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The term pap-smear refers to samples of human cells stained by the so-called Papanicolaou method. The purpose of the Papanicolaou method is to diagnose pre-cancerous cell changes before they progress to invasive carcinoma. In this paper a metaheuristic algorithm is proposed in order to classify the cells. Two databases are used, constructed in different times by expert MDs, consisting of 917 and 500 images of pap smear cells, respectively. Each cell is described by 20 numerical features, and the cells fall into 7 classes but a minimal requirement is to separate normal from abnormal cells, which is a 2 class problem. For finding the best possible performing feature subset selection problem, an effective genetic algorithm scheme is proposed. This algorithmic scheme is combined with a number of nearest neighbor based classifiers. Results show that classification accuracy generally outperforms other previously applied intelligent approaches.

Marinakis, Yannis; Dounias, Georgios

2009-01-01

352

Fission Yeast 26S Proteasome Mutants Are Multi-Drug Resistant Due to Stabilization of the Pap1 Transcription Factor  

Science.gov (United States)

Here we report the result of a genetic screen for mutants resistant to the microtubule poison methyl benzimidazol-2-yl carbamate (MBC) that were also temperature sensitive for growth. In total the isolated mutants were distributed in ten complementation groups. Cloning experiments revealed that most of the mutants were in essential genes encoding various 26S proteasome subunits. We found that the proteasome mutants are multi-drug resistant due to stabilization of the stress-activated transcription factor Pap1. We show that the ubiquitylation and ultimately the degradation of Pap1 depend on the Rhp6/Ubc2 E2 ubiquitin conjugating enzyme and the Ubr1 E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase. Accordingly, mutants lacking Rhp6 or Ubr1 display drug-resistant phenotypes. PMID:23209828

Penney, Mary; Samejima, Itaru; Wilkinson, Caroline R.; McInerny, Christopher J.; Mathiassen, Søs G.; Wallace, Mairi; Toda, Takashi; Hartmann-Petersen, Rasmus; Gordon, Colin

2012-01-01

353

Self-reported history of Pap-smear in HIV-positive women in Northern Italy: a cross-sectional study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The incidence of invasive cervical cancer in HIV-positive women is higher than in the general population. There is evidence that HIV-positive women do not participate sufficiently in cervical cancer screening in Italy, where cervical cancer is more than 10-fold higher in women with AIDS than in the general population. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the history of Pap-smear in HIV-positive women in Italy in recent years. We also examined the sociodemographic, clinical, and organizational factors associated with adherence to cervical cancer screening. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted between July 2006 and June 2007 in Emilia-Romagna region (Northern Italy. All HIV-positive women who received a follow-up visit in one of the 10 regional infectivology units were invited to participate. History of Pap-smear, including abnormal smears and subsequent treatment, was investigated through a self-administered anonymous questionnaire. The association between lack of Pap-smear in the year preceding the interview and selected characteristics was assessed by means of odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals adjusted for study centre and age. Results A total of 1,002 HIV-positive women were interviewed. Nine percent reported no history of Pap-smear, and 39% had no Pap-smear in the year prior to the date of questionnaire (last year. The lack of Pap-smear in the last year was significantly associated with age Three hundred five (34% women reported a previous abnormal Pap-smear, and of the 178 (58% referred for treatment, 97% complied. Conclusions In recent years the self-reported history of Pap-smear in HIV-positive women, in some public clinics in Italy, is higher than previously reported, but further efforts are required to make sure cervical cancer screening is accessible to all HIV-positive women.

Ghinelli Florio

2010-06-01

354

Acquisition of High-Risk Human Papillomavirus Infections and Pap Smear Abnormalities among Women in the New Independent States of the Former Soviet Union  

OpenAIRE

The rates of acquisition and the times of incident high-risk (HR) human papillomavirus (HPV) infections and Pap smear abnormalities and their predictive factors were analyzed in women participating in a multicenter screening study in three countries of the New Independent States of the former Soviet Union. The 423 patients were prospectively monitored for a mean of 21.6 months. At the baseline, 118 women were HR HPV DNA negative (Hybrid Capture II assay) and Pap smear negative (group 1), 184 ...

Syrja?nen, Stina; Shabalova, Irena; Petrovichev, Nicolay; Kozachenko, Vladimir; Zakharova, Tatjana; Pajanidi, Julia; Podistov, Jurij; Chemeris, Galina; Sozaeva, Larisa; Lipova, Elena; Tsidaeva, Irena; Ivanchenko, Olga; Pshepurko, Alla; Zakharenko, Sergej; Nerovjna, Raisa

2004-01-01

355

Analysis of the F Antigen-Specific papA Alleles of Extraintestinal Pathogenic Escherichia coli Using a Novel Multiplex PCR-Based Assay  

OpenAIRE

Polymorphisms in PapA, the major structural subunit and antigenic determinant of P fimbriae of extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli, are of considerable epidemiological, phylogenetic, and immunotherapeutic importance. However, to date, no method other than DNA sequencing has been generally available for their detection. In the present study, we developed and rigorously validated a novel PCR-based assay for the 11 recognized variants of papA and then used the new assay to assess the pre...

Johnson, James R.; Stell, Adam L.; Scheutz, Flemming; O Bryan, Timothy T.; Russo, Thomas A.; Carlino, Ulrike B.; Fasching, Caludine; Kavle, Justine; Dijk, Linda; Gaastra, Wim

2000-01-01

356

Identification of myotubularin as the lipid phosphatase catalytic subunit associated with the 3-phosphatase adapter protein, 3-PAP  

OpenAIRE

Myotubularin is a dual-specific phosphatase that dephosphorylates phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate and phosphatidylinositol (3,5)-bisphosphate. Mutations in myotubularin result in the human disease X-linked myotubular myopathy, characterized by persistence of muscle fibers that retain an immature phenotype. We have previously reported the identification of the 3-phosphatase adapter protein (3-PAP), a catalytically inactive member of the myotubularin gene family, which ...

Nandurkar, Harshal H.; Layton, Meredith; Laporte, Jocelyn; Selan, Carly; Corcoran, Lisa; Caldwell, Kevin K.; Mochizuki, Yasuhiro; Majerus, Philip W.; Mitchell, Christina A.

2003-01-01

357

Dissection of a Redox Relay: H2O2-Dependent Activation of the Transcription Factor Pap1 through the Peroxidatic Tpx1-Thioredoxin Cycle  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In fission yeast, the transcription factor Pap1 undergoes H2O2-dependent oxidation that promotes its nuclear accumulation and the activation of an antioxidant gene program. However, the mechanisms that regulate the sensitivity and selectivity of Pap1 activation by peroxides are not fully understood. Here, we demonstrate that the peroxiredoxin Tpx1, the sensor of this signaling cascade, activates the otherwise unresponsive Pap1 protein once the main cytosolic reduced thioredoxin, Trx1, becomes transiently depleted. In other words, Pap1 works as an alternative electron donor for oxidized Tpx1. We have trapped the very transient Tpx1-Pap1 intermediate in cells depleted in Trx1, as we show here using mass spectrometry. Recycling of Tpx1 by Trx1 is required for the efficient signaling to Pap1, suggesting that the complete cycle of H2O2 scavenging by Tpx1 and further recycling of oxidized Tpx1 by Trx1 is required for full downstream activation of the redox cascade.

Isabel A. Calvo

2013-12-01

358

The HIF-2alpha dependent induction of PAP and adenosine synthesis regulates glioblastoma stem cell function through the A2B adenosine receptor.  

Science.gov (United States)

Glioblastomas are lethal tumors characterized by malignant proliferation and recurrence promoted partly by glioblastoma stem cells (GSCs). GSCs are known to be regulated by hypoxia, but the mechanisms involved in this regulation are not fully understood. We now demonstrate that hypoxia-inducible factor HIF2? and prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP) are preferentially expressed in hypoxic GSCs in comparison with non-stem tumor cells and normal neural stem cells and that PAP is regulated by HIF2?. Targeting PAP in hypoxic GSCs inhibits self-renewal and proliferation in vitro and attenuates tumor initiation potential of GSCs in vivo. Using specific adenosine receptor antagonists, we further find that the pro-proliferative role of PAP is stemmed from stimulated A2B adenosine receptors. Moreover, selective blockage of A2B receptor or knockdown of PAP or A2B on hypoxic GSCs results in significant reduction of phosphorylation of Akt and Erk-1/2. Our results demonstrate that PAP may play a pro-proliferative role in hypoxic GSCs with a HIF2?-induction pattern, which may be ascribed to stimulated A2B receptors and activated Akt and Erk-1/2 pathways. Therefore, we propose that these identified molecular regulators of GSCs in the hypoxic niche might represent promising targets for antiglioblastoma therapies. PMID:24434023

Liu, Tian-zhu; Wang, Xin; Bai, Yi-feng; Liao, Hong-zhan; Qiu, Sheng-cong; Yang, Ye-qing; Yan, Xiao-Hui; Chen, Jian; Guo, Hong-bo; Zhang, Shi-zhong

2014-04-01

359

Prevalence of HPV Infection and Its Association with Cytological Abnormalities of Pap Smears in Tehran  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Human papillomavirus infection is one of the most common genital infections. More than 100 types of this virus have been identified, and most of them are capable of infecting the genital mucosa. Human papillomavirus is in association with cancerous and precancerous lesions of the cervix; some types like HPV 16 and 18 are highly carcinogenic, some types like HPV 31 and 33 are moderately and some types like HPV 6 and 11 are mildly carcinogenic. In this research, the relationship between cytological changes of the squamous epithelial cells and the presence of HPV infections in our cases has been assessed."nMethods: In this prospective study, we collected 681 samples from women admitted to different hospitals and private gynecological clinics in Tehran, during the years 2003-2005. Two specimens were collected from each patient; one for a Pap smear study and the other for PCR assay in order to detect HPV."nResults: Out of our 681 samples, 600 specimens were suitable for PCR assay, and 34 cases were HPV positive in PCR assay. This means that 5.7 percent of our patients were infected with HPV."nConclusion: HPV infection is common in Iran and is nearly identical to European countries such as Germany, and Spain. Also, we found that using PCR assay in order to detect the presence of HPV viruses in vaginal discharges can be very helpful.

M Jamali Zavarei Jamali Zavarei

2008-09-01

360

Modelling the non steady state downward flux of particles at the PAP site in 2009  

Science.gov (United States)

The biological carbon pump, mediated principally via the sinking of organic matter from the surface ocean, is a significant term in the global carbon cycle. It transfers annually 5-15 GT C yr-1 out of the photic zone, an amount comparable to the annual accumulation of CO2 in the atmosphere driven by anthropogenic processes, and mediates a storage of CO2 in the ocean interior without which atmospheric CO2 would be much larger than it is today. Yet most of the material exported from the photic zone does not penetrate the deep ocean, instead it is mineralised in the twilight zone with fluxes in the thin 100m thick layer under the photic zone being extremely rapidly attenuated. The shape of this attenuation varies in time and space yet appears to be a critical determinand over atmosphere - ocean CO2 partitioning. Attempts to predict this attenuation using independent measures of heterotrophic activity have often not yielded the observed pattern of attenuation implying substantial uncertainties in one or more of the terms that enter into the comparison. In this talk we will describe direct estimates of particle flux made using drifting neutrally buoyant traps at the PAP site in 2009. We show that although we can make substantial progress towards closing the mid water C budget we still have a significant excess of carbon consumption over supply. We believe that this is due to erroneous steady state assumptions, a hypothesis we explore via simple numerical models.

Sanders, R.; Lampitt, R.; Riley, J.; Lemoigne, F.; Marsay, C.; Giering, S.; Martin, A.

2012-04-01

361

Comparison of the detection of HPV-16, 18, 31, 33, and 45 by type-specific DNA- and E6/E7 mRNA-based assays of HPV DNA positive women with abnormal Pap smears.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study compares the type-specific human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA test with E6/E7 mRNA detection assay because of their importance in cervical cancer screening programs. A total of 105 women with positive high-risk Hybrid Capture 2 or Abbott RealTime High Risk HPV screening test and an abnormal cervical Pap smear were enrolled in the study. HPV typing was performed by multiplex real-time PCR (HPV High Risk Typing Real-TM test). HPV-16, 18, 31, 33, and 45 E6/E7 mRNAs were determined by type-specific real-time NASBA assay (NucliSENS EasyQ HPV v1.1). Infections caused by HPV-16, 18, 31, 33, and 45 types increased with severity of cervical cytology (p=0.008). Global positivity of five HPV E6/E7 mRNAs was lower than DNA positivity within women with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (p=0.016; p=0.008). High agreement of the tests was found in the groups of women with low-grade (p=1.000; p=0.063) and high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (p=0.250; p=0.125). Type-specific agreement of both diagnostic approaches was high regardless of cytology. Based on the found differences between HPV-16, 18, 31, 33, and 45 E6/E7 mRNA and DNA positivity, further study is needed to test the role of mRNA testing in the triage of women with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance in Pap smear. PMID:24036071

Salimovi?-Beši?, Irma; Tomi?-?i?a, Anja; Smailji, Admir; Huki?, Mirsada

2013-12-01

362

Chronic constipation - the role of clinical assessment and colorectal physiologic tests to obtain an etiologic diagnosis / O papel da avaliação clínica e dos testes de fisiologia colo-reto anal no diagnóstico etiológico da constipação intestinal crônica  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese RACIONAL: O diagnóstico dos subtipos de constipação crônica tem sido considerado difícil de ser estabelecido, mesmo em centros especializados. Embora os testes fisiológicos tenham trazido uma importante contribuição, ainda há dúvidas quanto as suas indicações. OBJETIVOS: Estabelecer o diagnóstico di [...] ferencial em casos de constipação crônica através da avaliação clínica e da utilização de testes fisiológicos, procurando-se identificar parâmetros clínicos que poderiam predizer quais pacientes necessitariam de tais testes. MÉTODOS: Cento e setenta e nove pacientes (83% do sexo feminino; média de idade de 45 anos) com constipação crônica de acordo com os critérios de Roma II foram inicialmente tratados com medidas dietéticas e reeducação funcional e aqueles que não responderam (110 ou 61,5%) foram submetidos a tempo de trânsito colônico, defecografia, manometria anorretal e eletromiografia, de acordo com apresentação clínica da constipação crônica. RESULTADOS: O diagnóstico etiológico foi obtido em 63.6% dos pacientes testados. Entretanto, em 61,5% (69 que não necessitaram dos testes e 40 que tiveram testes normais), o diagnóstico etiológico foi estabelecido em bases clínicas. A síndrome do intestino irritável (32%), a disfunção do assoalho pélvico (29%) e a constipação funcional secundária a inadequação dietética e de hábitos de vida (22%) foram os principais diagnósticos etiológicos da constipação crônica. A alternância de constipação e a presença de náuseas/vômitos estiveram significativamente relacionadas ao diagnóstico de síndrome do intestino irritável; idade precoce, grandes intervalos entre as evacuações, ocorrência de impactação fecal e necessidade de enemas estiveram relacionadas ao diagnóstico de megacólon não-chagásico, enquanto assistência digital para evacuar e grande retocele ou assoalho pélvico espástico ao toque retal se associaram à disfunção do assoalho pélvico. Pacientes com constipação de longa duração, impactação fecal, dor abdominal não aliviada pelas evacuações, necessidade de enemas, assistência digital para evacuar e com evidência de retocele tendem a necessitar de testes de fisiologia para definição da causa de constipação crônica. CONCLUSÕES: O diagnóstico etiológico da constipação crônica pode ser obtido na maioria dos pacientes somente em bases clínicas, sendo que alguns sintomas estão significativamente associados a determinados diagnósticos. A indicação dos testes de fisiologia, por sua vez, deve ser baseada em parâmetros clínicos específicos. Abstract in english BACKGROUND: Diagnosis of subtypes of chronic constipation has been considered difficult to achieve even in specialized centers. Although colorectal physiologic tests have brought an important contribution, it remains unclear in which patients these tests should be indicated for. AIMS: This study aim [...] s to establish a differential diagnosis for chronic constipation cases using clinical assessment and physiologic tests and to identify clinical parameters that could predict which patients need physiologic tests. METHODS: One hundred and seventy nine patients (83% females; mean age, 45) with chronic constipation according to Rome II criteria were initially treated by dietary advice and functional reeducation and those unresponsive (110 or 61.5%) were submitted to colonic transit time, defecography, anorectal manometry and electromyography, as needed. RESULTS: A differential diagnosis was achieved in 63.6% of patients tested. However, 61.5% of 179 patients with chronic constipation (69 with no need to tests and 40 with normal tests) have etiologic diagnosis established only on clinical basis. Irritable bowel syndrome (32%), pelvic floor dysfunction (29%) and functional constipation due to faulty diet and life style habits (22%) were the main causes of chronic constipation. Alternating constipation and nausea/vomiting were symptoms sig

Antônio, Lacerda-Filho; Marcílio José Rodrigues, Lima; Marisa Fonseca, Magalhães; Rodrigo de Almeida, Paiva; José Renan da, Cunha-Melo.

2008-03-01

363

Manual Liquid Based Cytology for Pap Smear Preparation and HPV Detection by PCR in Pakistan.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study was conducted on female patients with different gynecological problems attending the gynecology out-patient departments of two tertiary care hospitals in Peshawar city of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan between August 2012 and October 2013. The 200 patients had an age range of 21-65 years. Smears were taken with cervical brushes and preserved in preservative medium and processed for manual liquid based cytology (MLBC) for Pap staining. Out of 200 collected samples, 30 samples were found inadequate on cytology. Of the remaining 170 samples, 164 (96.47%) were normal, 5 (2.94%) were of atypical squamous cells of unknown significance (ASCUS) and 1 (0.6%) was of high grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL). On PCR all the samples were positive for beta globin gene fragment including those reported inadequate on cytology. Out of the 5 ASCUS samples, 2 samples were positive for HPV, one each for HPV 16 and HPV 18, and the rest of the 3 samples were negative for HPV DNA. The 1 sample of HSIL was positive for HPV 16 on PCR. Out of 164 normal samples on cytology, only 1 sample was HPV 16 positive. So overall, 4 (2%) out of 200 samples were positive for HPV DNA, where 3 were HPV 16 (1.5%), and 1 was HPV 18 (0.5%) positive, and thus the ratio of infection with of HPV 16 to HPV 18 was 3:1 in the general population. In conclusion, PCR based HPV detection is a more sensitive method for screening of HPV infection than cytology as sample inadequacy does not affect the results. However, it can be combined with cytology methods in a HPV positive female to achieve the maximum results. PMID:25684490

Akbar, Shehla; Pervez, Shgufta Nasir; Shah, Walayat

2015-01-01

364

Prevalence of high-risk human papillomavirus types 16 and 18 in healthy women with cytologically negative pap smear in Iran  

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Full Text Available Background: Because human papillomavirus (HPV is one of the causal factors in cervical cancer, understanding the epidemiology of this infection is an important step towards developing strategies for prevention. Materials and Methods: We evaluated the prevalence of high-risk human papillomavirus Types 16 and 18 in cervical samples from 402 healthy women with normal Pap smears by testing with type-specific primers in the polymerase chain reaction. Participants were seen at two gynecological clinics affiliated to the Shiraz University of Medical Sciences in Iran. Result: The prevalence of positive HPV findings was 5.5%; high-risk HPV human papillomavirus Type 16 prevalence was 2% and no patient harbored HPV-18. The prevalence of HPV was 4.5% in younger age group and gradually increased to 20% in the 4 th decade. Conclusion: The prevalence of high-risk HPV was highest in the youngest women and gradually decreased with age. Overall, the prevalence of HPV in our population is low.

Safaei Akbar

2010-10-01

365

The 6th quality control survey for radioisotope in vitro tests in Japan, 1984(1)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The survey was made in 287 facilities purchasing RIA kits and reagents for in vitro tests based on the statistical analysis of mean values of two measurements for the following items: ?-fetoprotein (AFP), aldosterone, ?2-microglobulin (BMG), carcinoembyonic antigen (CEA), cortisol, C-peptide, digoxin, elastase 1, ferritin, free thyroxin (free T4), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), gastrin, growth hormone (GH), glucagon, immunoglobulin E (IgE), insulin, luteinizing hormone (LH), prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP), prolactin, parathyroid hormone (PTH), triiodothyronine (T3), triiodothyronine uptake (T3 uptake), thyroxine (T4), and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH). The concentration of serum samples was used in which C.V. was less than 10 % from computerized analysis of the standard curve of each kit. Stable values (low C.V.) were obtained for the following items: BMG, cortisol, C-peptide, digoxin, elastase 1, GH, glucagon, IgE, insulin, PAP, T3, T4, and TSH. Items showing a great discrepancy in their values among the facilities included AFP, aldosterone, CEA, ferritin, free T4, gastrin, and PTH. This survey revealed that differences in C.V. were smaller among kits and facilities, as compared with those from the previous surveys. (Namekawa, K.)

366

Correlation of histopathologic/cytologic follow-up findings with vaginal ASC-US and ASC-H Papanicolaou test and HPV test results.  

Science.gov (United States)

Current American Society of Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology recommendations about human papillomavirus (HPV) triage and further management for atypical squamous cells are pertinent to cervical Papanicolaou (Pap) tests. There are limited data on HPV detection in vaginal liquid-based cytology (LBC) specimens. The aims of this study were to determine whether adjunctive high-risk (HR)-HPV testing is useful for disease risk assessment in women with vaginal atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US) and atypical squamous cells, cannot exclude HSIL (ASC-H) Pap results. We identified 1,125 ASC-US and 36 ASC-H vaginal Pap results with HR-HPV testing. Of the cases, 244 (21.7%) ASC-US and 21 (58%) ASC-H were HR-HPV+. Among ASC-US HR-HPV+ cases, 47.8% had a squamous intraepithelial lesion (SIL) compared with 4.7% of HR-HPV- cases. Among ASC-H HR-HPV+ cases, 75% (12/16) had SIL compared with 31% (4/13) in HR-HPV- cases. Our results indicate that HPV triage testing is a reasonable and cost-effective approach for women with ASC-US vaginal Pap results and also a useful option for women with ASC-H vaginal Pap results. PMID:22338056

Bansal, Mona; Li, Zaibo; Zhao, Chengquan

2012-03-01

367

Over-expression of AtPAP2 in Camelina sativa leads to faster plant growth and higher seed yield  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Lipids extracted from seeds of Camelina sativa have been successfully used as a reliable source of aviation biofuels. This biofuel is environmentally friendly because the drought resistance, frost tolerance and low fertilizer requirement of Camelina sativa allow it to grow on marginal lands. Improving the species growth and seed yield by genetic engineering is therefore a target for the biofuels industry. In Arabidopsis, overexpression of purple acid phosphatase 2 encoded by Arabidopsis (AtPAP2 promotes plant growth by modulating carbon metabolism. Overexpression lines bolt earlier and produce 50% more seeds per plant than wild type. In this study, we explored the effects of overexpressing AtPAP2 in Camelina sativa. Results Under controlled environmental conditions, overexpression of AtPAP2 in Camelina sativa resulted in longer hypocotyls, earlier flowering, faster growth rate, higher photosynthetic rate and stomatal conductance, increased seed yield and seed size in comparison with the wild-type line and null-lines. Similar to transgenic Arabidopsis, activity of sucrose phosphate synthase in leaves of transgenic Camelina was also significantly up-regulated. Sucrose produced in photosynthetic tissues supplies the building blocks for cellulose, starch and lipids for growth and fuel for anabolic metabolism. Changes in carbon flow and sink/source activities in transgenic lines may affect floral, architectural, and reproductive traits of plants. Conclusions Lipids extracted from the seeds of Camelina sativa have been used as a major constituent of aviation biofuels. The improved growth rate and seed yield of transgenic Camelina under controlled environmental conditions have the potential to boost oil yield on an area basis in field conditions and thus make Camelina-based biofuels more environmentally friendly and economically attractive.

Zhang Youjun

2012-04-01

368

Spatio-temporal changes in the distribution of phytopigments and phytoplanktonic groups at the Porcupine Abyssal Plain (PAP) site  

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We have made a comprehensive study of pigment distributions and microscopically determined phytoplankton abundances within the Porcupine Abyssal Plain (PAP) location in the North Atlantic to better understand phytoplankton variability, and make some suggestions regarding the composition of the material falling to the sea bed and its impacts on benthic organisms such as Amperima rosea. The area has been the focus of many studies of ocean fluxes and benthic communities over recent years, but little attention has been given to the spatio-temporal variability in the surface waters. Dawn casts over a 12-day period at the PAP mooring site (48.83°N 16.5°W) revealed the presence of only one species, the diatom Actinocyclus exiguus, at bloom concentrations for just 5 days. Smaller populations of other diatoms and the dinoflagellates Gymnodinium and Gyrodinium were also present at this time. Following this 5-day interval, a mixed population of small-sized dinoflagellates, prymnesiophytes, prasinophytes, chrysophytes and cyanobacteria occurred. It is clear from concomitant CTD/bottle surveys that rapid changes in phytoplankton community structure at a fixed time series position do not necessarily reflect a degradation or manifestation of one particular species but rather represent the movement of eddies and other water masses within very short timescales. These cause substantial variability in the species class and size fraction that may explain the variability in carbon export that has been seen at the PAP site. We also make some suggestions on the variable composition of the material falling to the seabed and its impact on benthic organisms such as Amperima rosea.

Smythe-Wright, Denise; Boswell, Stephen; Kim, Young-Nam; Kemp, Alan

2010-08-01

369

Evaluation of adjunctive tests for cervical cancer screening in low resource settings  

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Full Text Available Background: Visual inspection of cervix after application of acetic acid (VIA is an effective screening tool for cervical cancer in low resource settings, but its low specificity leads to high referral rates. Adjunctive testing may overcome this drawback. Aims: This pilot study was aimed to assess test performances of VIA, human papillomavirus (HPV testing and Pap smear, individually and in simulated combinations, to determine the probable best screening option. Setting and Design: Gynecology outpatient department (OPD; cross-sectional study. Materials and Methods: One hundred women with complaints of irregular vaginal bleeding or discharge, post coital bleeding or unhealthy cervix on examination underwent Pap smear, HPV testing, VIA, colposcopy and biopsy, if indicated, in this screening order. Statistical Analysis: Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV and negative predictive value (NPV were calculated for each of the tests with a biopsy result of ?HSIL taken as the gold standard. Simulated parallel and sequential combinations for VIA/Pap, VIA/HPV and HPV/Pap were calculated and compared with individual test performance. Results: Prevalence of abnormal Pap smears was 5%, VIA positive 51% and HPV positive 16%. Sensitivity and specificity of VIA were 100% and 53.3% respectively. For HPV and Pap tests corresponding figures were 85.7%, 89.7% and 50%, 98.9% respectively. The best simulated combination with a balance of sensitivity and specificity was of VIA followed by HPV testing (sensitivity 85.7%, specificity 95.4%. Conclusion: Addition of HPV testing to VIA can increase the specificity of VIA, thereby reducing the referral rates without compromising the sensitivity of the test.

Bhatla Neerja

2007-01-01

370

Análise espectral do sinal eletromiográfico do músculo eretor da espinha obtido do teste de Sorensen / Spectral analysis of the electromyographic signal of the erector spinae muscle obtained from Sorensen test  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese INTRODUÇÃO: A fadigabilidade excessiva dos músculos lombares é um achado comum em pacientes portadores de dor lombar. Por isso, a avaliação da resistência isométrica desses músculos tem sido recomendada nessa população. OBJETIVO: O objetivo deste estudo foi identificar e analisar objetivamente o com [...] portamento da fadiga do músculo eretor da espinha em um teste de resistência isométrica realizado até a exaustão. METODOLOGIA: Nove sujeitos saudáveis realizaram o teste de Sorensen modificado com contrações em intensidades correspondentes a 5%, 10%, 15% e 20% da contração voluntária máxima. A fadiga muscular foi identificada pela análise do comportamento da frequência mediana (FM) em função do tempo. RESULTADOS: O tempo de resistência isométrica foi inversamente correlacionado com a intensidade da contração. Contudo, a intensidade da contração não demonstrou efeito sobre a taxa de declínio da FM. A fadiga muscular foi significante em todas as porções do músculo eretor da espinha. Comparações entre os músculos eretor da espinha direito e esquerdo não revelaram diferenças significantes, enquanto que comparações entre porções do músculo eretor da espinha localizadas em diferentes níveis lombares revelaram maiores níveis de fadiga em L4-L5 bilateralmente. CONCLUSÃO: A análise espectral do sinal eletromiográfico foi eficaz para idenficação da fadiga do músculo eretor da espinha. Também foi possível identificar diferenças funcionais entre as diferentes porções desse músculo. O conhecimento dessas particularidades permite intervir de forma mais específica na prevenção e reabilitação dos distúrbios da coluna lombar. Abstract in english INTRODUCTION: Excessive fatigability of the low back muscles is a common finding in low back pain patients. Therefore, the assessment of the isometric endurance of these muscles has been recommended in this population. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to identify and to analyze objectively t [...] he behavior of the erector spinae muscle fatigue in an isometric endurance test performed until exhaustion. METHOD: Nine healthy subjects performed a modified Sorensen test with contractions of 5%, 10%, 15%, and 20% of the maximal voluntary contraction. The muscle fatigue was identified for the analysis of the behavior of the median frequency (MF) over time. The endurance time was inversely correlated with the contraction intensity. However, the contraction intensity did not show effect on the rate of decline of the MF. The muscle fatigue was significant in all the portions of the erector spinae muscle. RESULTS: Comparisons between the erector spinae muscles from right and left side did not show significant differences, while that the comparisons between the portions of the erector spinae muscle localized at different vertebral levels showed higher fatigue levels at L4-L5 bilaterally. CONCLUSION: Thus, the spectral analysis of the electromyographic signal was effective for the identification of the erector spinae muscle fatigue. Also, it was possible to identify functional differences between the different portions of this muscle. The knowledge of these particularities allows managing in a more specific way the prevention e rehabilitation of the low back troubles.

Fernando Sérgio Silva, Barbosa; Camila Cristina Rodeline, Almeida; Mauro, Gonçalves.

2010-12-01

371

Analysis of the Influence of the Molecular Volume to Predict Experimental Pressure-Temperature Behavior in the Isotropic-Nematic Phase Transition of PAP, 5CB, MBBA and EBBA  

Science.gov (United States)

In this work, we have analyzed the experimental pressure-temperature behavior at the isotropic-nematic phase transition of the liquid crystals PAP, 5CB, MBBA, and EBBA at 1 atm by using the HERSW Convex Peg model in conjunction with the IPCM model. We have calculated the molecular volume values for the hard and attractive cores from theoretical quantum calculations at the PM3, PM6, B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p)//PM6, and M06/6-311++G(d,p)//PM6 levels of theory. The results suggest that the best theoretical prediction of the experimental pressure-temperature behavior is obtained when the molecular volume is evaluated at the DFT level.

García-Sánchez, Eduardo; Mendoza-Huizar, Luis H.; Ramírez-García, Uriel; Sustaita, Ireri A.; Alvarado, Francisco

2015-04-01

372

Results obtained at Saturne  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The proton scattering results obtained in the synchrotron Saturne are summarized: target, reaction, energy of the incident proton, nature of the levels studied, limits of the transfer momentum range measured, and corresponding elastic scattering cross-sections

373

Process for obtaining uranium  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This is concerned with an improvement to the process for obtaining ammonium diuranate from a solution which contains uranyl fluoride and hydrofluoric acid, by the addition of an ammonium hydroxide solution. A great excess of ammonium hydroxide is avoided in the new process, and one obtains all the uranium present. This is achieved by varying the quantities added with exact control of the pH value at the time. The detailed description also discusses the probable conversion rates. (UWI)

374

Endocervical curettage and brushing during colposcopic evaluation in patients having suspected changes in pap smear and negative colposcopy  

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Full Text Available Objective: the aim of this study was to evaluate the utility of endocervical curettage and brushing during colposcopic evaluation in patients having suspected changes in Pap smear and negative colposcopy.Methodology: results from 43 women having abnormal Pap smear and negative satisfactory colposcopy; endocervical curettage during colposcopic evaluation were thus compared to endocervical brushing during colposcopic evaluation.Results: the endocervical curettage was useful to detect cervical intraepithelial neoplasia no suspected during satisfactory colposcopic evaluation. The endocervical brushings was useful too, but the endocervical curettage was better.Conclusion: this study suggests that endocervical curettage can be useful during negative satisfactory colposcopic evaluation of a patient with an abnormal Papnicolaou smear.RESUMENObjetivos: El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar la utilidad del cepillado y legrado endocervical durante la evaluación colposcópica en pacientes con citología anormal y colposcopia satisfactoria negativa. Materiales y métodos: Se incluyeron 43 mujeres con citología anormal y colposcopia satisfactoria negativa. Se realizó legrado y cepillado endocervical y se compararon los resultados.Resultados: El legrado endocervical fue útil en detectar neoplasia intraepitelial cervical no observada durante la evaluación colposcópica satisfactoria. El cepillado endocervical también fue útil, pero el legrado fue mejor.Conclusión: Este estudio sugiere que el legrado endocervical puede ser de utilidad durante la evaluación colposcópica satisfactoria negativa de pacientes con una citología anormal.

Borré-Arrieta Orlando

2010-12-01

375

Bacterial Over-Expression and Purification of the 3?phosphoadenosine 5?phosphosulfate (PAPS) Reductase Domain of Human FAD Synthase: Functional Characterization and Homology Modeling  

OpenAIRE

FAD synthase (FADS, EC 2.7.7.2) is a key enzyme in the metabolic pathway that converts riboflavin into the redox cofactor, FAD. Human FADS is organized in two domains: -the 3?phosphoadenosine 5?phosphosulfate (PAPS) reductase domain, similar to yeast Fad1p, at the C-terminus, and -the resembling molybdopterin-binding domain at the N-terminus. To understand whether the PAPS reductase domain of hFADS is sufficient to catalyze FAD synthesis, per se, and to investigate the role of the molybdo...

Miccolis, Angelica; Galluccio, Michele; Giancaspero, Teresa Anna; Indiveri, Cesare; Barile, Maria

2012-01-01

376

Resultados histológicos e detecção do HPV em mulheres com células escamosas atípicas de significado indeterminado e lesão escamosa intra-epitelial de baixo grau na colpocitologia oncológica / Histological results and HPV detection in women with pap smear showing atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance and low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVOS: avaliar o desempenho da colpocitologia oncológica (CO) e da Captura de Híbridos II (CHII) para o diagnóstico de lesão cervical histológica significativa (NIC2/3) em mulheres encaminhadas com CO contendo atipias celulares de significado indeterminado (ASCUS) ou lesão escamosa intra-epiteli [...] al de baixo grau (LSIL). MÉTODOS: estudo de corte transversal no qual foram incluídas 161 mulheres encaminhadas, entre agosto de 2000 e setembro de 2002, devido a CO com resultado de ASCUS ou LSIL. As mulheres responderam a questionário específico sobre características sociodemográficas e reprodutivas e foram submetidas a exame ginecológico com coleta de CO e CHII, sendo realizada colposcopia com eventual biópsia de áreas suspeitas. Foi aplicado o teste do qui-quadrado para as associações da idade, uso de condom, uso de anticoncepcional oral e tabagismo com os resultados da CHII. Foram calculados a sensibilidade, especificidade, valor preditivo positivo e valor preditivo negativo da CO e da CHII para detectar NIC2/3. Todos os cálculos foram realizados com intervalos de confiança estatística de 95%. RESULTADOS: sessenta e sete porcento das mulheres com menos de 30 anos de idade tiveram testes positivos para o HPV. A CO e CHII tiveram sensibilidade de 82% em detectar NIC2/3 quando considerados como positivos ASCUS, LSIL ou HSIL. Quando se consideram como positivas apenas as CO com HSIL, este exame apresenta acentuado ganho de especificidade (de 29 para 95%) e valor preditivo positivo (de 12 para 50%), superando a CHII, porém com redução igualmente significativa de sua sensibilidade (de 82 para 41%). CONCLUSÕES: nossos resultados indicaram grande potencial da CHII para detectar mulheres com NIC2/3 entre as pacientes com ASCUS/LSIL na CO de encaminhamento. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: to assess the ability of Pap smear and hybrid capture II (HCII) to detect clinically significant cervical lesions (CIN2/3) in women referred to hospital due to atypical squamous cells of unknown significance (ASCUS) or low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL). METHODS: a cross-se [...] ctional study comprising 161 women referred to the Taubaté University Hospital due to ASCUS/LSIL, between August 2000 and September 2002. All women responded to a questionnaire regarding sociodemographic and reproductive characteristics and were subjected to gynecological examination with specimen collection for Pap test and HCII, along with colposcopy and eventual cervical biopsy. The relationship between HCII results and age, use of condom, oral hormonal contraception, and smoking were evaluated by the chi-square test. The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of both Pap test and HCII were calculated. All calculations were performed within 95% confidence intervals. RESULTS: sixty-seven percent of the women that tested positive for HPV were less than 30 years old. Pap smear and HCII showed the same 82% sensitivity in detecting CIN2/3 when the threshold for a positive Pap result was ASCUS, LSIL or HSIL. Pap smear specificity and positive predictive values were substantially increased when only HSIL results were considered as positive (from 29 to 95% and 12 to 50%, respectively). These figures were superior to those of HCII, but at the expense of an expressive loss of sensitivity (from 82% to 41%). CONCLUSIONS: our results substantiate the potential of HCII in detecting CIN2/3 among women referred due to ASCUS/LSIL.

André Luis Ferreira, Santos; Sophie Françoise Mauricette, Derchain; Luis Otávio, Sarian; Elizabete Aparecida, Campos; Marcos Roberto dos, Santos; Gislaine Aparecida, Fonsechi-Carvasan.

2004-07-01

377

Citologia vaginal a fresco na gravidez: correlação com a citologia corada pela técnica de Papanicolaou Fresh wet mount in pregnancy: correlation with Pap smears  

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Full Text Available OBJETIVO: analisar o conteúdo vaginal utilizando o exame citológico a fresco na primeira consulta pré-natal em mulheres com ou sem queixas genitais e correlacionar os resultados com os encontrados na citologia corada pela técnica de Papanicolaou. A microscopia direta durante a gravidez deve ser valorizada e reconhecida como método propedêutico capaz de diagnosticar, de forma imediata, 90% dos casos de vaginose bacteriana, candidose e tricomonose. MÉTODOS: estudo prospectivo em 216 gestantes, selecionadas em ambulatório de pré-natal no período de 30 de outubro de 2001 a 12 de novembro de 2002. Foram colhidas duas amostras do conteúdo existente no fundo de saco vaginal posterior e depositadas em lâminas de vidro para microscopia. Sobre a primeira e a segunda amostra eram colocadas uma gota de NaCl a 0,9% e uma de KOH a 10%, respectivamente. Adicionalmente, em todas as grávidas determinou-se o pH vaginal e realizaram-se os testes de produção das aminas com odores de pescado. O material era examinado ao microscópio em aumentos de 100 vezes, 400 vezes e excepcionalmente 1000 vezes. Foram realizados esfregaços cervicovaginais para citologia corada pelo método de Papanicolaou. A correlação entre os resultados dos métodos citológicos empregados foi realizada pelo cálculo do coeficiente kappa, que avalia a concordância para variáveis qualitativas. RESULTADOS: o encontro nos esfregaços a fresco de flora bacteriana normal foi de 51,8, representando o aspecto citológico mais observado e sem correspondência com os 3,7% apurados na microscopia corada. No exame citológico direto foram observados 30,9% de vaginose bacteriana e 7,9% de candidose. Todavia, no Papanicolaou não foi encontrada tal equivalência, sendo as porcentagens de 0,7 e 24,3%, respectivamente. A ausência de correlação no diagnóstico de colpite bacteriana inespecífica na microscopia direta (17,5% e corada (51,3% talvez deva-se ao subdiagnóstico de vaginose neste último método propedêutico. Os diagnósticos de tricomoníase observados em ambos os métodos citológicos (3,7 e 2,7% traduzem a baixa prevalência destes parasitas na gestação. O cálculo do índice kappa para avaliação da concordância entre os dois procedimentos citológicos nos diversos achados microbiológicos demonstrou baixa correlação nos diagnósticos da vaginose bacteriana e colpites bacterianas inespecíficas, bem como na identificação da flora vaginal normal. CONCLUSÕES: embora a citologia corada apresente melhor acurácia no diagnóstico de fungos não formadores de micélios, a citologia direta a fresco demonstrou ser melhor avaliador dos elementos não epiteliais dos esfregaços vaginais. Entretanto, a microscopia corada pela técnica de Papanicolaou, por permitir melhor apreciação das células epiteliais cervicovaginais, representa o mais importante instrumento revelador das agressões e reações nucleocitoplasmáticas.PURPOSE: to analyze vaginal contents using the fresh wet mount of a cytological exam in the first prenatal visit of women with or without genital complaints and correlate the conclusion with the results from the Pap smears. Microscopy during pregnancy should be valued and recognized as a method capable of providing immediate diagnosis in 90% of bacterial vaginosis, candidiasis and trichomoniasis cases. METHODS: a prospective study was performed in 216 pregnant women selected from the prenatal department of a public hospital, between October 30, 2001 and November 12, 2002. Two samples were collected from the posterior vaginal vault and deposited onto two separate microscope slides. To one slide, a droplet of 0.9% NaCl was applied and to the other, a droplet of 10% KOH. Both slides were covered with a coverslip for immediate microscopic evaluation. Tests were perfomed in one drop of the material to examine pH and whiff. The microscopic examination of the material was carried out at a 100X, 400X and exceptionally 1000X magnification. Pap smears were performed in all pregnant patients. The correlation between the r

Amadeu Ramos da Silva Filho

2004-01-01

378

Uso precoz del BiPAP en el tratamiento de la insuficiencia respiratoria en un lactante con osteogénesis imperfecta: Case report / Early use of BiPAP in the management of respiratory failure in an infant with osteogenesis imperfecta  

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Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish [...] Abstract in english Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is an heterogeneous group of genetic disorders that affect connective tissue integrity. Severe forms cause chest deformities, sometimes associated to alveolar hypoventilation. We report a 4 months old infant with OI type III, who developed respiratory failure (RF) due to [...] a bronchiolitis and required mechanical ventilation. Weaning progressed successfully to a nasal bi-level Positive Airway Pressure (n-BiPAP) device. Clinical follow up showed a normal cognitive development and growth. Respiratory condition, blood gases and ventilation status were in normal ranges. Non invasive ventilation, associated to careful monitoring may avoid tracheostomy and its complications in infants with OI (Rev Méd Chile 2004; 132: 861-4)

Luis, Vega-Briceño; Ilse, Contreras E; Ignacio, Sánchez D; Pablo, Bertrand N.

2004-07-01

379

Uso precoz del BiPAP en el tratamiento de la insuficiencia respiratoria en un lactante con osteogénesis imperfecta: Case report Early use of BiPAP in the management of respiratory failure in an infant with osteogenesis imperfecta  

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Full Text Available Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI is an heterogeneous group of genetic disorders that affect connective tissue integrity. Severe forms cause chest deformities, sometimes associated to alveolar hypoventilation. We report a 4 months old infant with OI type III, who developed respiratory failure (RF due to a bronchiolitis and required mechanical ventilation. Weaning progressed successfully to a nasal bi-level Positive Airway Pressure (n-BiPAP device. Clinical follow up showed a normal cognitive development and growth. Respiratory condition, blood gases and ventilation status were in normal ranges. Non invasive ventilation, associated to careful monitoring may avoid tracheostomy and its complications in infants with OI (Rev Méd Chile 2004; 132: 861-4

Luis Vega-Briceño

2004-07-01

380

Reflection of the changes in properties of pressure vessel metal due to irradiation, recovery annealing and re-irradiation in the character of fractures obtained in Charpy impact testing  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Pressure vessel steels of Russian and American origin were investigated by raster electron microscopy (fractography), optical microscopy (metallography) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The influence of Russian weld macrostructure parameters on the data obtained by Charpy test was revealed. Possible appearance of brittle intergranular components in fracture surfaces of sub-size Charpy specimen made of Russian weld metal with phosphorus content greater than 0.04% was shown when tested at temperatures close to the upper shelf level. Recovery annealing at 475 deg.C, for 15 hours did not induce reduction of the brittle intergranular component while recovery of DBTT was observed. This confirmed that the contribution of radiation induced intergranular phosphorus segregation to embrittlement of pressure vessel steels is not significant. The presence of ductile intergranular component in fractures of specimens made of Russian and American steels confirmed the possibility of radiation induced intragranular phosphorus segregation to precipitate/matrix interfaces. In accordance with the properties recovery due to annealing, the successive reduction of ductile intergranular component fraction in fracture surfaces indicates that the contribution of radiation induced ill-treating phosphorus segregation to radiation embrittlement of pressure vessel steels is valuable

381

Comparison of biogeochemical dynamics in two time-series sites of a North Atlantic Ocean site (PAP and BATS): a modeling approach.  

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Plankton functional type (PFT) models are highly complex ecosystem models. Indeed, the large number of processes and plankton functional groups represented in these models make the network of interactions extremely complicated. Slight differences in parameterization or formulation of single processes, therefore, may drive these models to respond in a very different way to perturbations of the system. An evaluation of such a different responses can be very useful to understand the processes regulating the functioning of the ecosystem. In this study we analyze the sensitivity of the biological parameters in a PFT model (European Regional Seas Ecosystem Model, ERSEM) in respect to primary production and detrital export. The tests are done on a subset of key parameters that control ocean ecosystem growth in a 1-D formulation of ERSEM coupled with a turbulence model (General Ocean Turbulence Model, GOTM). Results are compared with observed data from two time-series sites Bermuda Atlantic Time-Series (BATS, 32.16 N 64.5 W) and Porcupine Abyssal Plain (PAP, 49 N 16 W). A particular focus on factors determining the timing and intensity of the bloom is also presented on the base of literature review and on 1D(GOTM-ERSEM)-3D(NEMO-ERSEM) model simulations comparison. The different processes evaluated are: i). winter convective mixing, ii) lateral advection: mesoscale and sub-mesoscale eddies, iii) turbolent mixing iv) decoupling between euphotic zone and mixed layer depth. The study presented here is carried out in the framework of the European project EURO-BASIN (European Basin-scale Analysis, Synthesis and Integration), where long term 3D simulation aimed to evaluate the variability of primary production and carbon export are planned. Parameterization in use by the 3D NEMO-ERSEM is referring to the global ocean, while simulations are planned for the North North Atlantic. This study aims to contribute to fulfill the development of a specific parameterization for the North Atlantic Ocean.

Ibello, Valeria; Butenschon, Momme; Salihoglu, Baris; Erkan Kideys, Ahmet

2013-04-01

382

Experiences and unmet needs of women undergoing pap smear cervical cancer screening: impact on uptake of cervical cancer screening in South eastern Nigeria.  

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The burden of cervical cancer is on the increase in sub-Saharan Africa mainly due to inadequate provision and utilisation of cervical cancer prevention services. Several evidence-based strategies have been deployed to improve cervical cancer screening uptake without much success. However, patients' experiences and satisfaction with service provision has not been adequately studied. Inefficiencies in service delivery and less fulfilling experiences by women who attend cervical cancer screening could have considerable impact in future voluntary uptake of cervical cancer screening. Six hundred and eighty women who underwent Pap smear screening in three health care facilities in two states in south eastern Nigeria were interviewed to evaluate their satisfaction, willingness to undertake future voluntary screening, unmet needs and correlation between satisfaction level and willingness to undergo future screening. Satisfaction with Pap smear screening correlated positively with willingness to undertake future voluntary screening (Pearson's correlation coefficient?=?0.78, P?=?0.001). The mean satisfaction score was significantly higher among participants handled by nurses than those handled by the physicians (3.16?±?0.94 vs 2.52?±?0.77, P?=?0.001). 'Scrapping discomfort' of the spatula was reported as the most dissatisfying aspect of Pap smear experience. The need for less invasive screening procedures was the most unmet need. It was concluded that improving the Pap smear screening experience of women and providing less invasive methods of cervical cancer screening with immediate results could improve uptake of cervical cancer screening in south eastern Nigeria. PMID:24980966

Chigbu, Chibuike O; Onyebuchi, Azubuike K; Egbuji, Chuma C; Ezugwu, Eusebus C

2015-03-01

383

RNA-seq analysis of antibiotic-producing Bacillus subtilis SC-8 in response to signal peptide PapR of Bacillus cereus.  

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Bacillus subtilis SC-8 produces an antibiotic that has narrow antagonistic activity against bacteria in the Bacillus cereus group. In B. cereus group bacteria, peptide-activating PlcR (PapR) plays a significant role in regulating the transcription of virulence factors. When B. subtilis SC-8 and B. cereus are co-cultured, PapR is assumed to stimulate antibiotic production by B. subtilis SC-8. To better understand the effect of PapR on this interspecies interaction, the global transcriptome profile of B. subtilis SC-8 was analyzed in the presence of PapR. Significant changes were detected in 12.8 % of the total transcripts. Genes related to amino acid transport and metabolism (16.5 %) and transcription (15 %) were mainly upregulated, whereas genes involved in carbohydrate transport and metabolism (12.7 %) were markedly downregulated. The expression of genes related to transcription, including several transcriptional regulators and proteins involved in tRNA biosynthesis, was increased. The expression levels of genes associated with several transport systems, such as antibiotic, cobalt, and iron complex transporters, was also significantly altered. Among the downregulated genes were transcripts associated with spore formation, the subtilosin A gene cluster, and nitrogen metabolism. PMID:24104687

Yeo, In-Cheol; Lee, Nam Keun; Yang, Byung Wook; Hahm, Young Tae

2014-01-01

384

Cervical pap smear study and its utility in cancer screening to specify the strategy for cervical cancer control  

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Full Text Available The study was conducted to explore various lesions of Uterine cervix [inflammatory and growth], to find out target age group in which screening efforts can be concentrated for early detection as well as reduction of the incidence of cervical cancer, in our set up. Patients in the age group 15-50 and 50-78 years with various complaints were screened during June 2006 to December 2007. Total 995 patients were studied. Slides were fixed in 95% ethyl alcohol and stained with Pap stain. Slides were reported according to The 2001 Bethesda System, by cytopathologists. Out of 995 patients studied, 940 showed inflammation and other benign lesions. 55 patients showed premalignant and malignant lesions. Premalignant lesions were present in 30-50 year of age group.

Mandakini M Patel, Amrish N Pandya, Jigna Modi

2011-01-01

385

Dimeric Fe (II, III) complex of quinoneoxime as functional model of PAP enzyme: Mössbauer, magneto-structural and DNA cleavage studies  

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Purple acid phosphatase, ( PAP), is known to contain dinuclear Fe2 + 2, + 3 site with characteristic Fe + 3 ? Tyr ligand to metal charge transfer in coordination. Phthiocoloxime (3-methyl-2-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone-1-oxime) ligand L, mimics (His/Tyr) ligation with controlled and unique charge transfers resulting in valence tautomeric coordination with mixed valent diiron site in model compound Fe-1: [?-OH-Fe2 + 2, + 3 ( o-NQCH3ox) ( o-NSQCH3ox)2 (CAT) H2O]. Fe-2: [Fe + 3( o-NQCH3ox) ( p-NQCH3ox)2]2 a molecularly associated dimer of phthiocoloxime synthesized for comparison of charge transfer. 57Fe Mössbauer studies was used to quantitize unusual valences due to ligand in dimeric Fe-1 and Fe-2 complexes which are supported by EPR and SQUID studies. 57Fe Mössbauer spectra for Fe-1 at 300 K indicates the presence of two quadrupole split asymmetric doublets due to the differences in local coordination geometries of [Fe + 3]A and [Fe + 2]B sites. The hyperfine interaction parameters are ? A = 0.152, (? E Q)A = 0.598 mm/s with overlapping doublet at ? B = 0.410 and (? E Q)B = 0.468 mm/s. Due to molecular association tendency of ligand, dimer Fe-2 possesses 100% Fe + 3(h.s.) hexacoordinated configuration with isomer shift ? = 0.408 mm/s. Slightly distorted octahedral symmetry created by NQCH3ox ligand surrounding Fe + 3(h.s.) state generates small field gradient indicated by quadrupole split ? E Q = 0.213 mm/s. Decrease of isomer shifts together with variation of quadrupole splits with temperature in Fe-1 dimer compared to Fe-2 is result of charge transfers in [Fe2 + 2, + 3 SQ] complexes. EPR spectrum of Fe-1 shows two strong signals at g 1 = 4.17 and g 2 = 2.01 indicative of S = 3/2 spin state with an intermediate spin of Fe + 3(h.s.) configuration. SQUID data of ? _m^{corr} .T were best fitted by using HDVV spin pair model S = 2, 3/2 resulting in antiferromagnetic exchange ( J = -13.5 cm - 1 with an agreement factor of R = 1.89 × 10 - 5). The lower J value of antiferromagnetic exchange leads to Fe+3?-(OH) Fe + 2 bridging in Fe-1 dimer instead of ?-oxo bridge. The intermolecular association through H-bonds may lead to weakly coupled antiferromagnetic interaction between two Fe-2 molecules having Fe + 3(h.s.) centers. Using S = 5/2, 5/2 spin pair model we obtained best-fitted parameters such as J = -12.4 cm - 1, g = 2.3 with R = 3.58 × 10 - 5. Synthetic strategy results in non-equivalent iron sites in Fe-1 dimer analogues to PAP enzyme hence its reconstitution results in pUC-19 DNA cleavage activity, as physiological functionality of APase. It is compared with nuclease activity of Fe-2 RAPase.

Salunke-Gawali, Sunita; Ahmed, Khursheed; Varret, François; Linares, Jorge; Zaware, Santosh; Date, Sadgopal; Rane, Sandhya

2008-07-01

386

Pattern of abnormal Pap smears in developing countries : A report from a large referral hospital in Saudi Arabia using the revised 2001 Bethesda System  

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Full Text Available Background: Reports describing the frequency and pattern of abnormal Pap smears in developing countries using the revised Bethesda system for Pap smear are few. We studied the pattern of cervical intraepithelial le--sions and carcinoma detected in Pap smears of Saudi females in the western region of Saudi Arabia using the revised system. Methods: All cervical Pap smears reported in the Department of Pathology of King Abdulaziz Medical City, Jeddah, from 1 January 1998 to 31 August 2005 were reclassified according to the revised system with age ranges identified. RESULTS: Of 5590 sufficient smears, 261 (5% were identified as abnormal and were further classified as atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US (103 cases, 40%, atypical squamous cells of high grade (6 cases, 2%, low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL (56 cases, 22%, high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL (31 cases, 12%, glandular cell abnormalities (30 cases, 11% and invasive squa--mous cell carcinoma (21 cases, 9%. The ASC-US/SIL ratio was 1.9%. Invasive adenocarcinoma accounted for 14 cases (4% with a similar age range as invasive squamous cell carcinoma. Conclusion: Although this study showed a lower incidence and a wider age range of cervical epithelial cell abnormalities than others published internationally, the results emphasize the need for a well-organized cervi--cal screening program supplemented by larger national studies on the pattern of cervical abnormalities in this country. The information provided in this study will encourage use of the Pap smear as a screening method for cervical cancer in developing countries.

Abdullah Layla

2007-01-01

387

Role of BiPAP applied through endotracheal tube in unconscious patients suffering from acute exacerbation of COPD: a pilot study  

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Full Text Available Jagdish Rawat,1 Girish Sindhwani,1 Debasis Biswas,2 Ruchi Dua11Department of Pulmonary Medicine, 2Department of Microbiology, Himalayan Institute of Medical Sciences, Swami Ram Nagar, Jolly Grant, Dehradun, Uttarakhand, IndiaBackground and objectives: Mechanical ventilation is the recommended treatment in unconscious patients with acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and hypercapenic respiratory failure. But, in resource-poor countries, many of these patients are not able to afford this treatment due to financial constraints. The main aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness, safety and cost-effectiveness of bilevel positive airway pressure (BiPAP applied via endotracheal tube in such patients.Methods: Twenty patients with acute exacerbation of COPD and altered sensorium, who were unable to afford ventilatory support, were intubated and BiPAP therapy was provided to these patients through the endotracheal tube. The outcome of these patients was studied.Results: The BiPAP success rate and hospital mortality were 85% (17/20 and 15% (3/20 respectively. BiPAP failure was associated with high sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA score at the time of admission (P = 0.002. Improvement in Glasgow coma scale (GCS score (P < 0.001, pH (P = 0.001, PaCO2 (partial pressure of carbon dioxide (P < 0.001, respiratory rate (P < 0.001, and SOFA score (P = 0.001 was observed among the responders following 2 hours of therapy. Only one of the responders developed aspiration pneumonitis, as a complication. The daily cost of BiPAP therapy was 8.75 times lower than the average cost of mechanical ventilation.Conclusion: This pilot study reveals that this treatment modality could be a safe, cost-effective and efficacious method of treatment in unconscious patients with acute exacerbation of COPD.Keywords: bilevel positive air way pressure, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, hypercapenic respiratory failure

Dua R

2012-05-01

388

Bacterial curli protein promotes the conversion of PAP248-286 into the amyloid SEVI: cross-seeding of dissimilar amyloid sequences  

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Full Text Available Fragments of prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP248-286 in human semen dramatically increase HIV infection efficiency by increasing virus adhesion to target cells. PAP248-286 only enhances HIV infection in the form of amyloid aggregates termed SEVI (Semen Enhancer of Viral Infection, however monomeric PAP248-286 aggregates very slowly in isolation. It has therefore been suggested that SEVI fiber formation in vivo may be promoted by exogenous factors. We show here that a bacterially-produced extracellular amyloid (curli or Csg acts as a catalytic agent for SEVI formation from PAP248-286 at low concentrations in vitro, producing fibers that retain the ability to enhance HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus infection. Kinetic analysis of the cross-seeding effect shows an unusual pattern. Cross-seeding PAP248-286 with curli only moderately affects the nucleation rate while significantly enhancing the growth of fibers from existing nuclei. This pattern is in contrast to most previous observations of cross-seeding, which show cross-seeding partially bypasses the nucleation step but has little effect on fiber elongation. Seeding other amyloidogenic proteins (IAPP (islet amyloid polypeptide and A?1?40 with curli showed varied results. Curli cross-seeding decreased the lag-time of IAPP amyloid formation but strongly inhibited IAPP elongation. Curli cross-seeding exerted a complicated concentration dependent effect on A?1?40 fibrillogenesis kinetics. Combined, these results suggest that the interaction of amyloidogenic proteins with preformed fibers of a different type can take a variety of forms and is not limited to epitaxial nucleation between proteins of similar sequence. The ability of curli fibers to interact with proteins of dissimilar sequences suggests cross-seeding may be a more general phenomenon than previously supposed.

Kevin Hartman

2013-02-01

389

Structural basis for the activation mechanism of the PlcR virulence regulator by the quorum-sensing signal peptide PapR.  

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The quorum-sensing regulator PlcR is the master regulator of most known virulence factors in Bacillus cereus. It is a helix-turn-helix (HTH)-type transcription factor activated upon binding of its cognate signaling peptide