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Pap and HPV Testing  

Science.gov (United States)

... cancer screening includes two types of screening tests: cytology -based screening, known as the Pap test or ... is added. In an automated liquid-based Pap cytology test, cervical cells collected with a brush or ...

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Pap Tests and Foreign-Born Women  

Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

Foreign-born women living in the U.S. are less likely to have Pap tests to detect cervical cancer than women born in this country. The problem is worse for women from certain countries or regions. Find out why this is a disturbing trend, who these women are and why they are less likely to get a Pap test, and what CDC is doing about it.  Created: 11/26/2007 by National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program.   Date Released: 12/7/2007.

2007-11-26

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Access to Adequate Healthcare for Hmong Women: A Patient Navigation Program to Increase Pap Test Screening  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper describes the development and implementation of a Hmong Cervical Cancer Intervention Program utilizing a patient navigation model to raise cervical cancer awareness for Hmong women through educational workshops and to assist Hmong women in obtaining a Pap test. Out of 402 women who participated in a baseline survey, the Patient Navigation Program was able to enroll 109 participants who had not had a Pap test in the past 3 years and had never had a Pap test. Through utilization of outreach, an awareness campaign and patient navigation support, at least 38 percent of 109 participants obtained a Pap test. Overall, 21 workshops and 43 outreach activities were conducted by the Hmong Women’s Heritage Association, leading to 63 percent of those enrolled in the Patient Navigation Program who could be contacted to obtain a Pap test.

Moon S. Chen, Jr

2010-01-01

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Factors Associated with Pap Testing among Hmong Women  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper reports the baseline data on the proportion of Hmong women (n=402), ages 18–65, in Sacramento, California who reported that they had a Pap test for the early detection of cervical cancer. We assessed the association between socio-demographic characteristics and Pap test receipt using chi-squared and multiple logistic regression analyses. Only 74% had ever had a Pap test, with 61% tested in the previous three years, compared with 91% and 86%, respectively, of California women over...

Fang, Dao Moua; Lee, Serge; Stewart, Susan; Ly, May Ying; Chen, Moon S.

2010-01-01

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Johns Hopkins scientists use Pap test fluid to detect ovarian, endometrial cancers  

Science.gov (United States)

Using cervical fluid obtained during routine Pap tests, scientists at the Johns Hopkins Kimmel Cancer Center have developed a test to detect ovarian and endometrial cancers. In a pilot study, the “PapGene” test, which relies on genomic sequencing of cancer-specific mutations, accurately detected all 24 (100 percent) endometrial cancers and nine of 22 (41 percent) ovarian cancers. Results of the experiments are published in the Jan. 9 issue of the journal Science Translational Medicine.

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Pap Smear  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Thanks to a procedure called a Pap smear test, many early stages of cervical cancer can be ... successful in curing cervical cancer. The Pap smear test is essential in detecting atypia early. It is ...

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How Often to Get a Pap Test (A Cup of Health with CDC)  

Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

Cervical cancer has declined in the U.S., and the decline is largely due to Pap testing and follow-up. Screening recommendations have changed. In this podcast, Meg Watson discusses Pap testing.  Created: 1/10/2013 by MMWR.   Date Released: 1/10/2013.

2013-01-10

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Pap Smear  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... up appointment if your test results are abnormal. Abnormal test results are known as positive Pap smear tests. Results are considered abnormal if any of the following were noticed on ...

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Pap Smear  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available Pap Smear Introduction Cancer of the cervix affects more than 10,000 women in the United States every year. Thanks to a procedure ... Pap smear test, many early stages of cervical cancer can be detected and treated. Your doctor has ...

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Pap Smear  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... are abnormal. Abnormal test results are known as positive Pap smear tests. Results are considered abnormal if ... is a small price to pay for your health. This document is for informational purposes and is ...

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Papanicolaou (Pap test screening of staff members of a tertiary care teaching hospital in South India  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: In India, cancer cervix is the most common cancer among females. Papanicolaou cytological (Pap test helps in detecting the early epithelial abnormalities in cervical cells. Material and Methods: Pap smears of female health care staff members (n=80who underwent voluntary Pap test as part of a screening programme,from January to June 2012 were evaluated. Pap smears were evaluated by light microscopy. The 2001 Bethesda system for reporting cervical cytology was used in evaluating the pap smears. Results: Their mean age was 41.3 ± 5.6 years. Epithelial cell abnormality was noted in the Pap smear in 5 (6.3% cases. Conclusion: Our observations provide supportive evidence for using Pap test as a tool for screening for cervical cancer. There is a need for enhancing the awareness among lay public regarding the utility of this test so that more women will avail this test and precancerous changes in cervix can be detected before they progress to frank malignancy.

Amitabh Jena

2012-10-01

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Pap Smear  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... a Pap smear test, many early stages of cervical cancer can be detected and treated. Your doctor has ... development of cancer of the cervix, also called cervical cancer. Since the cervix comes in contact with semen ...

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Pap Smear  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Pap smear test should not be painful. The sample, which contains cells and mucus, is then smeared ... been linked to the development of cervical cancer. Taking the vaccine helps prevent cervical cancer. If you ...

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Pap Smear  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... using either the standard Pap or liquid-based cytology. Your doctor may have recommended screenings more or ... older who have had three consecutive negative cervical cytology test results may be screened once every three ...

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Pap Smear  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... is inserted into the vagina and used to swab the cervix. This may cause some discomfort followed by minor cramping for a few hours, but the Pap smear test should not be painful. The sample, which contains ...

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Pap Smear  

Science.gov (United States)

... Adequate prior screening has been defined as 3 consecutive negative Pap smears or 2 consecutive negative HPV DNA tests within the last 10 ... not always agree. The modified date indicates that one or more changes were made to the article. ...

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Cervical Cancer in Manitoba: evaluating risk, Pap test utilization, and access  

Science.gov (United States)

Kathleen Decker Alain Demers Daniel Chateau Marion Harrison Cervical Cancer in Manitoba: evaluating risk, Pap test utilization, and access CancerCare Manitoba Foundation Operating Grant (#763096106) Objectives • Compare the risk of invasive cervical

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ThinPrep Pap Test promotes detection of glandular lesions of the endocervix.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objectives of this study were to evaluate 1) the detection rate of atypical glandular cells of undetermined significance of endocervical cell type (AGUS-EC) and 2) the correlation between AGUS-EC on cytology and biopsy results using the conventional Papanicolaou (Pap) smear test vs. the ThinPrep Pap test (TPPT). Cervical-vaginal samples processed by the conventional Pap smear for 11 mo in 1996-1997 were identified, as were TPPTs collected for the same interval in 1997-1998. Biopsy results were compared after a 9-mo follow-up for both groups. There were 112 AGUS-EC cases from 82,754 conventional Pap smears (detection rate, 0.14%) compared with 58 cases from 82,252 TPPTs (detection rate, 0.07%) (P Pap smear group and 35 of 58 patients from the TPPT groups. Five dysplastic glandular lesions/ AIS were diagnosed by biopsy in the 35 patients (14.3%)from the TPPT group, compared with 2 of the 72 patients (2.8%) from the conventional Pap smear group (P AGUS-EC and better correlation with histology. The TPPT appears to be as sensitive as and more specific than the conventional Pap smear for detection of endocervical glandular lesions. PMID:10907926

Bai, H; Sung, C J; Steinhoff, M M

2000-07-01

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Negative HPV test result is better predictor of low cervical cancer risk than negative Pap test  

Science.gov (United States)

Based on a study that included more than 1 million women, DCEG investigators and colleagues have determined that a negative test for human papillomavirus (HPV) infection compared to a negative Pap test provides greater safety, or assurance, against future risk of cervical cancer. That is, women who test negative on the HPV test have an extremely low risk of developing cervical cancer. The findings appeared online July 18, 2014, in the Journal of the National Cancer Institute.

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Changes in cervical cancer screening behavior for women attending Pap Test Week clinics  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available V Poliquin,1 K Decker,2,3 AD Altman,1,2,4 R Lotocki1,2,4 1Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Sciences, University of Manitoba, Canada; 2CancerCare Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada; 3Department of Community Health Sciences, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, 4Division of Gynecologic Oncology, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada Objective: This retrospective study of all women who accessed the 2006 Manitoba Pap Test Week clinics was designed to determine factors associated with inadequate cervical cancer screening and changes in cervical cancer screening behavior. Methods: Data were acquired using the CervixCheck Manitoba registry and an ancillary database of demographic information collected from clinic attendees. Results: The study included 1124 women. Of these, 53% (n = 598 were under-screened (no Pap test in the previous 2 years prior to accessing the clinics. Logistic regression analyses demonstrated that older age (odds ratio [OR] = 1.02, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.01–1.03, no doctor (OR = 1.4, 95% CI 1.05–1.54, and living in Canada < 1 year (OR = 5.5, 95% CI 2.73–11.12 were associated with being under-screened prior to accessing the Pap Test Week clinics. Thirty-seven percent (n = 223 of under-screened women demonstrated improved screening status subsequent to the 2006 Pap Test Week (had a subsequent Papanicolaou [Pap] test performed within 2 years and these women were more likely to live in an urban setting (P = 0.003, be younger (P < 0.001, originate outside Canada (P = 0.006, have lived in Canada for less than 1 year (P = 0.006, and have had an abnormal Pap test result in 2006 (P < 0.001. Previously under-screened women were less likely to become adequately-screened subsequent to 2006 if they had a Pap test performed at a Pap Test Week clinic compared to having a Pap test performed elsewhere (37% versus 60%, P < 0.001. Conclusion: This study identified a subset of under-screened women accessing Pap Test Week clinics whose screening status might be most modifiable. Keywords: health promotion campaign, prevention, cervical cancer, risk assessment, public screening program

Poliquin V

2013-04-01

 
 
 
 
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A Shandon PapSpin liquid-based gynecological test: A split-sample and direct-to-vial test with histology follow-up study  

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Full Text Available Background: Studies for liquid-based Papanicolaou (Pap tests reveal that liquid-based cytology (LBC is a safe and effective alternative to the conventional Pap smear. Although there is research on ThinPrep and SurePath systems, information is lacking to evaluate the efficiency and effectiveness of systems based on cytocentrifugation. This study is designed to determine the sensitivity and specificity of the Shandon PapSpin (ThermoShandon, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA liquid-based gynecological system. We used split-sample and direct-to-vial study design. Materials and Methods: 2,945 women referred to prophylactic check-up were enrolled in this study. Split sample design was used in 1,500 women and residual cervical cytology specimen from all these cases was placed in fluid for PapSpin preparation after performing conventional smear. The direct-to-vial study was carried out in another cohort of 1,445 women in whom the entire cervical material was investigated using only the PapSpin technique. Follow up histological diagnoses for 141 women were obtained from both study arms following 189 abnormal cytology cases. 80 LBC cases from the split sample group and 61 LBC cases in the direct-to-vial group were correlated with the histology results. The sensitivity and secificity of the conventional smear and PapSpin tests in both study arms were compared. Results: In the split sample group, conventional smears showed a higher proportion of ASC-US (atypical cells undetermined significance: 31 (2.1% vs 10 (0.7% in PapSpin (P = 0.001. A higher proportion of unsatisfactory samples was found in the conventional smear group: 25 (1.7% vs 6 (0.4% cases (P = 0.001. In the split sample group, the sensitivity of the conventional and PapSpin tests was 68.7% vs 78.1%, and the specificity 93.8% vs 91.8%, respectively. In the direct to vial group PapSpin sensitivity was 75.9% and specificity 96.5%. The differences in sensitivity and specificity were not significant. The positive predictive values for the conventional and PapSpin methods were not different in the split sample group: 88.0% vs 86.2% and 95.7% in the direct-to-vial group. Also, no differences were found for negative predictive value (82.1, 86.8% and 80.0% respectively. Conclusions: PapSpin showed good qualitative results in both study arms, even after the material splitting in the first study arm, and is a good alternative to the conventional Pap smear. Additionally, the PapSpin method offers several advantages such as the opportunity to prepare duplicate slides, option for HPV DNA testing and cell block preparations from residual material. Microscopic evaluation of thinner cell preparations is less time consuming than the conventional Pap smears.

Rimiene J

2010-01-01

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Pap Smear  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... for a few hours, but the Pap smear test should not be painful. The sample, which contains cells and mucus, is then smeared onto a glass slide and sent to a lab for a pathologist to look at. After the test is finished, the speculum is taken out and ...

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Bethesda 2001: A Revised System for Reporting Pap Test Results Aims to Improve Cervical Cancer Screening  

Science.gov (United States)

A revised system for reporting the results of Pap tests, published in the April 24, 2002, issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association, will change the way laboratories communicate with physicians about the 50 million cervical cancer screening tests performed each year in the United States.

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How Often to Get a Pap Test (A Minute of Health with CDC)  

Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

Cervical cancer has declined in the U.S., however every year over 12,000 women are diagnosed and 4,000 die. This podcast discusses the importance of Pap testing.  Created: 1/10/2013 by MMWR.   Date Released: 1/10/2013.

2013-01-10

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Pap test use and cervical cancer incidence in first nations women living in manitoba.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examined Papanicolaou (Pap) test utilization, Pap test results, and cervical cancer incidence among First Nations (FN) women living in Manitoba, Canada taking into account age group, time period, and area of residence. Six population-based data sources were linked at an individual level. Negative binomial regression was used to compare Pap test utilization and results between FN and all other Manitoba (AOM) women. Poisson regression was used to compare cervical cancer incidence. Among women younger than 25 years, FN were more likely than AOM women to have had a Pap test [rate ratio (RR) = 1.37, 95% confidence intervals (CI), 1.22-1.53, 18-19 year olds; RR = 1.17, 95% CI, 1.05-1.31, 20-24 year olds]. There was no difference in Pap test use for women 25 to 29 or 30 to 39 years. FN 40 years and older were less likely to have a Pap test than AOM women (RR = 0.84, 95% CI, 0.75-0.93, 40-49 years old; RR = 0.71, 95% CI, 0.63-0.79, 50-59 years old; RR = 0.59, 95% CI, 0.52-0.66, 60-69 years old). FN were more likely than AOM women to have a high (RR = 1.88, 95% CI, 1.65-2.13) or low-grade Pap test result (RR = 1.60, 95% CI, 1.48-1.73). The invasive cervical cancer incidence rate was double for FN women 25 to 39 years of age (21.9 per 100,000, FN; 10.2 per 100,000, AOM, P = 0.006) and 40 to 69 years of age (24.3 per 100,000, FN; 12.3 per 100,000, AOM, P = 0.007). In conclusion, cervical cancer screening among FN women over 40 years of age must be increased to address the higher cervical cancer incidence. Cancer Prev Res; 8(1); 49-55. ©2014 AACR. PMID:25403849

Decker, Kathleen M; Demers, Alain A; Kliewer, Erich V; Biswanger, Natalie; Musto, Grace; Elias, Brenda; Griffith, Jane; Turner, Donna

2015-01-01

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Detection of endometrial adenocarcinoma with the ThinPrep Pap test.  

Science.gov (United States)

The ThinPrep Pap Test (Cytyc Corp., Boxborough, MA) was introduced in the Loyola University Medical Center (LUMC) Cytopathology Laboratory in March 1997. This study presents a 26-month retrospective review of the cervicovaginal specimens on all patients who had a cytologic diagnosis of adenocarcinoma either by conventional (CS) or ThinPrep (TP) methods. From March 1997 through May 1999, 16,139 conventional smears and 29,589 TP Pap tests were sent to the LUMC cytopathology laboratory. The three diagnostic glandular categories included: atypical glandular cells of undetermined significance (AGUS); suspicious for adenocarcinoma, endometrial adenocarcinoma, and adenocarcinoma; not otherwise specified (nos). Cytohistologic correlation was performed on all available cases. Since endometrial adenocarcinoma occurs most frequently in peri- and postmenopausal patients, the percentage of patients over the age of 50 was determined for each method; 4,669 (29%) of the women receiving a CS were age 50 or over and 6,839 (23%) of the women who received the TP Pap test were in this age group. Sixteen endometrial lesions were identified on cytology, one (adenocarcinoma) with the CS method and 15 (six AGUS; suspicious for adenocarcinoma, four endometrial adenocarcinomas, and five adenocarcinomas; nos) with the TP method. The one CS case had biopsy confirmation. Fourteen of the 15 TP cases (93%) were confirmed by biopsy; one (7%) case had no follow-up. The TP Pap test yielded a higher percentage of endometrial adenocarcinomas (0.05%) as compared to CS (0.01%). Traditionally, CS has not been a method for the early detection of endometrial glandular lesions. However, of the patients diagnosed as having an endometrial adenocarcinoma in this study, the TP Pap test contributed to an increase in the detection of these lesions as compared to CS. The age group for the two methods was comparable. PMID:11002368

Guidos, B J; Selvaggi, S M

2000-10-01

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Pap Smear  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... important in detecting cervical cancer in its early stages. Pap smears are safe, painless, and very reliable. Getting regular Pap smears could save your life! Don’t forget to schedule your Pap smear. ...

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Current approach of health employees in Turkey to pap smear test  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective: Our primary aim was to detect how much importance is given to pap smear test by the health staff.Material and Methods: In this study inquiries including questions about age, marital status, occupation, attitude for applying to gynecology polyclinics as well as questions regarding their knowledge about and attitude to pap smear test and HPV vaccination were delivered to health staff as well as to a control group which was formed from patients applying to our polyclinics.Results: Neither of the groups applied for gynecologic control without having complaints.There was no significant difference between the groups when the rates of having smear test at least once were taken into consideration. In this study we detected that the smear test was not offered routinely to nearly half of the patients.Those patients who were offered the smear test had the test by significantly higher rates. 91,17% of the women in the study group had heard about HPV vaccination.Discussion: The awareness of health staff as well as the non-health staff population about pap smear test is far from adequate in Turkey. Furthermore, gynecologists do not offer smear tests to their patients efficiently.This situation may prevent the reduction of cervical malignancies in the near future.

Hakan Yetimalar

2009-06-01

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Making Sense of Your Pap and HPV Test Results  

Science.gov (United States)

... Screening and Follow-up Test Learn More Getting abnormal test results does not mean that you have cervical cancer ... signs of cervical cancer. If you get an abnormal test result, be sure to follow up as told by ...

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ANALYSIS OF COVERAGE AND RESULTS OF PAP SMEAR TEST IN A BASIC HEALTH UNIT  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Early diagnosis of uterine cervical cancer is extremely important to reduce morbidity and mortality caused by this type of cancer. This justifies a study to examine the coverage and results of the Pap smear test in SUS users, taking into account the alterations pattern and proposed treatment, and the women proportion who do not return to receive the results of such tests. With these aims, it was developed a quantitative, descriptive and exploratory research, using the records of a Basic H...

Jéssica Fracalossi Feijó; Gustavo Potratz Gonçalves; Thaís Fonseca Chagas; Carolina Airão Destefani; Laryssa Caroline Reis Silva; Luísa Gonçalves Dutra de Oliveira

2013-01-01

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Pap Smear Test Structures for Measuring Health Belief Model and Factors Affecting Women in Urban Centers Covered Zarandieh  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background and Objectives: Cervical cancer is one of the most common cancers in women worldwide and although pap smear is considered as an effective screening program, the level of using screening is low. The purpose of this study is pap smear test structures for measuring health belief model and factors affecting women in urban centers covered Zarandieh.Methods: This was a cross-sectional study (descriptive-analytical) which included 265 Urban Women's in Zarandieh. Data collection instrument...

Karimy M.; Shamsi M; Araban M; Gholamnia Z

2012-01-01

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NIH study finds negative HPV screening test result is a better predictor of low cervical cancer risk than a negative Pap test  

Science.gov (United States)

Based on a study that included more than 1 million women, investigators at NCI have determined that a negative test for HPV infection compared to a negative Pap test provides greater safety, or assurance, against future risk of cervical cancer.

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Factors Associated with Pap Smear Screening Test among Women Aged 15-49 based on Protection Motivation Theory  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available   Background & Aim: Cervical cancer is the fourth common cancer worldwide. Pap smear is a usual t est to screen cervical cancer. The aim of the present study was to determine factors associated with Pap smear screening among married women aged 15-49 years in Lamerd health centers based on the Protection Motivation Theory .   Methods & Materials: In this cross-sectional study, 220 married women aged 15-49 years were selected. Data were gathered using a questionnaire designed based on the Protection Motivation Theory. The questionnaires were completed via individual interviews with the participants. Validity and reliability of the questionnaire were approved. Data were analysed using the Kruskal-Wallis, U-Man Whitney test and c 2 in the SPSS-16.   Results: Most of the participants ( 40% had a high school diploma and 70% of them were housewives. Most of the participants (65.6% had used the test once at least. There were statistically significant relationships between the use of Pap smear with the protection motivation against cervical cancer (P<0.001 , perceived self-efficacy ( P =0.002 , perceived response efficacy ( P =0.007 and perceived costs ( P <0.001 .   Conclusion: Regarding the statistically significant relationships between the constructs of the Protection Motivation Theory and the use of Pap smear screening test among women , it is recommended to design educational programs based on the Protection Motivation Theory to encourage married women for using Pap smear screening test.   

Fatemeh Jowzi

2013-07-01

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ANALYSIS OF COVERAGE AND RESULTS OF PAP SMEAR TEST IN A BASIC HEALTH UNIT  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Early diagnosis of uterine cervical cancer is extremely important to reduce morbidity and mortality caused by this type of cancer. This justifies a study to examine the coverage and results of the Pap smear test in SUS users, taking into account the alterations pattern and proposed treatment, and the women proportion who do not return to receive the results of such tests. With these aims, it was developed a quantitative, descriptive and exploratory research, using the records of a Basic Health Unit (UBS in the metropolitan region of Rio de Janeiro and databases (SISCOLO and IBGE of 2011. The results pointed total coverage of 11.25%, abnormal results in 78.66% of cases, proportion of 29.9% of exams undeliverable, average time between collection and arrival of the exam result into UBS of one month and 26 days and average time between collection and delivery of the results to the user of four months and six days.

Jéssica Fracalossi Feijó

2013-12-01

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Pap Smear Test Structures for Measuring Health Belief Model and Factors Affecting Women in Urban Centers Covered Zarandieh  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Cervical cancer is one of the most common cancers in women worldwide and although pap smear is considered as an effective screening program, the level of using screening is low. The purpose of this study is pap smear test structures for measuring health belief model and factors affecting women in urban centers covered Zarandieh.Methods: This was a cross-sectional study (descriptive-analytical which included 265 Urban Women's in Zarandieh. Data collection instrument was a questionnaire included demographic variables and knowledge and health belief model questions. Data was analyzed using chi-square tests, Descriptive statistics, independent samples t-test, at the significance level of p<0.05.Results: Significant differences were detected between those tested and not tested in mean of score knowledge and all the variables HBM (sensitivity, benefits, barriers, threat and intensity perceived, p<0.001. The HBM constructs, age, level of study and knowledge accounted for 30.8% of the variance observed for Pap test. Perceived susceptibility and benefit were the most important predicting factors.Conclusion: These findings can be used to guide the development of more effective educational programs and increase the amount of women’s participation in Pap smear.

Karimy M.

2012-09-01

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Pap Smear  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... menstrual period. The uterus is pear shaped and measures approximately 3 inches in length. The lowest part ... Pap or liquid-based cytology. • Women with certain risk factors may need more frequent screening, including those ...

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¿Cómo afecta el tipo de seguro de salud a la realización del Papanicolaou en Perú? / How does type of health insurance affect receipt of Pap testing in Peru?  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish OBJETIVO: Describir la asociación entre la realización de la citología del cuello uterino y el tipo de seguro de salud en las mujeres peruanas, y determinar el papel de las variables sociodemográficas y de salud sexual en esta relación. MÉTODOS: Se realizó un estudio transversal que utiliza la infor [...] mación de la Encuesta Demográfica y de Salud Familiar (ENDES), Perú, 2005-2008, correspondiente a una selección de 12 272 mujeres de 30 a 49 años de edad. La variable dependiente fue la realización de alguna prueba de Papanicolaou (PAP) en los últimos 5 años. Las variables independientes principales fueron el tipo de seguro de salud, el nivel educativo, el nivel socioeconómico del hogar, la etnia y el área de residencia. La asociación multivariada fue estimada a través de la razón de prevalencias, utilizando la regresión Poisson con varianza robusta. RESULTADOS: Se encontró que 62,7% de las mujeres sexualmente activas se habían realizado algún PAP en los últimos 5 años. Este porcentaje de participación variaba según el tipo de seguro de salud, donde las mujeres con seguro público tenían 1,27 (intervalo de confianza de 95% [IC95%]: 1,24-1,31) y las que tenían seguro privado 1,52 (IC95%:1,46-1,58) veces mayor probabilidad de haberse realizado un PAP que aquellas sin seguro. Esta asociación era explicada predominantemente por las variables de posición socioeconómica. Asimismo las mujeres que tenían la participación más baja eran las analfabetas o con educación primaria, de nivel socioeconómico bajo, con antecedente de lengua indígena y que vivían en la zonas rurales-siendo esta brecha aún mayor cuando además carecían de seguro de salud, llegando a ser hasta la tercera parte en relación con los grupos sociales más favorecidos. CONCLUSIONES: Se hallaron desigualdades según el tipo de seguro de salud en la realización del PAP, siendo las mujeres sin seguro las que menos lo utilizaron, lo cual supone una barrera para el acceso al cribado de cáncer de cérvix en Perú. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: Describe the association between receipt of cervical cytology and type of health insurance in Peruvian women, and determine the role of sociodemographic and sexual health variables in this relationship. METHODS: A cross-sectional study using information on a sample of 12 272 women aged 30 [...] to 49 years from the Demographic and Family Health Survey (ENDES), Peru, 2005-2008. The dependent variable was receipt of at least one Pap smear in the last five years. The primary independent variables were type of health insurance, educational level, household socioeconomic level, ethnicity, and place of residence. Prevalence ratio, obtained from Poisson regression with robust variance, was used to measure multivariate association. RESULTS: Among sexually active women, 62.7% had received at least one Pap test in the last five years. Percentage of women tested varied by type of health insurance. Women with public or private insurance had a greater probability of having received a Pap smear-1.27 (95% CI, 1.24-1.31) and 1.52 (95% CI, 1.46-1.58) times greater, respectively-than uninsured women. This association was primarily explained by socioeconomic status variables. In addition, women who participated the least in screening were characterized by illiteracy or only a primary education, low socioeconomic level, speaking an indigenous language, and living in a rural area. When they also lacked health insurance, the gap widened, rising to as much as one third compared to more advantaged social groups. CONCLUSIONS: Inequalities were found in receipt of Pap testing according to type of health insurance; women without insurance were least likely to be screened, implying existence of a barrier to cervical cancer screening in Peru.

Leslie, Barrionuevo-Rosas; Laia, Palència; Carme, Borrell.

2013-12-01

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How to Interpret Abnormal Pap Smear Results  

Science.gov (United States)

... examination such as a repeat Pap smear or HPV testing. ASC-H means ASC with possible HSIL: Some ... warts. Your doctor will probably perform a colposcopy, HPV testing or recommend a repeat Pap smear. HSIL HSIL ...

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HPV DNA and Pap smear test results in cases with and without cervical pathology  

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Full Text Available Objective: The aim of the study was to determine the HPV prevalance and its relation to Pap smear, colposcopy and colposcopy directed biopsy in our region of Eskisehir, Turkey.Material and Methods: A total of 615 women who applied to the outpatient clinic between December 2009 and December 2010 constituted our study population. All patients underwent pelvic examination and Pap smear sampling. Patients who had pathological cervical appearance or Pap smear results of ASCUS, AGUS, LSIL or HSIL were referred to colposcopy. Cervical samples for HPV DNA were taken from the patients before Pap smear sampling during the routine examination or before the colposcopic evaluation. Results: Twenty six of 615 patients (4% were HPV positive. Of these 26 patients, 12 were positive for HPV type 16, 3 for type 18, 3 for type 51, 2 for type 6, 1 for type 52, 1 for type 33, 1 for type 16 and type 31, 1 for type 6 and 52, 1 for type 56 and 90, 1 for type 39 and 66. In 4 patients with cervical cancer, and in 3 of 4 CIN III cases both HPV DNA and Pap smear were positive. In the Pap smear examination of 615 patients, cytology revealed 35 ASCUS (5.6% 4 AGUS (0.6%, 2 CIN I (0.3% results who were negative for HPV DNA. These patients with abnormal cytology (n=41 underwent colposcopy directed biopsy, there were 3 CIN I and 1 CIN III and all the other cervical biopsy results of these patients were benign (inflammation, chronic cervicitis. Conclusion: HPV positivity in our hospital setting is low which is compatible with other studies in Turkey. In positive HPV cases there is a good correlation between HPV type and positive cervical biopsy results.

Sabit Sinan Özalp

2012-03-01

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The frequency of having pap-smear tests among women between 15-64 years old and the evaluation of the level of their knowledge  

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Objective: To determine the frequency of Pap smear testing among women and to evaluate their level of knowledge about the test and other relevant factors. Methods: The study comprised women who presented to the Gynaecology and Obstetrics Polyclinic of Sakarya Training and Research Hospital, Turkey, between April 1 and 30, 2012. The questionnaire was developed in line with the objectives of the study. They were filled by the participants who were supervised during the process. Women who had had at least one Pap smear test in life were considered to have taken a Pap smear test, and those who had heard of the test were accepted as women who knew of the Pap smear test. Data was analysed using SPSS 15.0. Chi-square test was used for analyses, and statistical significance was set at p<0.05. Results: The age of 601 subjects ranged between 15 and 64 years, with a mean of 31.09+-10.49 years. Of the total, 115 (19.1%) had taken a Pap smear test before and 293 (48.8%) knew of the test. The proportion of the women who had had a Pap smear test was higher among those who were over 30 years of age (n=73; 63.47%), had post-high school educational degrees (n=68; 59.13%), had moderate familial income status (n=74; 64.34%), were married (n=109; 94.78%), had first sexual experience after 25 years of age(n=42; 36.52%), and were not using a contraceptive method (n=97; 84.34%) (p<0.05 for each). Besides, more women with previous knowledge of the test had takith previous knowledge of the test had taken the test (p<0.05). Conclusion: The subjects did not have sufficient information on Pap smear and the frequency of having a test was low. Raising awareness would prove beneficial. (author)

 
 
 
 
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Papanicolaou Test in the Detection of High-Grade Cervical Lesions: A Re-evaluation Based on Cytohistologic Non-correlation Rates in 356 Concurrently Obtained Samples  

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Studies evaluating the routine Papanicolaou (Pap) test have traditionally used as the reference gold standard, the diagnoses on the follow-up histologic samples. Since the latter are typically obtained days to weeks after the Pap test, the accuracy of the resultant comparison may be affected by interim factors, such as regression of human papillomavirus, new lesion acquisitions or colposcopy-associated variability. A subset of our clinicians have routinely obtained cervical cytology samples i...

Carns, Bhavini; Fadare, Oluwole

2008-01-01

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Tecnologia e campos disciplinares: os citotécnicos e a implementação do teste de Papanicolaou no Brasil / Technology and disciplinary fields: cytotechnicians and implementation of the Pap test in Brazil  

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Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A apropriação e utilização do teste de Papanicolaou como tecnologia fundamental para o controle do câncer de colo do útero no Brasil foi fruto de escolhas, acordos e embates entre determinados grupos profissionais (médicos de diferentes especialidades, farmacêuticos, biólogos, biomédicos e citotécni [...] cos). Na primeira parte do trabalho apresentamos o processo de formulação das primeiras campanhas de rastreamento populacional com uso do teste Papanicolaou no país e, consequentemente, o surgimento da profissão de citotécnicos (profissionais dedicados a leitura das lâminas de Papanicolaou). Num segundo momento, partimos de algumas questões levantadas pela historiografia internacional no campo da história das ciências e das técnicas para discutimos as peculiaridades do processo de apropriação do teste Papanicolaou no contexto brasileiro. Priorizamos as questões relativas aos debates entre diferentes grupos profissionais envolvidos com a lógica desse exame e às relações entre os setores públicos e privados de saúde. Demonstramos que as visões distintas sobre essa tecnologia no campo de diferentes disciplinas e a relação destas com a dinâmica do mercado de trabalho moldam a trajetória da profissão de citotécnico e a forma como o teste de Papanicolaou foi (e está sendo) apropriado como tecnologia central para o rastreio do câncer de colo do útero no Brasil. Abstract in english The implementation of the Pap test as a primary technology in the control of cervical cancer in Brazil was the result of choices, agreements and disputes among certain professional groups, including physicians from various specialisations, pharmacists, biologists, biomedical scientists and cytotechn [...] ologists. The first part of the paper describes the process of formulating Brazil’s first screening campaigns using the Pap smear, and the subsequent emergence of the profession of cytotechnology, whose practitioners interpret this test. Second, based on questions raised by international historiography in the field of science and technology, we explore in detail how the adoption of the Pap smear transpired within the Brazilian context, focussing on the debates among the various professional groups with an interest in the suitability of the test and on the relationships between the public and private healthcare sectors. We show that the professional career of cytotechnologists and the way in which the Pap smear has been implemented as a central technology for cervical cancer screening in Brazil have been shaped by the conflicting views of this technology held by different disciplines as well as by the relationship between these disciplines and labour market dynamics.

Luiz Antonio, Teixeira; Leticia, Pumar.

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Factors Associated with Pap Smear Screening Test among Women Aged 15-49 based on Protection Motivation Theory  

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  Background & Aim: Cervical cancer is the fourth common cancer worldwide. Pap smear is a usual t est to screen cervical cancer. The aim of the present study was to determine factors associated with Pap smear screening among married women aged 15-49 years in Lamerd health centers based on the Protection Motivation Theory .   Methods & Materials: In this cross-sectional study, 220 married women aged 15-49 years were selected. Data were gathered using a questionnaire designed based on the Pro...

Fatemeh Jowzi; Tahereh Hashemifard; Mohammadali Morowatisharifabad; Zeinab Bashir

2013-01-01

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Congress: 50 years of the Papanicolaou test. Istituto Superiore di Sanita`. Rome, March 30, 1995; Convegno: 50 anni di Pap test. Istituto Superiore di Sanita`. Roma, 30 marzo 1995  

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The Conference was organized to celebrate the 50th anniversary of the cervical smear test, commonly referred to as the `Pap test` after its creator, George Nicholas Papanicolaou. The reports present the development of the test, its worldwide application, and its performance as the screening test for the detection of cervical cancer. Pap smear screening for precursors of carcinoma of the cervix has led to dramatic decrease in the incidence and deaths from this cancer. The test represents one of the greatest achievements in preventive medicine.

Branca, Margherita; Cedri, Sabina; Migliore, Giovanna [Istituto Superiore di Sanita`, Rome (Italy). Lab. di Epidemiologia e Biostatistica

1997-12-01

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ASC-H in Pap test- definitive categorization of cytomorphological spectrum  

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Full Text Available Abstract Objective The American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology (ASCCP guidelines for management of ASC-H is colposcopic examination followed by biopsy. HPV testing (HPVT is recommended after a negative biopsy result. More definitive interpretation of ASC-H could prevent discomfort and minimize the cost. The purpose of this study was to evaluate association of various cytomorphological patterns of ASC-H with various clinical scenarios. Methods We reviewed SurePath™ (TriPath Imaging, Inc. Burlington, NC, USA cervical smears interpreted as ASC-H in 161 women (mean age, 37 {15 to 78} years, over 24 months (2002 to 2003. HPVT (Digene, Hybrid Capture® II HPV test, Digene Corporation, Gaithersburg, MD, USA was performed in 20% of cases (33/161 and biopsy results were available in 54 cases (19 with and 35 without HPVT. Results HPVT was positive in 64% (21/33 cases, and negative in 36% (12/33 cases. In the follow-up biopsies of 71% (15/21 of cases with positive HPVT, 27% showed HPV changes or CIN1, 27% showed CIN2-3, and 46% were negative for epithelial abnormality. Follow-up biopsies from cases with negative HPVT (33%, 4/12 cases, 8% showed CIN1 and 25% were negative for any epithelial abnormality. Six cytomorphological patterns of ASC-H correlated with different clinical categories in relation to HPVT and biopsy results. 35% (19 out of 54 ASC-H cases in which biopsy results were available could be interpreted definitively as HSIL by cytopathology, 11% (6/54 cases as LSIL with cyanophilic atypical parakeratotic pattern, and 31% (17/54 cases as reactive, with HPV status. The interpretation had to be continued as ASC-H in 22% (12/54 cases. Conclusion ASC-H demonstrated a spectrum of cytomorphological patterns. Some of these patterns in liquid-based cervical smears may be more specifically interpreted as LSIL, HSIL, or benign if HPV status is known.

Shidham Vinod

2006-01-01

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Obtaining reliable quality data from fragility tests  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The parameters discussed in this paper are the same as those present in normal seismic qualification testing. These parameters behave differently in high level acceleration tests and their contribution in providing unreliable data is of major concern since there is a significant difference. These parameters need to be considered in developing methodology guidelines for future fragility standards. In seismic qualification testing, a predefined series of tests are performed and measured against a set of acceptance criteria. The response spectra generally has a peak acceleration of between 3-10 g's at a 2% damping value for the Design Basis Event (Safe Shutdown Earthquake). Fragility level testing has minimum starting point of 10 g's at 2% damping and is generally 20 g's at 2% damping. The dynamic characteristics of the simulated earthquake and the corresponding simulator hardware interfaces are the parameters discussed. There are two major parameter contributions in obtaining unreliable data. The first parameter is test specimen system hardware nonlinearities. The second major variable is electronic signal saturations

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Cobertura do exame citopatológico na cidade de Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil Pap test coverage in the city of Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil  

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Full Text Available No Brasil, a avaliação da efetividade de programas de prevenção e ações de saúde pública ainda são incipientes. Dessa forma, realizou-se um estudo transversal de base populacional envolvendo a saúde da população adulta residente na zona urbana da cidade de Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil, com o objetivo de verificar a evolução nos níveis de cobertura do exame citopatológico. Investigaram-se fatores associados com a não realização do procedimento. Considerou-se exame citopatológico atualizado aquele realizado nos últimos três anos. A amostra foi constituída por 1.122 mulheres entre 20 e 69 anos, sendo que 72,2% apresentavam exame citopatológico atualizado, 16,6% atrasado e 11,2% nunca o haviam realizado. A não realização do procedimento esteve associada com baixa inserção social e idade avançada. A regressão logística destacou o efeito independente de classe social, baixa renda familiar, idade, cor da pele, estado civil e ausência de consultas médicas no último ano. Contudo, desapareceu o efeito detectado em mulheres com doenças crônicas. Comparando-se os resultados do estudo realizado em 1992 com o atual, observa-se que a cobertura do exame aumentou de 65,0% para 72,2% (1992 para 1999/2000, entretanto, não atingiu os níveis efetivos para evitar câncer de colo uterino.In Brazil, the effectiveness of preventive public heath programs and actions is rarely evaluated. A cross-sectional study was thus performed in a population-based sample focused on several health characteristics of adults living in Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The study aimed to measure temporal trends in coverage of Pap smear testing in the city. The authors studied the factors associated with failure of women to submit to a Pap smear. An updated Pap smear was defined as one performed in the previous 3 years. The sample consisted of 1,122 women ages 20 to 69 years, 72.2% of whom had an updated Pap smear, 16.6% of whom were behind schedule for testing, and 11.2% of whom had never had a Pap smear. Risk factors for never having a test were low socioeconomic status and old age. Logistic regression showed an independent effect of social class, low family income, age, skin color, marital status, and no medical appointment in the previous year. However, the effect of chronic diseases disappeared in logistic regression. The authors compare the results of the study conducted in 1992 with the present. Pap smear coverage increased from 65.0% to 72.2% (1992 to 1999/2000 in the city, yet such figures had still not ensured the effectiveness of the program for uterine cervical cancer prevention.

Juvenal Soares Dias-da-Costa

2003-02-01

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Comparison of test results obtained with two neuropsychological test batteries.  

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Compared test results of two neuropsychological test batteries, the Halstead-Reitan Neuropsychological Test Battery (HRNTB) and Luria's Neuropsychological Investigation (LNI), to investigate the possibility of coming to the same conclusions concerning the brain-behavior relationships with the help of neuropsychological methods based on controversial theoretical assumptions. Test data were obtained from a sample of 31 inpatients of a psychiatric hospital. The concordance concerning the presence of brain dysfunction, its lateralization, and main localization was evaluated. A high degree of agreement was found supporting the construct validity of the rests for neuropsychological assessment of psychiatric patients. PMID:7229071

Diamant, J J; Hijmen, R

1981-04-01

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Diagnostic sensitivity for invasive cervical carcinoma of high risk HPV tests performed on SurePath™ liquid-based pap specimens  

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Full Text Available Keith V NanceDepartment of Cytology, Rex Hospital, Raleigh, and Department of Pathology, The University of North Carolina School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, NC, USARecently I communicated with the Editor regarding Drs Naryshkin and Austins’ article entitled "Limitations of widely used high-risk human papillomavirus laboratory-developed testing in cervical carcinoma screening."1,2 As noted previously, this article is based on a single case report of squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix diagnosed in a patient who had abnormal Pap results but had negative Hybrid Capture 2 (HC2(Qiagen NV, Hilden, Germany high risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV testing from SurePath™ (Becton-Dickinson, Franklin Lakes, NJ, USA samples. The authors concluded that such testing should not be done using this collection medium. Interestingly, they also mentioned a 10% false negative rate for similar testing performed on FDA-approved Preservcyt® media on three of 31 invasive cervical carcinoma patients at Dr Austin’s own laboratory.View original paper by Naryshkin and Austin

Nance KV

2013-03-01

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Factores asociados a las Alteraciones del test de Papanicolaou Costa Rica, 2009 / Factors associated with changes in PAP Smears in a health center Costa Rica, 2009  

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Full Text Available SciELO Costa Rica | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El cáncer cervicouterino es en el mundo y en Costa Rica una de las 3 primeras causas de cáncer en las mujeres. La detección temprana de lesiones premalignas o malignas mejora el pronóstico de las usuarias. Objetivo: Encontrar si hay factores asociados a las alteraciones de la citología vaginal en un [...] área de salud urbana de Costa Rica durante 2009. Metodología: Estudio de casos y controles en usuarias de una área de salud urbana de Costa Rica durante 2009. Se definió caso como toda mujer residente de esa área que presentara una citología vaginal alterada, displasia leve, moderada, severa o carcinoma durante 2009. Los controles se seleccionaron de forma aleatoria simple, tomando como marco muestral el registro de mujeres que se habían realizado citologías vaginales durante el 2009 en esa área. La recolección de la información se hizo a través de un cuestionario. Se calcularon medidas de frecuencia, de tendencia central y dispersión, OR, IC 95 %. Resultados: Se incluyeron 62 casos y 137 controles. La edad promedio de los casos fue 43 años (DE±17). El ASCUS fue la lesión más frecuente 39 % (IC 95 %=22,43-51,93). Los factores asociados a la aparición de lesiones fueron tabaco (OR=2.35; IC 95 %=1,26-4,31), inicio de actividad sexual antes de 18 años (OR=2;I C 95 %=1,06-3,64) y haber tenido 3 o más compañeros sexuales (OR=2, 10;IC 95 % 1,11-3,97). Discusión: Se encontró similitud entre lo descrito en la literatura y lo hallado en este estudio. Se recomendó dar a conocer este estudio a las mujeres de esa área de salud, ya que los factores encontrados son modificables y además se planteó a la dirección del área realizar campañas de promoción y prevención que fomenten conductas sexuales sanas. Abstract in english Cervical cancer is among the leading causes of cancer in women globally; in Costa Rica it is among the top three causes. Although the PAP smears is part of the guidelines of care for women, the coverage in some areas of health is low. Objective: Identify demographic and clinical factors associated w [...] ith abnormal Pap test results Methods: We conducted a health center-based case-control study. A case was defined as any woman seeking care in a health center during 2009, having a Pap test positive for either cells of undetermined significance (Atypical Squamous Cells of Undetermined Significance) mild, moderate or severe dysplasia. Controls were selected by simple random sampling using records of women seen at the same health centers in 2009 and having normal PAP smears. Odds ratios and 95 % confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated for associations between potential risk factors and abnormal PAP smears. Results: We identified 62 cases and 137 controls. The average age of cases was 43 was not significantly different from that of controls (Student t p = 0,90). ASCUS was the most frequent cause of abnormal cytology (39 %). Factors found to be significantly associated with abnormal cytology were: tobacco use (OR=2,35; 95 % CI=1,26-4,31), onset of sexual activity before age 18 (OR=2,0; 95 % CI=1,06-3,64) and having a history of > 3 sexual partners (OR=2,0; 95 % CI=1,11-3,97). Conclusions: There was similarity between risk factors we identified as described in the literature, like onset of sexual activity before age 18 and have history of 3 or more sexual parthers. These are common risk factors associated with HPV infection. Our study was limited by the failure to follow-up colposcopy results for definitive diagnoses and no HPV test. Considering these risk factors represent modifiable health behaviors, we recommended dissemination of our findings to local health authorities in order to generate intervention strategies to promote responsible, healthy sexual behaviors as how to reduce tobacco consumption and develop healthy sexual habits.

Leandra, Abarca Gómez; Maricela, Salas Estrada; Deyanira, Calvo León; Julia, Freer Vargas; Paula, Cordero.

2014-06-01

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Diagnostic value of the combination of TruScreen and Pap smear in screening cervical epithelial lesions: Does it add advantages over the Pap smear alone?  

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Introduction: Pap smear is a well known test in screening of epithelial cell abnormalities of the cervix. However, adding other screening methods to this test may increase the sensitivity and specificity of case finding. Current study has been designed to assess the sensitivity and specificity of the combination of Tru-Screen and Pap tests in comparison to Pap smear alone in women referred for annual screening. Methods: This case-control study was conducted...

Elaheh Refaei; Somayeh Khanjani; Fereshteh Mohammadizadeh; Tajossadat Allameh

2013-01-01

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TEST TASK ANALYSIS METHOD ON BASIS OF OBTAINED TESTING RESULTS ???????? ??????? ???????? ??????? ?? ?????? ????????? ??????????? ??????????  

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The new test task analysis method for the purpose of their improvement is proposed. Computer testing system based on this method is considered.????????????? ???? ???????? ??????? ???????? ??????? ? ????? ?? ?????????????. ?????????? ????'?????? ??????? ??????????, ? ???? ???????????????? ?? ????????

??????????, ?. ?.; ????????, ?. ?.

2010-01-01

53

Value stream mapping of the Pap test processing procedure: a lean approach to improve quality and efficiency.  

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We developed a value stream map (VSM) of the Papanicolaou test procedure to identify opportunities to reduce waste and errors, created a new VSM, and implemented a new process emphasizing Lean tools. Preimplementation data revealed the following: (1) processing time (PT) for 1,140 samples averaged 54 hours; (2) 27 accessioning errors were detected on review of 357 random requisitions (7.6%); (3) 5 of the 20,060 tests had labeling errors that had gone undetected in the processing stage. Four were detected later during specimen processing but 1 reached the reporting stage. Postimplementation data were as follows: (1) PT for 1,355 samples averaged 31 hours; (2) 17 accessioning errors were detected on review of 385 random requisitions (4.4%); and (3) no labeling errors were undetected. Our results demonstrate that implementation of Lean methods, such as first-in first-out processes and minimizing batch size by staff actively participating in the improvement process, allows for higher quality, greater patient safety, and improved efficiency. PMID:23596108

Michael, Claire W; Naik, Kalyani; McVicker, Michael

2013-05-01

54

The probability for a Pap test to be abnormal is directly proportional to HPV viral load: results from a Swiss study comparing HPV testing and liquid-based cytology to detect cervical cancer precursors in 13,842 women.  

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In a study involving 13,842 women and 113 gynaecologists, liquid-based cytology and HPV testing for detecting cervical cancer were compared. A total of 1334 women were found to be positive for one or both tests and were invited for colposcopy with biopsy. A total of 1031 satisfactory biopsies on 1031 women were thereafter collected using a systematic biopsy protocol, which was random in the colposcopically normal-appearing cervix or directed in the abnormal one. In all, 502 women with negative tests were also biopsied. A total of 82 histologic high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) were reported in biopsies, all from the group with one or both tests positive. Sensitivity and specificity to detect histologic HSIL were 59 and 97% for cytology, and 97 and 92% for HPV. In total, 14% of reviewed negative cytological preparations associated with histologic HSIL contained no morphologically abnormal cells despite a positive HPV test. This suggested a theoretical limit for cytology sensitivity. HPV viral load analysis of the 1143 HPV-positive samples showed a direct relationship between abnormal Pap test frequency and HPV viral load. Thus, not only does the HPV testing have a greater sensitivity than cytology but the probability of the latter being positive can also be defined as a function of the associated HPV viral load. PMID:16136031

Bigras, G; de Marval, F

2005-09-01

55

The probability for a Pap test to be abnormal is directly proportional to HPV viral load: results from a Swiss study comparing HPV testing and liquid-based cytology to detect cervical cancer precursors in 13?842 women  

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In a study involving 13?842 women and 113 gynaecologists, liquid-based cytology and HPV testing for detecting cervical cancer were compared. A total of 1334 women were found to be positive for one or both tests and were invited for colposcopy with biopsy. A total of 1031 satisfactory biopsies on 1031 women were thereafter collected using a systematic biopsy protocol, which was random in the colposcopically normal-appearing cervix or directed in the abnormal one. In all, 502 women with negative tests were also biopsied. A total of 82 histologic high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) were reported in biopsies, all from the group with one or both tests positive. Sensitivity and specificity to detect histologic HSIL were 59 and 97% for cytology, and 97 and 92% for HPV. In total, 14% of reviewed negative cytological preparations associated with histologic HSIL contained no morphologically abnormal cells despite a positive HPV test. This suggested a theoretical limit for cytology sensitivity. HPV viral load analysis of the 1143 HPV-positive samples showed a direct relationship between abnormal Pap test frequency and HPV viral load. Thus, not only does the HPV testing have a greater sensitivity than cytology but the probability of the latter being positive can also be defined as a function of the associated HPV viral load. PMID:16136031

Bigras, G; de Marval, F

2005-01-01

56

HIP/PAP prevents excitotoxic neuronal death and promotes plasticity  

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Objectives Excitotoxicity plays a significant role in the pathogenesis of perinatal brain injuries. Among the consequences of excessive activation of the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA)-type glutamate are oxidative stress caused by free radical release from damaged mitochondria, neuronal death and subsequent loss of connectivity. Drugs that could protect nervous tissue and support regeneration are attractive therapeutic options. The hepatocarcinoma intestine pancreas protein/pancreatitis-associated protein I (HIP/PAP) or Reg3?, which is approved for clinical testing for the protection and regeneration of the liver, is upregulated in the central nervous system following injury or disease. Here, we examined the neuroprotective/neuroregenerative potential of HIP/PAP following excitotoxic brain injury. Methods We studied the expression of HIP/PAP and two of its putative effectors, cAMP-regulated phosphoprotein 19 (ARPP19) and growth-associated protein 43 (GAP-43), in the neonatal brain, and the protective/regenerative properties of HIP/PAP in three paradigms of perinatal excitotoxicity: intracerebral injection of the NMDA agonist ibotenate in newborn pups, a pediatric model of traumatic brain injury, and cultured primary cortical neurons. Results HIP/PAP, ARPP19, and GAP-43 were expressed in the neonatal mouse brain. HIP/PAP prevented the formation of cortical and white matter lesions and reduced neuronal death and glial activation following excitotoxic insults in vivo. In vitro, HIP/PAP promoted neuronal survival, preserved neurite complexity and fasciculation, and protected cell contents from reactive oxygen species (ROS)-induced damage. Interpretation HIP/PAP has strong neuroprotective/neuroregenerative potential following excitotoxic injury to the developing brain, and could represent an interesting therapeutic strategy in perinatal brain injury. PMID:25493266

Haldipur, Parthiv; Dupuis, Nina; Degos, Vincent; Moniaux, Nicolas; Chhor, Vibol; Rasika, Sowmyalakshmi; Schwendimann, Leslie; le Charpentier, Tifenn; Rougier, Elodie; Amouyal, Paul; Amouyal, Gilles; Dournaud, Pascal; Bréchot, Christian; El Ghouzzi, Vincent; Faivre, Jamila; Fleiss, Bobbi; Mani, Shyamala; Gressens, Pierre

2014-01-01

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Test beam results obtained with the Q4 prototype  

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A prototype of the CMS Barrel Muon Detector incorporating all the features of the final chambers was built at CIEMAT using the mass production assembly procedures and tools. The performance of this prototype was studied in a muon test beam at CERN and the results obtained are presented here. (Author)

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Significance of a diagnosis of microorganisms on pap smear.  

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The Pap smear has been in use for more than half a century as the primary screening test for preinvasive and invasive lesions of the uterine cervix. Although not the primary use and an imperfect test, it can be extremely useful in the diagnosis of some microorganisms. This review focuses on the use of the Pap smear in the diagnosis of several microorganisms including Actinomyces, Chlamydia trachomatis, Candida, Trichomonas vaginalis, Leptothrix vaginalis, Herpes Simplex Virus, the causative agents of bacterial vaginosis, and other rarer organisms. The accuracy of diagnosis using the smear varies among the different organisms in question. PMID:18162813

Fitzhugh, Valerie A; Heller, Debra S

2008-01-01

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Immunocytochemical analysis of the cervical Pap smear.  

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Although immunostained cervical Pap smears are not yet FDA approved for clinical use, it is very likely that they will become widely employed in the near future to identify neoplastic squamous and iendocervical glandular cells when screening liquid-based cytological preparations (i.e., SurePath™ or ThinPrep™). The current problem with cytology complemented by high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) testing is poor specificity. HPV testing provides superior sensitivity, but many women are infected with the virus, while very few have had persistent infections leading to carcinoma. Pathologists routinely use antibodies directed against the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p16 (p16(INK4a)) or a combination of antibodies directed against topoisomerase-2-alpha and minichromosome maintenance protein-2 (as in ProEx™ C) to improve diagnostic precision and accuracy in cervical tissue biopsies. This chapter will describe the immunocytochemical methods used by our group to immunostain cervical Pap smears and provide significantly improved positive predictive value when screening for cervical cancer. PMID:25348308

Morgan, Terry K; Berlin, Michelle

2015-01-01

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Study of Pap smear and other feasible tests among self reported symptomatic married women in reproductive age group (15-49 yrs regarding reproductive tract infections in a rural community of Maharashtra  

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Full Text Available Background: Reproductive tract infections (RTIs represent a major public health problem in developing countries. Integrating RTIs/STIs management and early detection of cervical dysplasia in broader reproductive health services can improve women?s health. The objectives of the study were 1. To study the association of socio-demographic & reproductive factors among self-reported symptomatic women for reproductive tract infections. 2. To carry out clinical examination & feasible tests like PH, gram staining, VDRL for reproductive tract infections. 3. To study Pap smear among study subjects. Methods: A cross sectional study community based study was carried out in villages under ?Parol? Primary Health Centre of Thane district, Maharashtra, India. A total of 415 married women in reproductive age group were interviewed and examined. Pre-structured, pre-designed questionnaire was used. Clinical examination & feasible laboratory tests were done. Results were analyzed with the help of Microsoft Excel & SPSS 15. Results: A total of 415 women were interviewed, of them 263(63.4% had one or more symptoms of reproductive tract infections. On examination, 69(35% had cervicitis and 30(15.2% pelvic inflammatory disease, 39(19.8% bacterial vaginosis and candidiasis in 61(31%. Cervical erosion was present in 147(74.6% women. On Pap smear, 20(10.2% women had ASCUS (Atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance. Only 2(1% women found HIV positive. No woman was found VDRL reactive. Conclusion: Routine RTI/STI screening and periodic surveys to detect the infection patterns which will helps to control HIV infections in the community is needed in the remote tribal area as the current study shows high prevalence of reproductive tract infection. [Int J Res Med Sci 2013; 1(4.000: 545-551

Smita S. Chavan

2013-08-01

 
 
 
 
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Association of Pap Smear Abnormalities with Autoimmune Disorders  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Recently, it is hypothesized that there might be an association between immunological disorders and cervical premalignant and malignant abnormalities. Related studies have been generally focused on some particular autoimmune disease, specially the Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE. This study aimed at comparing the rate of Pap smear abnormalities in female patients with autoimmune diseases and normal counterparts. In a case-control setting, 118 female patients with various autoimmune diseases (the case group and 118 healthy female counterparts (the control group were recruited in Tabriz Imam Reza Teaching Centre in a 24 months period of time. The two groups were matched for demographics and known risk factors of cervical malignancy. Frequencies of abnormal Pap smear testing were compared between the two groups. The autoimmune disorders were SLE (74 patients, rheumatoid arthritis or RA (32 patients, systemic sclerosis or SS (7 patients and ankylosing spondylitis or AS (5 patients in the case group. Frequency of abnormal Pap smear testing was significantly higher in the case group comparing with that in the controls (7.6% vs. 1.7%; p = 0.03. Frequency of abnormal Pap smear testing was higher in the patients with SLE (8.1% and RA (9.3% comparing with that in the controls; However, these differences were marginally nonsignificant (p = 0.06 and p = 0.07, respectively. Frequency of cases with abnormal Pap smear testing was not statistically different between the autoimmune disorders (p = 0.99. Based on these findings and in conclusion, there might be an association between the autoimmune disorders and occurrence of premalignant or malignant lesions in cervix. Further studies with larger samples sizes are recommended.

Kazem Ghahremanzadeh

2011-01-01

62

Factors related to failure to attend the consultation to receive the results of the Pap smear test / Fatores relacionados ao não comparecimento à consulta para receber o resultado do exame colpocitológico  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: identificar os fatores relacionados ao não comparecimento das mulheres à consulta de retorno para receber o resultado do exame colpocitológico. MÉTODO: estudo transversal, realizado com 775 pacientes que se submeteram ao exame colpocitológico no Centro de Saúde da Família de Fortalez [...] a, Ceará, entre setembro de 2010 e fevereiro de 2011. RESULTADOS: a maioria das pesquisadas era jovem (?35 anos), de baixa escolaridade (?7 anos de estudo), com início da vida sexual precoce (?20 anos) e 17,0% delas não retornaram para receber o resultado do exame. Resultados estatisticamente significantes para o não comparecimento ao retorno estiveram relacionados a: mulheres jovens (p=0,001), início precoce da atividade sexual (p=0,047) e conhecimento inadequado sobre o exame colpocitológico (p=0,029). CONCLUSÃO: o fato de a mulher não retornar para receber o resultado é um problema para o controle do câncer cervicouterino e deve ser combatido por meio de estratégias educativas que reforcem a importância do retorno para a detecção precoce desse câncer. Abstract in spanish OBJETIVO: identificar los factores relacionados a la no asistencia de las mujeres a la consulta de retorno para recibir el resultado de la prueba de Papanicolaou. MÉTODO: se trata de un estudio transversal, realizado con 775 pacientes que se sometieron a la prueba de Papanicolaou en el Centro [...] de Salud de la Familia de Fortaleza-CE, entre septiembre de 2010 y febrero de 2011. RESULTADOS: la mayoría de las encuestadas eran jóvenes (?35 años), de baja escolaridad (?7 años de estudio), iniciaron la vida sexual muy temprano (?20 años) y 17,0% de ellas no retornaron para recibir el resultado del examen. Los resultados estadísticamente significativos por no retornar estuvieron relacionados a: mujeres jóvenes (p=0,001); inicio precoz de la actividad sexual (p=0,047); y conocimiento inadecuado sobre la prueba de Papanicolaou (p=0,029). CONCLUSIÓN: el hecho de la mujer no retornar para recibir el resultado es un problema para el control del cáncer de cuello uterino y debe ser combatido por medio de estrategias educativas que refuercen la importancia del retorno para la detección precoz de ese cáncer. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: to identify the factors related to the failure of women to attend the follow-up consultation to receive the results of the Pap smear test. METHOD: a cross-sectional study, carried out with 775 patients who underwent the Pap smear test in the Centro de Saúde da Família of Fortaleza, [...] between September 2010 and February 2011. RESULTS: the majority of the women studied were young (?35 years), had low levels of education (?7 years of study), and commenced sexual activity early (?20 years), with 17.0% of them failing to return to receive the test results. Statistically significant results for the failure to return were related to: young women (p=0.001); early onset of sexual activity (p=0.047); and inadequate knowledge about the Pap smear test (p=0.029). Conclusion the fact that the women failed to return for the result is a problem for the control of cervical cancer and must be addressed through educational strategies that reinforce the importance of the return for the early detection of this cancer.

Camila Teixeira Moreira, Vasconcelos; Denise de Fátima Fernandes, Cunha; Cássia Fernandes, Coelho; Ana Karina Bezerra, Pinheiro; Namie Okino, Sawada.

2014-06-01

63

A Comparison of Three Pap Smear Collection Methods  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background and Aim: Pap smear test is considered the best screening method for cervical disease, especially for malignant lesions. The crucial factor here is obtaining high-quality samples, as poorly-prepared ones cause a great deal of confusion for patients and physicians alike. Attempts to define an ideal sampling technique have been going on for many years, and in this study we compare three different sampling methods to determine which one provides the best quality. Materials and Methods: This interventional study was performed in a private obstetrics-gynecology clinic and involved 600 women who met the criteria for cervical screening. The Pap test was done by three different methods: "Swab spatula", "Cytobrush – spatula" and "Spatula only". Results: Each method was performed on 200 randomly-selected patients. Cytopathologic examination was done by a single pathologist and in a blind fashion. For each specimen, a quality rating was reported as "satisfactory" or "unsatisfactory". Among the 200 samples obtained by the "Swabspatula” method, 150 (75% were of satisfactory quality and the remaining 50 cases (25% were rated as unsatisfactory. As for the cytobrush–spatula group, 88 samples (94% were satisfactory and 12 (6% were unsatisfactory. Finally, 179 samples (88% in “Spatula-only” group were satisfactory and 24 (12% were unsatisfactory. The difference in the proportion of good-quality samples was significant in pairwise comparisons between the three methods: swab-spatula versus spatula-only (P = 0.0013, swab-spatula versus cytobrush-spatula (P = 0.0001 and cytobrush-spatula versus spatula-only (P = 0.036. Conclusion: The study revealed that the cytobrush-spatula sampling method yielded the highest proportion of high-quality samples. Hence, it would be desirable to familiarize physicians, midwives and other health care workers in this country with the technique of cytobrush cervical sampling and its potential advantages. However, financial and cultural aspects must be taken into account before adopting the procedure for routine cervical screening in Iran.

A Mesdaghinia

2006-07-01

64

Pattern of epithelial cell abnormality in Pap smear: A clinicopathological and demographic correlation  

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Full Text Available Background: In the low resource settings of a developing country, a conventional Papanicolaou (Pap test is the mainstay screening system for cervical cancer. In order to counsel women and to organize a public health system for cervical cancer screening by Pap smear examination, it is imperative to know the pattern of premalignant and malignant lesions. This study was undertaken to find out the prevalence of an abnormal Pap smear, in a tertiary hospital of a developing country, and to carry out a clinicopathological and demographical analysis for establishing the pattern of epithelial cell abnormality in a Pap smear. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out in a total of 1699 patients who underwent Pap smear examination. The prevalence of epithelial cell abnormality in the Pap smear was calculated in proportions / percentages. Specimen adequacy and reporting was assessed according to the revised Bethesda system. Results: Among the total of 1699 patients who had their Pap smear done, 139 (8.18% revealed epithelial cell abnormality. Altogether 26 smears revealed high-grade lesions and malignancy, most of which were found to be in women belonging to the 30 - 39 and ? 45 age group. A total of 75 (53.96% women were in the 20 - 44 age group and 64 (46.04% were in the ? 45 age group. A bimodal age distribution was detected in the epithelial cell abnormality, with the bulk being diagnosed in patients aged 45 or above. Overall one-third of the patients with an abnormal Pap smear result showed healthy cervix in per vaginal examination. Conclusions: A raised prevalence of epithelial cell abnormality reflects the lack of awareness about cervical cancer screening. Women aged 45 or above harbor the bulk of premalignant and malignant lesions in the Pap smear, signifying that these women are among the under users of cytological screening.

Banik Urmila

2011-01-01

65

Obtaining reliable Likelihood Ratio tests from simulated likelihood functions  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

It is standard practice by researchers and the default option in many statistical programs to base test statistics for mixed models on simulations using asymmetric draws (e.g. Halton draws). This paper shows that when the estimated likelihood functions depend on standard deviations of mixed parameters this practice is very likely to cause misleading test results for the number of draws usually used today. The paper shows that increasing the number of draws is a very inefficient solution strategy requiring very large numbers of draws to ensure against misleading test statistics. The paper shows that using one dimensionally antithetic draws does not solve the problem but that the problem can be solved completely by using fully antithetic draws. The paper also shows that even when fully antithetic draws are used, models testing away mixing dimensions must replicate the relevant dimensions of the quasirandom draws in the simulation of the restricted likelihood. Again this is not standard in research or statistical programs. The paper therefore recommends using fully antithetic draws replicating the relevant dimensions of the quasi-random draws in the simulation of the restricted likelihood and that this should become the default option in statistical programs.

Andersen, Laura MØrch

2013-01-01

66

Fractal analysis of weld defect patterns obtained by radiographic tests  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper presents a fractal analysis of radiographic patterns obtained from specimens with three types of inserted welding defects: lack of fusion, lack of penetration, and porosity. The study focused on patterns of carbon steel beads from radiographs of the International Institute of Welding (IIW). The radiographs were scanned using a greyscale with 256 levels, and the fractal features of the surfaces constructed from the radiographic images were characterized by means of...

Tesser, J. A.; Lopes, R. T.; Vieira, A. P.; Goncalves, L. L.; Rebello, J. M. A.

2006-01-01

67

Obtaining reliable likelihood ratio tests from simulated likelihood functions  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Mixed models: Models allowing for continuous heterogeneity by assuming that value of one or more parameters follow a specified distribution have become increasingly popular. This is known as ‘mixing’ parameters, and it is standard practice by researchers - and the default option in many statistical programs - to base test statistics for mixed models on simulations using asymmetric draws (e.g. Halton draws). Problem 1: Inconsistent LR tests due to asymmetric draws: This paper shows that when the estimated likelihood functions depend on standard deviations of mixed parameters this practice is very likely to cause misleading test results for the number of draws usually used today. The paper illustrates that increasing the number of draws is a very inefficient solution strategy requiring very large numbers of draws to ensure against misleading test statistics. The main conclusion of this paper is that the problem can be solved completely by using fully antithetic draws, and that using one dimensionally antithetic draws is not enough to solve the problem. Problem 2: Maintaining the correct dimensions when reducing the mixing distribution: A second point of the paper is that even when fully antithetic draws are used, models reducing the dimension of the mixing distribution must replicate the relevant dimensions of the quasi-random draws in the simulation of the restricted likelihood. Again this is not standard in research or statistical programs. The paper therefore recommends using fully antithetic draws replicating the relevant dimensions of the quasi-random draws in the simulation of the restricted likelihood and that this should become the default option in statistical programs.

Andersen, Laura MØrch

2014-01-01

68

Awareness and uptake of the Pap smear among market women in Lagos, Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Our study evaluates the effect of an educational programme on awareness and uptake of the cervical cancer screening test (Pap smear by women in a model market in Lagos Nigeria. This was a quasi-experimental study using a multistage sampling technique. A total of 350 women were divided into two groups. A baseline survey on awareness of the Pap test and screening practices was carried out using pre-tested, interviewer administered, structured questionnaires. Participants in the intervention group received sessions of community based health information on cervical cancer screening tests while participants in the control group received health information on hypertension. Subsequently, participants in both groups were reassessed to evaluate the effect of the educational programme on the Pap test and cervical screening uptake. Data were analysed with the Epi-info version 6.04. Awareness about the Pap test was low at baseline; only 6.9% and 12.0% of participants in the intervention and control groups, respectively, had heard of Pap smears. Furthermore, less than 10% had correct information on the use of the Pap test. Post-intervention, there was a significant and proportional increase in the knowledge of the Pap test in the intervention group (p<0.05. However, uptake of the test was quite low in the intervention and control groups both pre- and post-intervention and there was no significant change in uptake. We concluded that essential schemes are required to enhance access to screening, as knowledge alone is insufficient to promote acceptance and use of cervical cytological screening tests.

Francis A. Faduyile

2011-03-01

69

Vulnerability Analysis of PAP for RFID Tags  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this paper, we analyze the security of an RFID authentication protocol proposed by Liu and Bailey [1], called Privacy and Authentication Protocol (PAP), and show its vulnerabilities and faulty assumptions. PAP is a privacy and authentication protocol designed for passive tags. The authors claim that the protocol, being resistant to commonly assumed attacks, requires little computation and provides privacy protection and authentication. Nevertheless, we propose two traceab...

Naser, Mu Awya; Peris-lopez, Pedro; Rafie, Mohammd; Lubbe, Jan

2010-01-01

70

Annual colposcopies and pap smears recommended for women with HIV.  

Science.gov (United States)

A new study presented by Annekathryn Goodman of Massachusetts General Hospital indicates that HIV positive women should receive annual colposcopies, along with Pap smears, to detect abnormal cell growth early. The recommendation is due to the fact that HIV positive women are more likely to have false-negative Pap smears than HIV negative women. In a related development, the FDA approved a new DNA-based blood test to detect human papillomavirus, which is associated with cervical and anal cancer. In addition, the National Cancer Institute (NCI) notified physicians that it has changed its recommendation for cervical cancer treatment. NCI now recommends both chemotherapy and radiation therapy for women with metastasized cervical cancer. PMID:11366700

Highleyman, L

1999-04-01

71

XMLComparison of Molecular (PCR and Pap Smear Methods in Diagnosis of Human Papiloma Virus (HPV in Women with Genital Warts  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background and Objective: Much research has shown that Human Papiloma Virus (HPV plays an important role in cervix cancer and it is the cause of 99% of cervix cancer worldwide. Lots of research has been done to find a proper method for HPV diagnosis and screening in patients with genital warts. This study aimed at comparing PCR method with Pap smear test in HPV screening. Material and Methods: Considering the presence of DNA of HPV, 45 vaginal and cervix swap samples of women with genital warts were tested by means of specific PCR and Pap smear from September 2010 to April 2011. Results: Out of 45 vaginal and cervix swap samples of women suffering genital warts, 37 samples (82.2% are positive. Of 45 Pap smear samples, 13 (29% are neoplasia and 32 (71% normal. Conclusion: The difference between the results of PCR and Pap smear is due to low specification and sensitivity of Pap smear. Thus it is recommended using diagnostic PCR method in addition to Pap smear in order to promote the quality of screening in individuals with genital warts. Keywords: Human Papiloma Virus (HPV; Genital Warts; Molecular (PCR; Pap Smear

Bashi zadeh Fakhar, H. (MSc

2013-01-01

72

Associations of demographic variables and the Health Belief Model constructs with Pap smear screening among urban women in Botswana  

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Full Text Available Ditsapelo M McFarland College of Nursing and Public Health, Adelphi University, Garden City, NY, USA Purpose: Papanicolaou (Pap smear services are available in most urban areas in Botswana. Yet most women in such areas do not screen regularly for cancer of the cervix. The purpose of this article is to present findings on the associations of demographic variables and Health Belief Model constructs with Pap smear screening among urban women in Botswana. Sample and methods: The study included a convenience sample of 353 asymptomatic women aged 30 years and older who were living in Gaborone, Botswana. Data were collected using a demographic questionnaire and items of the Health Belief Model. Data analysis included descriptive statistics for demographic variables and bivariate and ordinal (logit regression to determine the associations of demographic variables. Results: Having health insurance and having a regular health care provider were significant predictors of whether or not women had a Pap smear. Women with health insurance were more likely to have had a Pap smear test than women without health insurance (91% vs 36%. Similarly, women who had a regular health care provider were more likely to have had a Pap smear test than women without a regular health care provider (94% vs 42%. Major barriers to screening included what was described as "laziness" for women who had ever had a Pap smear (57% and limited information about Pap smear screening for women who had never had a Pap smear (44%. Conclusion: There is a need for more information about the importance of the Pap smear test and for increased access to screening services in Botswana. Keywords: cervical, screening, barriers, access, beliefs

McFarl

2013-10-01

73

Van Mother-Child Health and Family Planning Center Pap Smear Clinics of Information, Evaluation of Applicants  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective: In this study of women admitted to our center with information on pap smear test, to evaluate the attitudes and behavior. Materials and Methods: This descriptive study of Van Mother-Child Health and Family Planning Center on a voluntary basis, women aged 15-49 were admitted to the control. The education level of participants, age at first marriage, before the presence of vaginal infection, the story, and motivations pap smear level of information availability, and a family history of cancer, administered a questionnaire asking the state to have a regular income. Results: The study included 362 women with age and hear the pap smear test was significantly increased (p = 0.01. Working women and pap smear level of knowledge (p = 0.04 and pap smears than women not working for International rates significantly higher (p = 0.02. Treatment of vaginal infection at least once before to get there was a significant relationship between the pap smear motivations (p>0.05. Family history of gynecologic cancer or non-gynecologic cancer smears have significantly increased the level of motivations (p = 0.0001. Pap smear information, regular the economic income of those levels, significantly higher than those without regular income (p = 0.0001. Conclusion: We serve the region, with low socio-economic characteristics that are considered, gynecological examination by health workers or women from the home visits, pap smear test for what purpose and how often you get the work done and the importance of explaining and giving more space to this issue suggest that the written and visual media. Keywords: Pap smears, health care, education [TAF Prev Med Bull 2011; 10(5.000: 527-532

Sebahat Gucuk

2011-10-01

74

Pengaruh Media Sosialisasi Terhadap Pengetahuan dan Sikap Mahasiswi Tentang Pentingnya Pap Smear di Fakultas Kesehatan Masyarakat USU Tahun 2011  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Cervical cancer is still threatening all women across the world particularly in developing countries. In Indonesia, nowadays cervical cancer is the second most common cancer that affects women after breast cancer. This cancer is a potential killer, since there is no appearance of physical symptom at early stage. One of the efforts for diminishing the mortality caused by this disease is screening. The most suggested screening method for cervical cancer is Pap Smear Test. Pap smear test has ...

Pakpahan, Peranika R.

2012-01-01

75

Discrimination of different processed animal proteins (PAPs) by FT-IR spectroscopy based on their fat characteristics  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study was undertaken to explore the potential of FT-IR technique for discriminating different species of processed animal proteins (PAPs) based on their fat characteristics. A total of 47 source-reliable PAPs samples containing fish meal, porcine, bovine, ovine and poultry meat and bone meal (MBM) were involved in the present study. The results obtained showed that the FT-IR differentiated quite well between the fat derived from different species of PAPs, especially at the bands of 3,006...

Pu, Q.; Han, L.; Liu, X.

2014-01-01

76

Virulence genes and P fimbriae PapA subunit diversity in canine and feline uropathogenic Escherichia coli.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study, a total of 118 Escherichia coli strains isolated from dogs (93) and cats (25) with urinary tract infection (UTI) were tested in a multiplex polymerase chain reaction for the presence of adhesin-encoding genes (pap, sfa, and afa), hemolysin encoding genes (hly), cytotoxic necrotizing factor 1 (cnf1) and aerobactin (aer) genes. Virulence gene frequencies detected in those isolates which had been randomly collected (68 canine strains) were: 43% pap, 57% sfa, 1% afa, 44% hly, 41% cnf1 and 34% aer. These frequencies were much higher in the remaining 50 hemolytic strains of either cat or dog origin. Virulence factor associations in the 80 hemolytic strains studied revealed that 50/80 simultaneously had two adhesin genes (pap and sfa) and two cytotoxin genes (hly and cnf1), and 15/80 in addition had the aer gene. The major structural subunit and antigenic determinant of P fimbriae of uropathogenic E. coli is PapA. Polymorphism in this subunit was studied by an F antigen-specific papA allele polymerase chain reaction in 51 canine and 22 feline pap positive E. coli strains. The most prevalent canine papA alleles were F10 (39%), F15 (37%) and F12 (35%). In feline strains F15 (50%) was more frequent, other allele frequencies were F12 (45%), F14 and F10 (27%) and F16 (23%). Only nine canine and two feline strains were negative for one of the 11 serologically defined F types of P fimbriae. Three copies of the pap operon were found in 16/51 canine and 9/22 feline UTI E. coli pap positive strains. In this study, we show that a particular combination of virulence genes appears with high frequency in dog and cat urinary tract E. coli strains (pap, sfa, hly, and cnf1). In spite of the more frequent presence of F10, F12 and F15 papA alleles in this virulence gene combination, the occurrence of different papA alleles in strains where up to three copies of the pap operon are present accounts for the observed P fimbriae diversity. PMID:11423198

Féria, C; Machado, J; Correia, J D; Gonçalves, J; Gaastra, W

2001-09-01

77

Pap-smear Benchmark Data For Pattern Classification  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This case study provides data and a baseline for comparing classification methods. The data consists of 917 images of Pap-smear cells, classified carefully by cyto-technicians and doctors. Each cell is described by 20 numerical features, and the cells fall into 7 classes. A basic data analysis includes scatter plots and linear classification results, in order to provide domain knowledge and lower bounds on the acceptable performance of future classifiers. Students and researchers can access the database on the Internet, and use it to test and compare their own classification methods.

Jantzen, Jan; Norup, Jonas

2005-01-01

78

A comparison of estimated achivement scores obtained from student achievement assessment test utilizing classical test theory, unidimensional and multidimensional IRT  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The focus of this research is to test the estimation of achievement measurements in the test battery and to empirically compare the results after applying classical test theory, unidimensional and multidimensional item response theory models to Student Achievement Assessment Test (ÖBBS-2008 subtests of Turkish and Mathematics. It also tries to put forward the best model that estimates students’ achievement with less error as the comparison is being made. From the analysis of Turkish test's data results, it is identified that the ability parameters estimated obtained from the whole test under multidimensional IRT, have partially less error scores and reached more precise measurement than ability parameters estimated obtained from unidimensional IRT on the basis of sub dimensions and test scores obtained from CTT. Similar results were obtained in mathematics test results. Finally, it is found that parameters, obtained within the scope of multidimensional IRT, have partially less error scores.

Ye?im Özer Özkan

2014-01-01

79

Improving follow-up after an abnormal Pap smear: a randomized controlled trial.  

Science.gov (United States)

Less than 60% of women diagnosed with cervical abnormalities on Pap smears return for proper surveillance and timely treatment. Previous tactics used to motivate these women to return have mainly relied on costly intensive recall efforts. Using a framework based on psychological value expectancy theory, a pamphlet was designed to motivate women with abnormal Pap smears to return for a repeat Pap smear. The effect of this pamphlet was tested in a randomized controlled trial. A total of 161 women with abnormal Pap smears were randomized and received either the pamphlet plus a notification letter or the letter only. The compliance rate was 64.2% in the intervention group and 51.3% in the comparison group (P = 0.10; two-tailed). In addition, subgroups of women who do not practice health-related behaviors were identified as groups where more intensive interventions may be needed. These results have implications for future strategies used to recall women with abnormal Pap smears. PMID:2263574

Paskett, E D; White, E; Carter, W B; Chu, J

1990-11-01

80

Van Mother-Child Health and Family Planning Center Pap Smear Clinics of Information, Evaluation of Applicants  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Objective: In this study of women admitted to our center with information on pap smear test, to evaluate the attitudes and behavior. Materials and Methods: This descriptive study of Van Mother-Child Health and Family Planning Center on a voluntary basis, women aged 15-49 were admitted to the control. The education level of participants, age at first marriage, before the presence of vaginal infection, the story, and motivations pap smear level of information availability, and a family history ...

Sebahat Gucuk; Servet Alkan; Secil Arica; Aysegul Ates

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
81

Isolation and cloning of the Phytolacca americana anti-viral protein PAP-I gene  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: English Abstract in spanish La proteína antiviral del ginseng (PAP), aislada de plantas de Phytolacca americana y Phytolacca acinosa, inhibe la traducción proteica mediante la remoción catalítica de un residuo de adenina específico, en la cadena mayor de la subunidad 60S del ARN ribosomal eucariótico. En este estudio se aisló [...] y secuenció el gen PAP-I de P. americana, y posteriormente se comparó con los genes de otras proteínas inactivadoras de ribosomas (RIP), reportadas en GenBank(r). Se extrajo el ADN total de las hojas tardías del verano de las plantas de P. americana y el fragmento de 868 pb correspondiente al ADN del gen se amplificó con el uso de cebadores específicos, mediante reacción en cadena de la polimerasa (PCR). El producto de la PCR eluido se purificó, se clonó en el vector pTZ57R/T, y se movilizó en células de Escherichia coli cepa DH5a. Tras la secuenciación del producto de la PCR del gen PAP-I, la secuencia mostró una homología nucleotídica de 98 a 82 % y aminoacídica de 94 a 26 %, con las RIP reportadas. El análisis filogenético confirmó que el gen amplificado corresponde a la RIP tipo I de simple cadena (PAP-I). Abstract in english The pokeweed antiviral protein (PAP) isolated from Phytolacca americana and Phytolacca acinosa plants, inhibits protein translation by catalytically removing a specific adenine residue from the large rRNA of the 60S subunit of eukaryotic ribosomes. In this study, the P. americana PAP-I gene was isol [...] ated and sequenced, and further compared to other ribosome-inactivating proteins (RIPs) genes previously reported in GenBank(r). Total DNA was extracted from the late summer leaves of P. americana. A polymerase chain reaction (PCR) 868 bp-long DNA product was obtained, using gene specific primers, based on the expected gene size. The eluted product was purified and cloned into the pTZ57R/T vector, and mobilized into the Escherichia coli strain DH5a. After sequencing, the analysis of the PAP-I PCR product showed 98 to 82 % nucleotide and amino acid 94 to 26 % homologies, respectively, compared to previously reported RIPs. A phylogenetic analysis confirmed that the amplified PAP-I gene corresponds to the single chain Type-I RIP (PAP-I).

Heba A, Mahfouze; Khalid A, El-Dougdoug; Badawi A, Othman; Mostafa A, Gomaa.

2014-03-01

82

Vulnerability Analysis of PAP for RFID Tags  

CERN Document Server

In this paper, we analyze the security of an RFID authentication protocol proposed by Liu and Bailey [1], called Privacy and Authentication Protocol (PAP), and show its vulnerabilities and faulty assumptions. PAP is a privacy and authentication protocol designed for passive tags. The authors claim that the protocol, being resistant to commonly assumed attacks, requires little computation and provides privacy protection and authentication. Nevertheless, we propose two traceability attacks and an impersonation attack, in which the revealing of secret information (i.e., secret key and static identifier) shared between the tag and the reader is unnecessary. Moreover, we review all basic assumptions on which the design of the protocol resides, and show how many of them are incorrect and are contrary to the common assumptions in RFID systems.

Naser, Mu'awya; Rafie, Mohammd; van der Lubbe, Jan

2010-01-01

83

CIEMAT interlaboratories comparison of the results obtained in the proficiency test run by IAEA  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report contains the results obtained by two different laboratories from CIEMAT after participating in the Proficiency Test organised by IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency) in 1999. This test involves the analysis of fly ashes containing natural radionuclides and different amounts of added transuranics. The extraction techniques, counting methods and results obtained are detailed. This type of test are used for the labs to achieve their accreditation and check the reliability of the procedures routinely employed. (Author) 4 refs

84

Fracture parameters obtained from pre-cracked Charpy tests: state-of-the-art and beyond  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A pre-cracked Charpy specimen may be considered as just another fracture toughness specimen. In this context then both equivalent energy lower bound and J-integral techniques may be applied in testing specimens and interpreting data. It ids shown that lower bound estimates may be successfully obtained from pre-cracked Charpy specimens for static, dynamic and crack arrest toughnesses. Tearing and stability parameters may also be obtained. By judicious testing procedures several fracture toughness parameters may be obtained during a single test

85

Endometrial cells and the AutoPap System for primary screening of cervicovaginal Pap smears.  

Science.gov (United States)

In 1998, the AutoPap 300 received FDA approval for primary screening of conventional cervical smears. As approved, smears categorized as "no further review" and comprising up to 25% of the smears screened by the AutoPap 300 can be reported as negative for malignant and dysplastic cells without screening by a cytotechnologist. We studied 106 conventional cervical smears in which glandular endometrial cells had been identified by manual screening to assess the ability of the AutoPap System (TriPath Imaging, Inc., Burlington, NC) to (1) designate conventional Papanicolaou smears that contain endometrial cells for "review," and (2) stratify smears that contain endometrial cells as more or less likely to be abnormal. Although the number of cases in our study was small, our findings indicate that (1) the AutoPap System is slightly less sensitive than manual screening by experienced cytotechnologists for the detection of endometrial cells in conventional smears, as the System designated for "review" 94.3% of all smears containing endometrial cells, 92.9% of smears reported as atypical glandular cells of undetermined significance (AGUS) or endometrial adenocarcinoma, and 100% of the four smears with subsequently confirmed endometrial adenocarcinomas, (2) ranking of smears into quintiles by the AutoPap System did not provide additional diagnostically useful information with respect to endometrial pathology, (3) the number of endometrial cells in the smears did not correlate with quintile assignment, and (4) for most patients, routine use of the AutoPap System for primary screening of conventional cervical smears is unlikely to contribute to delay in the diagnosis of clinically significant endometrial lesions. PMID:12357502

Walts, Ann E; Thomas, Premi

2002-10-01

86

Significant pathologic findings in 41 Atypical Glandular Cell pap smears  

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Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between atypical glandular cell (AGC) on Pap smear and significant pathologic finding to tailor management protocols. Methods: Between 2002 and 2005, Among 26893 Pap smears 122 women with AGC Pap smears (prevalence=0.45%) were referred to our colposcopy clinic. Forty one women underwent colposcopy directed biopsy, endocervical curettage, endometrial sampling and cervical conization to determine the cytologic and histologic corr...

Behtash N "; Fakhrejahani F; Khafaf A; Ghayouri Azar E

2007-01-01

87

Motivos que levam mulheres a não retornarem para receber o resultado de exame Papanicolau / Motives which lead women not to return to receive the results of their pap smear test / Motivos que llevan a las mujeres a no regresar para recibir el resultado del examen de Papanicolau  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O papanicolau é um eficiente método de prevenção do câncer de colo uterino. Para a efetividade desta prevenção, é imprescindível que a mulher receba o resultado do exame e conclua o tratamento. O presente estudo tem o objetivo de identificar motivos que levam mulheres a não retornarem para o recebim [...] ento do resultado do papanicolau. Trata-se de uma pesquisa descritiva, com abordagem qualitativa, realizada em uma unidade de saúde em Fortaleza. Os sujeitos do estudo foram 21 mulheres que colheram seus exames de papanicolau e não retornaram para buscar o resultado. O instrumento de coleta de dados foi constituído por entrevista semi-estruturada, realizada por telefone, nos meses de setembro a novembro de 2004. Os resultados evidenciaram motivos relacionados à mulher, ao profissional que realiza o atendimento e ao serviço. Abstract in spanish El Papanicolau es un eficiente método de prevención de cáncer cervical, bastante utilizado por las mujeres. Para la efectividad de esta prevención, es imprescindible que la paciente reciba el resultado del examen y concluya el tratamiento. El presente estudio tiene como objetivo identificar los moti [...] vos que llevan a las mujeres a no volver para recibir el resultado del Papanicolau. Se trata de una investigación descriptiva con aproximación cualitativa, realizada en una unidad de Salud Pública en Fortaleza. Los sujetos de estudio fueron 21 mujeres, cujas muestras fueron colectadas para Papanicolau y que no retornaron para buscar el resultado. El instrumento de recopilación de datos fue una entrevista semi-estructurada, realizada por teléfono entre los meses de septiembre y noviembre del 2004. Los resultados evidenciaron motivos relacionados a la paciente, al profesional que realiza la atención y al servicio. Abstract in english The Pap smear test is an efficient method of uterine cervical cancer prevention. For this prevention method to be effective, it is essential that the patient receives her results and satisfactorily concludes the treatment. This study aims to identify the motives which lead women not to return to rec [...] eive the results of their Pap smear test. This is a descriptive research with a qualitative approach, carried out at a health centre in the city of Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil. The study subjects are 21 women who underwent the Pap smear test and did not return to collect their results. The tool for data collection was a semi-structured telephone interview, held between September and November 2004. The results pointed to motives related to the patient, to the health professional delivering care and to the service offered.

Suzana de Azevedo, Greenwood; Maria de Fátima Antero Sousa, Machado; Neide Maria Vieira, Sampaio.

2006-08-01

88

A STUDY ON CERVICAL PAP SMEAR EXAMINATION IN PATIENT LIVING WITH HIV  

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Full Text Available Background: Decline in morbidity & mortality due to cervical cancer in developed countries can be mainly attributed to early detection of precancerous & cancerous lesions due to extensive screening programmeof cervical Pap smear examination. HPV infection is a known etiological agent for cervical cancer. HIV infected women are at higher risk of contracting HPV infection due to immune compromised status. Objective: Present study has been undertaken mainly to detect precancerous & cancerous lesions as well as inflammatory lesions in female patients living with HIV & to emphasize the fact that Pap smear examination should be established as a part of routine protocol for examination in these women. Methods: The study was carried out on 407 HIV infected females attending Integrated Counseling &Testing Centre of government institute. As controls, 200 females (not falling under high risk category, attending the Obstetrics& Gynecology OPD with various gynecological complaints were taken & results were compared. Results: Squamous cell abnormalities were found about four times high as compared to control group(Pvalue <0.05. High incidences of squamous cell abnormalities were noted in patients with high parity (parity three or more. Conlcusion: Regular gynecological examination including Pap smear examinations is highly recommended for HIV infected females.Pap smear examination is a simple, cheap, safe & practical diagnostic tool for early detection of cervical cancer in high risk population. [National J of Med Res 2012; 2(1.000: 81-84

B M Jha

2012-02-01

89

Who is getting Pap smears in urban Peru?  

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Background Cervical cancer, although usually preventable by Pap smear screening, remains the leading cause of cancer-related deaths among women in Peru. The percentages and characteristics of women in Peru who have or have not had a Pap smear have not been defined.

Paz Soldan, Valerie A.; Lee, Frank H.; Carcamo, Cesar; Holmes, King K.; Garnett, Geoff P.; Garcia, Patricia

2008-01-01

90

Comparing the results of Pap smear and Direct Visual Inspection (DVI) with 5% acetic acid in cervical cancer screening  

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Background: Cervical cancer is the most second common cancer among Iranian women. This study was carried out to compare the results of Pap smear method and Direct Visual Inspection (DVI) with 5% acetic acid in cervical cancer screening in Tabriz, Iran. Material and Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out in Alzahra Therapeutic-Educational Centre, Tabriz, Iran in 2013 on 1000 women. First, Pap smear was done for all women, and then the cervix exposed with 5% acetic acid by cotton swab for 30 seconds and observed under adequate light. At the end, women with abnormal results in Pap smear or DVI method were referred to colposcopy and biopsy. Test's sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV), LR+, LR- and confidence interval (CI) were determined (P test. Twelve women had abnormal Pap smear (nine women with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance, ASCUS, three women with dysplasia, atypical endocervical, and low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion, LSIL results) and 14 women had positive DVI (four women with human papillomavirus, HPV or koilocyte,) and one women with abnormality in both method had carcinoma in biopsy that referred to oncologist. In this study the sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV for DVI were 71.4%, 50%, 35.7%, and 81.8% respectively in comparison with 14.3%, 50%, 10%, and 60% for Pap smear. Conclusion: As the DVI method has higher sensitivity and positive predictive value than Pap smear, it could be used as a useful method beside the Pap smear.

Pourasad-Shahrak, Shakiba; Salehi-Pourmehr, Hanieh; Mostafa-Garebaghi, Parvin; Asghari-Jafarabadi, Mohammad; Malakouti, Jamileh; Haghsay, Monireh

2015-01-01

91

Comparison of Molecular (PCR and Pap Smear Methods in Diagnosis of Human Papiloma Virus (HPV in Women with Genit al Warts  

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Full Text Available Background and Objective: Much research has shown that Human Papiloma Virus (HPV plays an important role in cervix cancer and it is the cause of 99% of cervix cancer worldwide. Lots of research has been done to find a proper method for HPV diagnosis and screening in patients with genital warts. This study aimed at comparing PCR method with Pap smear test in HPV screening. Material and Methods: Considering the presence of DNA of HPV, 45 vaginal and cervix swap samples of women with genital warts were tested by means of specific PCR and Pap smear from September 2010 to April 2011. Results: Out of 45 vaginal and cervix swap samples of women suffering genital warts, 37 samples (82.2% are positive. Of 45 Pap smear samples, 13 (29% are neoplasia and 32 (71% normal. Conclusion: The difference between the results of PCR and Pap smear is due to low specification and sensitivity of Pap smear. Thus it is recommended using diagnostic PCR method in addition to Pap smear in order to promote the quality of screening in individuals with genital warts. Keywords: Human Papiloma Virus (HPV; Genital Warts; Molecular (PCR; Pap Smear

Bashi zadeh Fakhar, H . (M S c

2013-09-01

92

The probability for a Pap test to be abnormal is directly proportional to HPV viral load: results from a Swiss study comparing HPV testing and liquid-based cytology to detect cervical cancer precursors in 13?842 women  

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In a study involving 13?842 women and 113 gynaecologists, liquid-based cytology and HPV testing for detecting cervical cancer were compared. A total of 1334 women were found to be positive for one or both tests and were invited for colposcopy with biopsy. A total of 1031 satisfactory biopsies on 1031 women were thereafter collected using a systematic biopsy protocol, which was random in the colposcopically normal-appearing cervix or directed in the abnormal one. In all, 502 women with negat...

Bigras, G.; Marval, F.

2005-01-01

93

Transcriptional activation of a pap pilus virulence operon from uropathogenic Escherichia coli.  

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A gene cluster mediating production of pili in uropathogenic Escherichia coli was analysed with respect to regulation of pili synthesis. Two cistrons, papB and papI, were localized upstream of the major pilus subunit gene, papA. The papI-papB-papA region was characterized by nucleotide sequencing and by transcriptional analysis. The papA gene was primarily represented by an 800 nucleotide long transcript but was also co-transcribed with papB as a less abundant 1300 nucleotide long mRNA. Both ...

Ba?ga, M.; Go?ransson, M.; Normark, S.; Uhlin, B. E.

1985-01-01

94

Effect of test procedure on shear strength obtained using the Newcastle dilatometer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A new dilatometer for in-situ soil testing has been developed which uses a rigid piston to load the soil. The new dilatometer 'called the Newcastle Dilatometer (NDMT)' uses a Hall effect transducer and a magnet system to measure the penetration of the piston during loading of the soil. The pressure required to penetrate the piston is recorded using a pressure transducer. The two transducers together can produce applied pressure-displacement curves for obtaining soil parameters which can be more reliable than those obtained based on just one or two contact pressures values as in the Marchetti dilatometer. Since the NDMT allows more control during in-situ testing, the same was carried out employing two test procedures, 'the stress increment controlled' and 'the constant rate of stress' at a site consisting of firm to stiff clay. This paper presents a comparison of the data obtained from the two test procedures and the effect the test procedure has on the various soil properties, in general and the shear strength, in particular. (author)

95

Engineering of Papaya Mosaic Virus (PapMV) Nanoparticles through Fusion of the HA11 Peptide to Several Putative Surface-Exposed Sites  

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Papaya mosaic virus has been shown to be an efficient adjuvant and vaccine platform in the design and improvement of innovative flu vaccines. So far, all fusions based on the PapMV platform have been located at the C-terminus of the PapMV coat protein. Considering that some epitopes might interfere with the self-assembly of PapMV CP when fused at the C-terminus, we evaluated other possible sites of fusion using the influenza HA11 peptide antigen. Two out of the six new fusion sites tested led...

Rioux, Gervais; Babin, Cindy; Majeau, Nathalie; Leclerc, Denis

2012-01-01

96

Comparison of Visual Inspection with acetic acid and Pap smear in cervical cancer screening at a tertiary care hospital  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: To determine the accuracy of visual inspection with acetic acid in comparison with Pap smear against colposcopic directed biopsy, for detection of pre-cancerous lesion. Methods: The comparative cross-sectional study was conducted at the Maternal and Child Health Centre (MCHC), Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences (PIMS), Islamabad, from January to December 2010. Every married women with age range 19 to 51 years underwent conventional cytology and visual inspection with 5% acetic acid. Distinct acetowhite areas were taken as positive, while cervical intra-epithelial neoplasia on cytology was labelled as Pap smear positive. Colposcopic directed biopsy was taken as the gold standard. SPSS 13 was used for statistical analysis. Results: Of 519 subjects, 70(13.4%) were screened positive and 29(5.6%) were biopsy positive for cervical intra-epithelial neoplasia. Of these, 26(37.1 %) were positive on visual inspection; 14 (20 %) on cytology; and 30 (42.8%) on combined test. The sensitivity of visual inspection was 78.5% vs 61.1% for Pap smear (p<0.001). The specificity of visual inspection was 99.3% vs 99.4% for cytology (p<0.1). Significantly higher sensitivity and specificity was found for the combined test than either of the two alone; 93.1% and 99.1% respectively (p<0.001). The positive predictive value of visual inspection vs pap was 84.6% vs 78.5% (p<0.001) and negative predictive value was 98.6% vs 96.5% (p<0.1). Both values of combined test were significanth values of combined test were significantly higher than either of the two tests alone (p<0.01). Conclusion: Visual inspection with acetic acid has significantly higher sensitivity than Pap smear and may replace pap smear as a primary screening tool for universal screening. Combined test with higher predictive accuracy may be used for opportunistic screening. (author)

97

Testing for HPV  

Science.gov (United States)

... HPV test, what does it mean? Testing for HPV What’s the difference between a Pap test and an HPV test? A Pap test is used to find ... HPV is found. Should I be tested for HPV? If you are a woman under age 30 ...

98

Effect of conditions in obtaining blood samples for ECP testing in children.  

Science.gov (United States)

Eosinophil Cationic Protein (ECP) is a basic protein found in eosinophil granules. This cell and its mediators are currently considered to be potential indicators of the severity of inflammation in the organism. ECP concentration can be reliably tested using several RIA or ELISA methods. It is well known that the conditions of sample obtention can affect the ECP values in blood. The aim of this study is to establish which parameters affect ECP testing during regular blood sample collection and how they affect it. Blood samples taken for the routine study of five children attended in our department were analysed: four were asthmatic and one child had atopic dermatitis. In the results we observed that ECP was not detected in the blood samples taken with EDTA tripotassium. In both the plasma samples taken with heparin as well as with serum, more ECP was released at a higher temperature. In the release of ECP obtained by coagulation, samples at 37 degrees showed values of between 4 and 20 higher than those obtained for an hour at 0 degrees. There is a considerable variability in the testing of ECP depending on the blood test extraction conditions, the range is bigger in the samples with eosinophils. These results imply the need to define a stricter protocol for obtaining samples than that suggested at present. PMID:8703307

Pena, J M; Rubira, N; Botey, J; Rodrigo, M J; Alonso, R; Eseverri, J L; Marín, A; Ras, R M

1996-02-01

99

Results obtained from the inspection of test plates 1 and 2 of the defects detection trials  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The first phase of the UKAEA defect detection trials (DDT) (described previously) was aimed at determining the ability of selected non-destructive testing (NDT) techniques to detect and correctly classify defects throughout the thickness of an RPV circumferential weld. The techniques were tested on two specially prepared test plates. Each was 1500 x 1500 x 250 mm and contained a central butt weld. These have been designated plates 1 and 2. On completion of the inspections the plates were sectioned at Ispra and in this report the results obtained by the various inspectors are compared with the results of the destructive examination. The plates were scanned ultrasonically from both the clad and the unclad face. The results from the clad face were analysed first. The times required for the initial search and the subsequent analyses were noted, although in this context it is accepted that compared with an RPV inspection the defect population in these test plates is unrealistically high. (author)

100

Test of irradiation of tellurium oxide for obtaining iodine-131 by dry distillation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

With the purpose of optimizing to the maximum independently the work of the reactor of those mathematical calculations of irradiation that are already optimized, now it corresponds to carry out irradiation tests in the different positions with their respective neutron fluxes that it counts the reactor for samples irradiation. Then, it is necessary to carry out the irradiation of the tellurium dioxide through cycles, with the purpose of observing the activity that it goes accumulating in each cycle and this way to obtain an activity of the Iodine-131 obtained when finishing the last cycle. (Author)

 
 
 
 
101

Potential application of electronic nose in processed animal proteins (PAP) detection in feedstuffs  

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Electronic nose and olfactometry techniques represent a modern analytical approach in food industry since they could potentially improve quality and safety of food processing. The aim of this study was to evaluate possible application of electronic nose in PA P detection and recognition in feed. For this purpose 6 reference feedstuffs (CRA-W / UE STRAT F E E D Project) were used. The basis of the test samples was a compound feed for bovine fortified with processed animal proteins ( PAP) consi...

Dell'Orto V.; Baldi A.; Cheli F.; Tognon G.; Pinotti L.; Campagnoli A.

2004-01-01

102

Report of test and research results on atomic energy obtained in national institutes in fiscal 1981  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Since the budget was appropriated in 1954 fiscal year for the first time, many valuable results of research have been obtained regarding the peaceful use of atomic energy, and these have played important role for the promotion of the peaceful use of atomic energy in Japan. In this report, the outline of the test and research results on the peaceful use of atomic energy obtained in national institutes in fiscal 1981 is summarized. The first volume of this report was published in 1961, and this report is Volume 22. With this report, it is hoped to advance the understanding more about the recent trend and the accomplishment of the test and research on atomic energy utilization. 7 reports on nuclear fusion, 11 reports on technological safety, 6 reports on environmental radioactivity safety, 5 reports on food irradiation, 4 reports on the countermeasures against cancer, 31 reports on agriculture, forestry and fishery, 36 reports on medicine, 6 reports on mining and industry, 5 reports on power utilization, 1 report on construction engineering, 3 reports on radioactivation analysis and 1 report on injury prevention by about 60 national institutes are collected. Also the subjects of the test and research carried out in four other institutes are shown. (Kako, I.)

103

Improved quality-control detection of false-negative Pap smears using the Autopap 300 QC system.  

Science.gov (United States)

Federally-mandated quality control (QC) in Papanicolaou (Pap) smear testing requires rescreening of 10% of negative smears, to include cases selected randomly as well as smears from patients that may have a higher risk for developing cervical cancer based on clinical information. FDA approval of NeoPath's AutoPap 300 QC system (NeoPath, Inc., Redmond, WA) allows practical QC rescreening of all negatives. We tested the ability of AutoPap to help increase identification of detection errors compared to random 10%/high-risk selection. From March 1-August 30, 1997, we utilized AutoPap/high-risk status to select cases for manual rescreen, and compared the rate of identification of primary screening errors to that for the preceding year using 10% random selection/high-risk status. Of 35,027 smears accessioned, 31,240 (89.1%) were screened as negative and 7,965 were selected for manual rescreen. Of these, 353 were determined to be abnormal. Most abnormals identified by this protocol were classified as atypical squamous or glandular cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS or AGUS). However, 59 low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL) and 13 high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL), many with few abnormal cells, were also identified. These results represented an increase in pickup rate of false negative due to detection errors of 2.3-, 2.8- and 5.6-fold for atypical squamous or glandular cells of undetermined significance, LSIL, and HSIL, respectively, when accounting for the volume differences over the time period measured. Our findings strongly support the conclusions drawn from clinical trials of the AutoPap that false negatives due to detection error can be significantly reduced when using AutoPap as part of a routine quality control program. PMID:10086244

Marshall, C J; Rowe, L; Bentz, J S

1999-03-01

104

Pneumocephalus with BiPAP use after transsphenoidal surgery?,??,?  

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While the benefits of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) or bilevel positive airway pressure (BiPAP) for patients with obstructive sleep apnea are well described, reports in the literature of complications from its use are rare. A patient who received postoperative BiPAP after undergoing transsphenoidal craniopharyngioma resection developed severe pneumocephalus and unplanned intensive care unit admission. Although the pneumocephalus resolved with conservative management over two week...

Kopelovich, Jonathan C.; La Garza, Gabriel O.; Greenlee, Jeremy D. W.; Graham, Scott M.; Udeh, Chiedozie I.; O Brien, Erin K.

2012-01-01

105

Molecular testing of human papillomavirus in cervical specimens  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective was to improve the diagnosis of cervical neoplasia by early detection of human papillomavirus (HPV) in uterine cervix, by adding molecular testing of HPV using hybrid capture 2 (HC2) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) tests to Papanicoalou (Pap) test. One hundred women were enrolled in this study. The mean age (mean+-SD) was 41.97+- 8.76 years and range was 27-65 years. All women had undergone cervical cytological screening with cervical cytology, HPV DNA testing by HC2 and PCR, during the period from January to December 2006, at King Abdul-Aziz University Hospital (KAAUH) and King Fahd research Center, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. The results were obtained by HC2 for detection of HPV were 5(5%) high-risk HPV, one low-risk HPV (1%) and 94(94%) negative cases. The PCR detected only 4(4%) cases. Using the HC2 test as a reference, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive, negative predictive values and accuracy of base line Pap were 50, 85, 17.7, 96.4 and 83%; of final Pap smear were 100, 96.8, 66.7, 100, and 97% and for PCR were 66.7, 100, 100, 97.9 and 98%. The Pap test was repeated within a year for patients with abnormal Pap test with positive HPV DNA. Combined screening by cytology and HPV testing using both HC2 and PCR sensitively detects women with existing disease. The absence of HPV DNA provides reassurance that patients are unlikely to develop cancer for several years. We suggest using Pap with HC2 and PCR in screening programs to ensure that women witcreening programs to ensure that women with the double negative result at baseline might safely be screened at longer intervals. (author)

106

Designing for dissemination: lessons in message design from "1-2-3 pap".  

Science.gov (United States)

Despite a large number of evidence-based health communication interventions tested in private, public, and community health settings, there is a dearth of research on successful secondary dissemination of these interventions to other audiences. This article presents the case study of "1-2-3 Pap," a health communication intervention to improve human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination uptake and Pap testing outcomes in Eastern Kentucky, and explores strategies used to disseminate this intervention to other populations in Kentucky, North Carolina, and West Virginia. Through this dissemination project, we identified several health communication intervention design considerations that facilitated our successful dissemination to these other audiences; these intervention design considerations include (a) developing strategies for reaching other potential audiences, (b) identifying intervention message adaptations that might be needed, and (c) determining the most appropriate means or channels by which to reach these potential future audiences. Using "1-2-3 Pap" as an illustrative case study, we describe how careful planning and partnership development early in the intervention development process can improve the potential success of enhancing the reach and effectiveness of an intervention to other audiences beyond the audience for whom the intervention messages were originally designed. PMID:25470444

Cohen, Elisia L; Head, Katharine J; McGladrey, Margaret J; Hoover, Anna G; Vanderpool, Robin C; Bridger, Colleen; Carman, Angela; Crosby, Richard A; Darling, Elaine; Tucker-McLaughlin, Mary; Winterbauer, Nancy

2015-01-01

107

Clinical value of serum PAP determination in detection and follow-up of pronostic carcinoma: PAP-RIA VS. PAP-EA  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The clinical usefulness of the RIA for prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP) in comparison to the PAP-enzyme assay (EA) in detection and follow-up of prostatic carcinoma (PC) was evaluated. Groups of patients were formed according to the stage, therapeutic regimen of PC and to the effect of therapy. Serum PAP concentration was determined by commercial RIA and EA kit. In detection of PC RIA and EA demonstrated an equally low diagnostic sensitivity in tumor stages O, A, B and C with a tendency of the RIA to a slightly higher sentitivity in stage C. In stage D, but only if no contrasexual therapy was used, the RIA revealed with 54% pathological findings significantly higher, yet still moderate sensitivity in comparison to 33% by EA. This finding could also be observed in patients with scintigraphically proven stage D2 (osseous metastases) without contrasexual therapy. The whole group of patients on no contrasexual therapy including all stages of PC demonstrated with 29% of pathological findings a slight advantage of the RIA over the EA with 20%. In follow-up of PC the RIA showed a significantly higher sensitivity in evaluation of the effect of therapy. Thus, scintigraphically proven progression of formation of metastases of less than 3 months revealed pathological PAP concentrations by RIA in 56% and PAP activities by EA in 15% of the involved sera. In progression of more than 3 months there were 76% pathological values by RIA vs. 53% by EA. It can be concluded thaRIA vs. 53% by EA. It can be concluded that both the PAP RIA and EA possess low to moderate diagnostic sensitivity in detection of PC the RIA demonstrating a significantly higher sentivity compared to the EA if no contrasexual therapy is used. In follow-up of PC the RIA was more sensitive than the EA in detecting progression of formation of metastases

108

Tests with Inconel 600 to obtain quantitative stress-corrosion cracking data for evaluating service performance  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Inconel 600 tubes in pressurized water reactor (PWR) steam generators form a pressure boundary between radioactive primary water and secondary water which is converted to steam and used for generating electricity. Under operating conditions the performance of alloy 600 has been good, but with some occasional small leaks resulting from stress corrosion cracking (SCC), related to the presence of unusually high residual or operating stresses. The suspected high stresses can result from either the deformation of tubes during manufacture, or distortion during abnormal conditions such as denting. The present experimental program addresses two specific conditions, i.e., (1) where deformation occurs but is no longer active, such as when denting is stopped and (2) where plastic deformation of the metal continues, as would occur during denting. Laboratory media consist of pure water as well as solutions to simulate environments that would apply in service; tubing from actual production is used in carrying out these tests. The environments include both normal and off chemistries for primary and secondary water. The results reported here were obtained in several different tests. The main ones are (1) split tube reverse U-bends, (2) constant extension rate tests (CERT), and (3) constant load. The temperature range covered is 290 to 3650C

109

Significant pathologic findings in 41 Atypical Glandular Cell pap smears  

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Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between atypical glandular cell (AGC on Pap smear and significant pathologic finding to tailor management protocols. Methods: Between 2002 and 2005, Among 26893 Pap smears 122 women with AGC Pap smears (prevalence=0.45% were referred to our colposcopy clinic. Forty one women underwent colposcopy directed biopsy, endocervical curettage, endometrial sampling and cervical conization to determine the cytologic and histologic correlations of AGC on pap smears. Results: A total of 122 women with AGC Pap smear were found. Only 41 women accepted to participate in the study and followed the workup procedures. The mean age of the patients was 46.92 ±11.48 years (range, 23-80 years. Of these patients 13 patients (31.7% were post menopause and 28 patients (68.2% were in reproductive age. We found 13 (31.7% significant pathologic findings including 4 (9.7% high grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HG-SIL, 3(7.3% low grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LG-SIL, 2(4.8% Endometrial hyperplasia, 1(2.4% Endometrial adenocarci-noma, 1(2.4% adenocarcinoma of cervix, 1(2.4% squamous cell carcinoma of cervix and 1(2.4% papillary serous tumor of ovary. There was not any significant difference in the prevalence of significant pathologic findings and subtype of squamous or adenomatous lesions between pre and postmenopausal group. Conclusion: AGC on Pap smear was associated with a clinically significant diagnosis in approximately one third of our cases. The women with a diagnosis of AGC on cervicovaginal smear are needed to be evaluated at least with colposcopy, endocervical and endometrial curettage. Clinicians should be careful about the significance of AGC in pap smears.

Behtash N

2007-07-01

110

The Costs of an Outreach Intervention for Low-Income Women With Abnormal Pap Smears  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available IntroductionFollow-up among women who have had an abnormal Papanicolaou (Pap smear is often poor in public hospitals that serve women at increased risk for cervical cancer. This randomized controlled trial evaluated and compared the total cost and cost per follow-up of a tailored outreach intervention plus usual care with the total cost and cost per follow-up of usual care alone.MethodsWomen with an abnormal Pap smear (n = 348 receiving care at Alameda County Medical Center (Alameda County, California were randomized to intervention or usual care. The intervention used trained community health advisors to complement the clinic’s protocol for usual care. We assessed the costs of the intervention and the cost per follow-up within 6 months of the abnormal Pap smear test result.ResultsThe intervention increased the rate of 6-month follow-up by 29 percentage points, and the incremental cost per follow-up was $959 (2005 dollars. The cost per follow-up varied by the severity of the abnormality. The cost per follow-up for the most severe abnormality (high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion was $681, while the cost per follow-up for less severe abnormalities was higher.ConclusionIn a health care system in which many women fail to get follow-up care for an abnormal Pap smear, outreach workers were more effective than usual care (mail or telephone reminders at increasing follow-up rates. The results suggest that outreach workers should manage their effort based on the degree of abnormality; most effort should be placed on women with the most severe abnormality (high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion.

Todd H. Wagner, PhD

2007-01-01

111

Cervical cancer screening in primary health care setting in Sudan : a comparative study of visual inspection with acetic acid and Pap smear  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

OBJECTIVE: To determine the feasibility of visual inspection with the use of acetic acid (VIA) as a screening method for cervical cancer, an alternative to the Pap smear used in primary health care setting in Sudan, and to compare sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, and histological diagnosis of positive cases of both tests. METHODS: A cross-sectional study of 934 asymptomatic women living in Khartoum, Sudan, was conducted during 2009-2010. A semi-structured questionnaire containing socio-economic and reproductive variables was used to collect data from each participant. Methods of screening used were VIA and conventional Pap smear, followed by colposcopy and biopsy for confirmation of the positive results of both screening tests. RESULTS: The tests identified altogether 119 (12.7%) positive women. VIA detected significantly more positive women than Pap smear (7.6% versus 5.1%; P = 0.004), with an overlap between the two screening tests in 19% of positive results. There was nosignificant difference between VIA and Pap smear findings and sociodemographic and reproductive factors among screened women. Use of colposcopy and biopsy for positive women confirmed that 88/119 (73.9%) were positive for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. VIA had higher sensitivity than Pap smear (74.2% versus 72.9%; P = 0.05) respectively. Out of 88 confirmed positive cases, 22 (25.0%) cases were invasive cervical cancer in stage 1, of which 19 versus three were detected by VIA and Pap smear respectively (P = 0.001). VIA had higher sensitivity and lower specificity than Pap smear (60.2% versus 47.7%) and (41.9% versus 83.8%) respectively. The combination of VIA/Pap has better sensitivity and specificity than each independent test (82.6% and 92.2%). CONCLUSION: The findings of this study showed that VIA has higher sensitivity and lower specificity compared to Pap smear, but a combination of both tests has greater sensitivity and specificity than each test independently. It indicates that VIA is useful forscreening of cervical cancer in the primary health care setting in Sudan, but positive results need to be confirmed by colposcopy and biopsy.

Ibrahim, Ahmed; Aro, Arja R

2012-01-01

112

Discrimination of different processed animal proteins (PAPs by FT-IR spectroscopy based on their fat characteristics  

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Full Text Available This study was undertaken to explore the potential of FT-IR technique for discriminating different species of processed animal proteins (PAPs based on their fat characteristics. A total of 47 source-reliable PAPs samples containing fish meal, porcine, bovine, ovine and poultry meat and bone meal (MBM were involved in the present study. The results obtained showed that the FT-IR differentiated quite well between the fat derived from different species of PAPs, especially at the bands of 3,006 cm-1 and 722 cm-1. Results provided evidence that FT-IR differentiated the fat derived from fish meal, terrestrial non-ruminant and ruminant MBM quite well. Fish meal and ruminant MBM samples could be discriminated effectively by both the sensitivity and specificity values which were 1.00 and 1.00, respectively. For non-ruminant MBM samples, the sensitivity and specificity were 1.00 and 0.96, respectively. However, it was hard to distinguish bovine MBM from ovine ones as well as porcine MBM from poultry ones. The result makes it possible to allow FT-IR analytical methodology as a preliminary study for the exploitation of a rapid and reliable way for the identification of the animal origin of PAPs used in feeding stuffs.

Pu, Q.

2014-01-01

113

Continuous stress-induced dopamine dysregulation augments PAP-I and PAP-II expression in melanotrophs of the pituitary gland  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Research highlights: {yields} We focused on the rat pituitary intermediate lobe (IL) under continuous stress (CS). {yields} CS induced PAP-I and PAP-II expression in melanotrophs of the IL. {yields} This gene induction was triggered by CS-related dopamine dysregulation. {yields} PAP-I and PAP-II may sustain homeostasis of the IL under CS. -- Abstract: Under continuous stress (CS) in rats, melanotrophs, the predominant cell-type in the intermediate lobe (IL) of the pituitary, are hyperactivated to secrete {alpha}-melanocyte-stimulating hormone and thereafter degenerate. Although these phenomena are drastic, the molecular mechanisms underlying the cellular changes are mostly unknown. In this study, we focused on the pancreatitis-associated protein (PAP) family members of the secretory lectins and characterized their expression in the IL of CS model rats because we had identified two members of this family as up-regulated genes in our previous microarray analysis. RT-PCR and histological studies demonstrated that prominent PAP-I and PAP-II expression was induced in melanotrophs in the early stages of CS, while another family member, PAP-III, was not expressed. We further examined the regulatory mechanisms of PAP-I and PAP-II expression and revealed that both were induced by the decreased dopamine levels in the IL under CS. Because the PAP family members are implicated in cell survival and proliferation, PAP-I and PAP-II secreted from melanotrophs may function to sustain homeostasis of the IL under CS conditions in an autocrine or a paracrine manner.

Konishi, Hiroyuki, E-mail: konishi@med.osaka-cu.ac.jp [Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka (Japan); The 21st Century COE Program ' Base to Overcome Fatigue' , Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka (Japan); Department of Anatomy and Neuroscience, Nagoya University, Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya (Japan); Ogawa, Tokiko, E-mail: togawa@med.osaka-cu.ac.jp [Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka (Japan); The 21st Century COE Program ' Base to Overcome Fatigue' , Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka (Japan); Kawahara, Shinichi, E-mail: kawahara@med.osaka-cu.ac.jp [Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka (Japan); Matsumoto, Sakiko, E-mail: s-matsumoto@med.osaka-cu.ac.jp [Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka (Japan); Department of Anatomy and Neuroscience, Nagoya University, Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya (Japan); Kiyama, Hiroshi, E-mail: kiyama@med.osaka-cu.ac.jp [Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka (Japan); The 21st Century COE Program ' Base to Overcome Fatigue' , Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka (Japan); Department of Anatomy and Neuroscience, Nagoya University, Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya (Japan)

2011-04-01

114

Collection of Cervical Secretions Does Not Adversely Affect Pap Smears Taken Immediately Afterward  

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Collection of cervical secretions for local immunological assessment requires that the secretions be collected prior to the Pap smear to avoid contamination with blood. The objective of the present study was to determine whether gentle collection of cervical secretions prior to a Pap smear collection influences the quality of the Pap smear. A total of 266 women were recruited. Half of the participants were assigned to collection of cervical secretions prior to Pap smear collection with Weck-c...

Hildesheim, Allan; Bratti, M. Concepcion; Edwards, Robert P.; Schiffman, Mark; Rodriguez, Ana C.; Herrero, Rolando; Alfaro, Mario; Morera, Lidia A.; Ermatinger, Susan V.; Miller, Barbara T.; Crowley-nowick, Peggy A.

1998-01-01

115

Study of Pap smear and other feasible tests among self reported symptomatic married women in reproductive age group (15-49 yrs) regarding reproductive tract infections in a rural community of Maharashtra  

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Background: Reproductive tract infections (RTIs) represent a major public health problem in developing countries. Integrating RTIs/STIs management and early detection of cervical dysplasia in broader reproductive health services can improve women?s health. The objectives of the study were 1. To study the association of socio-demographic & reproductive factors among self-reported symptomatic women for reproductive tract infections. 2. To carry out clinical examination & feasible tests lik...

Chavan, Smita S.; Giri, Purushottam A.; Singh, Vijaykumar S.; Shantha Sankaranarayan

2013-01-01

116

Missed Opportunities for Health Education on Pap Smears in Peru  

Science.gov (United States)

Despite cervical cancer being one of the leading causes of cancer-related deaths among women in Peru, cervical Pap smear coverage is low. This article uses findings from 185 direct clinician observations in four cities of Peru (representing the capital and each of the three main geographic regions of the country) to assess missed opportunities for…

Bayer, Angela M.; Nussbaum, Lauren; Cabrera, Lilia; Paz-Soldan, Valerie A.

2011-01-01

117

Papshop: Not a 'melon'choly Pap smear workshop!  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english As Head of Undergraduate Education in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology at the University of Cape Town, South Africa, I have a particular interest in the competencies needed to perform primary care gynaecological procedures, one of which is the Pap smear. I was approached by a group of ke [...] en volunteer students to assist with Pap smear training to roll out a pilot screening programme at studentrun after-hours clinics in Cape Town and at volunteer rural health promotion clinics. This article describes a novel approach to teaching the Pap smear technique, using fruit and toilet rolls, which can easily be replicated in resource-constrained areas. Students branded the workshops as 'Papshops', and the name has stuck. Increasing numbers of students are now taught by peers already trained in prior Papshops, thereby expanding the teaching workforce. To date, during 2013 - 2014, Papshop students have performed almost 300 Pap smears for eligible women in under-resourced areas.

C, Gordon.

2014-09-01

118

Women who take pap smear in Fortaleza - social and sexual characterization.   

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available

Considering the epidemiological relevance and the mortality of Uterine Cervix Cancer, the aim of this study is know the gynecological profile of women who take Pap smear in a basic unit of a metropolitan area. This is an exploratory study, with quantitative approach and traversal outlining which took place in a Center of Natural Childbirth with 72 women. The data was collected during the women’s appointment and the through analysis of the charts. It was found that most women had up to 40 years of age (42; 58,5%, with low education degree (44; 61,1%, married (39; 54,2%, with menarche from 10 to 13 years (36; 50% and first sexual relation between 12 and 19 years (46; 63,9%. It was also found that some did not  use contraceptive method (30; 41,7%, maintained vaginal only sexual relations (39; 54,1% and did the Pap smear test annually (38; 53%. Its was observed a good adhesion to the Pap smear test by the women, even though not obeying a regular periodicity. These particular studies are of great importance, because it pounts out characteristics that interfere in the woman's health and make it possible for the health professionals to recognize what needs to be improved, together with the satisfactory characteristics in the development of these women's health.

Camila Félix Américo

2009-12-01

119

CKI isoforms ? and ? regulate Star–PAP target messages by controlling Star–PAP poly(A) polymerase activity and phosphoinositide stimulation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Star–PAP is a non-canonical, nuclear poly(A) polymerase (PAP) that is regulated by the lipid signaling molecule phosphatidylinositol 4,5 bisphosphate (PI4,5P2), and is required for the expression of a select set of mRNAs. It was previously reported that a PI4,5P2 sensitive CKI isoform, CKI? associates with and phosphorylates Star–PAP in its catalytic domain. Here, we show that the oxidative stress-induced by tBHQ treatment stimulates the CKI mediated phosphorylation of Star–PAP, which ...

Laishram, Rakesh S.; Barlow, Christy A.; Anderson, Richard A.

2011-01-01

120

Analysis of results obtained from field tracing test under artificial rainfall condition  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The field tracing test and the laboratory experiments by column and batch method had been performed, to evaluate migratory mobilities of 60Co, 85Sr and 134Cs in loess medium. The field test supplied dynamic information on the radionuclide migration, while the laboratory experiments made possible to select more accurate sorption model taking into deep consideration of interaction mechanisms between the loess and the radionuclides. The 85Sr migration was well described by the equilibrium sorption model using distribution coefficient. The 60Co and 134Cs migration could be explained by the hybrid non-equilibrium sorption model, assuming a reversible sorption, an irreversible fixation and a filtration. (7 figs., 1 tab.)

 
 
 
 
121

Design and Synthesis of Novel 2-Phenylaminopyrimidine (PAP Derivatives and Their Antiproliferative Effects in Human Chronic Myeloid Leukemia Cells  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A series of novel 2-phenylaminopyrimidine (PAP derivatives structurally related to STI-571 were designed and synthesized. The abilities of these compounds to inhibit proliferation were tested in human chronic myeloid leukemia K562 cells. (E-3-(2-bromophenyl-N-[4-methyl-3-(4-pyridin-3-yl-pyrimidin-2-ylaminophenyl]acrylamide(12d was the most effective cell growth inhibitor and was 3-fold more potent than STI-571.

Jin-Hua Dong

2009-10-01

122

Design and Synthesis of Novel 2-Phenylaminopyrimidine (PAP) Derivatives and Their Antiproliferative Effects in Human Chronic Myeloid Leukemia Cells  

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A series of novel 2-phenylaminopyrimidine (PAP) derivatives structurally related to STI-571 were designed and synthesized. The abilities of these compounds to inhibit proliferation were tested in human chronic myeloid leukemia K562 cells. (E)-3-(2-bromophenyl)-N-[4-methyl-3-(4-pyridin-3-yl-pyrimidin-2-ylamino)phenyl]acrylamide(12d) was the most effective cell growth inhibitor and was 3-fold more potent than STI-571.

Jin-Hua Dong; Jian Wang; Sheng Chang; Yong-Kui Jing; Shi-Liang Yin

2009-01-01

123

Report of test and research results on atomic energy obtained in national institutes in fiscal 1982  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As for the test and research on the utilization of atomic energy by national organizations, the budget was appropriated for the first time in fiscal year 1956. Since then, many valuable results of research have been produced in the diverse fields of nuclear fusion, safety research, food irradiation, medicine and others, in this way, the test and research have played large roles in the promotion of the utilization of atomic energy in Japan. This is the 23rd report, in which the results of the test and research on the utilization of atomic energy carried out in fiscal year 1982 by national organizations are summarized. 5 researches on nuclear fusion, 12 researches on engineering safety, 5 researches on environmental radioactivity safety, 3 researches on food irradiation, 5 researches on the countermeasures to cancer, 8 researches on soil fertilization, 4 researches on quality improvement, 7 researches on crop protection, 5 researches on the improvement of breeding, 8 researches on diagnosis and treatment, 8 researches on pharmaceuticals, 10 researches on the application to pathology, 6 researches on mining and industry, 6 researches on power reactors and nuclear ships, 1 research on underground water, 6 researches on activation analysis and 3 researches on injury prevention are reported. (Kako, I.)

124

Report of test and research results on atomic energy obtained in national institutes in fiscal 1984  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The test and research regarding the utilization of atomic energy carried out in national institutions have produced many valuable results in diverse fields so far, such as nuclear fusion, safety research, food irradiation and medicine, since the budget had been appropriated for the first time in 1956. It has accomplished large role in the promotion of atomic energy utilization in Japan. This report is Volume 25, in which the results of the test and research on atomic energy utilization carried out by national institutions in fiscal year 1984 are summarized. It is hoped that the understanding about the recent trend and the results of the test and research on atomic energy utilization is further promoted by this report. The contents of this report are nuclear fusion; the research on engineering safety and environmental radioactivity safety; food irradiation; the countermeasures against cancer; fertilized soil, the improvement of quality, the protection of plants and the improvement of breeding in agriculture and fishery fields; diagnosis and medical treatment, pharmaceuticals, environmental hygiene and the application to physiology and pathology in medical field; radiation chemistry and radiation measurement in mining and industry fields; nuclear reactor materials and nuclear-powered ships; civil engineering; radioactivation analysis; and the research on the prevention of injuries. (Kako, I.)

125

Report of test and research results on atomic energy obtained in national institutes in fiscal 1983  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As for the test and research on the utilization of atomic energy by national organizations, the budget was appropriated for the first time in fiscal year 1956. Since then, many valuable results of research have been produced in the diverse fields of nuclear fusion, safety research, food irradiation, medicine and others, in this way, the test and research have played large roles in the promotion of the utilization of atomic energy in Japan. This is the 24th report, in which the results of the test and research on the utilization of atomic energy carried out in fiscal year 1983 by national organizations are summarized. 5 researches on nuclear fusion, 19 researches on engineering safety and environmental radioactivity safety, 3 researches on food irradiation, 6 researches on the countermeasures to cancer, 19 researches on agriculture, forestry and fishery, 30 researches on medicine, pharmaceuticals and environmental hygiene, 6 researches on mining and industry, 6 researches on power reactors and nuclear ships, 1 research on agricultural water, 7 researches on activation analysis and 4 researches on injury prevention are reported. (Kako, I.)

126

Report of test and research results on atomic energy obtained in national institutes in fiscal 1989  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The test and research on atomic energy utilization in national institutions were begun in 1956, and valuable results have been produced in the fields of nuclear fusion, safety research, food irradiation, medicine and others, thus those have accomplished great roles for the promotion of atomic energy utilization in Japan. Atomic energy technology synthesizes various advanced technologies over wide technical domains, therefore at the time of its research and development, it is important to place emphasis on the creative and innovative regions which cause large technical innovation and in which the effect spreading to general science and technology can be expected. In addition to the test and research according to such recognition, also the basic technology of atomic energy field has been studied. At present foreign countries request Japan to contribute to the development of the world by creating the new technology and knowledge on atomic energy, and national institutions must meet the request. This is the report No. 30, in which the results of the test and research in the fields of nuclear fusion, safety research, food irradiation, the countermeasures to cancer, agriculture, forestry and fishery, medicine, mining and industry, power utilization, construction, radioactivation analysis and advanced basic research, carried out in 1989 are summarized. (J.P.N.)

127

Advantages obtained in radiation protection when using computerized radiography tests - CR (digital) in processing plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

During the year 2000, the ARCtest initiated the development of the research for adapting the Computerized Radiography - CR, originally conceived for medical applications, for the Industry, trying initially to attend the requirements of the processing plants, concerning to the detection of deterioration mechanisms (evaluation of the piping integrity). Due to the obtained excellent results, the possibility of utilization the Computerized Radiography - CR in the radiographic inspection were studied during the shutdown of the Catalytic Cracking Unit of the PETROBRAS-REPLAN, specifically in the replacement of the CO boiler superheater, where a large number of the small diameter welded joints have been predicted

128

Reliability and validity of pendulum test measures of spasticity obtained with the Polhemus tracking system from patients with chronic stroke  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Spasticity is a common impairment accompanying stroke. Spasticity of the quadriceps femoris muscle can be quantified using the pendulum test. The measurement properties of pendular kinematics captured using a magnetic tracking system has not been studied among patients who have experienced a stroke. Therefore, this study describes the test-retest reliability and known groups and convergent validity of the pendulum test measures obtained with the Polhemus tracking system. Methods Eight patients with chronic stroke underwent pendulum tests with their affected and unaffected lower limbs, with and without the addition of a 2.2 kg cuff weight at the ankle, using the Polhemus magnetic tracking system. Also measured bilaterally were knee resting angles, Ashworth scores (grades 0–4 of quadriceps femoris muscles, patellar tendon (knee jerk reflexes (grades 0–4, and isometric knee extension force. Results Three measures obtained from pendular traces of the affected side were reliable (intraclass correlation coefficient ? .844. Known groups validity was confirmed by demonstration of a significant difference in the measurements between sides. Convergent validity was supported by correlations ? .57 between pendulum test measures and other measures reflective of spasticity. Conclusion Pendulum test measures obtained with the Polhemus tracking system from the affected side of patients with stroke have good test-retest reliability and both known groups and convergent validity.

Harrison Steven

2009-07-01

129

Tensile-shear correlations obtained from shear punch test technique using a modified experimental approach  

Science.gov (United States)

Shear punch testing has been a very useful technique for evaluating mechanical properties of irradiated alloys using a very small volume of material. The load-displacement data is influenced by the compliance of the fixture components. This paper describes a modified experimental approach where the compliances of the punch and die components are eliminated. The analysis of the load-displacement data using the modified setup for various alloys like low carbon steel, SS316, modified 9Cr-1Mo, 2.25Cr-1Mo indicate that the shear yield strength evaluated at 0.2% offset of normalized displacement relates to the tensile YS as per the Von Mises yield relation ( ?ys = 1.73 ?ys). A universal correlation of type UTS = m?max where m is a function of strain hardening exponent, is seen to be obeyed for all the materials in this study. The use of analytical models developed for blanking process are explored for evaluating strain hardening exponent from the load-displacement data. This study is directed towards rationalizing the tensile-shear empirical correlations for a more reliable prediction of tensile properties from shear punch tests.

Karthik, V.; Visweswaran, P.; Vijayraghavan, A.; Kasiviswanathan, K. V.; Raj, Baldev

2009-09-01

130

Report of test and research results on atomic energy obtained in national institutes in fiscal 1992  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The tests and researches on the development and utilization of atomic energy in national laboratories were begun in 1956, and have accomplished the great role for the advance of the development and utilization of atomic energy in Japan by having produced many valuable results so far. Atomic energy has been utilized not only in the field of nuclear power but also in diverse fields, and in national laboratories, the research for expanding the development and utilization of atomic energy in medicine, agriculture, forestry, fishery, radioactivation analysis and others in addition the basic research on nuclear fusion have been advanced. Further expecting the pervasive effect to general science and technology, the development of integrated research are promoted from the viewpoint of new technical innovation and creative technology. The safety research of nuclear facilities have been carried out to keep them high level on the basis of the yearly program enacted by Nuclear Safety Commission. This is the report No. 33, in which the results of the test and research in the fields of nuclear fusion safety research, food irradiation, cancer countermeasures, agriculture, forestry, fishery, medicine, mining and manufacture, power utilization, construction, radioactivation analysis carried on in fiscal 1992 are summarized. (J.P.N.)

131

Evaluating inhibition of angiogenesis by GST-PAP fusion protein  

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"nBackground: Tumor cells need food and oxygen supply for growth and division. Therefore one of the most promising areas of cancer therapy focuses on using agents that inhibit tumor angiogenesis. Inhibition of angiogenesis prevents cell growth, division and metastasis. Previous studies showed that plasminogen related Protein-B has an anti-tumor activity in mice. This protein has a high level of homology with preactivation Peptide (PAP) of human plasminogen. According to this high homolog...

Sadeghi-Zadeh M; Mirshahi M; Gharaati MR

2009-01-01

132

Association of Pap Smear Abnormalities with Autoimmune Disorders  

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Recently, it is hypothesized that there might be an association between immunological disorders and cervical premalignant and malignant abnormalities. Related studies have been generally focused on some particular autoimmune disease, specially the Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE). This study aimed at comparing the rate of Pap smear abnormalities in female patients with autoimmune diseases and normal counterparts. In a case-control setting, 118 female patients with various autoimmune disease...

Kazem Ghahremanzadeh; Heidarali Esmaeili

2011-01-01

133

Statistical evaluation of the heat transfer data obtained in the HDR containment tests  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The containment tests conducted at the HDR facility have greatly expanded the experimental data base for energy transfer in large, complex geometry volumes. This data has been made available in a sequence of experimental reports, and its affect on heat-transfer modeling has been analyzed in several studies. Two categories of energy transfer data are provided by the experiments: 1) Integral energy transfer rate, either overall or compartment dependent, has to be inferred from appropriate energy balances utilizing experimental pressure, temperature and blow down rate measurements; 2) Local energy transfer rate is measured directly at up to 12 locations within the containment. The HDR heat-transfer measurements have become the fundamental data-base for benchmarking containment heat transfer modeling. The approaches taken in the modeling are discussed in detail

134

Simulation of spectroscopic patterns obtained in W/C test-limiter sputtering experiment at TEXTOR  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

On the TEXTOR tokamak various experiments aimed at investigation of tungsten erosion and transport are performed. In one experiment a spherical W/C twin limiter positioned close to the last-closed flux surface in the near scrape-off layer was exposed to a number of comparable plasma discharges with stepwise variations of edge plasma parameters. Spatial distribution of tungsten and carbon light emission was recorded with two dimensional CCD cameras and spectrometer systems with high spectral and spatial resolution. Penetration depths, tungsten sputtering fluxes and erosion yields were measured. Comparison between experimental data and the results of modelling with the 3D Monte-Carlo code ERO is performed. The main objective of this study was to test the adequacy of the existing atomic data for neutral tungsten. The modelled penetration depths of the light emission of tungsten are a factor of 2–3 smaller than in experiment, which may indicate the overestimation of ionization rates

135

Bend points of hydrogen partial pressure curves obtained by tritium removal simulation tests  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A tritium cleanup system has been developed for exhaust gases containing tritium in various chemical forms. This system is distinguished from conventional procedures in that tritium is removed as tritiated hydrogen molecules. Basically, the system consists of five main components, including a hydrogen separator and a decomposition-processing vessel. A previous study assumed that the gas for processing consisted of hydrogen, methane, and helium, with some proportion of tritiated hydrogen and methane. The performance of this tritium cleanup system was examined using a computer-based simulation. To monitor the removal of tritium from the exhaust gas, the partial pressures of the respective components were examined during processing. The curve for the partial pressure of hydrogen contains two clear bends. In the present study, the correspondence between these bend points and their time width and simulation condition was examined in relation to the hydrogen partial pressure curves obtained under 28 conditions, differing in component proportion and process gas volume. It was found that two bend points moved, depending on the process gas condition, and three patterns appeared for the hydrogen partial pressure curves. A mechanism was proposed for explaining the movement of the bend points and the three patterns

136

Get Tested for Cervical Cancer  

Science.gov (United States)

... Get Tested for Cervical Cancer Get Tested for Cervical Cancer The Basics Take Action! Ver en español Content ... 25, 2014 The Basics You can help prevent cervical cancer by getting regular screening tests (called Pap tests) ...

137

Serum and urinary measurements of prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP and prostatic specific antigen (PSA in dogs Mensurações sérica e urinária de fosfatase ácida prostática e antígeno prostático específico em cães  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Serum and urinary prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP and prostatic specific antigen (PSA from 20 dogs were measured. PAP and PSA tests were carried out in authomatized equipment with commercial kits used for humans. Mean PAP serum value was 0.7U/l and urinary 0.1U/l. Mean serum and urinary PSA were 0.005ng/dl and 0.004ng/dl, respectively. In vivo determination of these two biomarkers in dogs is a new form of diagnosis in veterinary medicine and these values should be correlated with the morphological lesion of the prostate gland.Realizaram-se mensurações sérica e urinária de fosfatase ácida prostática (PAP e antígeno prostático específico (PSA de 20 cães. Os testes de PAP e PSA foram feitos em um equipamento automatizado, com o uso de kits comerciais para humanos. A média de PAP sérico foi de 0,7U/l e urinário 0,U/l. As médias do PSA sérico e urinário foram 0,005ng/dL e 0,004ng/dl, respectivamente. A determinação do dois biomarcadores in vivo é uma nova opção de diagnóstico na medicina veterinária e os valores obtidos devem ser correlacionados com a lesão morfológica da próstata.

R.L. Amorim

2004-06-01

138

OTTO-PAP: An alternative option to the PBMR fuelling philosophy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Once Through Then Out, Power Adjusted by Poison (OTTO-PAP) fuelling of a high temperature pebble-bed reactor offers a simple alternative to the MEDUL (Mehrfachdurchlauf = German for multi-pass) fuelling regime followed in pebble bed reactor designs to date. The prerequisite for a modular reactor unit of maximum power output, subject to observing passive safety characteristics is a sufficiently flat axial neutron flux profile. This is achieved by introducing B4C coated particles of pre-calculated size and packing density within the fuel spheres. In accordance with AVR operating practise the temperature profile is radially equalised by introducing a 2-zone core loading. Adding pure graphite spheres loosely into the centre column area of the core effectively reduced the maximum power in the middle. Increasing the reactor diameter is enabled by the introduction of noses. A 3-D geometric modeller developed in cylindrical co-ordinates enables a given flow description of the pebbles adjacent to the nose boundaries and in the vicinity of the shut down/control rods. After translation of the geometric data the neutronic behaviour of the reactor is followed in 3-D by the CITATION code. This study is aimed towards achieving an optimal core layout with a LEU (Low Enriched Uranium) fuel cycle. Physical properties of the OTTO-PAP, 150 MWt reference design is reported, while computations performed observe results obtained by the reference HTR-MODUL design. (author)

139

Shaking table testing of a HTGR reactor core, comparison with the results obtained using a nonlinear mathematical model  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Two series of horizontal tests have been performed at Saclay on the shaking table VESUVE: sinusoidal test and time history response. Sinusoidal tests have shown the strongly nonlinear dynamic behavior of the core. The resonant frequency of the core is dependent on the level of the excitation. These phenomena have been explained by a computer code, which is a lumped mass nonlinear model. El Centro time history displacement at the level of PCRV was reproduced on the shaking table. The analytical model was applied to this excitation and good comparison was obtained for forces and velocities

140

Intelligent and nature inspired optimization methods in medicine : The Pap smear cell classification problem  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The classification problem consists of using some known objects, usually described by a large vector of features, to induce a model that classifies others into known classes. Feature selection is widely used as the first stage of the classification task to reduce the dimension of the problem, decrease noise and improve speed by the elimination of irrelevant or redundant features. The present paper deals with the optimization of nearest neighbour classifiers via intelligent and nature inspired algorithms for a very significant medical problem, the Pap smear cell classification problem. The algorithms used include tabu search, genetic algorithms, particle swarm optimization and ant colony optimization. The proposed complete algorithmic scheme is tested on two sets of data. The first consists of 917 images of Pap smear cells and the second set consists of 500 images, classified carefully by expert cyto-technicians and doctors. Each cell is described by 20 numerical features, and the cells fall into seven classesrepresenting a variety of normal and abnormal cases. Nevertheless, from the medical diagnosis viewpoint, a minimum requirement corresponds to the general two-class problem of correct separation between normal and abnormal cells.

Marinakis, Yannis; Marinaki, Magdalene

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
141

Intention to Obtain Genetic Testing for Melanoma among Individuals at Low to Moderate Risk for Hereditary Melanoma  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: Melanoma is a serious skin cancer that has been on the rise in the United States. Some genetic component is apparent. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to identify demographic, clinical, attitudinal, and health belief factors associated with intention to obtain genetic testing for hereditary melanoma among unaffected first-degree…

Vadaparampil, Susan T.; Azzarello, Lora; Pickard, Jennifer; Jacobsen, Paul B.

2007-01-01

142

Comparison of Gram Stain and Pap Smear Procedures in the Diagnosis of Bacterial Vaginosis  

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OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to examine the characteristics of Gram stain versus Pap smear in diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis (BV). METHODS: One-thousand and sixty women were enrolled in this study. All cases with symptoms of BV were determined by Amsel's criteria, which were accepted as the gold standard for diagnosis of BV. Pap smear and Gram stain evaluations were compared according to Amsel's criteria, without viewing the clinical results of the patients. Gram stain and Pap s...

Hakan Postaci; Funda Tasli; Xd Zg Xfc, Xd Zg Xfc L.; Murat Inal; Izzet Maral; Enver Vardar

2002-01-01

143

Clinical implications of the cervical Papanicolaou test results in the management of anal warts in HIV-infected women.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Papanicolaou test (or Pap test) has long been used as a screening tool to detect cervical precancerous/cancerous lesions. However, studies on the use of this test to predict both the presence and change in size of genital warts are limited. We examined whether cervical Papanicolaou test results are associated with the size of the largest anal wart over time in HIV-infected women in an on-going cohort study in the US. A sample of 976 HIV-infected women included in a public dataset obtained from the Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS) was selected for analysis. A linear mixed model was performed to determine the relationship between the size of anal warts and cervical Pap test results. About 32% of participants had abnormal cervical Pap test results at baseline. In the adjusted model, a woman with a result of Atypia Squamous Cell Undetermined Significance/Low-grade Squamous Intraepithelial Lesion (ASCUS/LSIL) had an anal wart, on average, 12.81 mm(2) larger than a woman with normal cervical cytology. The growth rate of the largest anal wart after each visit in a woman with ASCUS/LSIL was 1.56 mm(2) slower than that of a woman with normal cervical results. However, they were not significant (P = 0.54 and P = 0.82, respectively). This is the first study to examine the relationship between cervical Pap test results and anal wart development in HIV-infected women. Even though no association between the size of anal wart and cervical Pap test results was found, a screening program using anal cytology testing in HIV-infected women should be considered. Further studies in cost-effectiveness and efficacy of an anal cytology test screening program are warranted. PMID:24312348

Luu, Hung N; Amirian, E Susan; Beasley, R Palmer; Piller, Linda; Chan, Wenyaw; Scheurer, Michael E

2013-01-01

144

Cardiac output obtained from test bolus injections as a factor in contrast injection rate revision of following coronary CT angiography  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Background.. Optimal contrast enhancement is crucial for the detection of coronary artery stenoses and atherosclerotic changes in coronary CT angiography (CTA). Purpose To demonstrate the feasibility of using the cardiac output (CO) obtained from the test bolus injection data-set (CO test) as a factor in contrast injection rate revision of the following coronary CTA. Material and Methods. The test bolus injection data-sets of 52 consecutive coronary CTAs were examined. CO test was calculated from the test bolus data-set. Aortic peak enhancement (APE) was measured on the following coronary CTA. We simulated the APE at a fixed contrast injection rate of 4 mL/s (simAPE) in each patient. Results. The ranges of COtest and simAPE were 2.82-7.56 L/min and 194-527 Hounsfield Units, respectively. There was a significant negative correlation (R = -0.802, P < 0.001) between simAPE and COtest. Conclusion. COtest can be used for injection rate revision on coronary CTA.

Konno, Masahiko [Division of Diagnostic Image Analysis, Graduate School of Medicine, Tohoku University, Miyagi (Japan); Yamagata Prefecture Comprehensive Rehabilitation and Education Center, Yamagata (Japan)], E-mail: mkonno@med.tohoku.ac.jp; Hosokai, Yoshiyuki; Usui, Akihito; Abe, Mitsuya; Tateishi, Toshiki; Kawasumi, Yusuke; Saito, Haruo [Division of Diagnostic Image Analysis, Graduate School of Medicine, Tohoku University, Miyagi (Japan); Tsuda, Masashi; Ota, Hideki; Takase, Kei [Division of Diagnostic Radiology, Graduate School of Medicine, Tohoku University, Miyagi (Japan)

2012-12-15

145

Accuracy of abnormal pap smear at Thammasat University Hospital.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of the present study was to assess the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of the Pap smear in the diagnosis of squamous intraepithelial lesion (SIL) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Pap smear of 15,345 women in 2 years were screened for early detection of abnormal cervix. In 299 cases (1.9%) were diagnosed as low-grade SIL (LSIL), high-grade SIL (HSIL) and SCC by the Bethesda system (TBS) 2001. Only 195 cases (1.3%) had definitive histologic diagnosis as negative, human papilloma virus (HPV) infection, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) 1, CIN 2, CIN 3 and SCC. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy in LSIL was 86.5%, 70% and 71.3%, respectively. For HSIL it was 80.8%, 89.7% and 86.2%, respectively. For SCC it was 100%, 96.9% and 96.9%, respectively. Our data had high diagnostic performance for HSIL and SCC group and moderate diagnostic performance for LSIL group. PMID:23964448

Kanjanavirojkul, Nipa; Muanglek, Rotchana; Yanagihara, Lakkakul

2012-01-01

146

Perfusion from angiogram and a priori (PAP) with temporal regularization  

Science.gov (United States)

Perfusion imaging is often used for diagnosis and for assessment of the response to the treatment. If perfusion can be measured during interventional procedures, it could lead to quantitative, more efficient and accurate treatment; however, imaging modalities that allow continuous dynamic scanning are not available in most of procedure rooms. Thus, we developed a method to measure the perfusion-time attenuation curves (TACs)-of regions-of-interest (ROIs) using xray C-arm angiography system with no gantry rotation but with a priori. The previous study revealed a problem of large oscillations in the estimated TACs and the lack of comparison with CT-based approaches. Thus the purposes of this study were (1) to reduce the variance of TDCs; and (2) to compare the performance of the improved PAP with that of the CT-based perfusion method. Our computer simulation study showed that the standard deviation of PAP method was decreased by 10.7-59.0% and that it outperformed (20× or 200× times) higher dose CT methods in terms of the accuracy, variance, and the temporal resolution.

Taguchi, Katsuyuki; Geschwind, Jean-Francois H.

2009-02-01

147

The frequency of herpes simplex virus changes in anal Pap smear and its association with squamous intraepithelial lesions in high-risk male patients.  

Science.gov (United States)

While there are studies postulating a model of synergism between human papillomavirus (HPV) and herpes simplex virus (HSV) in cervical carcinogenesis, the frequency of anal herpes as well as its association with anal squamous intraepithelial lesions (ASILs) has been understudied in men. This study evaluates the frequency of HSV changes in anal Pap smears and its association with ASILs in a high-risk population. A computerized search for specimens associated with anal cytology that had positive findings of HSV was performed. The electronic medical records were examined for past diagnosis of herpes, HSV serology prior to or after cytology, and if the patient received treatment after cytologic diagnosis of HSV. Of the 470 anal Pap smears (Thin-prep) examined, seven had cellular changes consistent with HSV infection. All patients were asymptomatic human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) positive males with no prior HSV serology tests. Two patients had prior diagnoses of HSV infection. Cytologic abnormalities were identified in 86% ranging from atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance to high grade squamous intraepithelial lesion. Three patients were treated after the HSV cytologic diagnosis. The frequency of HSV changes in anal Pap smear is low (1.48%), but the presence of concomitant cytologic abnormalities is high (86%). While our findings suggest the possible role of HSV as a HPV co-factor in ASILs, larger studies are needed to support this. Identification of HSV infection on anal Pap smear is important for institution of patient treatment and subsequent reduction of transmission. PMID:24692314

Greebon, Leslie J; Avery, Diane L; Prihoda, Thomas J; Valente, Philip T; Policarpio-Nicolas, Maria Luisa C

2014-06-01

148

Aero thermal test results obtained on the n. C 5 EL 4 Cluster in the atmospheric pressure cell  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the framework of thermal studies on the EL-4 cluster, the full-scale tests at atmospheric pressure are designed to permit measurement of local values of the wall temperature, of the velocity and of the temperature in the fluid. The experimental results, obtained with the help of an original measuring apparatus, make it possible to follow the changes in these values along the cluster and to predict in much detail the in-pile thermal behaviour. In particular it is shown that changes in the wall temperature along the cluster are greatly influenced by disruption of the flow caused by grids and supports. (author)

149

Papanicolaou tests diagnosed as atypical by a cytotechnologist and downgraded to benign by a pathologist: a measure of laboratory quality.  

Science.gov (United States)

Follow-up of Papanicolaou (Pap) tests diagnosed as atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) or atypical glandular cells of undetermined significance (AGUS) by a cytotechnologist and downgraded to benign by a pathologist has not been measured. Squamous intraepithelial lesion (SIL) follow-up rates were obtained for Pap tests diagnosed as ASCUS (288) or AGUS (94) and downgraded to benign and for Pap tests diagnosed as repair (231). Statistically significant associations were seen between 7 cytotechnologists and between 7 pathologists and ASCUS, AGUS, downgraded ASCUS, and downgraded AGUS rates. The percentage of downgraded ASCUS cases compared with all ASCUS cases per pathologist ranged from 4.8% to 43.7%. Statistically significant associations between pathologists and SIL follow-up rates for downgraded ASCUS diagnoses were seen. The SIL follow-up rate for repair (7.9%) was similar to that for a downgraded ASCUS (11.0%) or AGUS (7.3%). The parameters of downgraded ASCU and AGUS Pap test interpretations are good quality indicators of individual performance and overall laboratory quality. PMID:11939726

Condel, Jennifer L; Mahood, Laura K; Grzybicki, Dana M; Sturgis, Charles D; Raab, Stephen S

2002-04-01

150

[Cervical cancer screening by Pap smear: experience of the National Research Center in Reproductive Health. ONFP].  

Science.gov (United States)

We have analysed the result of 17,173 pap smears screened in the national research center in reproductive health of Ariana from 1 may 1993 to 30 april 1997. Among these pap smears, 613 colposcopy and 380 biopsy have been performed. The results show that: 1.9% of pap smears present cytological anomalies with 0.79% of low Squamous Intraepithelial lesions and 0.66% high Squamous Intraepithelial lesions. The incidence of CIN III is 1.8% and 0.9% for invasive cancer. The age interval 35-44 years is at high risk of CIN III and invasive cancer of the cervix. evaluation of our diagnostic approach shows that: positive predictive value of pap smears with low SLI is 43.2% positive predictive value of pap smears with high SLI is 37.3%. PMID:12416356

Ben Aissa, Rim; Bennour, Ramzy; Ben Hamida, Abdelmajid; Kammoun, Neila; Mansour, Hayet; Mhamdi, Abdelmalek; Landoulsi, Sihem; Cherif, Neila; Gueddana, Nabiha

2002-04-01

151

To Test or Not to Test? The Role of Attitudes, Knowledge, and Religious Involvement among U.s. Adults on Intent-to-Obtain Adult Genetic Testing  

Science.gov (United States)

Genetic testing can advance cancer prevention if current screening behaviors improve. Increased prevalence of high-risk genotypes within specific religious groups, use of religious venues for recruiting to genetic screening, and ethical-religious considerations argue for exploring the role of religiosity in forming genetic testing decisions. This…

Botoseneanu, Anda; Alexander, Jeffrey A.; Banaszak-Holl, Jane

2011-01-01

152

Fracture characteristics obtained from the instrumented impact test of A533B steel for reactor pressure vessel  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Analyses of the date obtained from the instrumented impact test and of its correlation with static and dynamic J integral values and various tensile properties are made in this study. It is shown that a dynamic bending yield load recorded in the instrumented Charpy V test can be easily converted to a dynamic tensile yield stress using Server's equation. It is also possible to estimate a true fracture strain, COD value, and SZW easily if the load point displacement is recorded. Temperature dependency of Charpy V energy and J integral values is rather well simulated by a curve fitting method. However, a half value transition temperture obtained in that method has no physical meaning. Dynamic J sub(ID) is larger than a static J sub(IC) in the ductile fracture range in this study. This rise is proportional to the yield stress ratio ?sub(yd)/?sub(y)(--1.2-1.3). It is found, therefore, that the following relation exists in the both cases; J sub(I)/?sub(y) = 1.6GOD. Gorrelation between the fracture toughness and tensile properties proposed by Hahn and Rosenfield shows a good result, but ROLFE-NOVAK'S equation on the impact value gives a poor one. (author)

153

An open-end burst test method to obtain uniaxial hoop tensile properties of fuel cladding in a hot cell  

Science.gov (United States)

The hoop stress-hoop strain relationship of fuel cladding is one of the essential input parameters for safety analysis of fuel rods. The three objectives of this paper were: to propose a burst test method for open-end tube specimens with the uniaxial hoop stress condition; to develop the necessary in-cell high temperature open-end burst (OEB) techniques to implement the method; and to determine the optimum specimen length for the proposed OEB test method. Silicone oil was selected as the pressurization medium, and it was sealed inside the specimens not by welding but by O-rings so that no axial tensile stress was induced in the specimens. The specimens with combined end plugs and O-rings were successfully assembled by manipulators in a hot cell, and a high temperature (?350 °C), high pressure (?100 MPa) seal was achieved. The optimum specimen length was determined by using ductile and embrittled tubes with various lengths of 30-60 mm and was found to be around 45 mm for typical BWR fuel rods. During the OEB test, internal pressure and diametral expansion were monitored to obtain the basic mechanical performance properties of the fuel cladding such as yield stress, ultimate strength, as well as the true hoop stress-hoop strain curve.

Nakatsuka, Masafumi; Aita, Makoto; Sakamoto, Kan; Higuchi, Toru

2013-03-01

154

An open-end burst test method to obtain uniaxial hoop tensile properties of fuel cladding in a hot cell  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The hoop stress–hoop strain relationship of fuel cladding is one of the essential input parameters for safety analysis of fuel rods. The three objectives of this paper were: to propose a burst test method for open-end tube specimens with the uniaxial hoop stress condition; to develop the necessary in-cell high temperature open-end burst (OEB) techniques to implement the method; and to determine the optimum specimen length for the proposed OEB test method. Silicone oil was selected as the pressurization medium, and it was sealed inside the specimens not by welding but by O-rings so that no axial tensile stress was induced in the specimens. The specimens with combined end plugs and O-rings were successfully assembled by manipulators in a hot cell, and a high temperature (?350 °C), high pressure (?100 MPa) seal was achieved. The optimum specimen length was determined by using ductile and embrittled tubes with various lengths of 30–60 mm and was found to be around 45 mm for typical BWR fuel rods. During the OEB test, internal pressure and diametral expansion were monitored to obtain the basic mechanical performance properties of the fuel cladding such as yield stress, ultimate strength, as well as the true hoop stress–hoop strain curve

155

An open-end burst test method to obtain uniaxial hoop tensile properties of fuel cladding in a hot cell  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The hoop stress–hoop strain relationship of fuel cladding is one of the essential input parameters for safety analysis of fuel rods. The three objectives of this paper were: to propose a burst test method for open-end tube specimens with the uniaxial hoop stress condition; to develop the necessary in-cell high temperature open-end burst (OEB) techniques to implement the method; and to determine the optimum specimen length for the proposed OEB test method. Silicone oil was selected as the pressurization medium, and it was sealed inside the specimens not by welding but by O-rings so that no axial tensile stress was induced in the specimens. The specimens with combined end plugs and O-rings were successfully assembled by manipulators in a hot cell, and a high temperature (?350 °C), high pressure (?100 MPa) seal was achieved. The optimum specimen length was determined by using ductile and embrittled tubes with various lengths of 30–60 mm and was found to be around 45 mm for typical BWR fuel rods. During the OEB test, internal pressure and diametral expansion were monitored to obtain the basic mechanical performance properties of the fuel cladding such as yield stress, ultimate strength, as well as the true hoop stress–hoop strain curve.

Nakatsuka, Masafumi, E-mail: nakatsuka@nfd.co.jp [Nippon Nuclear Fuel Development Co., Ltd., 2163 Narita-cho, Higashi-Ibaraki-gun, Ibaraki-ken 311-1313 (Japan); Aita, Makoto; Sakamoto, Kan; Higuchi, Toru [Nippon Nuclear Fuel Development Co., Ltd., 2163 Narita-cho, Higashi-Ibaraki-gun, Ibaraki-ken 311-1313 (Japan)

2013-03-15

156

XMLComparison of Molecular (PCR) and Pap Smear Methods in Diagnosis of Human Papiloma Virus (HPV) in Women with Genital Warts  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background and Objective: Much research has shown that Human Papiloma Virus (HPV) plays an important role in cervix cancer and it is the cause of 99% of cervix cancer worldwide. Lots of research has been done to find a proper method for HPV diagnosis and screening in patients with genital warts. This study aimed at comparing PCR method with Pap smear test in HPV screening. Material and Methods: Considering the presence of DNA of HPV, 45 vaginal and cervix swap samples of women with genital wa...

Bashi Zadeh Fakhar, H.; Faraji, R.; Ghane, M.; Jafarpour, M.; Ashoorizadeh, B.

2013-01-01

157

Pap smears for men: a vision of the future?  

LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

BACKGROUND: Anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN) rarely receives as much publicity as its neighbouring orifice, the cervix. As in the cervix, intraepithelial neoplasias are precursors to cancer in the anal canal. AIN and cervical interstitial neoplasia (CIN) undergo dysplasia as a consequence of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. Since the advent of screening with the Pap smear in CIN, cervical cancer has plummeted to a fifth of its initial incidence. Anal cancer, however, has been rising, with a predilection for human immunodeficiency virus-infected men. HPV causes a squamous epithelial dysplasia and converts healthy tissue into AINs of increasing severity until anal cancer manifests. CLINICAL CASE: This article describes a clinical case of anogenital HPV infection refractory to medical and surgical therapy. It also describes an effective surgical excision technique associated with a good cosmetic outcome. CONCLUSIONS: The paper concludes by briefly discussing the implications of a national screening programme against AIN in the future.

Oon, S F

2012-02-01

158

Test of a low-mass contact binary model by comparing the relations obtained from theory with those from observations  

Science.gov (United States)

The W UMa-type contact binaries have been observed for several decades. To construct the evolutionary model for W UMa-type contact binaries, many difficulties were encountered due to the existence of complicated physical processes in such systems. The model introduced by Huang, Song and Bi includes some special and unique understandings of the physical processes of contact binaries. It is necessary to test whether this model can be used for W UMa-type contact binaries. The best way to test a theoretical model is to know whether this model can explain the observational phenomena of such systems. For this aim, a comparison is performed for the relations of mass-luminosity, mass-radius, and the distribution in the HR diagram obtained from the model introduced by Huang et al. and those from the astronomical observations. The result of the comparison indicates that this model can be applied to W UMa-type contact binaries and can explain the observational phenomena of such binaries.

Song, Fen; Huang, RunQian

2012-04-01

159

A very rare case of HPV-53-related cervical cancer, in a 79-year-old woman with a previous history of negative Pap cytology  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Roberta Zappacosta,1 Giuseppe Lattanzio,2 Patrizia Viola,2 Manuel Maria Ianieri,3 Daniela Maria Pia Gatta,1 Sandra Rosini11Cytopathology Unit, Experimental and Clinical Sciences Department, Gabriele d’Annunzio University of Chieti-Pescara, Chieti, Italy; 2Surgical Pathology Unit, 3Obstetrics and Gynecology Unit, SS Annunziata Hospital, Chieti, ItalyAbstract: The introduction of organized cervical cancer (CC screening programs has drastically reduced the prevalence of CC. However the incidence is still too high, especially among elderly women. All guidelines strongly recommend a regular Papanicolaou (Pap testing for young and middle-aged patients. On the other hand, many international professional societies no longer advise screening in women who have undergone hysterectomy, and in women aged 65 years and above, who have a previous history of regular Pap smears. Here we report the case of poorly differentiated CC, involving the pelvic lymph nodes and urinary bladder, occurring in a 79-year-old woman who regularly underwent Pap tests, with no reported cytological abnormalities. In this very rare case, the CC cells, as well as cells from metastatic lymph nodes and cells from urinary specimens, molecularly showed human papilloma virus (HPV-53. With the limitations of a single case, this report brings important information to prevent CC in elderly patients: the utility of molecular tests to increase sensitivity of Pap smears in postmenopausal women; the importance of HPV-53 as one of the four “emergent” genotypes having a possible role in oncogenesis; and the presence of HPV-53 in lymph node metastases from cervical carcinoma, which would support the role of this virus in the maintenance of malignant status.Keywords: old women, molecular tests, cervical cancer screening, HPV-DNA test, HPV genotyping

Zappacosta R

2014-04-01

160

Correlation between extent of metastatic lesions in whole body bone scintigraphy of patients with prostatic cancer and prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP) in blood by PAP RIA kit 'Eiken'  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Whole body bone scintigraphy of thirteen patients who were pathohistologically confirmed prostatic cancer was processed by four colors, and then the extent of bone metastases was estimated quantitatively. On the basis of this estimation, the grade of the expansion of bone metastases was classified into 4 grades (0, 1, 2, and 3 grades). And then, correlations of the expantion of bone metastases with PAP, AcP and AlP levels in blood were investigated. The results are as follows: 1) Correlation between the extent of bone metastases and PAP levels was relatively high (r = 0.81). 2) As for the relation between the expansion grade of bone metastases and PAP levels, the levels did not increase in 0 and 1 grades, but markedly increased in 2 and 3 grades. AcP also showed a little similar tendency. 3) In the correlation of PAP with AcP and with AlP, AcP (r = 0.78) was higher than AlP (r = 0.42). 4) Therefore, PAP levels seem to be a good index of the extent of bone metastases in prostatic cancer. (author)

 
 
 
 
161

Immunoperoxidase staining of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded, human renal biopsies with a comparison of the peroxidase-antiperoxidase (PAP) and indirect methods.  

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The results of immunoperoxidase staining of 33 routinely processed renal biopsies correlated with the results of direct immunofluorescence in 79% of tests performed. Most of the discrepant results were due to positive immunoperoxidase staining, possibly reflecting greater sensitivity of the method. A comparison of two immunoperoxidase methods showed that the indirect method produced less intense staining than the peroxidase-antiperoxidase (PAP) method when equivalent primary antibody titres w...

Sinclair, R. A.; Burns, J.; Dunnill, M. S.

1981-01-01

162

SCREENING FOR HIGH-RISK HUMAN PAPILLOMAVIRUS BY REAL-TIME PCR AND ITS ASSOCIATION WITH CYTOLOGICAL ABNORMALITIES OF PAP SMEARS IN BAGHDAD  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Human Papillomaviruses (HPVs are known to be etiological agents of cervical cancer and have been found in 99.7% of women with high-grade (HG cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN pre-cancer. Testing of high-risk HPV (HR-HPV has been proposed as a way of improving cervical screening, especially for women with low-grade (LG Papanicolaou (Pap smears. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the diagnostic correlation of real-time PCR technique with Pap smear results for 13 genotypes of HR-HPV in 415 of suspected women. Pap smear results showed the suspected women with abnormal and normal cytological changes were 79.3% (329/415 and 20.7% (86/415, respectively. In contrast, real-time PCR results showed that women with or without abnormal changes had HR-HPV DNA positive were 50.5% (166/329 and 10.5% (9/86, respectively. Thus, Pap smear results had no sensitive to predicate risky for LG-CIN women were observed. According to the real-time PCR results, the incident of HG or cancer was more associated with HR-HPV. Our findings indicated the real-time PCR test with the cytological test as a routine practice for women with LG-CIN reduces the incidence of HG or cancer. After that, the prospective studies should be appropriated to determine HR-HPV genotypes and viral load (copies/cell with real-time PCR test as predicate risk-factor.

SALEH D.S.

2012-12-01

163

Correlation between human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) RNA measurements obtained with dried blood spots and those obtained with plasma by use of Nuclisens EasyQ HIV-1 and Abbott RealTime HIV load tests.  

Science.gov (United States)

The plasma human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) RNA load is used in the clinical routine for the monitoring of HIV infection and the patient's response to antiretroviral therapy. Other body fluids or dried blood spots (DBS) can be used, however, to assess the level of viremia. The use of DBS may be especially helpful for the monitoring of HIV-infected patients in resource-poor settings, where access to adequate laboratory facilities is often difficult. However, the correlation between the HIV RNA levels in plasma and those in DBSs has not been well established. Paired plasma and DBS samples obtained from HIV type 1 (HIV-1)-infected patients were tested for HIV RNA copy numbers by using two different commercial assays, the Nuclisens EasyQ HIV-1 (version 1.1) test (the Nuclisens test; Biomerieux) and the m2000rt RealTime HIV test (the m2000rt test; Abbott). Nucleic acid extraction was performed manually by using either the Nuclisens isolation kit (which uses the Boom methodology) or the m2000rt sample preparation kit (an iron particle-based method). A total of 103 paired plasma and DBS samples were tested. Viral load results were obtained for 97 (94.2%) samples with the Nuclisens isolation kit and 81 (78.6%) samples with the m2000rt kit. The overall correlation between the RNA loads in plasma and DBS was good, although better results were obtained by the Nuclisens test (R(2) = 0.87, P Nuclisens and the m2000rt tests (97.1% and 100%, respectively), the sensitivity was greater by the Nuclisens test than by the m2000rt test (75.8% and 56.6%, respectively). Overall, the viral loads in DBS tended to be lower than those in plasma, with mean differences of 0.3 log unit (standard deviation, 0.5 log unit) and 0.76 log unit (standard deviation, 0.8 log unit) for the Nuclisens and the m2000rt tests, respectively. The levels of agreement between the measurements in plasma and DBS were assessed by using the Bland-Altman plot for each assay. The Nuclisens test gave results within its defined limits (-0.65 to 1.26) for 95.9% of the samples, while the m2000rt test gave results within its limits (-0.83 to 2.33) for 100% of the samples. In summary, the HIV-1 load can accurately be quantified by testing DBS by either the Nuclisens or the m2000rt test, although the Nuclisens test may outperform the m2000rt test when nucleic acids are extracted manually. PMID:19193847

Garrido, Carolina; Zahonero, Natalia; Corral, Angélica; Arredondo, Miguel; Soriano, Vincent; de Mendoza, Carmen

2009-04-01

164

PAP-1, the mutated gene underlying the RP9 form of dominant retinitis pigmentosa, is a splicing factor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

PAP-1 is an in vitro phosphorylation target of the Pim-1 oncogene. Although PAP-1 binds to Pim-1, it is not a substrate for phosphorylation by Pim-1 in vivo. PAP-1 has recently been implicated as the defective gene in RP9, one type of autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa (adRP). However, RP9 is a rare disease and only two missense mutations have been described, so the report of a link between PAP-1 and RP9 was tentative. The precise cellular role of PAP-1 was also unknown at that time. We now report that PAP-1 localizes in nuclear speckles containing the splicing factor SC35 and interacts directly with another splicing factor, U2AF35. Furthermore, we used in vitro and in vivo splicing assays to show that PAP-1 has an activity, which alters the pattern of pre-mRNA splicing and that this activity is dependent on the phosphorylation state of PAP-1. We used the same splicing assay to examine the activities of two mutant forms of PAP-1 found in RP9 patients. The results showed that while one of the mutations, H137L, had no effect on splicing activity compared with that of wild-type PAP-1, the other, D170G, resulted in both a defect in splicing activity and a decreased proportion of phosphorylated PAP-1. The D170G mutation may therefore cause RP by altering splicing of retinal genes through a decrease in PAP-1 phosphorylation. These results demonstrate that PAP-1 has a role in pre-mRNA splicing and, given that three other splicing factors have been implicated in adRP, thg factors have been implicated in adRP, this finding provides compelling further evidence that PAP-1 is indeed the RP9 gene

165

Predictive permeability model of faults in crystalline rocks; verification by joint hydraulic factor (JH) obtained from water pressure tests  

Science.gov (United States)

In the present study, a new model is proposed to predict the permeability per fracture in the fault zones by a new parameter named joint hydraulic factor (JH). JH is obtained from Water Pressure Test (WPT) and modified by the degree of fracturing. The results of JH correspond with quantitative fault zone descriptions, qualitative fracture, and fault rock properties. In this respect, a case study was done based on the data collected from Seyahoo dam site located in the east of Iran to provide the permeability prediction model of fault zone structures. Datasets including scan-lines, drill cores, and water pressure tests in the terrain of Andesite and Basalt rocks were used to analyse the variability of in-site relative permeability of a range from fault zones to host rocks. The rock mass joint permeability quality, therefore, is defined by the JH. JH data analysis showed that the background sub-zone had commonly fault core had permeability characteristics nearly as low as the outer damage zone, represented by 8 Lu (1.3 ×10-4 m 3/s) per fracture, with occasional peaks towards 12 Lu (2 ×10-4 m 3/s) per fracture. The maximum JH value belongs to the inner damage zone, marginal to the fault core, with 14-22 Lu (2.3 ×10-4-3.6 ×10-4 m 3/s) per fracture, locally exceeding 25 Lu (4.1 ×10-4 m 3/s) per fracture. This gives a proportional relationship for JH approximately 1:4:2 between the fault core, inner damage zone, and outer damage zone of extensional fault zones in crystalline rocks. The results of the verification exercise revealed that the new approach would be efficient and that the JH parameter is a reliable scale for the fracture permeability change. It can be concluded that using short duration hydraulic tests (WPTs) and fracture frequency (FF) to calculate the JH parameter provides a possibility to describe a complex situation and compare, discuss, and weigh the hydraulic quality to make predictions as to the permeability models and permeation amounts of different zone structures.

Barani, Hamidreza Rostami; Lashkaripour, Gholamreza; Ghafoori, Mohammad

2014-08-01

166

Management of atypical glandular cells of undetermined significance pap smears: a reappraisal.  

Science.gov (United States)

OBJECTIVE.: To find appropriate management of patients with atypical glandular cells of undetermined significance (AGUS) Pap smears. MATERIALS AND METHODS.: The authors present their findings on patients with 606 AGUS Pap smears based on colposcopy, cervical biopsies, endocervical curettage, and endometrial biopsy. Twenty-one proposed management schemes by other authors are reviewed. RESULTS.: From 606 AGUS Pap smears, 69% had benign findings and 31% had neoplastic findings. Among 29 patients with endometrial pathology, only 4 patients (14%) were AGUS Pap smear requires colposcopy. We suggest endometrial biopsy for women over 40 years old and for women younger than 40 years old who have a high risk for endometrial neoplasia. Better-defined cytologic criteria from cytologists are needed. PMID:17051038

Van Dinh, Tung; Haque, Moona; Lucci, Joseph A; Smith, Edward R; Hannigan, Edward V

2003-01-01

167

Crystal Structure of the P Pilus Rod Subunit PapA  

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P pili are important adhesive fibres involved in kidney infection by uropathogenic Escherichia coli strains. P pili are assembled by the conserved chaperone–usher pathway, which involves the PapD chaperone and the PapC usher. During pilus assembly, subunits are incorporated into the growing fiber via the donor–strand exchange (DSE) mechanism, whereby the chaperone's G1 ?-strand that complements the incomplete immunoglobulin-fold of each subunit is displaced by the N-terminal extension (N...

Verger, Denis; Bullitt, Esther; Hultgren, Scott J.; Waksman, Gabriel

2007-01-01

168

Selective indication for positive airway pressure (PAP in sleep-related breathing disorders with obstruction  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Positive airway pressure (PAP is the therapy of choice for most sleep-related breathing disorders (SRBD. A variety of PAP devices using positive airway pressure (CPAP, BiPAP, APAP, ASV must be carefully considered before application. This overview aims to provide criteria for choosing the optimal PAP device according to severity and type of sleep-related breathing disorder. In addition, the range of therapeutic applications, constraints and side effects as well as alternative methods to PAP will be discussed. This review is based on an analysis of current literature and clinical experience. The data is presented from an ENT-sleep-laboratory perspective and is designed to help the ENT practitioner initiate treatment and provide support. Different titration methods, current devices and possible applications will be described. In addition to constant pressure devices (CPAP, most commonly used for symptomatic obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA without complicating conditions, BiPAP models will be introduced. These allow two different positive pressure settings and are thus especially suitable for patients with cardiopulmonary diseases or patients with pressure intolerance, increasing compliance in this subgroup considerably. Compliance can also be increased in patients during first night of therapy, patients with highly variable pressure demands or position-dependent OSA, by using self-regulating Auto-adjust PAP devices (Automatic positive airway pressure, APAP. Patients with Cheyne-Stokes breathing, a subtype of central sleep apnoea, benefit from adaptive servo-ventilation (ASV, which analyzes breathing patterns continually and adjusts the actual ventilation pressure accordingly. This not only reduces daytime sleepiness, but can also influence heart disease positively. Therapy with positive airway pressure is very effective in eliminating obstruction-related sleep diseases and symptoms. However, because therapy is generally applied for life, the optimal PAP device must be carefully selected, taking into account side effects that influence compliance.

Stasche, Norbert

2006-10-01

169

THE EFFECT OF AGE ON RESULTS OBTAINED BY MARES DURING STATIONARY AND FIELD PERFORMANCE TESTS CONDUCTED IN POLAND IN THE YEARS 2001-2010  

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The study encompassed a population of noble mares, assessed in Poland during performance tests. The statistical analysis pertained to results obtained by warmblood mares within a period of 10 years. Performance tests were conducted in II systems: field and stationary. The analysis encompassed 1490 mares, each of which participated in at least one performance test. The conducted study revealed statistically significant differences between average results obtained by 2-3 year-old mares and 4-ye...

Magdalena Drewka; Monika Monkiewicz; Dominika Gulda

2013-01-01

170

Colposcopic evaluation of cervix with persistent inflammatory Pap smear: A prospective analytical study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Inflammatory Pap smear is the most common report received by a gynecologist. The cervical screening algorithm for benign cellular changes on the Pap smear recommends treatment of infection if indicated and a repeat Pap smear in 4 to 6 months time. If the inflammatory changes still persist, subject the patient to colposcopy. However, in practice, this is not followed, especially in developing countries like ours where proper screening protocols are not available. Hence, a good number of patients in the premalignant stage are being missed. This study was undertaken to evaluate patients with persistent inflammatory Pap smears without atypia using colposcopy. Methods: A prospective analytical study of 150 gynecologial patients with persistent inflammatory Pap smear between 2006 and 2008 in an out-patient setting. All of them were subjected to colposcopy and biopsy from the abnormal areas. The incidence of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN/invasive carcinoma was calculated by proportions/percentages. Results: The incidence of invasive carcinoma was <1%. But, the incidence of pre-malignant lesions (CIN was high (20.9%. CIN 2/3 and carcinoma in situ were present in 6.9% of the cases. Conclusions: Patients with persistent inflammatory Pap smears can harbour a high proportion of CIN and hence these patients will need further evaluation.

Dasari Papa

2010-01-01

171

Time-dependent effect of p-Aminophenol (PAP) toxicity in renal slices and development of oxidative stress  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

p-Aminophenol (PAP), a metabolite of acetaminophen, is nephrotoxic. This study investigated PAP-mediated changes as a function of time that occur prior to loss of membrane integrity. Experiments further evaluated the development of oxidative stress by PAP. Renal slices from male Fischer 344 (F344) rats (N = 4-6) were exposed to 0.1, 0.25, and 0.5 mM PAP for 15-120 min under oxygen and constant shaking at 37 oC. Pyruvate-stimulated gluconeogenesis, adenine nucleotide levels, and total glutathione (GSH) levels were diminished in a concentration- and time-dependent manner prior to detection of a rise in lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) leakage. Glutathione disulfide (GSSG) levels were increased by PAP suggesting the induction of oxidative stress. Western blot analysis confirmed a rise in 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE)-adducted proteins in tissues exposed to 0.1 and 0.25 mM PAP for 90 min. The appearance of 4-HNE-adducted proteins at the 0.1 mM concentration of PAP occurred prior to development of increased LDH leakage. Pretreatment with 1 mM glutathione (GSH) for 30 min only partially reduced PAP toxicity as LDH values were less severely depleted relative to tissues not pretreated with GSH. In contrast, pretreatment for 15 min with 2 mM ascorbic acid completely protected against PAP toxicity. Further studies showed that ascorbic acid pretreatment prevented PAP-mediated depletion of GSH. In summary, PAP rapidly depletes GSH and adenine nucleotides and inhibits gluconeogenenine nucleotides and inhibits gluconeogenesis prior to a rise in LDH leakage. PAP induces oxidative stress as indicated by an increase in GSSG and 4-HNE-adducted proteins. Ascorbic acid pretreatment prevents PAP toxicity by maintaining GSH status

172

Flavonoid production in transgenic hop (Humulus lupulus L.) altered by PAP1/MYB75 from Arabidopsis thaliana L.  

Science.gov (United States)

Hop is an important source of secondary metabolites, such as flavonoids. Some of these are pharmacologically active. Nevertheless, the concentration of some classes as flavonoids in wild-type plants is rather low. To enhance the production in hop, it would be interesting to modify the regulation of genes in the flavonoid biosynthetic pathway. For this purpose, the regulatory factor PAP1/AtMYB75 from Arabidopsis thaliana L. was introduced into hop plants cv. Tettnanger by Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation. Twenty kanamycin-resistant transgenic plants were obtained. It was shown that PAP1/AtMYB75 was stably incorporated and expressed in the hop genome. In comparison to the wild-type plants, the color of female flowers and cones of transgenic plants was reddish to pink. Chemical analysis revealed higher levels of anthocyanins, rutin, isoquercitin, kaempferol-glucoside, kaempferol-glucoside-malonate, desmethylxanthohumol, xanthohumol, ?-acids and ?-acids in transgenic plants compared to wild-type plants. PMID:21912858

Gatica-Arias, A; Farag, M A; Stanke, M; Matoušek, J; Wessjohann, L; Weber, G

2012-01-01

173

Signaling-State Formation Mechanism of a BLUF Protein PapB from the Purple Bacterium Rhodopseudomonas palustris Studied by Femtosecond Time-Resolved Absorption Spectroscopy.  

Science.gov (United States)

We studied the signaling-state formation of a BLUF (blue light using FAD) protein, PapB, from the purple bacterium Rhodopseudomonas palustris, using femtosecond time-resolved absorption spectroscopy. Upon photoexcitation of the dark state, FADH(•) (neutral flavin semiquinone FADH radical) was observed as the intermediate before the formation of the signaling state. The kinetic analysis based on singular value decomposition showed that FADH(•) mediates the signaling-state formation, showing that PapB is the second example of FADH(•)-mediated formation of the signaling state after Slr1694 (M. Gauden et al. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 2006, 103, 10895-10900). The mechanism of the signaling-state formation is discussed on the basis of the comparison between femtosecond time-resolved absorption spectra of the dark state and those obtained by exciting the signaling state. FADH(•) was observed also with excitation of the signaling state, and surprisingly, the kinetics of FADH(•) was indistinguishable from the case of exciting the dark state. This result suggests that the hydrogen bond environment in the signaling state is realized before the formation of FADH(•) in the photocycle of PapB. PMID:25406769

Fujisawa, Tomotsumi; Takeuchi, Satoshi; Masuda, Shinji; Tahara, Tahei

2014-12-10

174

Generierung von biologisch aktivem Reg4 und HIP/PAP mit nachfolgender Charakterisierung angestoßener Signaltransduktionsprozesse innerhalb von Tumorzellen des Gastrointestinaltraktes  

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Zusammenfassung In der vorliegenden Arbeit wird die Rolle der „regeneration islet-derived gene family“ (Reg-Familie) im Zusammenhang der Krebsentstehung erläutert. Insbesondere wird dabei auf die Mitglieder Reg4 und HIP/PAP beim Menschen fokussiert. Daraus leiteten sich die Fragestellungen nach Reg4 und HIP/PAP abhängigen Signaltransduktionsmechanismen ab. Solche Prozesse sind für Reg4 und HIP/PAP bislang nur fragmentarisch verstanden. Eine strukturierte Signalkaskade induziert durch e...

Vocke, Dirk

2007-01-01

175

Distribution of the P-associated-pilus (pap) region among Escherichia coli from natural sources: evidence for horizontal gene transfer.  

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Variation in chromosomal DNA in Escherichia coli was studied with probes specific for the P-associated-pilus (pap) region. The presence of DNA homologous to pap was determined by dot blots. Variation in the number of copies of pap and in the organization of internal and flanking sequences was determined by Southern blot hybridization. The 229 strains studied were also classified by O:K:H serotyping and multilocus enzyme electrophoresis. There was considerable heterogeneity in the presence of ...

Plos, K.; Hull, S. I.; Hull, R. A.; Levin, B. R.; Orskov, I.; Orskov, F.; Svanborg-ede?n, C.

1989-01-01

176

Importance of a 5? Stem-Loop for Longevity of papA mRNA in Escherichia coli  

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High-level expression of the major pilus subunit (PapA) of uropathogenic strains of Escherichia coli results in part from the unusually long lifetime of the mRNA that encodes this protein. Here we report that the longevity of papA mRNA derives in large measure from the protection afforded by its 5? untranslated region. This papA RNA segment can prolong the lifetime of an otherwise short-lived mRNA to which it is fused. In vivo alkylation studies indicate that, in its natural milieu, the pap...

Bricker, Angela L.; Belasco, Joel G.

1999-01-01

177

Problems in obtaining sufficient anaesthesia with propofol and remifentanil : three cases, a test infusion, and a review  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

BACKGROUND: /st>Over a 5 yr period, we have encountered three patients in whom remifentanil appeared to have no clinical effect during general anaesthesia (GA). We describe seven anaesthetics in these three patients. METHODS: /st>We reviewed the literature on this subject. A simple reproducible test to explore this response was designed. This involved a controlled infusion of increasing doses of remifentanil while observing respiratory variables, pain threshold, pupil size, and Glasgow coma scale score. In addition, blood was sampled for genotyping. RESULTS: /st>No description of this impaired response was found in the review of the literature. Two of the patients agreed to participate in the test. In both patients, we found a seemingly normal analgesic response but a lack of respiratory depression and almost no depression of consciousness, even at doses well above the recommended level for clinical use. The genotyping did not explain the results of the test. CONCLUSIONS: /st>The potential causes of this effect are discussed. We advise clinicians to be aware of this unusual response to remifentanil. If such a response is suspected, we recommend the use of another opioid. If this is suspected before GA, we propose the use of our test as a diagnostic tool.

Bache, Stefan Holst; Stendell, L

2013-01-01

178

Activation of an immune response in Litopenaeus vannamei by oral immunization with phagocytosis activating protein (PAP) DNA.  

Science.gov (United States)

The phagocytosis activating protein (PAP) gene has been reported to stimulate the phagocytic activity of shrimp hemocytes and to protect shrimp from several pathogens. In this study oral administration of the chitosan-PAP gene to shrimp was investigated for its ability to induce immunity. The PAP gene was cooperated into a phMGFP plasmid, named PAP-phMGFP. Chitosan-PAP-phMGFP nanoparticles were formed by mixing a low molecular weight chitosan (50 kDa) and a high molecular weight chitosan (150 kDa) with various ratios of PAP-phMGFP. The optimal ratio of chitosan PAP-phMGFP nanoparticles was first determined by transfection into Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells before being used for oral immunization in shrimp. The chitosan-PAP-phMGFP nanoparticles at a ratio of 2:1 with the low molecular weight chitosan were optimum for transfecting the CHO cells. The shrimp were then fed with 25, 50, 100 and 150 ?g/shrimp/day of chitosan-PAP-phMGFP (2:1) nanoparticles then challenged by the white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). Shrimp fed with 50 ?g of chitosan-PAP-phMGFP nanoparticles per day for 7 consecutive days, produced the highest relative percent survival (RPS) (94.45 ± 9.86%). The presence of PAP-phMGFP was detected in every shrimp tissue including the hemolymph, lymphoid organ, heart, hepatopancreas, intestine and muscle. The folds increase of the PAP gene expression increased significantly together with an increase of the phagocytic activity in the immunized shrimp. The stability of the PAP-phMGFP in the immunized shrimp hemolymph was detected by determination of the expression of the GFP at various days after immunization ceased. GFP expression was detected until the 15th day but not at the 30th day after immunization ceased. A quantitative analysis of the WSSV copies in shrimp heart tissue was significantly reduced in the immunized shrimp. In addition, chitosan-PAP-phMGFP nanoparticles protected shrimp against WSSV, Yellow head virus (YHV) and Vibrio harveyi with RPS values of 83.34 ± 7.86%, 55.56 ± 15.72% and 53.91 ± 5.52%, respectively. This study therefore confirms the role of the PAP gene in shrimp immunity and may lead to the development of a way to prevent microbial diseases of shrimp at an industrial level by appropriate feeding of a chitosan/DNA complex. PMID:23353001

Khimmakthong, Umaporn; Kongmee, Pataraporn; Deachamag, Panchalika; Leggat, Ureporn; Chotigeat, Wilaiwan

2013-03-01

179

Validation of nuclear design method by measured data obtained in the physics test at a small fast reactor  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The present paper discusses applicability of the measured data of Joyo cores from a view point of integral validation for the 4S nuclear design methodology. Through the evaluation of isothermal reactivity coefficients and reactivity losses due to burnup, the results confirm that those MK-I and MK-II database are effective in order to increase the dataset for uncertainty estimation for the prediction. Discussions on the 4S design method validation are also done through the analyses of criticality, power distributions and reactivity loss due to burn-up. The C/E values for criticality and reaction rate distributions are confirmed to be consistent with those obtained from the physics benchmark experiments. Through an analysis of burnup coefficient of the MK-I core by the detailed Monte Carlo calculations, the C/E value is 1.1, which is close to 1.06 obtained by the deterministic transport analysis. (authors)

Nagata, A.; Tsuboi, Y. [Advanced Energy Design and Engineering Dep., Toshiba Corporation, 8 Shinsugita-cho, Isogo-ku, Yokohama, 235-8523 (Japan); Moriki, Y. [Power and Industrial Systems Research and Development Center, Toshiba Corporation, 8 Shinsugita-cho, Isogo-ku, Yokohama, 235-8523 (Japan); Kawashima, M. [Nuclear Technology Application Dept., Toshiba Nuclear Engineering Services Corporation, 8 Shinsugita-cho, Isogo-ku, Yokohama, 235-8523 (Japan)

2012-07-01

180

Isolation, characterization and cross-species testing of microsatellites obtained from a sand smelt (Atherina boyeri) genomic library.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study reports the isolation and characterization of 11 polymorphic microsatellites from a sand smelt (Atherina boyeri) genomic library. Enrichment was performed with di-, tri- and tetranucleotide motifs following the FIASCO procedure (fast isolation by AFLP of sequences containing repeats). All loci were found to be in linkage and in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. This represents the first microsatellite isolation for the family Atherinidae and the isolated loci were accordingly tested on four additional species of the family: two recognized (A. presbyter and A. hepsetus) and two proposed ('punctata' and 'non-punctata' forms). Moreover their cross-species suitability on Menidia menidia, belonging to the same order but to the family Atherinopsidae, was also tested. PMID:21564780

Milana, Valentina; Sola, Luciana; Rossi, Anna R; Barbisan, Federica; Congiu, Leonardo

2009-05-01

 
 
 
 
181

A phantom and a procedure to obtain variable-object-contrast test images in gamma camera emission computed tomography (SPECT)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The value of test objects with a range of object contrast has been widely recognized for the testing of medical imaging equipment. A simple phantom is described, which, together with a data processing procedure, provides variable-contrast rod objects in gamma camera emission computed tomography (SPECT). There is only one compartment to fill with radioisotope, and data from hot rods, cold rods and a uniform section are available for analysis. The rod object contrast varies from 100% to 0%, with nine contrast steps used in this analysis. The measured image contrast in the transaxial slices is shown to be sensitive to variations in the system spatial resolution. With only one compartment to fill with radioisotope, this procedure is applicable for routine checking or optimization of gamma camera SPECT systems. (Author)

182

Constructing kinetics fatigue diagrams using testing results obtained on a machine with rigid loading for specimens of various thickness  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Bending tests of 40KhS steel specimens, tempered at 200 and 500 deg C, are conducted to investigate the possible effects of specimen thickness on fatigue crack growth. Kinetic fatigue diagrams are constructed using the investigation results. An increase in crack growth with thickness is observed only in high-tempered specimens. Changes in specimen thickness do not affect crack growth in 40KhS low-tempered steel

183

Dynamics stability derivatives of space shuttle orbiter obtained from wind-tunnel and approach and landing flight tests  

Science.gov (United States)

A comparison was made between ground facility measurements, the aerodynamic design data book values, and the dynamic damping derivatives extracted from the space shuttle orbiter approach and landing flight tests. The comparison covers an angle of attack range from 2 deg to 10 deg at subsonic Mach numbers. The parameters of pitch, yaw, and roll damping, as well as the yawing moment due to rolling velocity and rolling moment due to yawing velocity are compared.

Freeman, D. C., Jr.

1980-01-01

184

RELIABILITY AND VALIDITY OF PHYSIOLOGICAL DATA OBTAINED WITHIN A CYCLE-RUN TRANSITION TEST IN AGE-GROUP TRIATHLETES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study examined the validity and reliability of a sequential "Run-Bike-Run" test (RBR in age-group triathletes. Eight Olympic distance (OD specialists (age 30.0 ± 2.0 years, mass 75.6 ± 1.6 kg, run VO2max 63.8 ± 1.9 ml·kg-1·min-1, cycle VO2peak 56.7 ± 5.1 ml·kg-1·min-1 performed four trials over 10 days. Trial 1 (TRVO2max was an incremental treadmill running test. Trials 2 and 3 (RBR1 and RBR2 involved: 1 a 7-min run at 15 km·h-1 (R1 plus a 1-min transition to 2 cycling to fatigue (2 W·kg-1 body mass then 30 W each 3 min; 3 10-min cycling at 3 W·kg-1 (Bsubmax; another 1-min transition and 4 a second 7-min run at 15 km·h-1 (R2. Trial 4 (TT was a 30-min cycle - 20-min run time trial. No significant differences in absolute oxygen uptake (VO2, heart rate (HR, or blood lactate concentration ([BLA] were evidenced between RBR1 and RBR2. For all measured physiological variables, the limits of agreement were similar, and the mean differences were physiologically unimportant, between trials. Low levels of test-retest error (i.e. ICC <0.8, CV<10% were observed for most (logged measurements. However [BLA] post R1 (ICC 0.87, CV 25.1%, [BLA] post Bsubmax (ICC 0.99, CV 16.31 and [BLA] post R2 (ICC 0.51, CV 22.9% were least reliable. These error ranges may help coaches detect real changes in training status over time. Moreover, RBR test variables can be used to predict discipline specific and overall TT performance. Cycle VO2peak, cycle peak power output, and the change between R1 and R2 (deltaR1R2 in [BLA] were most highly related to overall TT distance (r = 0.89, p < 0. 01; r = 0.94, p < 0.02; r = 0.86, p < 0.05, respectively. The percentage of TR VO2max at 15 km·h-1, and deltaR1R2 HR, were also related to run TT distance (r = -0.83 and 0.86, both p < 0.05

Veronica Vleck

2012-12-01

185

Crystal structure of the P pilus rod subunit PapA  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

P pili are important adhesive fibres involved in kidney infection by uropathogenic Escherichia coli strains. P pili are assembled by the conserved chaperone-usher pathway, which involves the PapD chaperone and the PapC usher. During pilus assembly, subunits are incorporated into the growing fiber via the donor-strand exchange (DSE) mechanism, whereby the chaperone's G(1) beta-strand that complements the incomplete immunoglobulin-fold of each subunit is displaced by the N-terminal extension (N...

Verger, D.; Bullitt, E.; Hultgren, S. J.; Waksman, G.

2007-01-01

186

Hemin Binding, Functional Expression, and Complementation Analysis of Pap 31 from Bartonella henselae  

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Growth of Bartonella henselae is strongly heme dependent, and B. henselae is unable to synthesize heme itself. At least five outer membrane-associated proteins from B. henselae bind hemin, including the 31-kDa protein designated Pap31. The gene of this protein was heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli M15(pREP4) and detected with monoclonal antibodies in the outer membrane fraction. Complementation of the hemA-deficient mutant E. coli K-12 EB53 (aroB tsx malT hemA) with pap31 demonstra...

Zimmermann, Rainer; Kempf, Volkhard A. J.; Schiltz, Emile; Oberle, Karin; Sander, Anna

2003-01-01

187

New experimental limits on violations of the Pauli exclusion principle obtained with the Borexino Counting Test Facility  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Pauli exclusion principle (PEP) has been tested for nucleons (n,p) in 12C and 16O nuclei, using the results of background measurements with the prototype of the Borexino detector, the Counting Test Facility (CTF). The approach consisted of a search for ?, n, p and/or ?'s emitted in a non-Paulian transition of 1P- shell nucleons to the filled 1S1/2 shell in nuclei. Similarly, the Pauli-forbidden ?± decay processes were searched for. Due to the extremely low background and the large mass (4.2 tons) of the CTF detector, the following most stringent up-to-date experimental bounds on PEP violating transitions of nucleons have been established: ?(12C?12C+?)>2.1.1027y, ?(12C?11B+p)>5.0.1026y, ?(12C(16O)?11C(15O)+n)>3.7.1026y, ?(12C?8Be+?)>6.1.1023y, ?(12C?12N+e-+?e)>7.6.1027y and ?(12C?12B+e++?e)>7.7.1027y, all at 90 % C.L. (orig.)

188

Prediction of inappropriate implantable cardioverter-defibrillator therapies through parameters obtained in a simple exercise stress test.  

Science.gov (United States)

Although the clinical benefits of implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs) have been demonstrated, inappropriate therapies (IATs) cannot be completely avoided even with the most advanced devices. Recently, IATs are considered to decrease the ventricular function and prognosis of a patient. The aim of this study was to investigate the predictors of IAT with parameters during cardiopulmonary exercise stress test (CPX). Sixty consecutive ICD patients underwent symptom-limited CPX, and were divided into IAT (+) and IAT (-) groups. During and after CPX, ECG and hemodynamic parameters of systemic blood pressure, heart rate, and maximal O2 consumption (max VO2) were evaluated every minute. In selected patients, sympathetic and parasympathetic activities were evaluated with analyses of heart rate variability (HRV). No significant differences were observed in clinical background parameters. In the CPX parameters, only the maximal heart rate exhibited a significant difference between the IAT (+) group and the IAT (-) group (154.8 ± 5.9 versus 137.9 ± 4.2 beats per minute, P = 0.032), and LF/HF was higher during the recovery phase 4 minutes after peak exercise in the former group (4.5 ± 1.0 versus 2.4 ± 0.9, P = 0.021). In ICD patients, IAT can be predicted using simple parameters of increased sympathetic activity such as increased maximal heart rate and increased LF/HF ratio during and after the exercise stress test. PMID:23038087

Satoh, Akira; Niwano, Shinichi; Niwano, Hiroe; Kamiya, Kentaro; Kishihara, Jun; Aoyama, Yuya; Kameda, Ryo; Oikawa, Jun; Yuge, Masaru; Izumi, Tohru

2012-01-01

189

New experimental limits on violations of the Pauli exclusion principle obtained with the Borexino Counting Test Facility  

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The Pauli exclusion principle (PEP) has been tested for nucleons ($n,p$) in $^{12}C$ and $^{16}O$ nuclei, using the results of background measurements with the prototype of the Borexino detector, the Counting Test Facility (CTF). The approach consisted of a search for $\\gamma$, $n$, $p$ and/or $\\alpha$'s emitted in a non-Paulian transition of 1$P$- shell nucleons to the filled 1$S_{1/2}$ shell in nuclei. Similarly, the Pauli-forbidden $\\beta^{\\pm}$ decay processes were searched for. Due to the extremely low background and the large mass (4.2 tons) of the CTF detector, the following most stringent up-to-date experimental bounds on PEP violating transitions of nucleons have been established: $\\tau(^{12}C\\to^{12}\\widetilde{C}+\\gamma) > 2.1\\cdot10^{27}$ y, $\\tau(^{12}C\\to^{11}\\widetilde{B}+ p) > 5.0\\cdot10^{26}$ y, $\\tau(^{12}C(^{16}O)\\to^{11}\\widetilde{C}(^{15}\\widetilde{O})+ n) > 3.7 \\cdot 10^{26}$ y, $\\tau(^{12}C\\to^{8}\\widetilde{Be}+\\alpha) > 6.1 \\cdot 10^{23}$ y, $\\tau(^{12}C\\to^{12}\\widetilde{N}+ e^- + \\wid...

Back, H O; De Bari, A; De Bellefon, A; Bellini, G; Benziger, J; Bonetti, S; Buck, C; Caccianiga, B; Cadonati, L; Calaprice, F; Cecchet, G; Chen, M; Di Credico, A; Dadoun, O; D'Angelo, D; Derbin, A; Deutsch, M; Etenko, A; Von Feilitzsch, F; Fernholz, R; Ford, R; Franco, D; Freudiger, B; Galbiati, C; Gazzana, S; Giammarchi, M G; Goeger-Neff, M; Goretti, A; Grieb, C; Hampel, W; Harding, E; Hartmann, F X; Heusser, G; Ianni, A; Ianni, A M; De Kerret, H; Kiko, J; Kirsten, T; Kobychev, V V; Korga, G; Korschinek, G; Kozlov, Y; Kryn, D; Laubenstein, M; Lendvai, C; Leung, M; Litvinovich, E; Lombardi, P; Machulin, I; Malvezzi, S; Maneira, J; Manno, I; Manuzio, D; Manuzio, G; Masetti, F; Martemianov, A; Mazzucato, U; McCarty, K; Meroni, E; Mention, G; Miramonti, L; Monzani, M E; Muratova, V; Musico, P; Niedermeier, L; Oberauer, L; Obolensky, M; Ortica, F; Pallavicini, M; Papp, L; Perasso, L; Peiffer, P; Pocar, A; Raghavan, R S; Ranucci, G; Razeto, A; Sabelnikov, A; Salvo, C; Scardaoni, R; Schimizzi, D; Schönert, S; Simgen, H; Shutt, T A; Skorokhvatov, M; Smirnov, O; Sonnenschein, A; Sotnikov, A; Sukhotin, S; Suvorov, Y; Tarasenkov, V; Tartaglia, R; Testera, G; Vignaud, D; Vogelaar, R B; Vyrodov, V N; Wójcik, M; Zaimidoroga, O A; Zuzel, G

2004-01-01

190

THE EFFECT OF THE BREED OF WARMBLOOD MARES ON RESULTS OBTAINED DURING STATIONARY AND FIELD PERFORMANCE TESTS IN POLAND IN THE YEARS 2001-2010  

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Full Text Available The aim of the research was to determine the effect of breed on results obtained by warmblood mares during stationary and field performance tests. Research encompassed results obtained by 1490 mares participating in stationary and field performance tests in Poland in the years 2001-2010. The population was comprised of 17 breeds. Name abbreviations are displayed in Table 1. As a result of significant differences in the number of individual animals comprising each breed and in order to maintain the comparability of results, the entire population was divided into four breed groups: Half-Blood, Greater Poland, Lesser Poland and foreign breeds. Minimal and maximum score ranges were shown, as well as mathematical averages (MA and standard deviation (SD in the studied population. Statistical differences between average utility point values obtained by the horse breeds were analyzed using the Kruskal-Wallis test.

Magdalena Drewka

2013-12-01

191

Potential application of electronic nose in processed animal proteins (PAP detection in feedstuffs  

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Full Text Available Electronic nose and olfactometry techniques represent a modern analytical approach in food industry since they could potentially improve quality and safety of food processing. The aim of this study was to evaluate possible application of electronic nose in PA P detection and recognition in feed. For this purpose 6 reference feedstuffs (CRA-W / UE STRAT F E E D Project were used. The basis of the test samples was a compound feed for bovine fortified with processed animal proteins ( PAP consisting of meat and bone meal (MBM and/or fish meal at different concentrations. Each feed sample was tested in glass vials and the odour profile was determined by the ten MOS (metal oxide semi-conductor sensors of the electronic nose. Ten different descriptors, representing each ten sensors of electronic nose, were used to characterise the odour of each sample. In the present study, electronic nose was able to discriminate the blank sample from all other samples containing PA P ( M B M , fish meal or both. Samples containing either 0.5% of MBM or 5% of fish meal were identified, while samples containing a high fish meal content (5% associated with a low MBM content (0.5% were not discriminated from samples containing solely fish meal at that same high level (5%. This latter indicates that probably the high fish meal level, in samples containing both MBM and fish meal, tended to mask MBM odour. It was also evident that two odour descriptors were enough to explain 72.12% of total variability in odour pattern. In view of these results, it could be suggested that electronic nose and olfactometry techniques can provide an interesting approach for screening raw materials in feed industry, even though further studies using a wider set of samples are needed.

Dell'Orto V.

2004-01-01

192

CNS activity of Pokeweed Anti-viral Protein (PAP in mice infected with Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis Virus (LCMV  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Others and we have previously described the potent in vivo and in vitro activity of the broad-spectrum antiviral agent PAP (Pokeweed antiviral protein against a wide range of viruses. The purpose of the present study was to further elucidate the anti-viral spectrum of PAP by examining its effects on the survival of mice challenged with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV. Methods We examined the therapeutic effect of PAP in CBA mice inoculated with intracerebral injections of the WE54 strain of LCMV at a 1000 PFU dose level that is lethal to 100% of mice within 7–9 days. Mice were treated either with vehicle or PAP administered intraperitoneally 24 hours prior to, 1 hour prior to and 24 hours, 48 hours 72 hours and 96 hours after virus inoculation. Results PAP exhibits significant in vivo anti- LCMV activity in mice challenged intracerebrally with an otherwise invariably fatal dose of LCMV. At non-toxic dose levels, PAP significantly prolonged survival in the absence of the majority of disease-associated symptoms. The median survival time of PAP-treated mice was >21 days as opposed to 7 days median survival for the control (p = 0.0069. Conclusion Our results presented herein provide unprecedented experimental evidence that PAP exhibits antiviral activity in the CNS of LCMV-infected mice.

Tibbles Heather E

2005-02-01

193

An artificial PAP gene breaks self-tolerance and promotes tumor regression in the TRAMP model for prostate carcinoma.  

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Prostate cancer (PCa) is the most commonly diagnosed type of cancer in men in western industrialized countries. As a public health burden, the need for the invention of new cost-saving PCa immunotherapies is apparent. In this study, we present a DNA vaccine encoding for the prostate-specific antigen prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP) linked to the J-domain and the SV40 enhancer sequence. The PAP DNA vaccine induced a strong PAP-specific cellular immune response after electroporation (EP)-based delivery in C57BL/6 mice. Splenocytes from mice immunized with PAP recognized the naturally processed PAP epitopes, indicating that vaccination with the PAP-J gene broke its self-tolerance against PAP. Remarkably, DNA vaccination with PAP-J inhibited tumor growth in the Transgenic Adenocarcinoma of the Mouse Prostate (TRAMP) mouse model that closely resembled human PCa. Therefore, this study highlights a novel cancer immunotherapy approach with the potential to control PCa in clinical settings. PMID:22086231

Spies, Elmar; Reichardt, Wilfried; Alvarez, Gerardo; Groettrup, Marcus; Ohlschläger, Peter

2012-03-01

194

Comparative study of visual inspection of the cervix by 3% acetic acid (VIA versus Pap smear by Bethesda method in sexually active women aged 25-50 years as an equally or more effective cervical cancer screening method in a low resource setup  

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Full Text Available Background: Cervical cancer is the most common cancer in Indian women and is a preventable cancer. Pap smear being an expensive screening test, increased emphasis is being laid on the development of a reliable and cost effective screening method for cervical cancer. This study aims at early detection of cervical dysplastic lesions using a simple and cost-effective screening test like visual inspection of cervix with 3% acetic acid (VIA and comparing its diagnostic efficacy with the more expensive Pap screening by Bethesda method. Methods: Ours was a prospective study carried out on a 100 sexually active women aged 25-50 years, coming to our OPD. The women were subjected to both a VIA and Pap smear. All Pap and VIA positive women were subjected to a cervical biopsy, whose histopathological report was taken as the gold standard. Results: In our study the sensitivity of VIA was more than that of cytology (100% versus 66.67% but the specificity was significantly lesser (47.83% compared to the 73.91%. The negative predictive value of VIA was comparable with Pap smear (100% and 85% respectively as was the positive predictive value (42.86% and 50%. However the diagnostic accuracy of VIA was lower than that of Pap smear (66.67% and 81.25% in our study. Conclusions: In this study VIA was found to have efficacy comparable to Pap smear in screening cervical cancer. Thus we recommend that VIA could be used as an alternative screening tool to detect early cervical dysplasia - especially in poor resource settings. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2014; 3(3.000: 688-691

Mohit Rajendra Saraogi

2014-06-01

195

STUDY OF HIGH RISK CASES FOR EARLY DETECTION OF CERVICAL CANCER BY PAP’S SMEAR AND VISUAL INSPECTION BY LUGOL’S IODINE METHOD.  

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INTRODUCTION:Cervical cancer is the commonest genital tract cancer among Indian women. Screening programmes have claimed to reduce incidence and mortality of cervical carcinoma significantly, for which sensitization of women is required through community based approach.OBJECTIVES: Comparison of VILI and cytology by PAP smear for detection of low grade squamous intraepithelial lesion, high grade squamous intraepithelial lesion, carcinoma of cervix and correlation of results with the reference ...

Harshad Ladola; Ami Mehta; Kamlesh Kotadiya; Rebecca Edwin; Vibhuti Patel; Vaibhavi Patel

2013-01-01

196

Deoxygenation and the blood volume signals in the flexor carpi ulnaris and radialis muscles obtained during the execution of the Mirallas's test of judo athletes  

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The technique of execution of any movement in Judo is extremely important. The coaches want tests and tools easy to use and cheaper, to evaluate the progress of a judoist in the tatame. In this paper we present a test developed by Mirallas, which has his name 'Test of Mirallas' to evaluate the maximal power capacity of the judoist. The near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) signals were obtained to have a measurement of the metabolic work of the flexor carpi ulnaris and radialis muscles, during the execution of the ippon-seoi-nage movement, allowing this measurement to assess by NIRS the maximal oxygen uptake. Also obtained were tympanic, skin forehead, and biceps brachii temperatures during the test time and recovery phase to study the effects of ambient conditions and the post-exercise oxygen consumption. The deoxygenation and blood volume signals obtained gave different results, demonstrating the hypothesis of the coaches that some judoist do the execution of the ippon-seoi-nage movement correctly and the rest didn't. The heart rate frequency obtained in the group of judoist was between 190-207 bpm, and in the minute five of post-exercise was 114-137 bpm; the time employed in the MIrallas's test were from 7 feet 14 inches to 13 feet 49 inches, and the total of movements were from 199 to 409. The data obtained in the skin forehead, and skin biceps brachii confirms previous works that the oxygen consumption remains after exercise in the muscle studied. According to the results, the test developed by Mirallas is a good tool to evaluate the performance of judoist any time, giving better results compared with standard tests.

Verdaguer-Codina, Joan; Mirallas, Jaume A.

1996-12-01

197

Electrolytes assessed by point-of-care testing - Are the values comparable with results obtained from the central laboratory?  

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Full Text Available Background and Aims: When dealing with very sick patients, the speed and accuracy of tests to detect metabolic derangements is very important. We evaluated if there was agreement between whole blood electrolytes measured by a point-of-care device and serum electrolytes measured using indirect ion-selective electrodes. Materials and Methods: In this prospective study, electrolytes were analyzed in 44 paired samples drawn from critically ill patients. Whole blood electrolytes were analyzed using a point-of-care blood gas analyzer and serum electrolytes were analyzed in the central laboratory on samples transported through a rapid transit pneumatic system. Agreement was summarized by the mean difference with 95% limits of agreement (LOA and Lin?s concordance correlation (p c. Results: There was a significant difference in the mean (±standard deviation sodium value between whole blood and serum samples (135.8 ± 5.7 mmol/L vs. 139.9 ± 5.4 mmol/L, P < 0.001, with the agreement being modest (p c = 0.71; mean difference -4.0; 95% LOA -8.78 to 0.65. Although the agreement between whole blood and serum potassium was good (p c = 0.96, and the average difference small (-0.3; 95% LOA -0.72 to 0.13, individual differences were clinically significant, particularly at lower potassium values. For potassium values <3.0 mmol/L, the concordance was low (p c = 0.53 and the LOA was wide (1.0 to -0.13. The concordance for potassium was good (p c = 0.96 for values ?3.0 (mean difference -0.2; 95% LOA -0.48 to 0.06. Conclusions: Clinicians should be aware of the difference between whole blood and serum electrolytes, particularly when urgent samples are tested at point of care and routine follow-up electrolytes are sent to the central laboratory. A correction factor needs to be determined at each center.

Chacko Binila

2011-01-01

198

Carpet beetle larval parts in Pap smears: report of two cases.  

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We describe the cases of two asymptomatic patients who had carpet beetle larval parts in routine cervical Pap smears. The diagnosis was made by finding pathognomonic hastisetae in the smears. The evidence suggests that contamination occurred at or around the time of sampling. PMID:8023215

Bryant, J; Maslan, A M

1994-07-01

199

Clinical Inquiry: Do annual pelvic exams benefit asymptomatic women who receive regular Pap smears?  

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No evidence exists to support a clinical benefit from annual pelvic examinations for asymptomatic women who receive Pap smears every 3 to 5 years. However, the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) committee on gynecologic practice recommends annual pelvic exams. PMID:25574511

Gold, Erin; Guthmann, Richard; Plonka, Catherine

2015-01-01

200

Expression Pattern of Class B Gene PAP3 in Flower Development of Pepper  

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Full Text Available Class B gene APETALA3 (AP3 plays a key role in the development of petals and stamens. Here, we investigated the expression pattern of PAP3 gene (genbank accession number: HM104635 in the buds of cytoplasmic male sterility line 121A and its near-isogenic restorer line 121C at four developmental stages and analyzed the possible association between Class B genes and cytoplasmic male sterility of pepper. Semi-quantitative PCR and quantitative real-time RT-PCR (qRT-PCR as well as RNA in situ hybridization showed increased expression of PAP3 at late phase of anther development and its higher expression in restorer line compared with sterility line indicating PAP3’s role at late developmental stage of anther and suppressed expression in sterility line. RNA in situ hybridization showed Class B gene features: high abundance in stamen and petal; lower expression in pistil; no expression in sepal. Results of transient expression in onion epidermal cells also showed PAP3 localized in the nucleus, which is consistent with the expression pattern of transcription factors of MADS-box gene family.

Xin Li

2013-12-01

 
 
 
 
201

Comparison of Molecular (PCR) and Pap Smear Methods in Diagnosis of Human Papiloma Virus (HPV) in Women with Genit al Warts  

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Background and Objective: Much research has shown that Human Papiloma Virus (HPV) plays an important role in cervix cancer and it is the cause of 99% of cervix cancer worldwide. Lots of research has been done to find a proper method for HPV diagnosis and screening in patients with genital warts. This study aimed at comparing PCR method with Pap smear test in HPV screening. Material and Methods: Considering the presence of DNA of HPV, 45 vaginal and cervix swap samples of women with genital wa...

Bashi Zadeh Fakhar, H.; Faraji, R.; Ghan E, M.; Jafarpour, M.; Ashoorizadeh, B.

2013-01-01

202

Spatial structure of oligopeptide PAP(248-261), the N-terminal fragment of the HIV enhancer prostatic acid phosphatase peptide PAP(248-286), in aqueous and SDS micelle solutions  

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Prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP) is an enzyme that facilitates infection of cells by HIV. Its peptide fragment PAP(248-286) forms amyloid fibrils known as SEVI, which enhance attachment of the virus by viral adhesion to the host cell prior to receptor-specific binding via reducing the electrostatic repulsion between the membranes of the virus and the target cell. The secondary structure of PAP(248-286) in aqueous and SDS solutions can be divided into an N-terminal disordered region, an ?-helical central part and an ?/310-helical C-terminal region (Nanga et al., 2009). In this work, we used NMR spectroscopy to study the spatial structure of the isolated N-terminal fragment of PAP(248-286), PAP(248-261) (GIHKQKEKSRLQGG), in aqueous and SDS micelle solutions. Formation of a PAP(248-261)-SDS complex was confirmed by chemical shift alterations in the 1H NMR spectra of the peptide, as well as by the signs and values of Nuclear Overhauser Effect (NOE). In addition, the PAP(248-261) peptide does not form any specified secondary structure in either aqueous or SDS solutions.

Blokhin, Dmitriy S.; Filippov, Andrei V.; Antzutkin, Oleg N.; Karataeva, Farida Kh.; Klochkov, Vladimir V.

2014-07-01

203

TTF-1 and p63 for distinguishing pulmonary small-cell carcinoma from poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma in previously pap-stained cytologic material.  

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In histology and cell block sections, antibodies to thyroid transcription factor-1 (TTF-1) and p63 have been demonstrated to be useful markers for distinguishing between small-cell lung carcinoma and poorly differentiated pulmonary squamous cell carcinoma. In this study, we assessed the utility of TTF-1 and p63, as an antibody panel, for differentiating between these two neoplasms in previously Papanicolaou (Pap)-stained cytologic smears and cytospin slides. Twenty-six lung carcinomas (13 small-cell lung carcinomas, 13 poorly differentiated pulmonary squamous cell carcinomas) were evaluated. One or two previously 95% ethanol-fixed, Pap-stained smears or cytospin slides were selected from each case. The cytologic material from these slides was transferred to positively charged slides. Unstained recuts were obtained from the corresponding histologic specimens or cell blocks. Immunohistochemical staining for TTF-1 and p63 was performed on the paired samples from each tumor. All (13/13) small-cell lung carcinomas were negative for p63 and 92% (12/13) were positive for TTF-1. Conversely, all (13/13) poorly differentiated pulmonary squamous cell carcinomas expressed p63 and did not express TTF-1. Immunoreactivity for p63 was also noted in bronchial reserve cells and metaplastic squamous cells. The immunostaining results obtained from the cytology slides were concordant with those of the histology or cell block sections in all cases. The results of this study show that TTF-1 and p63 immunostaining can be successfully applied to previously Pap-stained cytologic material, as an antibody panel, to facilitate pathologic differentiation between small-cell lung carcinomas and poorly differentiated pulmonary squamous cell carcinomas. p63 immunostaining, however, must be interpreted in conjunction with cytomorphology to distinguish between poorly differentiated pulmonary squamous cell carcinomas and benign cellular constituents of the lung. PMID:16680154

Kalhor, Neda; Zander, Dani S; Liu, Jing

2006-08-01

204

Clinical Implications of the Cervical Papanicolaou Test Results in the Management of Anal Warts in HIV-Infected Women  

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The Papanicolaou test (or Pap test) has long been used as a screening tool to detect cervical precancerous/cancerous lesions. However, studies on the use of this test to predict both the presence and change in size of genital warts are limited. We examined whether cervical Papanicolaou test results are associated with the size of the largest anal wart over time in HIV-infected women in an on-going cohort study in the US. A sample of 976 HIV-infected women included in a public dataset obtained...

Luu, Hung N.; Amirian, E. Susan; Beasley, R. Palmer; Piller, Linda; Chan, Wenyaw; Scheurer, Michael E.

2013-01-01

205

PAP and NT5E inhibit nociceptive neurotransmission by rapidly hydrolyzing nucleotides to adenosine  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP and ecto-5'-nucleotidase (NT5E, CD73 produce extracellular adenosine from the nucleotide AMP in spinal nociceptive (pain-sensing circuits; however, it is currently unknown if these are the main ectonucleotidases that generate adenosine or how rapidly they generate adenosine. Results We found that AMP hydrolysis, when measured histochemically, was nearly abolished in dorsal root ganglia (DRG neurons and lamina II of spinal cord from Pap/Nt5e double knockout (dKO mice. Likewise, the antinociceptive effects of AMP, when combined with nucleoside transport inhibitors (dipyridamole or 5-iodotubericidin, were reduced by 80-100% in dKO mice. In addition, we used fast scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV to measure adenosine production at subsecond resolution within lamina II. Adenosine was maximally produced within seconds from AMP in wild-type (WT mice but production was reduced >50% in dKO mice, indicating PAP and NT5E rapidly generate adenosine in lamina II. Unexpectedly, we also detected spontaneous low frequency adenosine transients in lamina II with FSCV. Adenosine transients were of short duration (60% in frequency in Pap-/-, Nt5e-/- and dKO mice, suggesting these ectonucleotidases rapidly hydrolyze endogenously released nucleotides to adenosine. Field potential recordings in lamina II and behavioral studies indicate that adenosine made by these enzymes acts through the adenosine A1 receptor to inhibit excitatory neurotransmission and nociception. Conclusions Collectively, our experiments indicate that PAP and NT5E are the main ectonucleotidases that generate adenosine in nociceptive circuits and indicate these enzymes transform pulsatile or sustained nucleotide release into an inhibitory adenosinergic signal.

Vihko Pirkko

2011-10-01

206

CIR, a corepressor of CBF1, binds to PAP-1 and effects alternative splicing  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We have reported that PAP-1, a product of a causative gene for autosomal retinitis pigmentosa, plays a role in splicing. In this study, CIR, a protein originally identified as a CBF1-interacting protein and reported to act as a transcriptional corepressor, was identified as a PAP-1 binding protein and its function as a splicing factor was investigated. In addition to a basic lysine and acidic serine-rich (BA) domain and a zinc knuckle-like motif, CIR has an arginine/serine dipeptide repeat (RS) domain in its C terminal region. The RS domain has been reported to be present in the superfamily of SR proteins, which are involved in splicing reactions. We generated CIR mutants with deletions of each BA and RS domain and studied their subcellular localizations and interactions with PAP-1 and other SR proteins, including SC35, SF2/ASF, and U2AF35. CIR was found to interact with U2AF35 through the BA domain, with SC35 and SF2/ASF through the RS domain, and with PAP-1 outside the BA domain in vivo and in vitro. CIR was found to be colocalized with SC35 and PAP-1 in nuclear speckles. Then the effect of CIR on splicing was investigated using the E1a minigene as a reporter in HeLa cells. Ectopic expression of CIR with the E1a minigene changed the ratio of spliced isoforms of E1a that were produced by alternative selection of 5'-splice sites. These results indicate that CIR is a member of the family of SR-related proteins and that CIR plays a role in splicingeins and that CIR plays a role in splicing regulation

207

Charging and discharging tests for obtaining an accurate dynamic electro-thermal model of high power lithium-ion pack system for hybrid and EV applications  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This paper presents a battery test platform including two Li-ion battery designed for hybrid and EV applications, and charging/discharging tests under different operating conditions carried out for developing an accurate dynamic electro-thermal model of a high power Li-ion battery pack system. The aim of the tests has been to study the impact of the battery degradation and to find out the dynamic characteristics of the cells including nonlinear open circuit voltage, series resistance and parallel transient circuit at different charge/discharge currents and cell temperature. An equivalent circuit model, based on the runtime battery model and the Thevenin circuit model, with parameters obtained from the tests and depending on SOC, current and temperature has been implemented in MATLAB/Simulink and Power Factory. A good alignment between simulations and measurements has been found.

Mihet-Popa, Lucian; Camacho, Oscar Mauricio Forero

2013-01-01

208

Test of irradiation of tellurium oxide for obtaining iodine-131 by dry distillation; Prueba de irradiacion de dioxido de telurio para obtener yodo-131 por destilacion seca  

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With the purpose of optimizing to the maximum independently the work of the reactor of those mathematical calculations of irradiation that are already optimized, now it corresponds to carry out irradiation tests in the different positions with their respective neutron fluxes that it counts the reactor for samples irradiation. Then, it is necessary to carry out the irradiation of the tellurium dioxide through cycles, with the purpose of observing the activity that it goes accumulating in each cycle and this way to obtain an activity of the Iodine-131 obtained when finishing the last cycle. (Author)

Alanis M, J. [ININ, Departamento de Materiales Radiactivos, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

2003-07-15

209

Frequency and organization of papA homologous DNA sequences among uropathogenic digalactoside-binding Escherichia coli strains.  

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The frequency of selected papA DNA sequences among 89 digalactoside-binding, uropathogenic Escherichia coli strains was evaluated with 12 different synthetic 15-base probes corresponding to papA genes from four digalactoside-binding piliated recombinant strains (HU849, 201B, and 200A). The papA probes encode amino acids which are common at the carboxy terminus of all strains, adjacent to the proximal portion of the intramolecular disulfide loop of strain 210B, or predicted to constitute the t...

Denich, K.; Craiu, A.; Rugo, H.; Muralidhar, G.; O Hanley, P.

1991-01-01

210

Psychological impact, support and information needs for women with an abnormal Pap smear: comparative results of a questionnaire in three European countries  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Extensive information on cervical cancer is currently available. Its effectiveness in reducing anxiety in women receiving abnormal Pap tests is not clear. We investigated current practices of communicating abnormal Pap results to evaluate women's reactions and determine the sources of information they use subsequently. Methods A self-administered questionnaire-based study was performed in 1475 women in France, Spain and Portugal who had received an abnormal Pap smear result in the 12 months prior to completing the questionnaire. Questions covered methods of communication of the result, emotional reactions, support received (from the physician and entourage, and information sources, using pre-specified check box options and rating scales. Data were analyzed by country. Results Pap test results were mostly communicated by phone to Spanish women (76%, while physician letters were common in France (59% and Portugal (36%. Frequent reactions were anxiety, panic and stress, which were less common in Spanish women than their French and Portuguese counterparts. After discussing with their physician, half of the participants were worried, despite rating highly the psychological support received. Over 90% of women in each country discussed their results with family or friends. Partners provided a high level of support. Overall, the abnormal diagnosis and consequences had a low to medium impact on daily, professional and family life and their relationships with their partner. Impact was higher in Spanish women than the French or Portuguese. Information on the diagnosis and its treatment was rated average, and nearly 80% of participants wanted more information, notably French women. Preferred sources were the physician and the Internet. Conclusions Women expressed a strong wish for more information about cervical cancer and other HPV-related diseases, and that their physician play a major role in its provision and in support. There was a heavy reliance on the close entourage and the Internet for information, highlighting the need for dissemination of accurate material. Differences between countries suggest information management strategies may need to be tailored to different geographical regions.

Jorge Anna

2011-05-01

211

Generador de flujo con presión binivelada (BiPAP) a través de traqueostomía / Flow generator with double level pressure (BiPAP) through Tracheostomy  

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Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Introducción: El Programa Chileno de Ventilación No Invasiva en domicilio (AVNI) extendió su cobertura utilizando generadores de flujo con presión bi-nivelada (BiPAP) en niños con ventilación mecánica prolongada (VMP) y traqueostomía (TQT). Objetivo: Reportar la experiencia de esta estrategia descri [...] biendo criterios de selección, modalidades de uso y tecnologías complementarias. Pacientes y Métodos: Estudio descriptivo, transversal y prospectivo durante un año desde Junio 2006, en 20 pacientes manejados en el Hospital Josefina Martínez, otros centros de la red asistencial del Ministerio de Salud y en domicilio. Se registraron las características clínicas, modos ventilatorios, evolución y complicaciones. Resultados: La mediana de edad fue de 3,5 años (rango 3 meses a 17 años). La duración de la VMP fue lm a 5a, 6 pacientes (30%) se encuentran en domicilio y 14 (70%) hospitalizados. La principal causa para VMP fue enfermedad neuromuscular (14, 70%). No hubo mortalidad y 4 pacientes tuvieron complicaciones menores. Conclusión: El BiPAP a través de TQT, usado con criterios estrictos de selección, es un método de VMP que puede ser factible. Se requieren estudios comparativos para definir costos, beneficios y riesgos de estos equipos comparándolos con ventiladores licenciados para soporte vital. Abstract in english Background: The Chilean Program of Noninvasive Home Ventilation started using flow generating equipment with differential pressure at 2 levels (BiPAP) through tracheostomies for prolonged mechanical ventilation (PMV). Objective: Describe the experience of this ventilatory support, reporting selectio [...] n criteria, procedure and technological requirements. Method: Descriptive-transversal study that includes 20 patients treated at Hospital Josefina Martínez, other pediatric hospitals and at home, for 12 months since June 2006. The clinical features, ventilation support, technical characteristics, follow-up and complications were reported. Results: The mean age was 3.5 years-old (range 3 months - 17 years). The duration of PMV ranged between 1 month to 5 years. Six patients (30%) are at home and 14 (70%) are hospitalized. In 14 patients (70%), the need of PMV was due to neuromuscular diseases. There was no mortality related to the use of Bipap through tracheostomy; only 4 patients had minor complications. Conclusions: This report suggests that the use of BiPAP through tracheostomy in patients with selection criteria is an applicable PVM method. However, comparative systematic trials are necessary to define costs, benefits and risks of this type of ventilation.

SOLEDAD, MONTES F; MIREYA, MÉNDEZ R; PATRICIO, BARAÑAO G; PAMELA, SALINAS F; FRANCISCO, PRADO A.

2008-10-01

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THE EFFECT OF AGE ON RESULTS OBTAINED BY MARES DURING STATIONARY AND FIELD PERFORMANCE TESTS CONDUCTED IN POLAND IN THE YEARS 2001-2010  

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Full Text Available The study encompassed a population of noble mares, assessed in Poland during performance tests. The statistical analysis pertained to results obtained by warmblood mares within a period of 10 years. Performance tests were conducted in II systems: field and stationary. The analysis encompassed 1490 mares, each of which participated in at least one performance test. The conducted study revealed statistically significant differences between average results obtained by 2-3 year-old mares and 4-year-olds only in the free jumping and rideability categories – in favor of 4-year-old mares. No statistically significant differences were noted between average scores for: walk, trot and gallop. The study did not reveal the impact of age on final scores for warmblood mares for the following traits during performance tests: walk, trot and gallop. Age did impact the results of: free jumping and rideability. The authors believe that the horses’ natural gait (its movements since infancy is determined genetically and does not depend on age or length of training.

Magdalena Drewka

2013-12-01

213

An evaluation of parameters compliance obtained through quality control tests in mammography undertaken at Sao Paulo, Brazil, from 2000 to 2009  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Portaria 453 of 1998 established a mandatory police for quality assurance program in Radiodiagnostic (PGQ), as a constituent part the Quality Control of Equipment, which includes a minimum set of constancy tests, it establishes acceptance performance limits and requires a minimum frequency to be undertaken. The Resolution 64 of 2003 added a methodology to undertake tests in Mammography which was substituted by Resolution 1016 of 2006 up today. The objective of mammography is the early detection of breast anomalies in order to indicate the efficient treatment with better chance of healing. The PGQ goal is optimization of the detection process with a good quality image and a minimum necessary patient dose. This work presents an evaluation of improvement in adequacy of main parameters obtained through quality assurance tests in Mammography undertaken at Sao Paulo from 2000 to 2009. (author)

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HPV Reflex Testing in Menopausal Women  

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Objective. To determine the frequency of high risk (HR) HPV and intraepithelial neoplasia following ASCUS pap cytology screens in menopausal women. Study Design. Following IRB approval, we performed a retrospective review of all cases of ASCUS pap tests, HPV results, and relevant clinical-pathologic data in women age 50 or over from November 2005 to January 2007 within a tertiary care center. Statistical analyses were performed in EXCEL. Results. 344 patients were an...

Annekathryn Goodman; David Wilbur; Rosemary Tambouret; Ko, Emily M.

2011-01-01

215

The Pap smear screening as an occasion for smoking cessation and physical activity counselling: effectiveness of the SPRINT randomized controlled trial  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The organized Cervical Cancer Screening Programme (CCSP in Italy might represent an occasion to deliver smoking cessation (SC counselling to women attending the Pap test examination. Evidence of effectiveness of physical activity (PA promotion and intervention in adjunct to SC counselling is not strong. Objective of the SPRINT trial was to evaluate the effectiveness of a standard SC counselling intervention delivered by trained midwives in the CCSP, and whether the adjunct of a PA counselling to the SC counselling might increase quit rates. Methods/Design We undertook a randomized controlled trial of 1,100 women undergoing the Pap examination in the three study centres Florence, Turin, and Mantua: 363 were randomly assigned to the SC counselling arm, 366 to the SC?+?PA counselling arm, and 371 to the control group. The intervention was a standard brief SC counselling combined with a brief counselling on increasing PA, and was tailored according to the Di Clemente-Prochaska motivational stages of change for SC and/or PA. Primary outcomes were quit rates, improvement in the motivational stages of change for SC, and reduced daily cigarette consumption. Analysis was by intention to treat. Results Participants randomized in both intervention arms and in the preparation stage of change for SC doubled their likelihood of quitting at 6-month follow-up in comparison to controls (odds ratio [OR]=2.1, 95% confidence interval [95% CI]:1.0-4.6. Moreover, participants in the intervention arms and in the contemplation stage were more likely to reduce their daily cigarette consumption after the intervention (OR=1.8, 95% CI:1.1-3.0. Our study did not show any effect of PA counselling on various outcomes. Conclusions Smoking cessation counselling delivered by midwives to smokers in preparation and contemplation stages of change during the Pap-smear screening was effective and should be recommended, given the high number of women attending the cervical cancer screening programme in Italy. Moreover, the daily number of women invited for the Pap-smear examination should be slightly lowered, in order to let midwives deliver SC counselling to smokers. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN52660565

Gorini Giuseppe

2012-09-01

216

Evaluation of Pre-Malignant and Malignant Lesions in Cervico Vaginal (PAP) Smears by Nuclear Morphometry  

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Background: Cervical cancer is the second most common cancer occurring among women worldwide, with almost half a million new cases each year. Normal cells gradually transform to form cancer cells through several stages. So, the changes occurring during the transformational stages need to be assessed. Aim: Our aim was to study various nuclear parameters useful in evaluating pre-malignant and malignant cervico-vaginal pap smears. Materials and Methods: Bethesda System was used to categorize cervical pap smears into premalignant and malignant lesions. Nuclear parameters were calculated using J 1.44C morphometric software. Several nuclear size parameters were analysed. Results: The nuclear area, perimeter, diameter were found to be statistically significant (ppremalignant from malignant cervical smears. Conclusion: Nuclear morphometry was thus a useful objective tool in differentiating premalignant from malignant cervical smears.

Rani M.N, Divya; Kumar ML, Harendra; SR, Sheela

2014-01-01

217

Citopatológico de colo uterino entre gestantes no Sul do Brasil: um estudo transversal de base populacional / Pap smears among pregnant women in Southern Brazil: a representative cross-sectional survey  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: Determinar a prevalência e identificar fatores associados ao não rastreamento voluntário para citopatológico (CP) de colo uterino entre puérperas em Rio Grande (RS). MÉTODOS: Entrevistadores previamente treinados aplicaram questionário padronizado, ainda na maternidade, em busca de informa [...] ções sobre características demográficas da gestante, nível socioeconômico da família e tipo de assistência recebida durante o pré-natal para todas aquelas residentes nesse município que tiveram filhos entre 1º de janeiro e 31 de dezembro de 2010. Foram utilizados o teste do ?² para comparar proporções e a regressão de Poisson com ajuste robusto da variância na análise multivariável. RESULTADOS: Dentre as 2.288 entrevistadas, 33% não se submeteram ao CP de colo uterino. Destas, dois terços disseram desconhecer a necessidade de realizá-lo, 18% não fizeram este exame por medo ou vergonha e as demais por outras razões. Após ajuste para diversos fatores de confusão, as maiores razões de prevalência (RP) para não buscar por CP ocorreram entre aquelas de menor idade (RP=1,5; IC95% 1,25 - 1,80) e escolaridade (RP=1,5; IC95% 1,12 - 2,12), que viviam sem companheiro (RP=1,4; IC95% 1,24 - 1,62), fumantes (RP=1,2; IC95% 1,07 - 1,39), que não planejaram a gravidez (RP=1,3; IC95% 1,21 - 1,61), que completaram menos de seis consultas durante pré-natal (RP=1,4; IC95% 1,32 - 1,69) e usuárias de contraceptivo oral (RP=1,2; IC95% 1,04 - 1,38). CONCLUSÕES: Quanto maior o risco para câncer de colo uterino, menor a probabilidade de a gestante se submeter ao CP de colo uterino. Isso, certamente, tem contribuído para o aumento da morbimortalidade por esta doença nesta localidade. Abstract in english PURPOSE: To determine the prevalence and risk factors associated with failure of voluntary screening for cervical cancer during the gestational period in Rio Grande, Rio Grande do Sul State, Southern Brazil. METHODS: Previously trained interviewers applied a standardized questionnaire in the materni [...] ty to all mothers from this municipality who had delivered from January 1st to December 31st 2010 to obtain information about the demographic characteristics of the pregnant women, family socioeconomic status, and prenatal care received. The ?² test was used to compare proportions and Poisson regression with robust adjustment of variance was used in the multivariate analysis. RESULTS: Among the 2,288 respondents, 33% were not submitted to the Pap smear during pregnancy. Two thirds of these women stated that they were not aware of the need to perform it, 18% were not screened out of fear or shame, and the rest for other reasons. After adjustment, the highest prevalence ratios (PR) for noncompliance with the Pap smear occurred among young women (PR=1.5; 95%CI 1.25 - 1.80), with lower educational level (PR=1.5; 95%CI 1.12 - 2.12), who were living without a partner (PR=1.4; 95%CI 1.24 - 1.62), smokers (PR=1.2; 95%CI 1.07 - 1.39), who did not plan the current pregnancy (PR=1.3; 95%CI 1,21 - 1.61), who had attended less than six medical visits during the prenatal period (PR=1.4; 95%CI 1.32 - 1.69) and among users of oral contraceptives (PR=1.2; 95%CI 1.04 - 1.38). CONCLUSIONS: The higher the risk for uterine cervical cancer, the less likely a pregnant woman is to undergo a Pap smear. This definitely contributed to the increased morbidity and mortality from this disease in this setting.

Juraci Almeida, Cesar; Gabriela Breitembach dos, Santos; Andrea Tomais, Sutil; Carolina Fischer, Cunha; Samuel de Carvalho, Dumith.

2012-11-01

218

Associations of demographic variables and the Health Belief Model constructs with Pap smear screening among urban women in Botswana  

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Ditsapelo M McFarland College of Nursing and Public Health, Adelphi University, Garden City, NY, USA Purpose: Papanicolaou (Pap) smear services are available in most urban areas in Botswana. Yet most women in such areas do not screen regularly for cancer of the cervix. The purpose of this article is to present findings on the associations of demographic variables and Health Belief Model constructs with Pap smear screening among urban women in Botswana. Sample and methods: The study included a...

McFarl; DM

2013-01-01

219

Oligoribonuclease is a common downstream target of lithium-induced pAp accumulation in Escherichia coli and human cells  

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We identified Oligoribonuclease (Orn), an essential Escherichia coli protein and the only exonuclease degrading small ribonucleotides (5mer to 2mer) and its human homologue, small fragment nuclease (Sfn), in a screen for proteins that are potentially regulated by 3?-phosphoadenosine 5?-phosphate (pAp). We show that both enzymes are sensitive to micromolar amounts of pAp in vitro. We also demonstrate that Orn can degrade short DNA oligos in addition to its activity on RNA oligos, similar t...

Mechold, Undine; Ogryzko, Vasily; Ngo, Saravuth; Danchin, Antoine

2006-01-01

220

The Social Ecology of Cervical Cancer: The Challenges to Pap Smear Screening  

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Cervical cancer is a preventable disease. The risk factors for the development of cervical cancer include both biologic factors and social factors. In the United States, the leading risk factor for the development of cervical cancer is not having a Pap smear for five years prior to the diagnosis of cancer. In low and middle income countries, cervical cancer incidence and mortality

Annekathryn Goodman

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
221

Early detection of oral cancer: PAP and AgNOR staining in brush biopsies  

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Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the diagnostic accuracy of routine Papanicolaou stain (PAP) and Silver stained Nucleolar Organizer Regions (AgNOR) staining in brush biopsies taken from suspected oral lesions for early detection of oral cancer. Materials and Methods: Brush biopsies were collected from macroscopically suspicious lesions of the oral cavity of 34 patients and 10 normal-aged and sex-matched controls. The numbers of AgNORs were counted in 100 squamous epit...

Rajput Dinesh; Tupkari Jagdish

2010-01-01

222

A STUDY ON CERVICAL PAP SMEAR EXAMINATION IN PATIENT LIVING WITH HIV  

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Background: Decline in morbidity & mortality due to cervical cancer in developed countries can be mainly attributed to early detection of precancerous & cancerous lesions due to extensive screening programmeof cervical Pap smear examination. HPV infection is a known etiological agent for cervical cancer. HIV infected women are at higher risk of contracting HPV infection due to immune compromised status. Objective: Present study has been undertaken mainly to detect precancerous & c...

Jha, B. M.; Mubin Patel; KomalPatel; Jitendra Patel

2012-01-01

223

Improvement of the Trivalent Inactivated Flu Vaccine Using PapMV Nanoparticles  

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Commercial seasonal flu vaccines induce production of antibodies directed mostly towards hemaglutinin (HA). Because HA changes rapidly in the circulating virus, the protection remains partial. Several conserved viral proteins, e.g., nucleocapsid (NP) and matrix proteins (M1), are present in the vaccine, but are not immunogenic. To improve the protection provided by these vaccines, we used nanoparticles made of the coat protein of a plant virus (papaya mosaic virus; PapMV) as an adjuvant. Immu...

Savard, Christian; Gue?rin, Annie; Drouin, Karine; Bolduc, Marile?ne; Laliberte?-gagne?, Marie-eve; Dumas, Marie-christine; Majeau, Nathalie; Leclerc, Denis

2011-01-01

224

Comparison of the Novel Human Papillomavirus 4 Auto-capillary Electrophoresis Test with the Hybrid Capture 2 Assay and with the PCR HPV Typing Set Test in the Detection of High-Risk HPV Including HPV 16 and 18 Genotypes in Cervical Specimens  

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The aim of this study was to compare the novel human papillomavirus (HPV) detection method, the HPV 4 Auto-capillary Electrophoresis (ACE) test with the hybrid capture (HC) 2 assay for the detection of high-risk HPVs. In addition, we compared the HPV 4 ACE test with the polymerase chain reaction HPV Typing Set test for the detection of HPV 16 and HPV 18 genotypes. One hundred ninety-nine cervical swab samples obtained from women with previous abnormal Pap smears were subjected to testing with...

Hong, Jin Hwa; Song, Seung Hun; Kim, Jong Kee; Han, Jeong Hyun; Lee, Jae Kwan

2009-01-01

225

Extended duration of the detectable stage by adding HPV test in cervical cancer screening.  

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The human papillomavirus test (HPV) test could improve the (cost-) effectiveness of cervical screening by selecting women with a very low risk for cervical cancer during a long period. An analysis of a longitudinal study suggests that women with a negative Pap smear and a negative HPV test have a strongly reduced risk of developing cervical abnormalities in the years following the test, and that HPV testing lengthens the detectable stage by 2-5 years, compared to Pap smear detection alone.

Marie, Me Den Akker-v; Ballegooijen, M.; Rozendaal, L.; Meijer, C. J. L. M.; Habbema, J. D.

2003-01-01

226

N-terminal cleaved pancreatitis-associated protein-III (PAP-III) serves as a scaffold for neurites and promotes neurite outgrowth.  

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Pancreatitis-associated protein (PAP)-III, also known as regenerating gene/regenerating islet-derived (Reg)-III?, is a small secretory protein whose expression is substantially induced in injured nerves. Here, we found that PAP-III protein underwent proteolytic N-terminal processing by trypsin-like protease(s) in injured sciatic nerves after axotomy. In vitro studies demonstrated that the N terminus-truncated PAP-III (?N-PAP-III) polymerized into a filament with a relatively uniform diameter of 10-20 nm, and the filaments formed higher order structures in a Na(+) concentration-dependent manner. When the ?N-PAP-III fibers were added to the culture media, the ?N-PAP-III fibers were tightly attached to neurites and somata of primary cortical neurons in vitro. In contrast, little association with glial cells was observed. When dense matrices of ?N-PAP-III fibers were sheeted on a culture dish, neurites preferentially adhered to the fibers, and neurite extension was enhanced. This neurite outgrowth activity was significantly suppressed by preincubation with antibodies against PAP-III. These results imply that the released PAP-III might be cleaved and forms ?N-PAP-III fibers at the nerve injury sites. Consequently, these resulting fibers would provide regenerating axons with a platform for extension. PMID:23426365

Konishi, Hiroyuki; Matsumoto, Sakiko; Namikawa, Kazuhiko; Kiyama, Hiroshi

2013-04-12

227

N-terminal Cleaved Pancreatitis-associated Protein-III (PAP-III) Serves as a Scaffold for Neurites and Promotes Neurite Outgrowth*  

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Pancreatitis-associated protein (PAP)-III, also known as regenerating gene/regenerating islet-derived (Reg)-III?, is a small secretory protein whose expression is substantially induced in injured nerves. Here, we found that PAP-III protein underwent proteolytic N-terminal processing by trypsin-like protease(s) in injured sciatic nerves after axotomy. In vitro studies demonstrated that the N terminus-truncated PAP-III (?N-PAP-III) polymerized into a filament with a relatively uniform diameter of 10–20 nm, and the filaments formed higher order structures in a Na+ concentration-dependent manner. When the ?N-PAP-III fibers were added to the culture media, the ?N-PAP-III fibers were tightly attached to neurites and somata of primary cortical neurons in vitro. In contrast, little association with glial cells was observed. When dense matrices of ?N-PAP-III fibers were sheeted on a culture dish, neurites preferentially adhered to the fibers, and neurite extension was enhanced. This neurite outgrowth activity was significantly suppressed by preincubation with antibodies against PAP-III. These results imply that the released PAP-III might be cleaved and forms ?N-PAP-III fibers at the nerve injury sites. Consequently, these resulting fibers would provide regenerating axons with a platform for extension. PMID:23426365

Konishi, Hiroyuki; Matsumoto, Sakiko; Namikawa, Kazuhiko; Kiyama, Hiroshi

2013-01-01

228

HPV Testing Proves Sensitive in Identifying ASCUS Abnormalities That May Lead to Cervical Cancer  

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Testing for the human papillomavirus (HPV) may help doctors and patients decide what to do about the mildly abnormal and very common Pap test result known as ASCUS (short for atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance)

229

Technique for determination of the number of PapA units in an E. Coli P pilus  

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Optical tweezers have previously been used to characterize the force-vs.-elongation dependence of the PapA rod of uropathogenic E. coli P pili. It was found that the PapA rod elongates in several elongation regions. In the two first, the elongation originates from an elastic stretching and a sequential unfolding of the layer-to-layer bonds (and thereby of the helical structure). Region III is characterized by an elongation that originates from an elastic stretching and an opening of the head-to-tail bonds in the linearized PapA rod. The opening of these bonds takes place in a random order, wherefore the response in this region is affected by entropy. Since the entropic softening of a macromolecule depends on the number of units, the shape of this region can be used to assess the number of PapA units. We provide in this work a recipe for how this can be done solely from the form of region III. An advantage with this technique is that it does not require a continuous monitoring of the elongation of a single PapA rod from unstretched conditions, which often is difficult because of simultaneous multi-pili binding; it suffices to detect it in the third region at which binding often is mediated by only one pilus. Another advantage is that it does not require any prior knowledge about (or assessment of) any physical entity of the PapA rod; the number of PapA units can be assessed solely from the shape of the curve in the third elongation region.

Andersson, Magnus; Fällman, Erik; Uhlin, Bernt E.; Axner, Ove

2006-02-01

230

The Anal Pap Smear: Cytomorphology of squamous intraepithelial lesions  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Anal smears are increasingly being used as a screening test for anal squamous intraepithelial lesions (ASILs. This study was undertaken to assess the usefulness and limitations of anal smears in screening for ASILs. Methods The cytomorphological features of 200 consecutive anal smears collected in liquid medium from 198 patients were studied and findings were correlated with results of surgical biopsies and/or repeat smears that became available for 71 patients within six months. Results Adequate cellularity was defined as an average of 6 or more nucleated squamous cells/hpf. A glandular/transitional component was not required for adequacy. Dysplastic cells, atypical parakeratotic cells and bi/multinucleated cells were frequent findings in ASIL while koilocytes were infrequent. Smears from LSIL cases most frequently showed mildly dysplastic and bi/multinucleate squamous cells followed by parakeratotic cells (PK, atypical parakeratotic cells (APK, and koilocytes. HSIL smears contained squamous cells with features of moderate/severe dysplasia and many APKs. Features of LSIL were also found in most HSIL smears. Conclusions In this study liquid based anal smears had a high sensitivity (98% for detection of ASIL but a low specificity (50% for predicting the severity of the abnormality in subsequent biopsy. Patients with cytologic diagnoses of ASC-US and LSIL had a significant risk (46–56% of HSIL at biopsy. We suggest that all patients with a diagnosis of ASC-US and above be recommended for high resolution anoscopy with biopsy.

Arain Shehla

2005-01-01

231

Semi-automatic segmentation and classification of Pap smear cells.  

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Cytologic screening has been widely used for detecting the cervical cancers. In this study, a semiautomatic PC-based cellular image analysis system was developed for segmenting nuclear and cytoplasmic contours and for computing morphometric and textual features to train support vector machine (SVM) classifiers to classify four different types of cells and to discriminate dysplastic from normal cells. A software program incorporating function, including image reviewing and standardized denomination of file names, was also designed to facilitate and standardize the workflow of cell analyses. Two experiments were conducted to verify the classification performance. The cross-validation results of the first experiment showed that average accuracies of 97.16% and 98.83%, respectively, for differentiating four different types of cells and in discriminating dysplastic from normal cells have been achieved using salient features (8 for four-cluster and 7 for two-cluster classifiers) selected with SVM recursive feature addition. In the second experiment, 70% (837) of the cell images were used for training and 30% (361) for testing, achieving an accuracy of 96.12% and 98.61% for four-cluster and two-cluster classifiers, respectively. The proposed system provides a feasible and effective tool in evaluating cytologic specimens. PMID:24403407

Chen, Yung-Fu; Huang, Po-Chi; Lin, Ker-Cheng; Lin, Hsuan-Hung; Wang, Li-En; Cheng, Chung-Chuan; Chen, Tsung-Po; Chan, Yung-Kuan; Chiang, John Y

2014-01-01

232

Combined Hierarchical Watershed Segmentation and SVM Classification for Pap Smear Cell Nucleus Extraction / Extracción de núcleos de células en imágenes de la prueba de Papanicolaou usando watershed jerárquico y máquinas de vectores soporte  

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Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: English Abstract in spanish En el presente trabajo se presenta un método en dos etapas para la segmentación y clasificación de núcleos de células en imágenes tomadas de la prueba de Papanicolaou. La primera etapa, la etapa de segmentación, está formada por un algoritmo morfológico (watershed o marcas de agua) y un algoritmo je [...] rárquico de mezclado (waterfall o salto de agua). Para realizar el mezclado de regiones, waterfall usa información espectral, de forma y de las regiones que se separarán. En la segunda etapa, la etapa de clasificación, el objetivo es obtener los núcleos a partir de las clasificaciones de las regiones obtenidas en la primera etapa. Antes de realizar la clasificación, fueron probadas tres medidas no supervisadas de calidad de la segmentación para determinar el mejor resultado de la mezcla de regiones. La clasificación de las regiones se realizó usando Máquinas de Vector Soporte. Los resultados fueron comparados con las segmentaciones realizadas por patólogos demostrándose la eficacia del método propuesto. Abstract in english In this paper, we propose a two-phase approach to nuclei segmentation/classification in Pap smear test images. The first phase, the segmentation phase, includes a morphological algorithm (watershed) and a hierarchical merging algorithm (waterfall). In the merging step, waterfall uses spectral and sh [...] ape information as well as the class information. In the second phase, classification, the goal is to obtain nucleus regions and cytoplasm areas by classifying the regions resulting from the first phase based on their spectral and shape features, merging of the adjacent regions belonging to the same class. Between the two phases, three unsupervised segmentation quality criteria were tested in order to determine the best one selecting the best level after merging. The classification of individual regions is obtained using a Support Vector Machine (SVM) classifier. The segmentation and classification results are compared to the segmentation provided by expert pathologists and demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed method.

Maykel, Orozco-Monteagudo; Cosmin, Mihai; Hichem, Sahli; Alberto, Taboada-Crispi.

2012-06-01

233

Análise da cobertura e dos exames colpocitológicos não retirados de uma Unidade Básica de Saúde / Analysis of coverage and of the pap test exams not retired of a Basic Health Unit / Análisis de la cobertura y de los exámenes de papanicolaou no retirados de una Unidad Basica de Salud  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Analisar a cobertura e os exames colpocitológicos não retirados de uma Unidade de Saúde. Pesquisa documental retrospectiva, na qual foram avaliados os dados de cobertura de 2007 e os 225 exames realizados e não retirados da unidade até janeiro de 2008. Para a análise estatística foi aplicado o cálcu [...] lo da freqüência das variáveis pesquisadas. A média mensal de exames realizados foi de 102,6 exames. A cobertura do exame em 2007 foi de 11,22% entre as mulheres de 25 a 59 anos. Dos 938 exames realizados entre fevereiro e novembro de 2007, 225 (23,98%) mulheres não receberam o resultado. A maioria das mulheres (67,5%), que realizou o exame e não retornou, tinha até 30 anos de idade. O não retorno das mulheres para receber o resultado do exame dificulta o acompanhamento, a integralidade e continuidade da assistência, contribuindo para uma intervenção em fases mais avançadas da doença. Abstract in spanish Analizar la cobertura y los resultados de los exámenes colpocitológicos no retirados de una Unidad de Salud. Investigación documental retrospectiva, en la que fueron evaluados los datos de cobertura de 2007 y las 225 pruebas realizadas y no retiradas en la unidad hasta enero de 2008. Para el análisi [...] s estadístico se utilizó el cálculo de la frecuencia de las variables estudiadas. El promedio mensual de exámenes efectuados fue 102,6. La cobertura del examen en 2007 fue del 11,22% entre las mujeres de 25 a 59 años. Sobre los 938 análisis realizados entre febrero y noviembre de 2007, 225 (23,98%) mujeres no retiraron el resultado. La mayoría de las mujeres (67,5%) que llevaron a cabo el examen y no retornaron tenían 30 años de edad o menos. El no retorno de la mujer a recibir el resultado del examen dificulta el seguimiento, la integralidad y la continuidad de la atención, lo cual aumenta la posibilidad de una intervención en etapas más avanzadas de la enfermedad. Abstract in english To analyze the coverage and the colpocytology exams that were not collected from a Health Center. This is a retrospective documentary study, in which the data were evaluated for coverage of 2007 and all 225 tests that were performed but were not collected by the patients unit until January 2008. Sta [...] tistical analysis was performed using the frequency of the studied variables. The average monthly number of tests was 102.6 examinations. The coverage of the examination in 2007 was 11.22% among women with 25 to 59 years of age. Of the 938 tests conducted between February and November 2007, 225 (23.98%) women did not receive the result. Most women (67.5%) who performed the examination and had not returned were 30 years old or younger. The women's attitude of not returning to collect their exam results increases the difficulty of follow up, and providing comprehensive and continuity of care, contributing with an intervention in advanced stages of the disease.

Camila Teixeira Moreira, Vasconcelos; José Ananias, Vasconcelos Neto; Ana Rita Pimentel, Castelo; Francisco das Chagas, Medeiros; Ana Karina Bezerra, Pinheiro.

2010-06-01

234

Interpretação de dados obtidos em testes de vigor para a comparação qualitativa entre lotes de sementes de milho Interpretation of data obtained in vigor tests for quality comparison among corn seed lots  

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Full Text Available O objetivo desta pesquisa foi estudar, em lotes de sementes de milho, a possibilidade de estabelecer relações entre os dados de vigor obtidos em laboratório com os verificados no campo. Para tanto, foram utilizados 28 lotes (tratamentos de sementes de milho (cv. Al Bandeirante padronizadas em relação ao grau de umidade, à largura, ao comprimento e à germinação. Posteriormente, foram conduzidos testes de vigor em laboratório (conjunto A: frio sem solo, envelhecimento acelerado, germinação sob estresse hídrico e comprimentos da raiz, da parte aérea e da plântula com variações na disponibilidade hídrica e em campo (conjunto B: emergência das plântulas. Para a comparação entre as médias, foi utilizado o teste de Tukey a 5% de probabilidade; complementarmente, os lotes receberam pontuações obedecendo a ordenação hierárquica de desempenho verificada em cada avaliação, segundo critérios de classificações estatística e absoluta, para serem agrupados de acordo com o desempenho verificado nos conjuntos (A e B de testes. A interpretação de dados de vigor, oriundos de um conjunto de testes, adquire complexidade diretamente proporcional aos números de testes e de lotes colocados em comparação. Nessa situação, a classificação absoluta supera a classificação estatística nas tarefas de hierarquizar qualitativamente lotes de sementes de milho, segundo o desempenho geral, e de quantificar o relacionamento entre as respostas provenientes dos testes de laboratório com as obtidas em campo.The objective of this research was to study, using corn seed lots, the possibility of establishing relations between vigor data obtained in the laboratory with those observed in the field. To do so, twenty eight corn seed lots (treatments of the Al Bandeirante open-pollinated variety were standardized regarding seed moisture content, width, length and germination. Afterwards, seed vigor tests were conducted in the laboratory (group A: modified cool germination test; accelerated aging; germination under variations in water availability; radicle, shoot and seedling length under variations in water availability and in the field (group B: seedling emergence. In order to compare means the 5% Tukey test was used; in addition, the seed lots were assigned points according to a ranking order of performance observed in each evaluation, following criteria of absolute and statistical classifications, so to group them in order of performance in the A and B test groups. Interpretation of vigor data resulting from a group of tests acquires a complexity directly proportional to the number of tests and lots being compared. In this way, the use of absolute classification surpasses the statistical classification in the tasks of qualitatively ranking corn seed lots according to their general performance and, in addition, quantifies the relationship among the responses observed in the laboratory with those obtained in the field

Leila Martins

2005-06-01

235

Pap Smear  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... the advice of a doctor or a healthcare professional for your specific condition. ©1995-2012, The Patient Education Institute, Inc. www.X-Plain.com og020106 Last reviewed: 10/01/2012 4 When found early, most cases of cervical atypia or cancer can ...

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Pap Smear  

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Full Text Available ... for your specific condition. ©1995-2012, The Patient Education Institute, Inc. ... of successfully treating cervical cancer are higher if it is found early. There are several ...

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Pap Smear  

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Full Text Available ... and the rectum. The ovaries have 2 main functions: 1. The production of specialized hormones, such as ... insert a speculum. A speculum is a specialized instrument that keeps the vagina open so that a ...

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Pap Smear  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Some sexually transmitted diseases are associated with the development of cancer of the cervix, also called cervical ... available. These viruses have been linked to the development of cervical cancer. Taking the vaccine helps prevent ...

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Pap Smear  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... body between the urethra, which is the urinary bladder opening, and the rectum. Diseases of the Cervix Some sexually transmitted diseases are associated with the development of cancer of the cervix, also called cervical cancer. Since ...

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Pap Smear  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... or a healthcare professional for your specific condition. ©1995-2012, The Patient Education Institute, Inc. www.X- ... or a healthcare professional for your specific condition. ©1995-2012, The Patient Education Institute, Inc. www.X- ...

 
 
 
 
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Pap Smear  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... og020106 Last reviewed: 10/01/2012 1 The female reproductive organs ... ovaries have 2 main functions: 1. The production of specialized hormones, such as estrogen and progesterone 2. Ovulation, which ...

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Pap Smear  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... for the advice of a doctor or healthcare professional or a recommendation for any particular treatment plan. ... the advice of a doctor or a healthcare professional for your specific condition. ©1995-2012, The Patient ...

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Full Text Available ... and why it is beneficial. Ovaries Fallopian Tubes Uterus Vagina Anatomy This document is for informational purposes ... The female reproductive organs include: • The vagina • The uterus • The Fallopian tubes • The ovaries These organs are ...

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Pap Smear  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... 1. The production of specialized hormones, such as estrogen and progesterone 2. Ovulation, which is the release of eggs needed for reproduction. Estrogen and progesterone prepare the inner lining of the ...

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Pap Smear  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... The ovaries have 2 main functions: 1. The production of specialized hormones, such as estrogen and progesterone 2. Ovulation, which is the release of eggs needed for reproduction. Estrogen and progesterone prepare the inner lining of ...

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Pap Smear  

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Full Text Available ... comes in contact with semen during unprotected heterosexual sex, it could get infected with sexually transmitted diseases. ... strongly associated with sexually transmitted diseases, practicing safe sex is very important. When used properly, condoms are ...

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Pap Smear  

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Full Text Available ... are located in the pelvis, between the urinary bladder and the rectum. The ovaries have 2 main ... body between the urethra, which is the urinary bladder opening, and the rectum. Diseases of the Cervix ...

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Pap Smear  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... for your specific condition. ©1995-2012, The Patient Education Institute, Inc. www.X-Plain.com og020106 Last reviewed: 10/01/2012 4 When found early, most cases of cervical atypia or cancer can ...

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Pap Smear  

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Full Text Available ... progesterone 2. Ovulation, which is the release of eggs needed for reproduction. Estrogen and progesterone prepare the ... takes place. These hormones also regulate when the eggs get released. When an egg is released, it ...

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Pap Smear  

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Full Text Available ... make sure to ask your doctor about it. Smoking has also been linked to cervical cancer. This ... an excellent reason to refrain from or stop smoking! This document is for informational purposes and is ...

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Pap Smear  

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Full Text Available ... your feet in the stirrups. The doctor or nurse will then gently open your vagina and insert ... need more frequent screening, including those who have HIV, are immunosuppressed, were exposed to diethylstilbestrol (DES) in ...

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Pap Smear  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... be able to put your clothes back on. Results In the lab, a specialized doctor known as ... professional for your specific condition. ©1995-2012, The Patient Education Institute, Inc. www.X-Plain.com og020106 ...

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Pap Smear  

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Full Text Available ... menstrual period. The uterus is pear shaped and measures approximately 3 inches in length. The lowest part ... that keeps the vagina open so that a health care provider can see and reach inside the ...

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NMR structure in a membrane environment reveals putative amyloidogenic regions of the SEVI precursor peptide PAP(248-286).  

Science.gov (United States)

Semen is the main vector for HIV transmission worldwide. Recently, a peptide fragment (PAP(248-286)) has been isolated from seminal fluid that dramatically enhances HIV infectivity by up to 4-5 orders of magnitude. PAP(248-286) appears to enhance HIV infection by forming amyloid fibers known as SEVI, which are believed to enhance the attachment of the virus by bridging interactions between virion and host-cell membranes. We have solved the atomic-level resolution structure of the SEVI precursor PAP(248-286) using NMR spectroscopy in SDS micelles, which serve as a model membrane system. PAP(248-286), which does not disrupt membranes like most amyloid proteins, binds superficially to the surface of the micelle, in contrast to other membrane-disruptive amyloid peptides that generally penetrate into the core of the membrane. The structure of PAP(248-286) is unlike most amyloid peptides in that PAP(248-286) is mostly disordered when bound to the surface of the micelle, as opposed to the alpha-helical structures typically found of most amyloid proteins. The highly disordered nature of the SEVI peptide may explain the unique ability of SEVI amyloid fibers to enhance HIV infection as partially disordered amyloid fibers will have a greater capture radius for the virus than compact amyloid fibers. Two regions of nascent structure (an alpha-helix from V262-H270 and a dynamic alpha/3(10) helix from S279-L283) match the prediction of highly amyloidogenic sequences and may serve as nuclei for aggregation and amyloid fibril formation. The structure presented here can be used for the rational design of mutagenesis studies on SEVI amyloid formation and viral infection enhancement. PMID:19995078

Nanga, Ravi P R; Brender, Jeffrey R; Vivekanandan, Subramanian; Popovych, Nataliya; Ramamoorthy, Ayyalusamy

2009-12-16

255

Alpha particle effects as a test domain for PAP, a Plasma Apprentice Program  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A new type of computational tool under development, employing techniques of symbolic computation and artificial intelligence to automate as far as possible the research activities of a human plasma theorist, is described. Its present and potential uses are illustrated using the area of the theory of alpha particle effects in fusion plasmas as a sample domain. (orig.)

256

Phugoid characteristics of a YF-12 airplane with variable-geometry inlets obtained in flight tests at a Mach number of 2.9  

Science.gov (United States)

Flight tests were conducted with the YF-12 airplane to examine the airplane's longitudinal characteristics at a Mach number of approximately 2.9. Phugoid oscillations as well as short period pulses were analyzed with the variable geometry engine inlets in the fixed and the automatic configurations. Stability and control derivatives for the velocity and altitude degrees of freedom and the standard short period derivatives were obtained. Inlet bypass door position was successfully used to represent the total inlet system, and the effect of the inlets on the velocity and altitude derivatives was determined. The phugoid mode of the basic airplane (fixed inlet configuration) had neutral damping, and the height mode was stable. With the addition of the inlets in the automatic configuration, the phugoid mode was slightly divergent and the height mode was divergent with a time to double amplitude of about 114 seconds. The results of the derivative estimation indicated that the change in the height mode characteristics was primarily the result of the change in the longitudinal force derivative with respect to velocity.

Powers, B. G.

1977-01-01

257

NMR Structure in a Membrane Environment Reveals Putative Amyloidogenic Regions of the SEVI Precursor Peptide PAP248–286  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Semen is the main vector for HIV transmission worldwide. Recently, a peptide fragment (PAP248–286) has been isolated from seminal fluid that dramatically enhances HIV infectivity by up to four to five orders of magnitude. PAP248–286 appears to enhance HIV infection by forming amyloid fibers known as SEVI, which are believed to enhance the attachment of the virus by bridging interactions between virion and host-cell membranes. We have solved the atomic-level resolution structure of the SEV...

Nanga, Ravi P.; Brender, Jeffrey R.; Vivekanandan, Subramanian; Popovych, Nataliya; Ramamoorthy, Ayyalusamy

2009-01-01

258

Fødevareemballager af trykt papir og pap : Udvikling og validering af analysekoncept  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Der er i dette projekt udviklet et analysekoncept der kan anvendes som et led i trykkeriernes vurdering af om fødevareemballager af trykt pap og papir lever op til lovgivningens krav. Der er arbejdet med vurderinger baseret på såvel ”worst-case” ekstraktion af de trykte materialer som på migrationstest foretaget med fødevaresimulatoren for tørre fødevarer. Fødevaresimulatoren er en adsorbent (polymeren Tenax) som effektivt optager stoffer der via gasfasen afgives fra tryksagen. Der er valideret og sammenlignet analysemetoder baseret på ekstraktioner af både tryksagerne og Tenax med henholdsvis ethanol og superkritisk kuldioxid. I alle tilfælde er slutbestemmelsen sket ved gaskromatografi med massespektrometrisk detektion (GC-MS). Med det anvendte udstyr kunne vi i nogle tilfælde detektere kendte stoffer i koncentrationer svarende til 10 ?g/kg fødevare. Følsomheden i en screeningsanalyse for ukendte stoffer ligger desværre en del højere. På baggrund af flere fødevareskandaler de senere år, stilles der fra forbrugere, fødevareproducenter og myndighederne stadig større krav til trykkerier af emballager af pap og papir om at levere produkter af høj og dokumenteret kvalitet. I rapporten gennemgås derfor summarisk de gældende europæiske regler på området som trykkerierne skal leve op til og der henvises til relevante vejledninger fra myndigheder og brancheforeninger. Det er væsentligt at trykkerierne arbejder efter god fremstillingsmæssig praksis (GMP) og det beskrives hvordan dette kan organiseres. Ved fremstillingen af en tryksag indgår mange processer, materialer og kemikalier. Det er derfor fundet nødvendigt at give en oversigt over de forskellige trykteknikker som er relevante for pap og papir ligesom råvarerne, fra forskellige papkvaliteter over trykfarverne til det fugtevand som indgår i produktionen af en tryksag bliver gennemgået. Som et led i trykkeriernes GMP vil det være naturligt at indsamle informationer om råvarenes eventuelle indhold af sundhedsskadelige stoffer. Trykfarve- og lakproducenternes manglende vilje til at oplyse om deres produkters sammensætning vanskeliggør desværre trykkeriernes opgave med at dokumentere, at den færdige emballage er i overensstemmelse med lovgivningen. Det ville derfor være ønskeligt, at man havde en generel kemisk analysemetode som kunne sikre at en tryksag er i orden. Men der findes desværre ikke en metode der kan sikre at bare migrationsgrænserne bliver overholdt for de mere end 6000 stoffer, der eksempelvis står opført i den svejtsiske lovgivning om trykfarver. Men jo mere trykkerierne ved om råvarernes sammensætning, jo simplere metoder kan man bruge til at dokumentere overensstemmelse med reglerne. Ved analyse af en række tryksager gennem projektforløbet fandt vi flere problematiske forhold. Eksempelvis førte anvendelsen af de såkaldt UV-hybrid-farver til en for høj migration af to fotoinitiatorer. Trykkeriet har derfor valgt at lade disse farver udgå af sortimentet. Selv om projektet handlede om trykfarver er kvaliteten af materialet der trykkes på meget væsentligt for slutproduktet. Det skal derfor nævnes at pap og papir ofte fremstilles helt eller delvis af genbrugsfibre som potentielt indeholder forureninger der kan give anledning til forurening af fødevarerne. I afsnit 9 opsummeres en samling anbefalinger til trykkerierne om GMP, valg af egnet pap og trykfarver og en strategi for arbejdet med analytisk at sikre overensstemmelse med reglerne.

Petersen, Jens HØjslev; Jensen, Lisbeth Krüger

2013-01-01

259

Training of health personnel to improve knowledge and skills in taking Pap: Effect of an educational intervention to prevent cervical cancer  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of an educational intervention to improve knowledge and skills in taking Pap smear conducted by health staff implementing the program on Early Detection of Cervical Cancer. Methods: A quasiexperimental, longitudinal and prospective study, held from October 25 2010 to April 11, 2011 at a hospital in San Luis Potosi, Mexico. To select groups applied a non-probabilistic convenience sampling that was composed of 28 people, 15 for the study group and 13 to the control group. The study group received training that was divided into three phases in which assessed the knowledge and skills taking the smear, the control group received conventional training offered by your workplace. Papanicolaou quality was measured before and after the intervention. The reference used international classification system Bethesda 2001. For data analysis we used the Student t test. Results: The study group increased knowledge (t = 8.768, p = 0.000 in the management of official standards, in the anatomy of the lower female genital tract and in the form of testing. Technical skills (t = 8.639, p = 0.000 also increased in the study group after the intervention. The control group showed no significant changes. The quality report of the samples in the study group increased from 60% to 86.7% and in the control group decreased from 92.3% to 84.6%. Conclusions: The training is effective in improving the knowledge and skills in taking Pap. Health staff who received the training improved their performance and showed more interest in providing high quality service to women.

Terán-Figueroa Yolanda

2013-07-01

260

Enhancement of Chlorogenic Acid Production in Hairy Roots of Platycodon grandiflorum by Over-Expression of An Arabidopsis thaliana Transcription Factor AtPAP1  

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Full Text Available To improve the production of chlorogenic acid (CGA in hairy roots of Platycodon grandiflorum, we induced over-expression of Arabidopsis thaliana transcription factor production of anthocyanin pigment (AtPAP1 using an Agrobacterium rhizogenes-mediated transformation system. Twelve hairy root lines showing over-expression of AtPAP1 were generated. In order to investigate the regulation of AtPAP1 on the activities of CGA biosynthetic genes, the expression levels of seven P. grandiflorum CGA biosynthetic genes were analyzed in the hairy root line that had the greatest accumulation of AtPAP1 transcript, OxPAP1-1. The introduction of AtPAP1 increased the mRNA levels of all examined CGA biosynthetic genes and resulted in a 900% up-regulation of CGA accumulation in OxPAP1-1 hairy roots relative to controls. This suggests that P. grandiflorum hairy roots that over-express the AtPAP1 gene are a potential alternative source of roots for the production of CGA.

Pham Anh Tuan

2014-08-01

 
 
 
 
261

Examen oftálmico para trámite de la licencia de conducción en Santiago de Cuba Ophthalmic test for the procedure to obtain a driving licence in Santiago de Cuba  

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Full Text Available Se evaluó la experiencia acumulada durante los años 2003-2009 por la Comisión Municipal de Chequeo Oftalmológico de Santiago de Cuba; grupo de trabajo evaluador de los aspirantes a obtener la licencia de conducción, que radica en el Policlínico Docente "Frank País García". En tal sentido, el examen ocular a los presuntos futuros conductores reviste suma importancia, de modo que constituye una gran responsabilidad, tanto para el médico como para los interesados, que esa revisión de la agudeza visual se realice con la calidad requerida y periódicamente para brindar una mayor seguridad en la vía pública. En el municipio de Santiago de Cuba, donde se dispone de vastos conocimientos prácticos al respecto y capital humano capacitado, se han logrado buenos resultados hasta el 2010; éxito en esta esfera que se ha extendido a las restantes comisiones de la provincia y contribuido a alcanzar la excelencia en los servicios.The experience gathered during the years 2003-2009 from the Municipal Committee of Ophthalmic Examination in Santiago de Cuba was assessed; this work group is settled in the Teaching General Hospital "Frank País Garcia" and evaluates the candidates for obtaining a driving license. In this way, the ophthalmic test to the presumptive future drivers involves great significance, so it constitutes a great responsibility for both, the doctor and the interested person, to carry out this ophthalmic examination with the required quality and periodically, to provide a major safety in the public highway. In the municipality of Santiago de Cuba, where wide practical knowledge on the topic and qualified human staff is stipulated. Good results have been achieved up to 2010 in Santiago de Cuba municipality where wide practical knowledge and qualified human staff exist; and this success was broaden to the other committees of the province, which has contributed to reach excellence on the services.

Eglis Esteban García Alcolea

2011-03-01

262

Preliminary interpretations of geologic results obtained from boreholes UE25a-4, -5, -6, and -7, Yucca Mountain, Nevada Test Site  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Since 1978, the USGS (US Geological Survey) has been providing technical assistance in characterizing suitable rock masses at or contiguous to the NTS (Nevada Test Site) for long-term storage of high-level nuclear waste. Current efforts have been focused on investigating Yucca Mountain, a volcanic highland situated along the western boundary of NTS in southern Nevada. Detailed stratigraphic and structural studies have been in progress along a northeastern segment of the highland in a wedge-shaped area bounded by Basin and Range faults, most of which trend north-northeast. A series of four locally steep-walled, nearly parallel, linear washes transect the northeastern half of the area of interest and display trends similar to major faults to the northeast. Prior to the present study, drill hole UE25a-1, located about 1600 feet southeast of the edge of the area of interest, was cored to a depth of 2500 feet. Subsurface information derived from the upper 500 feet of this drill hole is included in this report to compare with recently acquired data. Surface electrical surveys have been conducted by both the University of Utah and the USGS perpendicular to the trend of the washes in an attempt to better understand factors that have influenced the present drainage pattern. Preliminary data of both pole-dipole and dipole-dipole resistivity/IP electrical methods indicate numerous vertical and horizontal discontinuities between adjacent resistive bodies that strongly suggest a bresistive bodies that strongly suggest a broad zone of faulting, fracturing, and (or) brecciation. To verify the existence of structural discontinuities suggested by the linear washes and electrical anomalies, a drilling program was initiated in June 1979, to obtain geologic information within the southernmost of four northwest-trending washes

263

Tamizaje en cáncer cervical: conocimiento de la utilidad y uso de citología cervical en México Cervical cancer screening: knowledge of Pap smear benefits and utilization in Mexico  

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Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Identificar y evaluar los factores que predisponen a la utilización de la prueba de Papanicolaou en la población que usa el servicio del Programa Nacional de Detección Oportuna de Cáncer en México. MÉTODOS: Se realizó un estudio del tipo transversal de enero de 1997 a diciembre de 1998, en la Ciudad de México; se incluyeron a 2.107 mujeres en edad reproductiva que acudieron a un servicio de planificación familiar, las cuáles respondieron a un cuestionario con preguntas sobre características: sociodemográficas, factores de riesgo reproductivo asociados a cáncer cervical, historia de vida sexual, uso de métodos anticonceptivos, conocimiento de la utilidad y utilización del Papanicolaou. Para el análisis de los datos se construyeron modelos multivariados de regresión logística no condicional. RESULTADOS: Los predisponentes de utilización del programa de detección oportuna de cáncer en esta población fueron: el conocimiento de la utilidad del Papanicolaou incrementó en seis veces más la posibilidad de utilización (IC 95% 4,70-7,67; el antecedente de utilización de dos o más métodos de planificación familiar (OR=2,38; IC 95% 1,75-3,24; el antecedente de historia de infección vaginal (OR=2,18; IC 95% 1,73-2,75, y la aceptación del esposo para la realización de exploraciones ginecológicas (OR=1,56; IC 95% 1,07-2,29. CONCLUSIONES: La implementación de programas educativos en la prevención de cáncer, deberán incluir la utilidad de las pruebas de detección. En México, en mujeres en edad reproductiva utilización de la prueba de Papanicolaou se ofrece predominantemente en forma oportunista, por lo que el antecedente de utilización de los Servicios de Salud es un determinante para la utilización del Programa de Detección Oportuna de Cáncer Cervical. Estos resultados muestran la necesidad de ampliar la promoción a la salud de este programa a las mujeres de alto riesgo, incluyendo a sus parejas sexuales.OBJECTIVE: To identify and evaluate the predisposing factors regarding the utilization of the Pap smears in the population seen in the Cervical Cancer Screening Program in Mexico METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted from January 1997 through December 1998 in Mexico city. A questionnaire was applied to a total of 2,107 women of reproductive age who attended a family planning program and data was collected regarding the following topics: social-demographics, reproductive risk factors associated with cervical cancer, sexual behavior and partner history, birth control, knowledge about Pap smear' benefits, and its utilization. Statistic analysis was conducted using Student´s test and non-conditional multiple logistic regression model for determining significance. RESULTS: The predisposing factors were: knowledge about Pap smear's benefits (OR=6.00, CI 95% 4.70-7.67, history of using at least two birth control methods (OR=2.38, CI 95% 1.75-3.24, previous history of vaginal infection (OR=2.18, CI 95% 1.73-2.75, sexual partner's approval of gynecological examinations (OR=1.56, CI 95% 1.07-2.29. CONCLUSIONS: Educational programs on cancer prevention in this population should include the benefits of screening tests. Pap smears for Mexican women of reproductive age are mostly offered opportunely. The previous use of health services is a determinant factor for the utilization of the Cervical Cancer Screening Program. These results show the need to strengthen health promotion programs to women at high risk of cervical cancer and their sexual partners.

José A Aguilar-Pérez

2003-02-01

264

Structural elucidation of a dual-activity PAP phosphatase-1 from Entamoeba histolytica capable of hydrolysing both 3'-phosphoadenosine 5'-phosphate and inositol 1,4-bisphosphate.  

Science.gov (United States)

The enzyme 3'-phosphoadenosine 5'-phosphatase-1 (PAP phosphatase-1) is a member of the Li(+)-sensitive Mg(2+)-dependent phosphatase superfamily, or inositol monophosphatase (IMPase) superfamily, and is an important regulator of the sulfate-activation pathway in all living organisms. Inhibition of this enzyme leads to accumulation of the toxic byproduct 3'-phosphoadenosine 5'-phosphate (PAP), which could be lethal to the organism. Genomic analysis of Entamoeba histolytica suggests the presence of two isoforms of PAP phosphatase. The PAP phosphatase-1 isoform of this organism is shown to be active over wide ranges of pH and temperature. Interestingly, this enzyme is inhibited by submillimolar concentrations of Li(+), while being insensitive to Na(+). Interestingly, the enzyme showed activity towards both PAP and inositol 1,4-bisphosphate and behaved as an inositol polyphosphate 1-phosphatase. Crystal structures of this enzyme in its native form and in complex with adenosine 5'-monophosphate have been determined to 2.1 and 2.6?Å resolution, respectively. The PAP phosphatase-1 structure is divided into two domains, namely ?+? and ?/?, and the substrate and metal ions bind between them. This is a first structure of any PAP phosphatase to be determined from a human parasitic protozoan. This enzyme appears to function using a mechanism involving three-metal-ion assisted catalysis. Comparison with other structures indicates that the sensitivity to alkali-metal ions may depend on the orientation of a specific catalytic loop. PMID:25004978

Faisal Tarique, Khaja; Arif Abdul Rehman, Syed; Gourinath, S

2014-07-01

265

Vaginal colonization by papG allele II+ Escherichia coli isolates from pregnant and nonpregnant women as predisposing factor to pyelonephritis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Vaginal (61) and fecal (61) Escherichia coli isolates from pregnant and nonpregnant women (18-45 years old) were surveyed for papG alleles by PCR technique. papG allele II was the most prevalent among both vaginal (32.7%) and fecal (3.2%) isolates, whereas other alleles were found only among vaginal isolates (1.6% for alleles I and III and 3.2% for alleles II + III). papG(+) pregnant women's isolates did not differ significantly from those of nonpregnant in possession of papG allele II (90% versus 73.3%), whereas both (32.7%) differed significantly (P ? 0.05) in comparison with fecal isolates (3.2%). The vast majority of papG allele II(+) vaginal isolates were clustered in group B2 (81.8%) and much less in group D (18.1%). Also, most of them were positive for fimH (100%), papC (100%), iucC (90.9%), and hly (72.7%), and about half of them were positive for sfa/foc (45.4%). In addition, the mean of VFs' gene possession was 3.5 (range from 2 to 5). It can be concluded that vaginal colonization by papG allele II(+) E. coli is possibly one of the predisposing factors of both pregnant and nonpregnant women to pyelonephritis, but its potential may be modified by other factors especially host factors. PMID:23861574

Al-Mayahie, Sareaa Maseer Gatya

2013-01-01

266

Clinical Evaluation of A New Model of Self-Obtained Method for the Assessment of Genital Human Papilloma Virus Infection in an Underserved Population  

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Full Text Available Background: We designed a self-sampling method to collect exfoliated genital cells forhuman papilloma virus (HPV detection. The aim was to assess whether itwas suitable as an assistant tool for the early detection of cervical pre-cancerand cancer in a special category of the women who are not frequentlyscreened for cervical cancer.Methods: We compared the results of HPV detection that were self-obtained and physician-obtained cervical swabs from the same patient that were analyzed usinghybrid capture II assay. The diagnostic rate of cervical pre-cancer and cancerbetween self-obtained method and physician-obtained method were analyzed.Results: A total of 1194 women were prospectively registered from September 1997through September 1999. Among them, 144 (12.1% of self-test samplesand 155 (13% of physician-obtained samples were oncogenetic associated-HPV positive. Statistically, no significant differences existed in the screeningrate for cervical cancer using either the self-collected samples or thephysician-obtained samples ( p > .05. The sensitivity of cervical precanceror cancer detection using self-obtained HPV testing was higher (96.3% ascompared with the Pap smear (79.2% ( p < .02.Conclusion: The detection correlation of the HPV test between the self-obtained methodand physician-obtained method was 93%. Our results indicated that self-samplingwas a reliable method for testing for HPV. The identification of HPVinfection through the self-obtained method can be used in early identificationof high-risk women with cervical precancer and cancer especially in underservedpopulations.

Chi-Chang Chang

2002-10-01

267

NMR measurement of dynamic nuclear polarization: a technique to test the quality of its volume average obtained with different NMR coil configurations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the NMR measurement of dynamic nuclear polarization, a volume average is obtained where the contribution from different parts of the sample is weighted according to the local intensity of the RF field component perpendicular to the large static field. A method of mapping this quantity is described. A small metallic object whose geometry is chosen to perturb the appropriate RF component is scanned through the region to be occupied by the sample. The response of the phase angle of the impedance of a tuned circuit comprising the NMR coil gives a direct measurement of the local weighting factor. The correlation between theory and experiment was obtained by using a circular coil. The measuring method, checked in this way, was then used to investigate the field profiles of practical coils which are required to be rectangular for a proposed experimental neutron polarizing filter. This method can be used to evaluate other practical RF coils. (author)

268

Comparison of Results Obtained with Amplicor HIV-1 DNA PCR Test Version 1.5 Using 100 versus 500 Microliters of Whole Blood?  

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The Amplicor HIV-1 DNA PCR assay (Roche Diagnostics, Branchburg, NJ) requires 500 ?l of whole blood for a diagnosis of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection, and this amount is often difficult to obtain from infants. A comparison was performed using 100 and 500 ?l of whole blood from infants less than 18 months of age. The concordance rate for HIV DNA PCR-negative and -positive samples was 100% for the two different volumes.

Piwowar-manning, Estelle; Lugalia, Lebah; Kafufu, Bosco; Jackson, J. Brooks

2008-01-01

269

Evaluation of the relationship between capillary and venous plasma glucose concentrations obtained by the HemoCue Glucose 201+ system during an oral glucose tolerance test  

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Abstract In 55 women with previous gestational diabetes mellitus, simultaneous capillary and venous plasma glucose concentrations were measured at 0, 30 and 120 min during a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). The aims of the study were to examine the relationship between capillary and venous glucose measurements, and to establish equations for the conversion of capillary and venous glucose concentrations using the HemoCue Glucose 201+ system. Additionally, the correlation between the ca...

Ignell, Claes; Berntorp, Kerstin

2011-01-01

270

Discordant results obtained on testing sera from immunocompromised patients for cytomegalovirus IgG by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and radioimmunoassay  

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The investigation of sera from immunocompromised patients for antibody to CMV by ELISA, RIA, immunofluorescence (IF) and complement-fixation (CF) revealed discrepancies that reflected differences in test specificity rather than sensitivity and suggested that for the long-term serological follow-up of such patients it would be advisable not to rely on only a single assay procedure. (author). 12 refs.; 8 figs.; 1 tab.

Booth, J.C.; El Mohandes, L.; Tryhorn, Y.S. (London University (United Kingdom). St. George' s Hospital Medical School, Department of Medical Microbiology); Kangro, H.O.; Liu, K.M. (Saint Bartholomew' s Hospital, London (UK))

1989-10-01

271

Selective spectrophotometric determination of palladium(II) with 2(5-nitro-2-pyridylazo)-5-(N-propyl-N-3-sulfopropylamino)phenol(5-NO(2).PAPS) and tartaric acid with 5-NO(2).PAPS-niobium(V) complex.  

Science.gov (United States)

Spectrophotometric determinations of palladium(II) and tartaric acid were respectively investigated by using the color reactions between 2(5-nitro-2-pyridylazo)-5-(N-propyl-N-3-sulfopropylamino)phenol(5-NO(2).PAPS) and palladium(II) in strong acidic media, and between 5-NO(2).PAPS, niobium(V) tartaric acid in weak acidic media. The calibration graphs were linear in the range of 0-25 microg/10 ml palladium(II), with an apparent molecular coefficient (epsilon) of 6.2 x 10(4) l mol(-1) cm(-1) at 612 nm, and 0-23 microg/10 ml tartaric acid with epsilon=1.08 x 10(6) l mol(-1) cm(-1) at 612 nm, respectively. The proposed methods were selective and sensitive in comparison with other chelating pyridylazo dyes-palladium(II) or metavanadic acid-tartaric acid method, and the effect of foreign ions such as copper(II) was negligible for the assay of palladium(II) with 5-NO(2).PAPS. PMID:18967547

Mori, I; Kawakatsu, T; Fujita, Y; Matsuo, T

1999-05-01

272

Fission Yeast 26S Proteasome Mutants Are Multi-Drug Resistant Due to Stabilization of the Pap1 Transcription Factor  

Science.gov (United States)

Here we report the result of a genetic screen for mutants resistant to the microtubule poison methyl benzimidazol-2-yl carbamate (MBC) that were also temperature sensitive for growth. In total the isolated mutants were distributed in ten complementation groups. Cloning experiments revealed that most of the mutants were in essential genes encoding various 26S proteasome subunits. We found that the proteasome mutants are multi-drug resistant due to stabilization of the stress-activated transcription factor Pap1. We show that the ubiquitylation and ultimately the degradation of Pap1 depend on the Rhp6/Ubc2 E2 ubiquitin conjugating enzyme and the Ubr1 E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase. Accordingly, mutants lacking Rhp6 or Ubr1 display drug-resistant phenotypes. PMID:23209828

Penney, Mary; Samejima, Itaru; Wilkinson, Caroline R.; McInerny, Christopher J.; Mathiassen, Søs G.; Wallace, Mairi; Toda, Takashi; Hartmann-Petersen, Rasmus; Gordon, Colin

2012-01-01

273

Pap smear diagnosis using a hybrid intelligent scheme focusing on genetic algorithm based feature selection and nearest neighbor classification.  

Science.gov (United States)

The term pap-smear refers to samples of human cells stained by the so-called Papanicolaou method. The purpose of the Papanicolaou method is to diagnose pre-cancerous cell changes before they progress to invasive carcinoma. In this paper a metaheuristic algorithm is proposed in order to classify the cells. Two databases are used, constructed in different times by expert MDs, consisting of 917 and 500 images of pap smear cells, respectively. Each cell is described by 20 numerical features, and the cells fall into 7 classes but a minimal requirement is to separate normal from abnormal cells, which is a 2 class problem. For finding the best possible performing feature subset selection problem, an effective genetic algorithm scheme is proposed. This algorithmic scheme is combined with a number of nearest neighbor based classifiers. Results show that classification accuracy generally outperforms other previously applied intelligent approaches. PMID:19147127

Marinakis, Yannis; Dounias, Georgios; Jantzen, Jan

2009-01-01

274

Fission yeast 26S proteasome mutants are multi-drug resistant due to stabilization of the Pap1transcription factor.  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Here we report the result of a genetic screen for mutants resistant to the microtubule poison methyl benzimidazol-2-yl carbamate (MBC) that were also temperature sensitive for growth. In total the isolated mutants were distributed in ten complementation groups. Cloning experiments revealed that most of the mutants were in essential genes encoding various 26S proteasome subunits. We found that the proteasome mutants are multi-drug resistant due to stabilization of the stress-activated transcription factor Pap1. We show that the ubiquitylation and ultimately the degradation of Pap1 depend on the Rhp6/Ubc2 E2 ubiquitin conjugating enzyme and the Ubr1 E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase. Accordingly, mutants lacking Rhp6 or Ubr1 display drug-resistant phenotypes.

Penney, Mary; Samejima, Itaru

2012-01-01

275

Pap Smear Diagnosis Using a Hybrid Intelligent Scheme Focusing on Genetic Algorithm Based Feature Selection and Nearest Neighbor Classification  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The term pap-smear refers to samples of human cells stained by the so-called Papanicolaou method. The purpose of the Papanicolaou method is to diagnose pre-cancerous cell changes before they progress to invasive carcinoma. In this paper a metaheuristic algorithm is proposed in order to classify the cells. Two databases are used, constructed in different times by expert MDs, consisting of 917 and 500 images of pap smear cells, respectively. Each cell is described by 20 numerical features, and the cells fall into 7 classes but a minimal requirement is to separate normal from abnormal cells, which is a 2 class problem. For finding the best possible performing feature subset selection problem, an effective genetic algorithm scheme is proposed. This algorithmic scheme is combined with a number of nearest neighbor based classifiers. Results show that classification accuracy generally outperforms other previously applied intelligent approaches.

Marinakis, Yannis; Dounias, Georgios

2009-01-01

276

Analysis of the F Antigen-Specific papA Alleles of Extraintestinal Pathogenic Escherichia coli Using a Novel Multiplex PCR-Based Assay  

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Polymorphisms in PapA, the major structural subunit and antigenic determinant of P fimbriae of extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli, are of considerable epidemiological, phylogenetic, and immunotherapeutic importance. However, to date, no method other than DNA sequencing has been generally available for their detection. In the present study, we developed and rigorously validated a novel PCR-based assay for the 11 recognized variants of papA and then used the new assay to assess the pre...

Johnson, James R.; Stell, Adam L.; Scheutz, Flemming; O Bryan, Timothy T.; Russo, Thomas A.; Carlino, Ulrike B.; Fasching, Caludine; Kavle, Justine; Dijk, Linda; Gaastra, Wim

2000-01-01

277

Self-reported history of Pap-smear in HIV-positive women in Northern Italy: a cross-sectional study  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The incidence of invasive cervical cancer in HIV-positive women is higher than in the general population. There is evidence that HIV-positive women do not participate sufficiently in cervical cancer screening in Italy, where cervical cancer is more than 10-fold higher in women with AIDS than in the general population. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the history of Pap-smear in HIV-positive women in Italy in recent years. We also examined the sociodemographic, clinical, and organizational factors associated with adherence to cervical cancer screening. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted between July 2006 and June 2007 in Emilia-Romagna region (Northern Italy. All HIV-positive women who received a follow-up visit in one of the 10 regional infectivology units were invited to participate. History of Pap-smear, including abnormal smears and subsequent treatment, was investigated through a self-administered anonymous questionnaire. The association between lack of Pap-smear in the year preceding the interview and selected characteristics was assessed by means of odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals adjusted for study centre and age. Results A total of 1,002 HIV-positive women were interviewed. Nine percent reported no history of Pap-smear, and 39% had no Pap-smear in the year prior to the date of questionnaire (last year. The lack of Pap-smear in the last year was significantly associated with age Three hundred five (34% women reported a previous abnormal Pap-smear, and of the 178 (58% referred for treatment, 97% complied. Conclusions In recent years the self-reported history of Pap-smear in HIV-positive women, in some public clinics in Italy, is higher than previously reported, but further efforts are required to make sure cervical cancer screening is accessible to all HIV-positive women.

Ghinelli Florio

2010-06-01

278

The contrast medium Amipaque and its effects on selected chemical and hematologic parameters of human blood. Data obtained by laboratory tests and electron microscopy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The contribution presents results of examinations made in connection with angiographies of the carotid, for determination of the effects of Amipaque on the water content and individual volumes of erythrocytes, on electrolyte concentration in the plasma and erythrocytes, and on the morphology of erythrocytes. The selected parameters were determined at intervals of 1, 10, and 30 min. after injection of the contrast medium. At one and ten min. p.i., measured data showed a significant increase of water content in the erythrocytes, and simultaneous reduction of single volume of erythrocytes. Electron microscopy was applied to interpret these data which could not be explained by the chemical laboratory tests

279

The solution structure of PapGII from uropathogenic Escherichia coli and its recognition of glycolipid receptors  

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Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) is the primary cause of symptomatic urinary tract infection. The P-pili, a bacterial surface organelle, mediates the bacterial host–cell adhesion. The PapG adhesin has generated much interest in recent years, not only because of its clinical value, i.e. in the prevention of microbial adherence, but also because of its ability to promote virulence. Using multidimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and deuteration we have determined the solution str...

Sung, Mei-an; Fleming, Keiran; Chen, Ho An; Matthews, Stephen

2001-01-01

280

Identification of myotubularin as the lipid phosphatase catalytic subunit associated with the 3-phosphatase adapter protein, 3-PAP  

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Myotubularin is a dual-specific phosphatase that dephosphorylates phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate and phosphatidylinositol (3,5)-bisphosphate. Mutations in myotubularin result in the human disease X-linked myotubular myopathy, characterized by persistence of muscle fibers that retain an immature phenotype. We have previously reported the identification of the 3-phosphatase adapter protein (3-PAP), a catalytically inactive member of the myotubularin gene family, which ...

Nandurkar, Harshal H.; Layton, Meredith; Laporte, Jocelyn; Selan, Carly; Corcoran, Lisa; Caldwell, Kevin K.; Mochizuki, Yasuhiro; Majerus, Philip W.; Mitchell, Christina A.

2003-01-01

 
 
 
 
281

Dissection of a Redox Relay: H2O2-Dependent Activation of the Transcription Factor Pap1 through the Peroxidatic Tpx1-Thioredoxin Cycle  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In fission yeast, the transcription factor Pap1 undergoes H2O2-dependent oxidation that promotes its nuclear accumulation and the activation of an antioxidant gene program. However, the mechanisms that regulate the sensitivity and selectivity of Pap1 activation by peroxides are not fully understood. Here, we demonstrate that the peroxiredoxin Tpx1, the sensor of this signaling cascade, activates the otherwise unresponsive Pap1 protein once the main cytosolic reduced thioredoxin, Trx1, becomes transiently depleted. In other words, Pap1 works as an alternative electron donor for oxidized Tpx1. We have trapped the very transient Tpx1-Pap1 intermediate in cells depleted in Trx1, as we show here using mass spectrometry. Recycling of Tpx1 by Trx1 is required for the efficient signaling to Pap1, suggesting that the complete cycle of H2O2 scavenging by Tpx1 and further recycling of oxidized Tpx1 by Trx1 is required for full downstream activation of the redox cascade.

Isabel A. Calvo

2013-12-01

282

Users’ knowledge and practices about the pap smear in the family health strategy  

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Full Text Available Objective: to identify the knowledge and practices of users of a Family Health Unit about the Pap smear. Method: this is about a cross-sectional study, through a survey, with a sample of 101 women, aged between 25 and 59 years, users of the family health service. The collection of data was made through a structured multidimensional questionnaire. Given the ethical aspects of research involving human subjects, the study was approved (CAAE 1955.0.000.308-09 by the Ethics Committee of the Masters in Family Health at the Universidade Estácio de Sá. Results: observed that relationships between friends and relatives (38.0% are the main sources of information on disease prevention practices. Furthermore, it was noticed that 96,0% of respondents are adequately knowledgeable on the real purpose of the procedure. Regarding the use of this service, it was found that about 90% of women used it in accordance with the practice recommended by the Ministério da Saúde. Conclusion: the family health service displayed a good cervical cancer screening uptake. However, it is estimated that there is a need to strengthen the educational processes with participatory techniques.

Ricardo de Mattos Russo Rafael, Flaviane Santos da Costa, Alice Ribeiro de Oliveira, Rogéria Maria Silva do Nascimento

2011-01-01

283

Estrogen staining in breast carcinoma by PAP methods compared to CEA and ferritin staining.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aims of this paper are to demonstrate the stainability of estrogen, CEA, and ferritin in breast carcinomas, fibroadenomas, and fibrocystic diseases; to examine whether the findings of endogenous estrogen using the immunohistochemical detection method are related to estrogen receptor (ER) assays; and to determine whether the stainability of estrogen, CEA, and ferritin were related to the prognosis of breast carcinomas. In breast cancer, the stainability of estrogen using the peroxidase-antiperoxidase (PAP) method was positively correlated with the dextran-coated charcoal (DCC) assay for ER. In breast cancers, the percentage of positive staining was 46% for estrogen, 48% for CEA, and 47% for ferritin. With all three stains, significant differences were observed between cancer and benign diseases. Cases that were both positive for estrogen staining and negative for CEA showed a good prognosis after the recurrence of disease. Our data suggest that the immunohistochemical staining of estrogen, CEA, and ferritin might predict the biological behavior of breast carcinomas and be a prognostically useful indicator of breast cancer patients. PMID:2436774

Osamu, K; Takashi, M; Yohichi, T; Yasuo, U; Tetsuro, Y; Yoshiro, F; Toshio, T

1987-01-01

284

Social inequality in Pap smear coverage: identifying under-users of cervical cancer screening in Argentina.  

Science.gov (United States)

In Argentina, the unequal distribution of the burden of cervical cancer is striking: the mortality rate of the province of Jujuy (15/100,000) is almost four times higher than that of the city of Buenos Aires (4/100,000). We aimed to establish the socio-demographic profile of women who were under-users of Pap smear screening, based on an analysis of a representative sample of Argentinean women from the First National Survey on Risk Factors in 2005. We found that in Argentina, women who are poor, unmarried, unemployed or inactive, with lower levels of education and reduced access to health care, and women over the age of 65, were under-users of screening. Screening must not remain opportunistic. Strategies must incorporate the needs and perceptions of socially disadvantaged women, and increase their access to screening. Of utmost importance is to provide good quality screening and treatment services that reach women who are at risk. Pilot projects using new, alternative technologies should be encouraged in less developed parts of the country. Promotion among health professionals of the scientific basis and effectiveness of each screening modality is essential to reduce wasteful practices such as annual screening and screening of young women that waste resources and fail to reduce cervical cancer incidence and mortality rates. PMID:19027622

Arrossi, Silvina; Ramos, Silvina; Paolino, Melisa; Sankaranarayanan, Rengaswamy

2008-11-01

285

Prevalence of HPV Infection and Its Association with Cytological Abnormalities of Pap Smears in Tehran  

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Full Text Available Background: Human papillomavirus infection is one of the most common genital infections. More than 100 types of this virus have been identified, and most of them are capable of infecting the genital mucosa. Human papillomavirus is in association with cancerous and precancerous lesions of the cervix; some types like HPV 16 and 18 are highly carcinogenic, some types like HPV 31 and 33 are moderately and some types like HPV 6 and 11 are mildly carcinogenic. In this research, the relationship between cytological changes of the squamous epithelial cells and the presence of HPV infections in our cases has been assessed."nMethods: In this prospective study, we collected 681 samples from women admitted to different hospitals and private gynecological clinics in Tehran, during the years 2003-2005. Two specimens were collected from each patient; one for a Pap smear study and the other for PCR assay in order to detect HPV."nResults: Out of our 681 samples, 600 specimens were suitable for PCR assay, and 34 cases were HPV positive in PCR assay. This means that 5.7 percent of our patients were infected with HPV."nConclusion: HPV infection is common in Iran and is nearly identical to European countries such as Germany, and Spain. Also, we found that using PCR assay in order to detect the presence of HPV viruses in vaginal discharges can be very helpful.

M Jamali Zavarei Jamali Zavarei

2008-09-01

286

HPV Reflex Testing in Menopausal Women  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective. To determine the frequency of high risk (HR) HPV and intraepithelial neoplasia following ASCUS pap cytology screens in menopausal women. Study Design. Following IRB approval, we performed a retrospective review of all cases of ASCUS pap tests, HPV results, and relevant clinical-pathologic data in women age 50 or over from November 2005 to January 2007 within a tertiary care center. Statistical analyses were performed in EXCEL. Results. 344 patients were analyzed for a total of 367 screening pap tests. 25.29% (87/344) patients were HR HPV positive, with greater percentages of HR HPV cases occurring in women age 65–74. Within HR HPV cases, 79.3% (69/87) underwent colposcopy. 27.5% (19/69) biopsy proven lesions were discovered, including cervical, vulvar or vaginal (intraepithelial neoplasia). Within the negative HR HPV group 3.1% (8/257) patients were diagnosed with dysplasia or carcinoma. Within both HR HPV positive and negative groups, patients with no prior history of lower genital tract lesions or cancer were identified. Conclusion. Reflex HPV testing plays an important role in ASCUS triage in menopausal women. Pap test screening and HPV testing should not be limited to women of reproductive age as they may aid in the diagnosis of intraepithelial neoplasia in women of older age. PMID:21559191

Ko, Emily M.; Tambouret, Rosemary; Wilbur, David; Goodman, Annekathryn

2011-01-01

287

Interpretation of Actinide-Distribution Data Obtained from Non-Destructive and Destructive Post-Test Analyses of an Intact-Core Column of Culebra Dolomite  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The US DOE, with technical assistance from Sandia National Laboratories, has successfully received EPA certification and opened the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), a nuclear waste disposal facility located approximately 42 km east of Carlsbad, New Mexico. Performance assessment analyses indicate that human intrusions by inadvertent, intermittent drilling for resources provide the only credible mechanisms for releases of radionuclides from the disposal system. In modeling long-term brine releases, subsequent to a drilling event, potential migration pathways through the permeable layers of rock above the Salado formation were analyzed. Major emphasis is placed on the Culebra Member of the Rustler Formation because this is the most transmissive geologic layer overlying the WIPP site. In order to help quantify parameters for the calculated releases, radionuclide transport experiments have been earned out using intact-core columns obtained from the Culebra dolomite member of the Rustler Formation within the WIPP site. This paper deals primarily with results of analyses for 241Pu and 241Am distributions developed during transport experiments in one of these cores. Transport experiments were done using a synthetic brine that simulates Culebra brine at the core recovery location (the WIPP air-intake shaft--AIS). Hydraulic characteristics (i.e., apparent porosity and apparent dispersion coefficient) for intact-core columns were obtained via experiments using the conservative tracer 22Na. Elution experiments carried out over periods of a few days with tracers 232U and 239Np indicated that these tracers were weakly retarded as indicated by delayed elution of the species. Elution experiments with tracers 241Pu and 241Am were attempted, but no elution of either species has been observed to date, including experiments of many months' duration. In order to quantify retardation of the non-eluted species 241Pu and 241Am after a period of brine flow, non-destructive and destructive analyses of one intact-core column were carried out to determine distribution of these actinides in the rock. Analytical results indicate that the majority of the 241Am remained very near the injection surface of the core (possibly as a precipitate), and that the majority of the 241Pu was dispersed with a very high apparent retardation value. The 241Pu distribution is interpreted using a single-porosity advection-dispersion model, and an approximate retardation value is reported

288

Constitutive equations of Li2TiO3 and Li4SiO4 pebble Beds obtained by means of standard triaxial tests: implementation of the model in a FEM code  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

During the ITER operation, some Test Breeding Modules (TBM) will be tested in the equatorial ports of the reactor. Presently, these TBM are being developed in different research centres in the world. The Helium-Cooled Pebble Bed (HCPB) blanket is one of two breeder blanket concepts developed in Europe. The HCPB uses Beryllium pebbles as neutron multiplier and. Li4SiO4 or Li2TiO3 pebbles as breeder material. The analysis of the breeding blanket is complex for the geometry as well as for the loading conditions. Advanced computer codes are needed in order to determine the reliability of the different designs. In this context the mechanical characterisation of pebble beds is important in order to simulate their behaviour. This paper illustrates the standard tests, performed in order to obtain the effective properties of the pebble beds, and the implementation of a constitutive model of the granular material in a FEM code. Several Authors have analyzed the pebble bed by meand uniaxial compression tests (oedometer tests). This test permits to obtain an effective displacement- load law under lateral constraint, but no data are obtained about the pebble bed shear resistance or about the three-dimensional behaviour of the bed. In the soil (made of sand, gravel or clay) qualification, triaxial tests are used for determining all their constitutive properties. In these test the soil is loaded by axial and lateral loads which can be varied independently. The measurement of the loa independently. The measurement of the load and the displacement in both the directions permits to obtain the material constants f the constitutive models elaborated for describing the soil behaviour. The classic soil models are the Cam-Clay model and the Drucker-Prager with cap model. These models are implemented in several commercial FEM codes and they could be easily used for simulating the pebble beds. But the pebble bed behaviour is different from that of the soil. The soil models describe in detail the behaviour dependent on the water pressure and on the drainage conditions. These aspects have not any meaning for the pebble bed. Moreover the soil consolidation is different from the creep of the pebble bed. The paper demonstrates the limits of applying the soil model to the pebble bed. In fact the triaxial tests have been simulated numerically by means a commercial FEM code considering the classic soil models and the material constants obtained by the tests. Moreover the paper emphasizes the relative importance of the material constants (about 10), contained in the classic soil model, in order to fit the experimental results of the tests on the pebble beds. (orig.)

289

Interpretation of data obtained from non-destructive and destructive post-test analyses of an intact-core column of culebra dolomite  

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The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has been developing a nuclear waste disposal facility, the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), located approximately 42 km east of Carlsbad, New Mexico. The WIPP is designed to demonstrate the safe disposal of transuranic wastes produced by the defense nuclear-weapons program. Pefiormance assessment analyses (U.S. DOE, 1996) indicate that human intrusion by inadvertent and intermittent drilling for resources provide the only credible mechanisms for significant releases of radionuclides horn the disposal system. These releases may occur by five mechanisms: (1) cuttings, (2) cavings, (3) spallings, (4) direct brine releases, and (5) long- term brine releases. The first four mechanisms could result in immediate release of contaminant to the accessible environment. For the last mechanisq migration pathways through the permeable layers of rock above the Salado are important, and major emphasis is placed on the Culebra Member of the Rustler Formation because this is the most transmissive geologic layer in the disposal system. For reasons of initial quantity, half-life, and specific radioactivity, certain isotopes of T~ U, Am, and Pu would dominate calculated releases from the WIPP. In order to help quantifi parameters for the calculated releases, radionuclide transport experiments have been carried out using five intact-core columns obtained from the Culebra dolomite member of the Rustler Formation within the Waste Isolation Pilot Pknt (WIPP) site in southeastern New Mexico. This report deals primarily with results of analyses for 241Pu and 241Am distributions developed during transport experiments in one of these cores. All intact-core column transport experiments were done using Culebra-simukmt brine relevant to the core recovery location (the WIPP air-intake shaft - AK). Hydraulic characteristics (i.e., apparent porosity and apparent dispersion coefficient) for intact-core columns were obtained via experiments using conservative tracer `Na. Elution experiments carried out over periods of a few days with tracers `2U and `?Np indicated that these tracers were weakly retarded as indicated by delayed elution of these species. Elution experiments with tracers 24% and 24*Arn were performed, but no elution of either species was observed in any flow experiment to date, including experiments of many months' duration. In order to quanti~ retardation of the non-eluted species 24*Pu and 241Arn afler a period of brine flow, non-destructive and destructive analyses of an intact-core column were carried out to determine distribution of these actinides in the rock. Analytical results indicate that the majority of the 241Am is present very near the top (injection) surface of the core (possibly as a precipitate), and that the majority of the 241Pu is dispersed with a very high apparent retardation value. The 24]Pu distribution is interpreted using a single-porosity advection-dispersion model, and an approximate retardation value is reported for this actinide. The specific radionuclide isotopes used in these experiments were chosen to facilitate analysis. Even though these isotopes are not necessarily the same as those that are most important to WIPP performance, they are isotopes of the same elements, and their chemical and transport properties are therefore identical to those of isotopes in the inventory.

Lucero, Daniel L.; Perkins, W. George

1998-09-01

290

Comparison of the detection of HPV-16, 18, 31, 33, and 45 by type-specific DNA- and E6/E7 mRNA-based assays of HPV DNA positive women with abnormal Pap smears.  

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This study compares the type-specific human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA test with E6/E7 mRNA detection assay because of their importance in cervical cancer screening programs. A total of 105 women with positive high-risk Hybrid Capture 2 or Abbott RealTime High Risk HPV screening test and an abnormal cervical Pap smear were enrolled in the study. HPV typing was performed by multiplex real-time PCR (HPV High Risk Typing Real-TM test). HPV-16, 18, 31, 33, and 45 E6/E7 mRNAs were determined by type-specific real-time NASBA assay (NucliSENS EasyQ HPV v1.1). Infections caused by HPV-16, 18, 31, 33, and 45 types increased with severity of cervical cytology (p=0.008). Global positivity of five HPV E6/E7 mRNAs was lower than DNA positivity within women with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (p=0.016; p=0.008). High agreement of the tests was found in the groups of women with low-grade (p=1.000; p=0.063) and high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (p=0.250; p=0.125). Type-specific agreement of both diagnostic approaches was high regardless of cytology. Based on the found differences between HPV-16, 18, 31, 33, and 45 E6/E7 mRNA and DNA positivity, further study is needed to test the role of mRNA testing in the triage of women with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance in Pap smear. PMID:24036071

Salimovi?-Beši?, Irma; Tomi?-?i?a, Anja; Smailji, Admir; Huki?, Mirsada

2013-12-01

291

Acquisition of high-risk human papillomavirus infections and pap smear abnormalities among women in the New Independent States of the Former Soviet Union.  

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The rates of acquisition and the times of incident high-risk (HR) human papillomavirus (HPV) infections and Pap smear abnormalities and their predictive factors were analyzed in women participating in a multicenter screening study in three countries of the New Independent States of the former Soviet Union. The 423 patients were prospectively monitored for a mean of 21.6 months. At the baseline, 118 women were HR HPV DNA negative (Hybrid Capture II assay) and Pap smear negative (group 1), 184 were HPV DNA positive and Pap smear negative (group 2), and 121 were HPV DNA negative and Pap smear positive (group 3). The time to the acquisition of an incident abnormal Pap smear (19.4 months) was significantly longer in group 1 than in group 2 (9.2 months) (P = 0.0001). The times of acquisition of incident HR HPV infection were 16.6 and 11.0 months in group 1 and group 3, respectively (P = 0.006). The monthly rates of acquisition of incident HR HPV infections were very similar in group 1 (1.0%) and group 3 (0.8%), whereas the rate of acquisition of an abnormal Pap smear was significantly higher in group 2 (3.1%) than in group 1 (1.5%) (P = 0.0001). The acquisition of HR HPV infection (but not a positive Pap smear result) was significantly (P = 0.0001) age dependent. The only significant independent (P = 0.001) predictor of the incidence of an abnormal Pap smear result was a high HR HPV load of >20 relative light units/control value (CO) (rate ratio, 2.050; 95% confidence interval, 1.343 to 3.129). Independent predictors of incident HR HPV infection were patient category (a sexually transmitted disease) and ever having been pregnant. The time of acquisition of HR HPV infection was 3 months shorter than that of an abnormal Pap smear. At the baseline the high load of a particular HR HPV type is the single most important predictor of an incident Pap smear abnormality, whereas young age and having a sexually transmitted disease predict incident HR HPV infections. PMID:14766808

Syrjänen, Stina; Shabalova, Irena; Petrovichev, Nicolay; Kozachenko, Vladimir; Zakharova, Tatjana; Pajanidi, Julia; Podistov, Jurij; Chemeris, Galina; Sozaeva, Larisa; Lipova, Elena; Tsidaeva, Irena; Ivanchenko, Olga; Pshepurko, Alla; Zakharenko, Sergej; Nerovjna, Raisa; Kljukina, Ludmila; Erokhina, Oksana; Branovskaja, Marina; Nikitina, Maritta; Grunberga, Valerija; Grunberg, Alexandr; Juschenko, Anna; Tosi, Piero; Cintorino, Marcella; Santopietro, Rosa; Syrjänen, Kari

2004-02-01

292

Testing long-term summer temperature reconstruction based on maximum density chronologies obtained by reanalysis of tree-ring datasets from northernmost Sweden and Finland  

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Full Text Available Here we analysed the maximum latewood density (MXD chronologies of two published tree-ring datasets: from Torneträsk region in northernmost Sweden (TORN, Melvin et al., 2013 and from northern Fennoscandia (FENN, Esper et al., 2012. We paid particular attention to the MXD low-frequency variations to reconstruct long-term summer (June–August, JJA temperature history. We used published methods of tree-ring standardization: regional curve (RC standardization, combined with signal-free (SF implementation. Comparisons with a single-RC (RC1 and multiple-RC (RC2 were also carried out. We develop a novel method of standardization, the correction (C implementation to SF (hence, RC1SFC or RC2SFC, tailored for detection of pure low-frequency signal in tree-ring chronologies. In this method, the error in RC1SF (or RC2SF chronology, is analytically assessed and extracted to produce a RC1SFC or RC2SFC chronology. In TORN, the RC1SF chronology shows higher correlation with summer temperature (JJA than RC1SFC, whereas in FENN the temperature signals of RC1SF chronology is improved by correction implementation (RC1SFC. The highest correlation between differently standardized chronologies for two datasets is obtained using FENN-RC2SFC and TORN-RC1 chronologies. Focusing on lowest frequencies, the importance of correction becomes obvious as the chronologies become progressively more correlative with RC1SFC and RC2SFC implementations. Subsampling the FENN data (which presents a higher number of samples than TORN dataset to the chronology sample size of TORN data shows that the chronologies consistently bifurcate during the 7th, 9th, 17th and 20th centuries. We used the two MXD datasets to reconstruct summer temperature variations over the period ?48–2010 calendar years. Our new reconstruction shows multi-decadal to multi-centennial variability with changes in the amplitude of the summer temperature of 2.6 °C in average during the Common Era.

V. V. Matskovsky

2013-10-01

293

Perception, attitude and practices of women towards pelvic examination and pap smear in Jamaica  

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Full Text Available AbstractBackground: Studies have shown that women’s ability to access contraceptive methods depend on their socio-economic, educational, professional status, and the health and well-being of their families and themselves. Therefore, the embarking of the Governments of the Caribbean on important initiatives relating to gynecological matters is very important and timely. Aims: This study aims to examine the perception, attitude and practice of Jamaican women towards the matter of pelvic examination. Patients and Methods: The current study used an extracted sample of 7,168 women in their reproductive years (15-49 yrs from a study which was undertaken by the National Family Planning Board in 2002 on Reproductive Health. Data was analyzed using SPSS for Windows, Version 16.0 (SPSS Inc.; Chicago, Ill. USA. Logistic regression was used to analyze factors/variables pertaining to Pelvic examination. Results: The findings revealed that older women are more likely to have done a Pelvic examination compared to younger women (?2= 675.29, P < 0.001. Age, number of pregnancies that resulted in miscarriages, number of pregnancies that resulted in induced abortion, age of first sexual intercourse, number of years of schooling, area of residence and socio-economic class are statistically significant factors of Pelvic examinations in Jamaica. Therefore, the model had significant predictive power where (?2= 1022.79, P < 0.001. Conclusion: The multidimensional nature of the variables, which emerged in the current study, indicate that a multisectoral approach should be used to address low pelvic and Pap smear examination among Jamaican women.

Paul A. Bourne

2010-10-01

294

Prevalence of high-risk human papillomavirus types 16 and 18 in healthy women with cytologically negative pap smear in Iran  

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Full Text Available Background: Because human papillomavirus (HPV is one of the causal factors in cervical cancer, understanding the epidemiology of this infection is an important step towards developing strategies for prevention. Materials and Methods: We evaluated the prevalence of high-risk human papillomavirus Types 16 and 18 in cervical samples from 402 healthy women with normal Pap smears by testing with type-specific primers in the polymerase chain reaction. Participants were seen at two gynecological clinics affiliated to the Shiraz University of Medical Sciences in Iran. Result: The prevalence of positive HPV findings was 5.5%; high-risk HPV human papillomavirus Type 16 prevalence was 2% and no patient harbored HPV-18. The prevalence of HPV was 4.5% in younger age group and gradually increased to 20% in the 4 th decade. Conclusion: The prevalence of high-risk HPV was highest in the youngest women and gradually decreased with age. Overall, the prevalence of HPV in our population is low.

Safaei Akbar

2010-10-01

295

Arabidopsis poly(A) polymerase PAPS1 limits founder-cell recruitment to organ primordia and suppresses the salicylic acid-independent immune response downstream of EDS1/PAD4.  

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Polyadenylation of pre-mRNAs by poly(A) polymerase (PAPS) is a critical process in eukaryotic gene expression. As found in vertebrates, plant genomes encode several isoforms of canonical nuclear PAPS enzymes. In Arabidopsis thaliana these isoforms are functionally specialized, with PAPS1 affecting both organ growth and immune response, at least in part by the preferential polyadenylation of subsets of pre-mRNAs. Here, we demonstrate that the opposite effects of PAPS1 on leaf and flower growth reflect the different identities of these organs, and identify a role for PAPS1 in the elusive connection between organ identity and growth patterns. The overgrowth of paps1 mutant petals is due to increased recruitment of founder cells into early organ primordia, and suggests that PAPS1 activity plays unique roles in influencing organ growth. By contrast, the leaf phenotype of paps1 mutants is dominated by a constitutive immune response that leads to increased resistance to the biotrophic oomycete Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis and reflects activation of the salicylic acid-independent signalling pathway downstream of ENHANCED DISEASE SUSCEPTIBILITY1 (EDS1)/PHYTOALEXIN DEFICIENT4 (PAD4). These findings provide an insight into the developmental and physiological basis of the functional specialization amongst plant PAPS isoforms. PMID:24372773

Trost, Gerda; Vi, Son Lang; Czesnick, Hjördis; Lange, Peggy; Holton, Nick; Giavalisco, Patrick; Zipfel, Cyril; Kappel, Christian; Lenhard, Michael

2014-03-01

296

HIP/PAP gene, encoding a C-type lectin overexpressed in primary liver cancer, is expressed in nervous system as well as in intestine and pancreas of the postimplantation mouse embryo.  

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We originally isolated the HIP/PAP gene in a differential screen of a human hepatocellular carcinoma cDNA library. This gene is expressed at high levels in 25% of primary liver cancers but not in nontumorous liver. HIP/PAP belongs to the family of C-type lectins and acts as an adhesion molecule for hepatocytes. In normal adult human tissues, HIP/PAP expression is found in pancreas (exocrine and endocrine cells) and small intestine (Paneth and neuroendocrine cells). In order to gain insight into the possible role of HIP/PAP in vivo, we have investigated the pattern of HIP/PAP expression in the developing postimplantation mouse embryo by in situ hybridization. Detailed analysis of developing mouse embryos revealed that HIP/PAP gene exhibits a restricted expression pattern during development. Thus, HIP/PAP transcripts are first observed within the nervous system from day 14.5 onwards in trigeminal ganglia, dorsal root ganglia, and spinal cord where it appears to be an early specific marker of a subpopulation of motor neurons. At laster stages, HIP/PAP transcripts were detected in intestine and pancreas at day 16.5 but not in embryonic liver. This highly restricted expression pattern suggests that HIP/PAP might participate in neuronal as well as intestinal and pancreatic cell development. PMID:10329612

Lasserre, C; Colnot, C; Bréchot, C; Poirier, F

1999-05-01

297

Over-expression of AtPAP2 in Camelina sativa leads to faster plant growth and higher seed yield  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Lipids extracted from seeds of Camelina sativa have been successfully used as a reliable source of aviation biofuels. This biofuel is environmentally friendly because the drought resistance, frost tolerance and low fertilizer requirement of Camelina sativa allow it to grow on marginal lands. Improving the species growth and seed yield by genetic engineering is therefore a target for the biofuels industry. In Arabidopsis, overexpression of purple acid phosphatase 2 encoded by Arabidopsis (AtPAP2 promotes plant growth by modulating carbon metabolism. Overexpression lines bolt earlier and produce 50% more seeds per plant than wild type. In this study, we explored the effects of overexpressing AtPAP2 in Camelina sativa. Results Under controlled environmental conditions, overexpression of AtPAP2 in Camelina sativa resulted in longer hypocotyls, earlier flowering, faster growth rate, higher photosynthetic rate and stomatal conductance, increased seed yield and seed size in comparison with the wild-type line and null-lines. Similar to transgenic Arabidopsis, activity of sucrose phosphate synthase in leaves of transgenic Camelina was also significantly up-regulated. Sucrose produced in photosynthetic tissues supplies the building blocks for cellulose, starch and lipids for growth and fuel for anabolic metabolism. Changes in carbon flow and sink/source activities in transgenic lines may affect floral, architectural, and reproductive traits of plants. Conclusions Lipids extracted from the seeds of Camelina sativa have been used as a major constituent of aviation biofuels. The improved growth rate and seed yield of transgenic Camelina under controlled environmental conditions have the potential to boost oil yield on an area basis in field conditions and thus make Camelina-based biofuels more environmentally friendly and economically attractive.

Zhang Youjun

2012-04-01

298

Chronic constipation - the role of clinical assessment and colorectal physiologic tests to obtain an etiologic diagnosis / O papel da avaliação clínica e dos testes de fisiologia colo-reto anal no diagnóstico etiológico da constipação intestinal crônica  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese RACIONAL: O diagnóstico dos subtipos de constipação crônica tem sido considerado difícil de ser estabelecido, mesmo em centros especializados. Embora os testes fisiológicos tenham trazido uma importante contribuição, ainda há dúvidas quanto as suas indicações. OBJETIVOS: Estabelecer o diagnóstico di [...] ferencial em casos de constipação crônica através da avaliação clínica e da utilização de testes fisiológicos, procurando-se identificar parâmetros clínicos que poderiam predizer quais pacientes necessitariam de tais testes. MÉTODOS: Cento e setenta e nove pacientes (83% do sexo feminino; média de idade de 45 anos) com constipação crônica de acordo com os critérios de Roma II foram inicialmente tratados com medidas dietéticas e reeducação funcional e aqueles que não responderam (110 ou 61,5%) foram submetidos a tempo de trânsito colônico, defecografia, manometria anorretal e eletromiografia, de acordo com apresentação clínica da constipação crônica. RESULTADOS: O diagnóstico etiológico foi obtido em 63.6% dos pacientes testados. Entretanto, em 61,5% (69 que não necessitaram dos testes e 40 que tiveram testes normais), o diagnóstico etiológico foi estabelecido em bases clínicas. A síndrome do intestino irritável (32%), a disfunção do assoalho pélvico (29%) e a constipação funcional secundária a inadequação dietética e de hábitos de vida (22%) foram os principais diagnósticos etiológicos da constipação crônica. A alternância de constipação e a presença de náuseas/vômitos estiveram significativamente relacionadas ao diagnóstico de síndrome do intestino irritável; idade precoce, grandes intervalos entre as evacuações, ocorrência de impactação fecal e necessidade de enemas estiveram relacionadas ao diagnóstico de megacólon não-chagásico, enquanto assistência digital para evacuar e grande retocele ou assoalho pélvico espástico ao toque retal se associaram à disfunção do assoalho pélvico. Pacientes com constipação de longa duração, impactação fecal, dor abdominal não aliviada pelas evacuações, necessidade de enemas, assistência digital para evacuar e com evidência de retocele tendem a necessitar de testes de fisiologia para definição da causa de constipação crônica. CONCLUSÕES: O diagnóstico etiológico da constipação crônica pode ser obtido na maioria dos pacientes somente em bases clínicas, sendo que alguns sintomas estão significativamente associados a determinados diagnósticos. A indicação dos testes de fisiologia, por sua vez, deve ser baseada em parâmetros clínicos específicos. Abstract in english BACKGROUND: Diagnosis of subtypes of chronic constipation has been considered difficult to achieve even in specialized centers. Although colorectal physiologic tests have brought an important contribution, it remains unclear in which patients these tests should be indicated for. AIMS: This study aim [...] s to establish a differential diagnosis for chronic constipation cases using clinical assessment and physiologic tests and to identify clinical parameters that could predict which patients need physiologic tests. METHODS: One hundred and seventy nine patients (83% females; mean age, 45) with chronic constipation according to Rome II criteria were initially treated by dietary advice and functional reeducation and those unresponsive (110 or 61.5%) were submitted to colonic transit time, defecography, anorectal manometry and electromyography, as needed. RESULTS: A differential diagnosis was achieved in 63.6% of patients tested. However, 61.5% of 179 patients with chronic constipation (69 with no need to tests and 40 with normal tests) have etiologic diagnosis established only on clinical basis. Irritable bowel syndrome (32%), pelvic floor dysfunction (29%) and functional constipation due to faulty diet and life style habits (22%) were the main causes of chronic constipation. Alternating constipation and nausea/vomiting were symptoms sig

Antônio, Lacerda-Filho; Marcílio José Rodrigues, Lima; Marisa Fonseca, Magalhães; Rodrigo de Almeida, Paiva; José Renan da, Cunha-Melo.

2008-03-01

299

Chronic constipation - the role of clinical assessment and colorectal physiologic tests to obtain an etiologic diagnosis O papel da avaliação clínica e dos testes de fisiologia colo-reto anal no diagnóstico etiológico da constipação intestinal crônica  

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Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Diagnosis of subtypes of chronic constipation has been considered difficult to achieve even in specialized centers. Although colorectal physiologic tests have brought an important contribution, it remains unclear in which patients these tests should be indicated for. AIMS: This study aims to establish a differential diagnosis for chronic constipation cases using clinical assessment and physiologic tests and to identify clinical parameters that could predict which patients need physiologic tests. METHODS: One hundred and seventy nine patients (83% females; mean age, 45 with chronic constipation according to Rome II criteria were initially treated by dietary advice and functional reeducation and those unresponsive (110 or 61.5% were submitted to colonic transit time, defecography, anorectal manometry and electromyography, as needed. RESULTS: A differential diagnosis was achieved in 63.6% of patients tested. However, 61.5% of 179 patients with chronic constipation (69 with no need to tests and 40 with normal tests have etiologic diagnosis established only on clinical basis. Irritable bowel syndrome (32%, pelvic floor dysfunction (29% and functional constipation due to faulty diet and life style habits (22% were the main causes of chronic constipation. Alternating constipation and nausea/vomiting were symptoms significantly related to the diagnosis of irritable bowel syndrome; younger age, larger intervals between bowel movements, occurrence of fecal impaction and necessity of enema were related to the diagnosis of non-chagasic megacolon and digital assistance to evacuate and large rectocele or spastic pelvic floor on rectal exam were associated to pelvic floor dysfunction. Patients with long-standing constipation, fecal impaction, abdominal pain not eased after defecation, necessity for enemas, digital assistance and evidence of rectocele tended to be in need for physiologic tests to define the cause of chronic constipation. CONCLUSIONS: The etiologic diagnosis of chronic constipation can be achieved in most of patients on a clinical basis and some symptoms may be significantly related to specific diagnoses. Indications for physiologic tests should be based on specific clinical parameters.RACIONAL: O diagnóstico dos subtipos de constipação crônica tem sido considerado difícil de ser estabelecido, mesmo em centros especializados. Embora os testes fisiológicos tenham trazido uma importante contribuição, ainda há dúvidas quanto as suas indicações. OBJETIVOS: Estabelecer o diagnóstico diferencial em casos de constipação crônica através da avaliação clínica e da utilização de testes fisiológicos, procurando-se identificar parâmetros clínicos que poderiam predizer quais pacientes necessitariam de tais testes. MÉTODOS: Cento e setenta e nove pacientes (83% do sexo feminino; média de idade de 45 anos com constipação crônica de acordo com os critérios de Roma II foram inicialmente tratados com medidas dietéticas e reeducação funcional e aqueles que não responderam (110 ou 61,5% foram submetidos a tempo de trânsito colônico, defecografia, manometria anorretal e eletromiografia, de acordo com apresentação clínica da constipação crônica. RESULTADOS: O diagnóstico etiológico foi obtido em 63.6% dos pacientes testados. Entretanto, em 61,5% (69 que não necessitaram dos testes e 40 que tiveram testes normais, o diagnóstico etiológico foi estabelecido em bases clínicas. A síndrome do intestino irritável (32%, a disfunção do assoalho pélvico (29% e a constipação funcional secundária a inadequação dietética e de hábitos de vida (22% foram os principais diagnósticos etiológicos da constipação crônica. A alternância de constipação e a presença de náuseas/vômitos estiveram significativamente relacionadas ao diagnóstico de síndrome do intestino irritável; idade precoce, grandes intervalos entre as evacuações, ocorrência de impactação fecal e necessidade de enemas estiveram relacionadas ao diagnóstico de megacólon não-chagásico, enqu

Antônio Lacerda-Filho

2008-03-01

300

Targeting Effector Memory T Cells with the Small Molecule Kv1.3 Blocker PAP-1 Suppresses Allergic Contact Dermatitis  

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The voltage-gated potassium channel Kv1.3 has been recently identified as a molecular target that allows for selective pharmacological suppression of effector memory T (TEM) cells without affecting the function of naïve and central memory T cells. We here investigated whether PAP-1, a small molecule Kv1.3 blocker (EC50 = 2nM), could suppress allergic contact dermatitis (ACD). In a rat model of ACD, we first confirmed that the infiltrating cells in the elicitation phase are indeed CD8+ CD45RC...

Azam, Philippe; Sankaranarayanan, Ananthakrishnan; Homerick, Daniel; Griffey, Stephen; Wulff, Heike

2007-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

Cervical pap smear study and its utility in cancer screening to specify the strategy for cervical cancer control  

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The study was conducted to explore various lesions of Uterine cervix [inflammatory and growth], to find out target age group in which screening efforts can be concentrated for early detection as well as reduction of the incidence of cervical cancer, in our set up. Patients in the age group 15-50 and 50-78 years with various complaints were screened during June 2006 to December 2007. Total 995 patients were studied. Slides were fixed in 95% ethyl alcohol and stained with Pap stain. Slides were...

Mandakini M Patel, Amrish N. Pandya

2011-01-01

302

Method for obtaining Chromosomes Method for obtaining Chromosomes  

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Full Text Available It is very easy to obtain chromosomes from anuran amphibians.Amphibians have very large chromosomes which can easily be seen with an ordinary microscope. The method used has been tested in the laboratory and also at collecting sites. All that is required are a few chemicals and simple equipment.It is very easy to obtain chromosomes from anuran amphibians.Amphibians have very large chromosomes which can easily be seen with an ordinary microscope. The method used has been tested in the laboratory and also at collecting sites. All that is required are a few chemicals and simple equipment.

Bogart James P.

1973-09-01

303

Natural variation for anthocyanin accumulation under high-light and low-temperature stress is attributable to the ENHANCER OF AG-4 2 (HUA2) locus in combination with PRODUCTION OF ANTHOCYANIN PIGMENT1 (PAP1) and PAP2.  

Science.gov (United States)

Growing conditions combining high light intensities and low temperatures lead to anthocyanin accumulation in plants. This response was contrasted between two Arabidopsis thaliana accessions, which were used to decipher the genetic and molecular bases underlying the variation of this response. Quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for flowering time (FT) and anthocyanin accumulation under a high-light and low-temperature scenario versus a control environment were mapped. Major QTLs were confirmed using near-isogenic lines. Candidate genes were examined using mutants and gene expression studies as well as transgenic complementation. Several QTLs were found for FT and for anthocyanin content, of which one QTL co-located at the ENHANCER OF AG-4 2 (HUA2) locus. That HUA2 is a regulator of both pathways was confirmed by the analysis of loss-of-function mutants. For a strong expression of anthocyanin, additional allelic variation was detected for the PRODUCTION OF ANTHOCYANIN PIGMENT1 (PAP1) and PAP2 genes which control the anthocyanin pathway. The genetic control of variation for anthocyanin content was dissected in A. thaliana and shown to be affected by a common regulator of flowering and anthocyanin biosynthesis together with anthocyanin-specific regulators. PMID:25425527

Ilk, Nadine; Ding, Jia; Ihnatowicz, Anna; Koornneef, Maarten; Reymond, Matthieu

2014-11-26

304

Evaluation of 3-D turbula mixing coupled with focused subsampling as a method to obtain representative laboratory subsamples of rock and soil for analysis when performing the CARB 435 test protocol  

Science.gov (United States)

Rock and samples submitted to asbestos testing laboratories for CARB 435 method analysis typically range from one pint (~1 kg) to five gallons (~40kg) in size with contained rock fragments as large as 3" in diameter. Extracting a representative test sample, which requires 8 sample preps containing ~3 mg per grain mount of ~200 mesh powder, is a non-trivial and poorly understood process. The CARB 435 test method calls for crushing and pulverizing of rock/soil samples, but gives no guidance as to how to extract a representative sample from the resulting powdered material, allowing for large errors due to poor lab subsampling protocols (too often a simple scoop off the top). This talk presents the results of a series of experiments which evaluate the efficacy and efficiency of 3-D turbula powder sample mixing coupled with focused multiple sampling thief extractions from the mixed powder to obtain representative subsamples for CARB 435 method analysis.

Martin, C.; Bailey, R.; Suess, T.

2012-12-01

305

Testing  

Science.gov (United States)

... curesma.org > learn about sma > causes & diagnoses > testing Testing An SMA diagnosis must be confirmed through genetic ... and must be identified through further testing. Prenatal Testing Prenatal testing is used to determine if a ...

306

Automated segmentation of free-lying cell nuclei in Pap smears for malignancy-associated change analysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper presents an automated algorithm for robustly detecting and segmenting free-lying cell nuclei in bright-field microscope images of Pap smears. This is an essential initial step in the development of an automated screening system for cervical cancer based on malignancy associated change (MAC) analysis. The proposed segmentation algorithm makes use of gray-scale annular closings to identify free-lying nuclei-like objects together with marker-based watershed segmentation to accurately delineate the nuclear boundaries. The algorithm also employs artifact rejection based on size, shape, and granularity to ensure only the nuclei of intermediate squamous epithelial cells are retained. An evaluation of the performance of the algorithm relative to expert manual segmentation of 33 fields-of-view from 11 Pap smear slides is also presented. The results show that the sensitivity and specificity of nucleus detection is 94.71% and 85.30% respectively, and that the accuracy of segmentation, measured using the Dice coefficient, of the detected nuclei is 97.30±1.3%. PMID:23367143

Moshavegh, Ramin; Ehteshami Bejnordi, Babak; Mehnert, Andrew; Sujathan, K; Malm, Patrik; Bengtsson, Ewert

2012-01-01

307

Identification of Phase-I Metabolites of the Kv1.3 Blocker PAP-1 (5-(4-Phenoxybutoxy)psoralen) in the Rat  

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PAP-1 (5-(4-phenoxybutoxy)psoralen), a potent small-molecule blocker of the voltage-gated potassium Kv1.3 channel, is currently in pre-clinical development for psoriasis. The present study was undertaken to identify the major phase-I metabolites of PAP-1 in rats. Following oral administration at 50 mg/kg, bile, plasma, urine and feces were collected, and separated by reversed-phase HPLC after sample preparation by solid-phase extraction. Five phase-I metabolites, i.e., 5-(oxybutyric-acid)psor...

Hao, Bin; Chen, Zhong-wei; Zhou, Xiang-jun; Zimin, Pavel I.; Miljanich, George P.; Wulff, Heike; Wang, Yong-xiang

2010-01-01

308

Análise espectral do sinal eletromiográfico do músculo eretor da espinha obtido do teste de Sorensen / Spectral analysis of the electromyographic signal of the erector spinae muscle obtained from Sorensen test  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese INTRODUÇÃO: A fadigabilidade excessiva dos músculos lombares é um achado comum em pacientes portadores de dor lombar. Por isso, a avaliação da resistência isométrica desses músculos tem sido recomendada nessa população. OBJETIVO: O objetivo deste estudo foi identificar e analisar objetivamente o com [...] portamento da fadiga do músculo eretor da espinha em um teste de resistência isométrica realizado até a exaustão. METODOLOGIA: Nove sujeitos saudáveis realizaram o teste de Sorensen modificado com contrações em intensidades correspondentes a 5%, 10%, 15% e 20% da contração voluntária máxima. A fadiga muscular foi identificada pela análise do comportamento da frequência mediana (FM) em função do tempo. RESULTADOS: O tempo de resistência isométrica foi inversamente correlacionado com a intensidade da contração. Contudo, a intensidade da contração não demonstrou efeito sobre a taxa de declínio da FM. A fadiga muscular foi significante em todas as porções do músculo eretor da espinha. Comparações entre os músculos eretor da espinha direito e esquerdo não revelaram diferenças significantes, enquanto que comparações entre porções do músculo eretor da espinha localizadas em diferentes níveis lombares revelaram maiores níveis de fadiga em L4-L5 bilateralmente. CONCLUSÃO: A análise espectral do sinal eletromiográfico foi eficaz para idenficação da fadiga do músculo eretor da espinha. Também foi possível identificar diferenças funcionais entre as diferentes porções desse músculo. O conhecimento dessas particularidades permite intervir de forma mais específica na prevenção e reabilitação dos distúrbios da coluna lombar. Abstract in english INTRODUCTION: Excessive fatigability of the low back muscles is a common finding in low back pain patients. Therefore, the assessment of the isometric endurance of these muscles has been recommended in this population. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to identify and to analyze objectively t [...] he behavior of the erector spinae muscle fatigue in an isometric endurance test performed until exhaustion. METHOD: Nine healthy subjects performed a modified Sorensen test with contractions of 5%, 10%, 15%, and 20% of the maximal voluntary contraction. The muscle fatigue was identified for the analysis of the behavior of the median frequency (MF) over time. The endurance time was inversely correlated with the contraction intensity. However, the contraction intensity did not show effect on the rate of decline of the MF. The muscle fatigue was significant in all the portions of the erector spinae muscle. RESULTS: Comparisons between the erector spinae muscles from right and left side did not show significant differences, while that the comparisons between the portions of the erector spinae muscle localized at different vertebral levels showed higher fatigue levels at L4-L5 bilaterally. CONCLUSION: Thus, the spectral analysis of the electromyographic signal was effective for the identification of the erector spinae muscle fatigue. Also, it was possible to identify functional differences between the different portions of this muscle. The knowledge of these particularities allows managing in a more specific way the prevention e rehabilitation of the low back troubles.

Fernando Sérgio Silva, Barbosa; Camila Cristina Rodeline, Almeida; Mauro, Gonçalves.

2010-12-01

309

A new optical method of continuously analysing the surface properties of a single pendant drop while obtaining quality bulk spectral and refractive index measurements of the liquid-under-test  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The classical stalagmometer has been replaced by the tensiometer to measure surface properties from drop volume. From the drop period T1, converted into volume, the surface properties of the liquid can be obtained. In the fibre drop analyser the use of the graphical signal (tensiotrace), significantly extends the measurement potential of the tensiometer by providing additional measurands. This instrument produces a series of peaks. The third-order reflection is known as 'the tensiopeak-period' t3, and accurately predicts the value of the drop period. The results of an experimental study confirm the relationship between T1 and t3 for a wide range of liquids and are supported by ray-tracing modeling. Very sensitive and high quality bulk UV-visible spectra and refractive index measurements can be obtained from the drop-under-test.

310

Resultados histológicos e detecção do HPV em mulheres com células escamosas atípicas de significado indeterminado e lesão escamosa intra-epitelial de baixo grau na colpocitologia oncológica / Histological results and HPV detection in women with pap smear showing atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance and low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVOS: avaliar o desempenho da colpocitologia oncológica (CO) e da Captura de Híbridos II (CHII) para o diagnóstico de lesão cervical histológica significativa (NIC2/3) em mulheres encaminhadas com CO contendo atipias celulares de significado indeterminado (ASCUS) ou lesão escamosa intra-epiteli [...] al de baixo grau (LSIL). MÉTODOS: estudo de corte transversal no qual foram incluídas 161 mulheres encaminhadas, entre agosto de 2000 e setembro de 2002, devido a CO com resultado de ASCUS ou LSIL. As mulheres responderam a questionário específico sobre características sociodemográficas e reprodutivas e foram submetidas a exame ginecológico com coleta de CO e CHII, sendo realizada colposcopia com eventual biópsia de áreas suspeitas. Foi aplicado o teste do qui-quadrado para as associações da idade, uso de condom, uso de anticoncepcional oral e tabagismo com os resultados da CHII. Foram calculados a sensibilidade, especificidade, valor preditivo positivo e valor preditivo negativo da CO e da CHII para detectar NIC2/3. Todos os cálculos foram realizados com intervalos de confiança estatística de 95%. RESULTADOS: sessenta e sete porcento das mulheres com menos de 30 anos de idade tiveram testes positivos para o HPV. A CO e CHII tiveram sensibilidade de 82% em detectar NIC2/3 quando considerados como positivos ASCUS, LSIL ou HSIL. Quando se consideram como positivas apenas as CO com HSIL, este exame apresenta acentuado ganho de especificidade (de 29 para 95%) e valor preditivo positivo (de 12 para 50%), superando a CHII, porém com redução igualmente significativa de sua sensibilidade (de 82 para 41%). CONCLUSÕES: nossos resultados indicaram grande potencial da CHII para detectar mulheres com NIC2/3 entre as pacientes com ASCUS/LSIL na CO de encaminhamento. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: to assess the ability of Pap smear and hybrid capture II (HCII) to detect clinically significant cervical lesions (CIN2/3) in women referred to hospital due to atypical squamous cells of unknown significance (ASCUS) or low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL). METHODS: a cross-se [...] ctional study comprising 161 women referred to the Taubaté University Hospital due to ASCUS/LSIL, between August 2000 and September 2002. All women responded to a questionnaire regarding sociodemographic and reproductive characteristics and were subjected to gynecological examination with specimen collection for Pap test and HCII, along with colposcopy and eventual cervical biopsy. The relationship between HCII results and age, use of condom, oral hormonal contraception, and smoking were evaluated by the chi-square test. The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of both Pap test and HCII were calculated. All calculations were performed within 95% confidence intervals. RESULTS: sixty-seven percent of the women that tested positive for HPV were less than 30 years old. Pap smear and HCII showed the same 82% sensitivity in detecting CIN2/3 when the threshold for a positive Pap result was ASCUS, LSIL or HSIL. Pap smear specificity and positive predictive values were substantially increased when only HSIL results were considered as positive (from 29 to 95% and 12 to 50%, respectively). These figures were superior to those of HCII, but at the expense of an expressive loss of sensitivity (from 82% to 41%). CONCLUSIONS: our results substantiate the potential of HCII in detecting CIN2/3 among women referred due to ASCUS/LSIL.

André Luis Ferreira, Santos; Sophie Françoise Mauricette, Derchain; Luis Otávio, Sarian; Elizabete Aparecida, Campos; Marcos Roberto dos, Santos; Gislaine Aparecida, Fonsechi-Carvasan.

2004-07-01

311

Testing.  

Science.gov (United States)

This journal issue addresses the issue of testing in the social studies classroom. The first article, "The Role of Testing" (Bragaw), focuses on the need for tests to reflect the objectives of the study completed. The varying functions of pop quizzes, weekly tests, and unit tests are explored. "Testing Thinking Processes" (Killoran, Zimmer, and…

Killoran, James, Ed.

1984-01-01

312

Citologia vaginal a fresco na gravidez: correlação com a citologia corada pela técnica de Papanicolaou Fresh wet mount in pregnancy: correlation with Pap smears  

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Full Text Available OBJETIVO: analisar o conteúdo vaginal utilizando o exame citológico a fresco na primeira consulta pré-natal em mulheres com ou sem queixas genitais e correlacionar os resultados com os encontrados na citologia corada pela técnica de Papanicolaou. A microscopia direta durante a gravidez deve ser valorizada e reconhecida como método propedêutico capaz de diagnosticar, de forma imediata, 90% dos casos de vaginose bacteriana, candidose e tricomonose. MÉTODOS: estudo prospectivo em 216 gestantes, selecionadas em ambulatório de pré-natal no período de 30 de outubro de 2001 a 12 de novembro de 2002. Foram colhidas duas amostras do conteúdo existente no fundo de saco vaginal posterior e depositadas em lâminas de vidro para microscopia. Sobre a primeira e a segunda amostra eram colocadas uma gota de NaCl a 0,9% e uma de KOH a 10%, respectivamente. Adicionalmente, em todas as grávidas determinou-se o pH vaginal e realizaram-se os testes de produção das aminas com odores de pescado. O material era examinado ao microscópio em aumentos de 100 vezes, 400 vezes e excepcionalmente 1000 vezes. Foram realizados esfregaços cervicovaginais para citologia corada pelo método de Papanicolaou. A correlação entre os resultados dos métodos citológicos empregados foi realizada pelo cálculo do coeficiente kappa, que avalia a concordância para variáveis qualitativas. RESULTADOS: o encontro nos esfregaços a fresco de flora bacteriana normal foi de 51,8, representando o aspecto citológico mais observado e sem correspondência com os 3,7% apurados na microscopia corada. No exame citológico direto foram observados 30,9% de vaginose bacteriana e 7,9% de candidose. Todavia, no Papanicolaou não foi encontrada tal equivalência, sendo as porcentagens de 0,7 e 24,3%, respectivamente. A ausência de correlação no diagnóstico de colpite bacteriana inespecífica na microscopia direta (17,5% e corada (51,3% talvez deva-se ao subdiagnóstico de vaginose neste último método propedêutico. Os diagnósticos de tricomoníase observados em ambos os métodos citológicos (3,7 e 2,7% traduzem a baixa prevalência destes parasitas na gestação. O cálculo do índice kappa para avaliação da concordância entre os dois procedimentos citológicos nos diversos achados microbiológicos demonstrou baixa correlação nos diagnósticos da vaginose bacteriana e colpites bacterianas inespecíficas, bem como na identificação da flora vaginal normal. CONCLUSÕES: embora a citologia corada apresente melhor acurácia no diagnóstico de fungos não formadores de micélios, a citologia direta a fresco demonstrou ser melhor avaliador dos elementos não epiteliais dos esfregaços vaginais. Entretanto, a microscopia corada pela técnica de Papanicolaou, por permitir melhor apreciação das células epiteliais cervicovaginais, representa o mais importante instrumento revelador das agressões e reações nucleocitoplasmáticas.PURPOSE: to analyze vaginal contents using the fresh wet mount of a cytological exam in the first prenatal visit of women with or without genital complaints and correlate the conclusion with the results from the Pap smears. Microscopy during pregnancy should be valued and recognized as a method capable of providing immediate diagnosis in 90% of bacterial vaginosis, candidiasis and trichomoniasis cases. METHODS: a prospective study was performed in 216 pregnant women selected from the prenatal department of a public hospital, between October 30, 2001 and November 12, 2002. Two samples were collected from the posterior vaginal vault and deposited onto two separate microscope slides. To one slide, a droplet of 0.9% NaCl was applied and to the other, a droplet of 10% KOH. Both slides were covered with a coverslip for immediate microscopic evaluation. Tests were perfomed in one drop of the material to examine pH and whiff. The microscopic examination of the material was carried out at a 100X, 400X and exceptionally 1000X magnification. Pap smears were performed in all pregnant patients. The correlation between the r

Amadeu Ramos da Silva Filho

2004-01-01

313

Follow-up of women with inadequate Pap smears: a prospective cohort study / Acompanhamento de mulheres com esfregaços de Papanicolaou inadequados: um estudo prospectivo de coorte  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese CONTEXTO E OBJETIVO: Esfregaços inadequados de Papanicolaou não fornecem amostra satisfatória de células para avaliação, ficando assim mais difícil detectar anomalias citológicas cervicais. O objetivo deste estu [...] do foi determinar os resultados de seguimento citológico e histológico de mulheres com relatórios de esfregaços inadequados nas unidades básicas de saúde em Santiago, Chile, 2010-2011. DESENHO E LOCAL: Estudo prospectivo de coorte em unidades básicas de saúde em Santiago, Chile. MÉTODOS: A população foi selecionada do banco de dados Cito-Expert em 2010. Na sequência, os dados foram organizados pelos resultados de seguimento citológico e histológico de 2.547 mulheres com relatórios inadequados de citologia cervical pelo período de 12 meses. As amostras foram atri-buídas a grupos com base na causa de inadequação (esfregaços com células endocervicais; amostras insuficientes, inflamatórias, ou com má fixação, amostras insuficientes e hemorrágicas, ou espéci-mes insuficientes e inflamatórios). Os dados foram analisados com base no “conditional probability tree diagram" e estatísticas descritivas. RESULTADOS: Metade das mulheres (n = 1.285) preencheram os requisitos do Ministério da Saúde para repetir esses esfregaços; dessas mulheres, 1.104 tiveram resultados normais para citologia (85,9%). A detec-ção de lesões cervicais por grupo variou de 0% (esfregaços com apenas células endocervicais e espécimes insuficientes e hemorrágicos) para 4,1% (má fxação). CONCLUSÃO: Uma grande proporção de resultados normais justifica a revisão das diretrizes clínicas atuais. Os resultados mostraram que não é necessário repetir tão cedo o teste de Papanicolaou, exceto em resul-tados inadequados de hemorragia e citologia inflamatória. Abstract in english CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Inadequate Pap smears do not provide satisfactory cell samples for evaluation, thus making it more difficult to detect cervical cytological abnormalities. The objective of this study was t [...] o determine the cytological and histological follow-up results from women with inadequate smear reports in primary healthcare centers in Santiago, Chile 2010-2011. DESIGN AND SETTING: Prospective cohort study at primary healthcare clinics in Santiago, Chile. METHODS: The population was taken from the “Cito-Expert" database of 2010. The data were then organized according to the cytological and histological follow-up results of 2,547 women with inadequate cervical cytological reports over the 12-month period. The samples were assigned to groups based on the cause of inadequacy (smears with endocervical cells alone; insufficient, hemorrhagic, inflammatory or poorly fixed samples; insufficient and hemorrhagic samples; or insufficient and inflammatory specimens). The data were analyzed using the “conditional probability tree diagram" and descriptive statistics. RESULT: Half of the women (n = 1,285) met the requirements of the Ministry of Health for repeating these inadequate smears, and 1,104 of these women had normal cytological results (85.9%). The detection rate for cervical lesions according to group ranged from 0% (smears with endocervical cells alone or insufficient and hemorrhagic specimens) to 4.1% (poor fixation). CONCLUSION: The large proportion of normal results justifies revision of the current clinical guidelines. The results showed that it is not necessary to repeat the Pap test early on, with the exception of inadequate hemorrhagic and inflammatory cytological results.

Fanny, López-Alegría; Dino Roberto Soares De, Lorenzi; Orlando Quezada, Poblete.

2015-02-01

314

Uso precoz del BiPAP en el tratamiento de la insuficiencia respiratoria en un lactante con osteogénesis imperfecta: Case report Early use of BiPAP in the management of respiratory failure in an infant with osteogenesis imperfecta  

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Full Text Available Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI is an heterogeneous group of genetic disorders that affect connective tissue integrity. Severe forms cause chest deformities, sometimes associated to alveolar hypoventilation. We report a 4 months old infant with OI type III, who developed respiratory failure (RF due to a bronchiolitis and required mechanical ventilation. Weaning progressed successfully to a nasal bi-level Positive Airway Pressure (n-BiPAP device. Clinical follow up showed a normal cognitive development and growth. Respiratory condition, blood gases and ventilation status were in normal ranges. Non invasive ventilation, associated to careful monitoring may avoid tracheostomy and its complications in infants with OI (Rev Méd Chile 2004; 132: 861-4

Luis Vega-Briceño

2004-07-01

315

Influence of noninvasive ventilation by BiPAP® on exercise tolerance and respiratory muscle strength in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients (COPD Influencia de la ventilación no evasiva mediante el BiPAP® sobre la tolerancia al ejercicio físico y fuerza muscular respiratoria en pacientes con enfermedad pulmonar obstrutiva crónica (EPOC Influência da ventilação não invasiva por meio do BiPAP® sobre a tolerância ao exercício físico e força muscular respiratória em pacientes com doença pulmonar obstrutiva crônica (DPOC  

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Full Text Available This study aimed to assess the effect of BiPAP®, by nasal mask, on exercise tolerance and respiratory muscle strength in patients with a clinical and spirometric diagnosis of moderate/severe COPD (FEV1 El objetivo de esto estudio fue evaluar el efecto del BiPAP®, por medio de la máscara nasal, sobre la tolerancia al ejercicio físico y el desempeño muscular respiratorio en pacientes con diagnosis clínico y espirométrico de EPOC moderada/grave (VEF1 O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o efeito do BiPAP®, através de máscara nasal, na tolerância ao exercício físico e no desempenho muscular respiratório em pacientes com diagnóstico clínico e espirométrico de DPOC, moderado/grave (VEF1 < 60% do previsto. Com VEF1/CVF <70% do previsto e idade média de 59,4±8,9 anos, dez pacientes com doença pulmonar obstrutiva crônica (DPOC foram tratados com 30 minutos de BiPAP® (IPAP=10-15 e EPAP=4 cmH2O, em três sessões semanais, durante dois meses. Antes e após o tratamento mediu-se a espirometria, a força muscular inspiratória (PImax e expiratória (PEmax e a distância percorrida em seis minutos (TC6. Foram constatados aumentos significativos (Wilcoxon, p<0,05 na média da PImax (de -55±17 para -77±19 cmH2O, da PEmax (de 75±20 para 109±36 cmH2O e da distância percorrida (de 349±67 para 448±75 metros. Com base nesses resultados conclui-se que o BiPAP® melhorou o desempenho muscular respiratório e a tolerância ao exercício físico nesses pacientes com DPOC.

Dirceu Costa

2006-06-01

316

Experiences and Unmet Needs of Women Undergoing Pap Smear Cervical Cancer Screening: Impact on Uptake of Cervical Cancer Screening in South Eastern Nigeria.  

Science.gov (United States)

The burden of cervical cancer is on the increase in sub-Saharan Africa mainly due to inadequate provision and utilisation of cervical cancer prevention services. Several evidence-based strategies have been deployed to improve cervical cancer screening uptake without much success. However, patients' experiences and satisfaction with service provision has not been adequately studied. Inefficiencies in service delivery and less fulfilling experiences by women who attend cervical cancer screening could have considerable impact in future voluntary uptake of cervical cancer screening. Six hundred and eighty women who underwent Pap smear screening in three health care facilities in two states in south eastern Nigeria were interviewed to evaluate their satisfaction, willingness to undertake future voluntary screening, unmet needs and correlation between satisfaction level and willingness to undergo future screening. Satisfaction with Pap smear screening correlated positively with willingness to undertake future voluntary screening (Pearson's correlation coefficient?=?0.78, P?=?0.001). The mean satisfaction score was significantly higher among participants handled by nurses than those handled by the physicians (3.16?±?0.94 vs 2.52?±?0.77, P?=?0.001). 'Scrapping discomfort' of the spatula was reported as the most dissatisfying aspect of Pap smear experience. The need for less invasive screening procedures was the most unmet need. It was concluded that improving the Pap smear screening experience of women and providing less invasive methods of cervical cancer screening with immediate results could improve uptake of cervical cancer screening in south eastern Nigeria. PMID:24980966

Chigbu, Chibuike O; Onyebuchi, Azubuike K; Egbuji, Chuma C; Ezugwu, Eusebus C

2014-07-01

317

Cervical pap smear study and its utility in cancer screening to specify the strategy for cervical cancer control  

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Full Text Available The study was conducted to explore various lesions of Uterine cervix [inflammatory and growth], to find out target age group in which screening efforts can be concentrated for early detection as well as reduction of the incidence of cervical cancer, in our set up. Patients in the age group 15-50 and 50-78 years with various complaints were screened during June 2006 to December 2007. Total 995 patients were studied. Slides were fixed in 95% ethyl alcohol and stained with Pap stain. Slides were reported according to The 2001 Bethesda System, by cytopathologists. Out of 995 patients studied, 940 showed inflammation and other benign lesions. 55 patients showed premalignant and malignant lesions. Premalignant lesions were present in 30-50 year of age group.

Mandakini M Patel, Amrish N Pandya, Jigna Modi

2011-01-01

318

Blind pre-analysis of the main building complex WWER-1000 Kozloduy. Comparison of analytical and experimental results obtained by explosive testing (task 8a of workplan 96/97)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In accordance with the 96/97 workplan of the Research Programme on 'Benchmark Studies for Seismic Analysis and Testing of WWER-Type Nuclear Power Plants', blind pre analyses were prepared for the main building complex of the WWER-1000 based on given excitations derived from explosive tests. The investigations were performed by several institutions based on various mathematical models and procedures for consideration of soil-structure interaction effects, but on the same explosive test input data recently obtained. The methods of calculation and software tools used will also be different. The aim of this investigation is to validate different idealization concepts (mathematical models for the idealization of the structures and the soil) as well as investigation procedures (time domain and frequency domain analysis) and finally the software tools by comparing structural response results (time histories and response spectra). This report contains the results of the blind pre analysis performed by Siemens using an equivalent beam model of the main building of the WWER 1000. The calculations were performed by means of a frequency domain calculation

319

Dimeric Fe (II, III) complex of quinoneoxime as functional model of PAP enzyme: Mössbauer, magneto-structural and DNA cleavage studies  

Science.gov (United States)

Purple acid phosphatase, ( PAP), is known to contain dinuclear Fe2 + 2, + 3 site with characteristic Fe + 3 ? Tyr ligand to metal charge transfer in coordination. Phthiocoloxime (3-methyl-2-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone-1-oxime) ligand L, mimics (His/Tyr) ligation with controlled and unique charge transfers resulting in valence tautomeric coordination with mixed valent diiron site in model compound Fe-1: [?-OH-Fe2 + 2, + 3 ( o-NQCH3ox) ( o-NSQCH3ox)2 (CAT) H2O]. Fe-2: [Fe + 3( o-NQCH3ox) ( p-NQCH3ox)2]2 a molecularly associated dimer of phthiocoloxime synthesized for comparison of charge transfer. 57Fe Mössbauer studies was used to quantitize unusual valences due to ligand in dimeric Fe-1 and Fe-2 complexes which are supported by EPR and SQUID studies. 57Fe Mössbauer spectra for Fe-1 at 300 K indicates the presence of two quadrupole split asymmetric doublets due to the differences in local coordination geometries of [Fe + 3]A and [Fe + 2]B sites. The hyperfine interaction parameters are ? A = 0.152, (? E Q)A = 0.598 mm/s with overlapping doublet at ? B = 0.410 and (? E Q)B = 0.468 mm/s. Due to molecular association tendency of ligand, dimer Fe-2 possesses 100% Fe + 3(h.s.) hexacoordinated configuration with isomer shift ? = 0.408 mm/s. Slightly distorted octahedral symmetry created by NQCH3ox ligand surrounding Fe + 3(h.s.) state generates small field gradient indicated by quadrupole split ? E Q = 0.213 mm/s. Decrease of isomer shifts together with variation of quadrupole splits with temperature in Fe-1 dimer compared to Fe-2 is result of charge transfers in [Fe2 + 2, + 3 SQ] complexes. EPR spectrum of Fe-1 shows two strong signals at g 1 = 4.17 and g 2 = 2.01 indicative of S = 3/2 spin state with an intermediate spin of Fe + 3(h.s.) configuration. SQUID data of ? _m^{corr} .T were best fitted by using HDVV spin pair model S = 2, 3/2 resulting in antiferromagnetic exchange ( J = -13.5 cm - 1 with an agreement factor of R = 1.89 × 10 - 5). The lower J value of antiferromagnetic exchange leads to Fe+3?-(OH) Fe + 2 bridging in Fe-1 dimer instead of ?-oxo bridge. The intermolecular association through H-bonds may lead to weakly coupled antiferromagnetic interaction between two Fe-2 molecules having Fe + 3(h.s.) centers. Using S = 5/2, 5/2 spin pair model we obtained best-fitted parameters such as J = -12.4 cm - 1, g = 2.3 with R = 3.58 × 10 - 5. Synthetic strategy results in non-equivalent iron sites in Fe-1 dimer analogues to PAP enzyme hence its reconstitution results in pUC-19 DNA cleavage activity, as physiological functionality of APase. It is compared with nuclease activity of Fe-2 RAPase.

Salunke-Gawali, Sunita; Ahmed, Khursheed; Varret, François; Linares, Jorge; Zaware, Santosh; Date, Sadgopal; Rane, Sandhya

2008-07-01

320

Dimeric Fe (II, III) complex of quinoneoxime as functional model of PAP enzyme: Moessbauer, magneto-structural and DNA cleavage studies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purple acid phosphatase, (PAP), is known to contain dinuclear Fe2+2,+3 site with characteristic Fe+3 2+2,+3 (o-NQCH3ox) (o-NSQCH3ox)2 (CAT) H2O]. Fe-2: [Fe+3(o-NQCH3ox) (p-NQCH3ox)2]2 a molecularly associated dimer of phthiocoloxime synthesized for comparison of charge transfer. 57Fe Moessbauer studies was used to quantitize unusual valences due to ligand in dimeric Fe-1 and Fe-2 complexes which are supported by EPR and SQUID studies. 57Fe Moessbauer spectra for Fe-1 at 300 K indicates the presence of two quadrupole split asymmetric doublets due to the differences in local coordination geometries of [Fe+3]A and [Fe+2]B sites. The hyperfine interaction parameters are ?A = 0.152, (?EQ)A 0.598 mm/s with overlapping doublet at ?B = 0.410 and (?EQ)B 0.468 mm/s. Due to molecular association tendency of ligand, dimer Fe-2 possesses 100% Fe+3(h.s.) hexacoordinated configuration wh.s.) hexacoordinated configuration with isomer shift ? = 0.408 mm/s. Slightly distorted octahedral symmetry created by NQCH3ox ligand surrounding Fe+3(h.s.) state generates small field gradient indicated by quadrupole split ?EQ = 0.213 mm/s. Decrease of isomer shifts together with variation of quadrupole splits with temperature in Fe-1 dimer compared to Fe-2 is result of charge transfers in [Fe2+2,+3 SQ] complexes. EPR spectrum of Fe-1 shows two strong signals at g1 = 4.17 and g2 = 2.01 indicative of S = 3/2 spin state with an intermediate spin of Fe+3(h.s.) configuration. SQUID data of ?mcorr.T were best fitted by using HDVV spin pair model S = 2, 3/2 resulting in antiferromagnetic exchange (J = -13.5 cm-1 with an agreement factor of R = 1.89 x 10-5). The lower J value of antiferromagnetic exchange leads to Fe+3?-(OH) Fe+2 bridging in Fe-1 dimer instead of ?-oxo bridge. The intermolecular association through H-bonds may lead to weakly coupled antiferromagnetic interaction between two Fe-2 molecules having Fe+3(h.s.) centers. Using S = 5/2, 5/2 spin pair model we obtained best-fitted parameters such as J = -12.4 cm-1, g = 2.3 with R = 3.58 x 10-5. Synthetic strategy results in non-equivalent iron sites in Fe-1 dimer analogues to PAP enzyme hence its reconstitution results in pUC-19 DNA cleavage activity, as physiological functionality of APase. It is compared with nuclease activity of Fe-2 RAPase.

 
 
 
 
321

Structural basis for the activation mechanism of the PlcR virulence regulator by the quorum-sensing signal peptide PapR.  

Science.gov (United States)

The quorum-sensing regulator PlcR is the master regulator of most known virulence factors in Bacillus cereus. It is a helix-turn-helix (HTH)-type transcription factor activated upon binding of its cognate signaling peptide PapR on a tetratricopeptide repeat-type regulatory domain. The structural and functional properties of PlcR have defined a new family of sensor regulators, called the RNPP family (for Rap, NprR, PrgX, and PlcR), in Gram-positive bacteria. To fully understand the activation mechanism of PlcR, we took a closer look at the conformation changes induced upon binding of PapR and of its target DNA, known as PlcR-box. For that purpose we have determined the structures of the apoform of PlcR (Apo PlcR) and of the ternary complex of PlcR with PapR and the PlcR-box from the plcA promoter. Comparison of the apoform of PlcR with the previously published structure of the PlcR-PapR binary complex shows how a small conformational change induced in the C-terminal region of the tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) domain upon peptide binding propagates via the linker helix to the N-terminal HTH DNA-binding domain. Further comparison with the PlcR-PapR-DNA ternary complex shows how the activation of the PlcR dimer allows the linker helix to undergo a drastic conformational change and subsequent proper positioning of the HTH domains in the major groove of the two half sites of the pseudopalindromic PlcR-box. Together with random mutagenesis experiments and interaction measurements using peptides from distinct pherogroups, this structural analysis allows us to propose a molecular mechanism for this functional switch. PMID:23277548

Grenha, Rosa; Slamti, Leyla; Nicaise, Magali; Refes, Yacine; Lereclus, Didier; Nessler, Sylvie

2013-01-15

322

Bacterial curli protein promotes the conversion of PAP248-286 into the amyloid SEVI: cross-seeding of dissimilar amyloid sequences  

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Full Text Available Fragments of prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP248-286 in human semen dramatically increase HIV infection efficiency by increasing virus adhesion to target cells. PAP248-286 only enhances HIV infection in the form of amyloid aggregates termed SEVI (Semen Enhancer of Viral Infection, however monomeric PAP248-286 aggregates very slowly in isolation. It has therefore been suggested that SEVI fiber formation in vivo may be promoted by exogenous factors. We show here that a bacterially-produced extracellular amyloid (curli or Csg acts as a catalytic agent for SEVI formation from PAP248-286 at low concentrations in vitro, producing fibers that retain the ability to enhance HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus infection. Kinetic analysis of the cross-seeding effect shows an unusual pattern. Cross-seeding PAP248-286 with curli only moderately affects the nucleation rate while significantly enhancing the growth of fibers from existing nuclei. This pattern is in contrast to most previous observations of cross-seeding, which show cross-seeding partially bypasses the nucleation step but has little effect on fiber elongation. Seeding other amyloidogenic proteins (IAPP (islet amyloid polypeptide and A?1?40 with curli showed varied results. Curli cross-seeding decreased the lag-time of IAPP amyloid formation but strongly inhibited IAPP elongation. Curli cross-seeding exerted a complicated concentration dependent effect on A?1?40 fibrillogenesis kinetics. Combined, these results suggest that the interaction of amyloidogenic proteins with preformed fibers of a different type can take a variety of forms and is not limited to epitaxial nucleation between proteins of similar sequence. The ability of curli fibers to interact with proteins of dissimilar sequences suggests cross-seeding may be a more general phenomenon than previously supposed.

Kevin Hartman

2013-02-01

323

A Spontaneous Translational Fusion of Bacillus cereus PlcR and PapR Activates Transcription of PlcR-Dependent Genes in Bacillus anthracis via Binding with a Specific Palindromic Sequence  

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Transformation of Bacillus anthracis with plasmid pUTE29-plcR-papR carrying the native Bacillus cereus plcR-papR gene cluster did not activate expression of B. anthracis hemolysin genes, even though these are expected to be responsive to activation by the global regulator PlcR. To further characterize the action of PlcR, we examined approximately 3,000 B. anthracis transformants containing pUTE29-plcR-papR and found a single hemolytic colony. The hemolytic strain contained a plasmid having a ...

Pomerantsev, Andrei P.; Pomerantseva, Olga M.; Leppla, Stephen H.

2004-01-01

324

HIP/PAP Gene, Encoding a C-Type Lectin Overexpressed in Primary Liver Cancer, Is Expressed in Nervous System as well as in Intestine and Pancreas of the Postimplantation Mouse Embryo  

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We originally isolated the HIP/PAP gene in a differential screen of a human hepatocellular carcinoma cDNA library. This gene is expressed at high levels in 25% of primary liver cancers but not in nontumorous liver. HIP/PAP belongs to the family of C-type lectins and acts as an adhesion molecule for hepatocytes. In normal adult human tissues, HIP/PAP expression is found in pancreas (exocrine and endocrine cells) and small intestine (Paneth and neuroendocrine cells). In order to gain insight in...

Lasserre, Chantal; Colnot, Ce?line; Bre?chot, Christian; Poirier, Franc?oise

1999-01-01

325

The Possible Effects on Socio-Economic Inequalities of Introducing HPV Testing as Primary Test in Cervical Cancer Screening Programs  

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Background: Screening with HPV is more effective than Pap test in preventing cervical cancer. HPV as primary test will imply longer intervals and a triage test for HPV positive women. It will also permit the development of self-sampling devices. These innovations may affect population coverage, participation, and compliance to protocols, and likely in a different way for less educated, poorer, and disadvantaged women.

Giorgi Rossi, Paolo; Baldacchini, Flavia; Ronco, Guglielmo

2014-01-01

326

Comportamiento de las citologías orgánicas alteradas en un área de salud / Behavior of organic altered Pap in one health area  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Introducción: el cáncer de útero es, después del cáncer de mama, el que más frecuentemente afecta a la mujer. La detección y tratamiento temprano de las lesiones premalignas garantizan la durabilidad de esta afección. Objetivo: conocer el comportamiento de las citologías orgánicas alteradas en un ár [...] ea de salud. Métodos: se realizó un estudio descriptivo, transversal y retrospectivo en el Policlínico Este del municipio Camagüey en el período de enero de 2005 a diciembre de 2010. El universo estuvo constituido por las 189 mujeres que presentaron citologías orgánicas anormales en el período antes señalado. Se recogieron variables como: grupo de edades, resultados de las citologías orgánicas según toma de muestra, edad de las primeras relaciones sexuales, número de partos, diagnóstico citológico de infección por virus del papiloma humano (VPH). Resultados: poco menos de la mitad de las mujeres inició las relaciones sexuales antes de los 18 años (46,56 %) y la mayoría tenía entre 1 y 3 partos (83,06 %). El 56,08 % de las pacientes presentaron infección por VPH. Conclusiones: predominaron las pacientes con neoplasia intraepitelial cervical II, el año 2006 fue el de mayor incidencia de lesiones de cuello uterino. Abstract in english Introduction: uterine cancer is the type of cancer which most frequently affects women after breast cancer. The early detection and treatment of pre-malignant damage guarantees the durability of this condition. Objective: to understand the behavior of organic altered Pap in one health area. Methods: [...] a descriptive, cross-sectional and retrospective study was conducted I, the eastern polyclinic in Camagüey municipality from January 2005 to December 2010. The sample consisted of 189 women who had abnormal Pap organic in the aforementioned period. Variables were collected such as: age group, organic cytology results according to sampling, age of first intercourse, parity, cytological diagnosis of infection with human papillomavirus (HPV). Results: slightly less than half of these women had their first sex intercourse before the age of 18 (46.56 %) and most had had 1-3 births (83.06 %). 56.08 % of these patients had HPV infection. Conclusions: cervical intraepithelial neoplasia II was predominant in these patients. The highest incidence of cervical lesions occurred in 2006.

María Eulalia, Prieto Herrera; Jorge Luis, Pérez Rivero; Maité, Camacho Vázquez; Martha, Ordán Áreas; Niurka, Rodríguez Sánchez.

2012-12-01

327

Cobertura do exame de Papanicolaou no Brasil e seus fatores determinantes: uma revisão sistemática da literatura Coverage of the Pap smear in Brazil and its determining factors: a systematic literature review  

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Full Text Available OBJETIVO: apresentar o panorama da cobertura do exame de Papanicolaou no Brasil, com ênfase nos seus fatores determinantes. MÉTODOS: foram pesquisadas as bases de dados "on line" LILACS (Literatura Latino-Americana e do Caribe em Ciências da Saúde, MEDLINE - 1966 a 2004 (Literatura Internacional em Ciências da Saúde, PAHO (Acervo da Biblioteca da Organização Pan-Americana de Saúde e WHOLIS (Sistema de Informação da Biblioteca da OMS. A revisão foi ampliada por meio da busca a referências bibliográficas dos estudos relevantes, solicitação de estudos publicados e não publicados a especialistas e outras fontes. Foram selecionados artigos que preenchiam os seguintes critérios: ser um estudo transversal, ter sido realizado no Brasil, conter informações sobre a cobertura do exame Papanicolaou (alguma vez na vida ou nos últimos três anos ou sobre seus fatores determinantes. Foram excluídas as duplicidades e os artigos sem resumo. Um total de 13 artigos foram selecionados atendendo a esses critérios. RESULTADOS: são poucos os estudos sobre a cobertura do exame de Papanicolaou no Brasil. A maioria concentra-se nas grandes cidades das regiões Sul e Sudeste do país. Além da escassez, existe pouca padronização metodológica em relação à amostragem e perfil das mulheres a serem investigadas, o que torna difícil a comparação entre si. Estas diferenças metodológicas devem ter contribuído para a grande variabilidade nas coberturas encontradas. Entretanto, apesar de todos os problemas, observa-se tendência de aumento temporal no percentual de mulheres que foram submetidas a pelo menos um exame de Papanicolaou: os dois únicos estudos realizados nos anos 80 mostram coberturas de 55,0 e 68,9% na vida, ao passo que um inquérito domiciliar realizado em 15 capitais e no Distrito Federal entre 2002 e 2003 apresenta valores que variam de 73,4 a 92,9%; porém, dois estudos de abrangência nacional realizados em 2003 apresentaram coberturas abaixo de 70,0% nos últimos três anos. Por outro lado, algumas variáveis foram mais freqüentemente observadas nas mulheres não submetidas ao exame de Papanicolaou: ter baixo nível socioeconômico, ter baixa escolaridade, ter baixa renda familiar e pertencer às faixas etárias mais jovens. CONCLUSÃO: os dados aqui apresentados apontam para desigualdades regionais na cobertura do exame de Papanicolaou na população feminina brasileira e para a necessidade de intervenção junto àqueles fatores a ela associados.PURPOSE: to present an overview of the coverage of the Pap smear in Brazil, emphasizing the determinant factors associated with failure of women to submit to the test. METHODS: the literature was reviewed using the LILACS (Latin-American and Caribbean Literature in Sciences of the Health, MEDLINE - 1966 to 2004 (International Literature in Sciences of the Health, PAHO (Collection of the Library of the Pan-American Organization of Health, and WHOLIS (System of Information of the Library of OMS databases. The review was enlarged through the search of bibliographical references of relevant studies, request for published and unpublished studies by specialists, and other sources. Articles that fulfilled the following criteria were selected: to be a cross-sectional study, carried out in Brazil, including information about periodicity of the Pap test (some time in life or in the last three years and/or containing information about factors associated with failure of women to submit to the test. Duplicates and articles without summary were excluded. A total of 13 articles fulfilling these criteria were selected. RESULTS: there are few studies on the coverage of Pap smear in Brazil. Most of them are concentrated in the big cities of the South and Southeast regions of the country. Besides the shortage, little methodological standardization exists in relation to the sampling and profile of the investigated women, which turns difficult the comparison among them. These methodological differences must have contributed to the great variability found in

Luís Felipe Leite Martins

2005-08-01

328

Cobertura do exame de Papanicolaou no Brasil e seus fatores determinantes: uma revisão sistemática da literatura / Coverage of the Pap smear in Brazil and its determining factors: a systematic literature review  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: apresentar o panorama da cobertura do exame de Papanicolaou no Brasil, com ênfase nos seus fatores determinantes. MÉTODOS: foram pesquisadas as bases de dados "on line" LILACS (Literatura Latino-Americana e do Caribe em Ciências da Saúde), MEDLINE - 1966 a 2004 (Literatura Internacional em [...] Ciências da Saúde), PAHO (Acervo da Biblioteca da Organização Pan-Americana de Saúde) e WHOLIS (Sistema de Informação da Biblioteca da OMS). A revisão foi ampliada por meio da busca a referências bibliográficas dos estudos relevantes, solicitação de estudos publicados e não publicados a especialistas e outras fontes. Foram selecionados artigos que preenchiam os seguintes critérios: ser um estudo transversal, ter sido realizado no Brasil, conter informações sobre a cobertura do exame Papanicolaou (alguma vez na vida ou nos últimos três anos) ou sobre seus fatores determinantes. Foram excluídas as duplicidades e os artigos sem resumo. Um total de 13 artigos foram selecionados atendendo a esses critérios. RESULTADOS: são poucos os estudos sobre a cobertura do exame de Papanicolaou no Brasil. A maioria concentra-se nas grandes cidades das regiões Sul e Sudeste do país. Além da escassez, existe pouca padronização metodológica em relação à amostragem e perfil das mulheres a serem investigadas, o que torna difícil a comparação entre si. Estas diferenças metodológicas devem ter contribuído para a grande variabilidade nas coberturas encontradas. Entretanto, apesar de todos os problemas, observa-se tendência de aumento temporal no percentual de mulheres que foram submetidas a pelo menos um exame de Papanicolaou: os dois únicos estudos realizados nos anos 80 mostram coberturas de 55,0 e 68,9% na vida, ao passo que um inquérito domiciliar realizado em 15 capitais e no Distrito Federal entre 2002 e 2003 apresenta valores que variam de 73,4 a 92,9%; porém, dois estudos de abrangência nacional realizados em 2003 apresentaram coberturas abaixo de 70,0% nos últimos três anos. Por outro lado, algumas variáveis foram mais freqüentemente observadas nas mulheres não submetidas ao exame de Papanicolaou: ter baixo nível socioeconômico, ter baixa escolaridade, ter baixa renda familiar e pertencer às faixas etárias mais jovens. CONCLUSÃO: os dados aqui apresentados apontam para desigualdades regionais na cobertura do exame de Papanicolaou na população feminina brasileira e para a necessidade de intervenção junto àqueles fatores a ela associados. Abstract in english PURPOSE: to present an overview of the coverage of the Pap smear in Brazil, emphasizing the determinant factors associated with failure of women to submit to the test. METHODS: the literature was reviewed using the LILACS (Latin-American and Caribbean Literature in Sciences of the Health), MEDLINE - [...] 1966 to 2004 (International Literature in Sciences of the Health), PAHO (Collection of the Library of the Pan-American Organization of Health), and WHOLIS (System of Information of the Library of OMS) databases. The review was enlarged through the search of bibliographical references of relevant studies, request for published and unpublished studies by specialists, and other sources. Articles that fulfilled the following criteria were selected: to be a cross-sectional study, carried out in Brazil, including information about periodicity of the Pap test (some time in life or in the last three years) and/or containing information about factors associated with failure of women to submit to the test. Duplicates and articles without summary were excluded. A total of 13 articles fulfilling these criteria were selected. RESULTS: there are few studies on the coverage of Pap smear in Brazil. Most of them are concentrated in the big cities of the South and Southeast regions of the country. Besides the shortage, little methodological standardization exists in relation to the sampling and profile of the investigated women, which turns difficult the comparis

Luís Felipe Leite, Martins; Luiz Claudio Santos, Thuler; Joaquim Gonçalves, Valente.

2005-08-01

329

Resíduos vegetais na superfície e carbono orgânico do solo e suas relações com a densidade máxima obtida no ensaio proctor / Mulch and soil organic carbon content and their relationship with the maximum soil density obtained in the proctor test  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A susceptibilidade do solo à compactação, avaliada pelo ensaio Proctor, torna-se menor à medida que cresce a quantidade de material orgânico existente. Em geral, para um mesmo nível de energia, quanto maior o teor de matéria orgânica do solo, menor é o valor de densidade máxima obtido e maior é o te [...] or de água necessário para atingi-lo. As características da palha, como sua baixa densidade, elasticidade e susceptibilidade à deformação, tornam-na potencialmente capaz de atenuar as cargas aplicadas sobre o solo. O presente trabalho foi realizado para estudar o efeito da matéria orgânica do solo no comportamento da curva de compactação e avaliar a capacidade dos resíduos vegetais em dissipar a energia compactante. Amostras superficiais (0-0,05 m) de um Argissolo Vermelho-Amarelo arênico, de textura franco-arenosa, e de um Nitossolo Vermelho distrófico, de textura argilosa, ambos com variações nos teores de matéria orgânica, foram submetidas ao ensaio Proctor Normal, determinando-se a densidade máxima e a umidade crítica para compactação. Determinaram-se, também, os limites de liquidez e de plasticidade e o teor de carbono orgânico. Para avaliar a capacidade da palha em dissipar a energia de compactação, amostras do Argissolo foram compactadas com a aplicação de uma camada de palha sobre o solo, dentro do cilindro do aparelho de Proctor, em quantidades correspondentes a 2, 4, 8 e 12 Mg ha-1 de matéria seca. O acúmulo de matéria orgânica nos solos, proporcionado por diferentes sistemas de manejo, reduziu a densidade máxima e aumentou a umidade crítica para compactação do solo, significando que o solo torna-se mais resistente à compactação. A magnitude desses efeitos, contudo, foi dependente da granulometria do solo. A palha na superfície do solo, durante a realização do ensaio Proctor, dissipou até 30 % da energia de compactação utilizada, com redução da densidade obtida, confirmando a hipótese de que a palha existente sobre o solo é capaz de absorver parte da energia de compactação produzida pelo trânsito de máquinas e animais. Abstract in english The susceptibility of soils to compaction, measured by the Proctor test, decreases with increasing soil organic matter (SOM) content. For a given energy level, with increasing SOM contents the maximum obtained density decreases and the corresponding critical moisture content increases. Due to its lo [...] w density, elasticity and deformation susceptibility, straw is potentially able to dissipate applied loads. This study was conducted to evaluate the SOM effect on the soil compaction curve and to evaluate the ability that mulch has to absorb compactive energy in the Proctor test. The compaction test was carried out using soil surface samples (0 to 0.05 m) of a Hapludalf, with sandy loam texture at its soil surface, and an Oxisol, with clayey texture at its soil surface, both with variations in the SOM content. The maximum density, the critical moisture content, the liquid and plastic limits, and the soil organic carbon content were determined. A second test was performed to evaluate the ability of mulch to absorb compactive energy, by compacting Hapludalf samples with the presence of a straw layer on the soil surface, inside a Proctor cylinder, at amounts corresponding to 2, 4, 8 and 12 Mg ha-1. SOM accumulation reduced the maximum density and increased the critical moisture content, suggesting an increased resistance to soil compaction. In the Proctor test the straw on the soil surface dissipated up to 30 % of the compactive energy and reduced the bulk density, confirming the hypothesis that mulch can absorb part of the compactive energy caused by machine traffic and by animals.

João Alfredo, Braida; José Miguel, Reichert; Milton da, Veiga; Dalvan José, Reinert.

2006-08-01

330

Patterns of epithelial cell abnormalities in Pap smears and its clinicopathological and demographic association: a descriptive study from Visakhapatnam city, Andhra Pradesh, India  

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Background: Cervical cancer is one of the leading cancers amongst women. Periodic pap screening is the simplest way to diagnose precancerous lesions. Factors such as ignorance, poverty poorly developed public healthcare delivery system put women in urban slums at a disadvantage for receiving any health screening activity. Objectives of the present study were to know the prevalence of epithelial cell abnormalities of the cervix among the subjects and to study the association with clinical and ...

Bhagya Lakshmi, A.; Devi Madhavi, B.; Vasundhara, M.; Satya Sri, K.; Vani, I.; Sreelekha, A.

2014-01-01

331

Aplicação do método de ensaio das frequências naturais de vibração para obtenção do módulo de elasticidade de peças estruturais de madeira Analysis of the natural vibration frequency test method to obtain the modulus of elasticity of wood structural components  

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Full Text Available Existem diversas técnicas para caracterização do módulo de elasticidade de madeiras e, dentre as atualmente empregadas, destacam-se aquelas que utilizam as frequências naturais de vibração, por serem técnicas não destrutivas e, portanto, apresentarem resultados que podem ser repetidos e comparados ao longo do tempo. Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a eficácia, dos métodos de ensaios baseados nas frequências naturais de vibração comparando-os aos resultados obtidos na flexão estática na obtenção das propriedades elásticas em peças estruturais de madeira de reflorestamento que são usualmente empregadas na construção civil. Foram avaliadas 24 vigas de Eucalyptus sp. com dimensões nominais (40 x 60 x 2.000 mm e 14 vigas de Pinus oocarpa com dimensões nominais (45 x 90 x 2.300 mm, ambas sem tratamento; 30 pranchas com dimensões nominais (40 x 240 x 2.010 mm e 30 pranchas com dimensões nominais (40 x 240 x 3.050 mm, ambas de Pinnus oocarpa e com tratamento preservativo à base de Arseniato de Cobre Cromatado - CCA. Os resultados obtidos apresentaram boa correlação quando comparados aos resultados obtidos pelo método mecânico de flexão estática, especialmente quando empregada a frequência natural de vibração longitudinal. O emprego da frequência longitudinal mostrou-se confiável e prático, portanto recomendada para a determinação do módulo de elasticidade de peças estruturais de madeira. Verificou-se ainda que, empregando a frequência longitudinal, não há necessidade de um suporte específico para os corpos de prova ou calibrações prévias, reduzindo assim o tempo de execução e favorecendo o ensaio de grande quantidade de amostras.There are several techniques to characterize the elastic modulus of wood and those currently using the natural frequencies of vibration stand out as they are non-destructive techniques, producing results that can be repeated and compared over time. This study reports on the effectiveness of the testing methods based on the natural frequencies of vibration versus static bending to obtain the elastic properties of reforested structural wood components usually employed in civil construction. The following components were evaluated: 24 beams of Eucalyptus sp. with nominal dimensions (40 x 60 x 2.000 mm and 14 beams of Pinus oocarpa with nominal dimensions (45 x 90 x 2.300 mm both without treatment; 30 boards with nominal dimensions (40 x 240 x 2.010 mm and 30 boards with nominal dimensions (40 x 240 x 3.050 mm, both of Pinus oocarpa and with chromate copper arsenate (CCA preservative treatment. The results obtained in thiswork show good correlation when compared to the results obtained by the static bending mechanical method, especially when applying the natural frequency of longitudinal vibration. The use of longitudinal frequency was reliable and practical, therefore recommended for determining the modulus of elasticity of wood structural elements. It was also found that no specific support is needed for the specimens using the longitudinal frequency, as well as no previous calibrations, reducing the execution time and enabling to test many samples.

Pedro Gutemberg de Alcântara Segundinho

2012-12-01

332

Aplicação do método de ensaio das frequências naturais de vibração para obtenção do módulo de elasticidade de peças estruturais de madeira / Analysis of the natural vibration frequency test method to obtain the modulus of elasticity of wood structural components  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Existem diversas técnicas para caracterização do módulo de elasticidade de madeiras e, dentre as atualmente empregadas, destacam-se aquelas que utilizam as frequências naturais de vibração, por serem técnicas não destrutivas e, portanto, apresentarem resultados que podem ser repetidos e comparados a [...] o longo do tempo. Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a eficácia, dos métodos de ensaios baseados nas frequências naturais de vibração comparando-os aos resultados obtidos na flexão estática na obtenção das propriedades elásticas em peças estruturais de madeira de reflorestamento que são usualmente empregadas na construção civil. Foram avaliadas 24 vigas de Eucalyptus sp. com dimensões nominais (40 x 60 x 2.000 mm) e 14 vigas de Pinus oocarpa com dimensões nominais (45 x 90 x 2.300 mm), ambas sem tratamento; 30 pranchas com dimensões nominais (40 x 240 x 2.010 mm) e 30 pranchas com dimensões nominais (40 x 240 x 3.050 mm), ambas de Pinnus oocarpa e com tratamento preservativo à base de Arseniato de Cobre Cromatado - CCA. Os resultados obtidos apresentaram boa correlação quando comparados aos resultados obtidos pelo método mecânico de flexão estática, especialmente quando empregada a frequência natural de vibração longitudinal. O emprego da frequência longitudinal mostrou-se confiável e prático, portanto recomendada para a determinação do módulo de elasticidade de peças estruturais de madeira. Verificou-se ainda que, empregando a frequência longitudinal, não há necessidade de um suporte específico para os corpos de prova ou calibrações prévias, reduzindo assim o tempo de execução e favorecendo o ensaio de grande quantidade de amostras. Abstract in english There are several techniques to characterize the elastic modulus of wood and those currently using the natural frequencies of vibration stand out as they are non-destructive techniques, producing results that can be repeated and compared over time. This study reports on the effectiveness of the test [...] ing methods based on the natural frequencies of vibration versus static bending to obtain the elastic properties of reforested structural wood components usually employed in civil construction. The following components were evaluated: 24 beams of Eucalyptus sp. with nominal dimensions (40 x 60 x 2.000 mm) and 14 beams of Pinus oocarpa with nominal dimensions (45 x 90 x 2.300 mm) both without treatment; 30 boards with nominal dimensions (40 x 240 x 2.010 mm) and 30 boards with nominal dimensions (40 x 240 x 3.050 mm), both of Pinus oocarpa and with chromate copper arsenate (CCA) preservative treatment. The results obtained in thiswork show good correlation when compared to the results obtained by the static bending mechanical method, especially when applying the natural frequency of longitudinal vibration. The use of longitudinal frequency was reliable and practical, therefore recommended for determining the modulus of elasticity of wood structural elements. It was also found that no specific support is needed for the specimens using the longitudinal frequency, as well as no previous calibrations, reducing the execution time and enabling to test many samples.

Pedro Gutemberg de Alcântara, Segundinho; Leiliane Cristina, Cossolino; Antônio Henrique Alves, Pereira; Carlito, Calil Junior.

1155-11-01

333

Obtaining zircaloy powder through hydriding  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Zirconium alloys are good options for the metal matrix in dispersion fuels for power reactors due to their low thermal neutron absorption cross-section, good corrosion resistance, good mechanical strength and high thermal conductivity. A necessary step for obtaining such fuels is producing Zr alloy powder for the metal matrix composite material. This article presents results from the Zircaloy-4 hydrogenation tests with the purpose to embrittle the alloy as a first step for comminuting. Several hydrogenation tests were performed and studied through thermogravimetric analysis. They included H2 pressures of 25 and 50 kPa and temperatures ranging between from 20 to 670 deg C. X-ray diffraction analysis showed in the hydrogenated samples the predominant presence of ZrH2 and some ZrO2. Some kinetics parameters for the Zircaloy-4 hydrogenation reaction were obtained: the time required to reach the equilibrium state at the dwell temperature was about 100 minutes; the hydrogenation rate during the heating process from 20 to 670 deg C was about 21 mg/h, and at constant temperature of 670 deg C, the hydride rate was about 1.15 mg/h. The hydrogenation rate is largest during the heating process and most of it occurs during this period. After hydrogenated, the samples could easily be comminuted indicating that this is a possible technology to obtain Zircaloy powder. The results show that only few minutes of hydrogenation are necessary to reach the hydride levels required for comminuting the Zircaloy. The final hydride stoichiometry was between 2.7 and 2.8 H for each Zr atom in the sample (author)

334

Obtaining zircaloy powder through hydriding  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Zirconium alloys are good options for the metal matrix in dispersion fuels for power reactors due to their low thermal neutron absorption cross-section, good corrosion resistance, good mechanical strength and high thermal conductivity. A necessary step for obtaining such fuels is producing Zr alloy powder for the metal matrix composite material. This article presents results from the Zircaloy-4 hydrogenation tests with the purpose to embrittle the alloy as a first step for comminuting. Several hydrogenation tests were performed and studied through thermogravimetric analysis. They included H{sub 2} pressures of 25 and 50 kPa and temperatures ranging between from 20 to 670 deg C. X-ray diffraction analysis showed in the hydrogenated samples the predominant presence of ZrH{sub 2} and some ZrO{sub 2}. Some kinetics parameters for the Zircaloy-4 hydrogenation reaction were obtained: the time required to reach the equilibrium state at the dwell temperature was about 100 minutes; the hydrogenation rate during the heating process from 20 to 670 deg C was about 21 mg/h, and at constant temperature of 670 deg C, the hydride rate was about 1.15 mg/h. The hydrogenation rate is largest during the heating process and most of it occurs during this period. After hydrogenated, the samples could easily be comminuted indicating that this is a possible technology to obtain Zircaloy powder. The results show that only few minutes of hydrogenation are necessary to reach the hydride levels required for comminuting the Zircaloy. The final hydride stoichiometry was between 2.7 and 2.8 H for each Zr atom in the sample (author)

Dupim, Ivaldete da Silva; Moreira, Joao M.L., E-mail: joao.moreira@ufabc.edu.b [Universidade Federal do ABC, Santo Andre, SP (Brazil). Centro de Engenharia e Ciencias Sociais Aplicadas; Silva, Selma Luiza; Silva, Cecilia Chaves Guedes e; Nunes Junior, Oswaldo; Gomide, Ricardo Goncalves, E-mail: celia.chaves@ctmsp.mar.mil.b, E-mail: gomide@ctmsp.mar.mil.b [Centro Tecnologico da Marinha em Sao Paulo (CTMSP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

2009-07-01

335

Fallopian tube high-grade serous carcinoma with intramucosal spread and presenting as a malignancy on pap smear.  

Science.gov (United States)

For the first time, we report a case of a primary high-grade serous carcinoma of the fallopian tube in a 69-yr-old woman with intraepithelial involvement of endocervical glands. The patient had a remote history of tubal ligation and no known personal or family history of breast or gynecologic cancer. She initially presented with an abnormal Pap smear, and, on a subsequent endometrial curettage, detached fragments of high-grade adenocarcinoma were identified. Upon hysterectomy and bilateral salpingoophorectomy, invasive high-grade serous carcinoma was found in the proximal stump of a ligated fallopian tube. Morphologically identical tumor extensively involved the endocervical glands. A single focus of malignant cells was also found at the surface of the lower uterine segment endometrium. By immunohistochemistry, the tumors in the fallopian tube and in the cervix showed the same immunopheonotype. This included diffuse staining for WT-1, PAX-8, p16, and p53, and focal staining for the monoclonal carcinoembryonic antigen. The estrogen receptor was negative. Human papillomavirus-in situ hybridization was also negative. The focus of intramucosal tumor within the endometrium was similarly positive for WT-1 and p53 and negative for the estrogen receptor. The patient was subsequently treated with 6 cycles of carboplatinum and taxol. She remains well with no evidence of recurrent disease. The phenomenon of intramucosal tumor spread to the cervix mimicking primary invasive or in situ cervical adenocarcinoma may present a diagnostic challenge for the pathologist, requiring consideration of an appropriately wide differential diagnosis when interpreting cervical cytology and endocervical and endometrial biopsies. PMID:24901407

Kos, Zuzana; Broaddus, Russell R; Djordjevic, Bojana

2014-07-01

336

Relação da taxa de gestação com sêmen bovino congelado e testes de avaliação espermática in vitro / Relationship between conception rates obtained by using bovine frozen semen and in vitro spermatic evaluation  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Avaliou-se a relação entre os testes complementares (teste hiposmótico, teste de termorresistência lento e teste de reação acrossômica) e os testes de avaliações convencionais (aspectos físicos e morfológicos) de sêmen bovino congelado/descongelado e os índices de prenhez. Os valores médios da motil [...] idade espermática progressiva retilínea avaliados pelo teste de termorresistência foram de 53,48 (pós-descongelamento), 43,69 (60 minutos), 35,88 (120 minutos) e 33,04% (180 minutos) e a porcentagem de células reativas ao teste hiposmótico foi de 37,89%. Correlação positiva e de média intensidade foi encontrada para a motilidade espermática progressiva retilínea pós-descongelamento e o teste hiposmótico (0,21). Entretanto, a correlação da motilidade aos 180 minutos com o teste hiposmótico foi alta (0,64). A porcentagem de células que tiveram acrossoma reagido pós-descongelamento foi de 9,85%, apresentando correlações negativas de média e alta intensidade (-0,25 e -0,46, respectivamente) com a motilidade espermática progressiva retilínea pós-descongelamento e após 3 horas de incubação. Não houve correlação dos testes complementares e da motilidade pós-descongelamento com a taxa de gestação. Nenhum parâmetro considerado isoladamente serviu para avaliar a capacidade fertilizante do sêmen congelado/descongelado. Abstract in english The objective of this study was to evaluate the relationship between complementary (hiposmotic, thermo-resistance and acrosome reaction tests) and conventional evaluations (physical and morphologic aspects) of bovine frozen/thawed semen and conception rates. Average values for spermatic motility eva [...] luated by thermo-resistance test were of 53.48% (post-thawed), 43.69% (60 minutes), 35.88% (120 minutes) and 33.04% (180 minutes). The percentage of reactive cells observed for the hiposmotic test was 37.89%. Average intensity was observed for post-thawing spermatic motility, positively correlated to hiposmotic test (0.21). However, correlation between motility in the 180 minutes and hiposmotic test was high (0.64). The percentage of cells presenting post-thawing acrosome reaction was 9.85%, which was negative correlated to post-thawing (-0.25) and after three hours of incubation (-0.46) spermatic motility. No correlation was observed for complementary tests and post-thawed motility and the conception rate. No one of the parameters evaluated in this study was individually able to indicate the fertilizing capacity of the frozen/thawed semen.

Jeanne Broch, Siqueira; José Domingos, Guimarães; Eduardo Paulino da, Costa; Marc, Henry; Ciro Alexandre Alves, Torres; Marcos Vinícius Gualberto Barbosa da, Silva; Thiago da Silva, Silveira.

2007-04-01

337

Relação da taxa de gestação com sêmen bovino congelado e testes de avaliação espermática in vitro Relationship between conception rates obtained by using bovine frozen semen and in vitro spermatic evaluation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Avaliou-se a relação entre os testes complementares (teste hiposmótico, teste de termorresistência lento e teste de reação acrossômica e os testes de avaliações convencionais (aspectos físicos e morfológicos de sêmen bovino congelado/descongelado e os índices de prenhez. Os valores médios da motilidade espermática progressiva retilínea avaliados pelo teste de termorresistência foram de 53,48 (pós-descongelamento, 43,69 (60 minutos, 35,88 (120 minutos e 33,04% (180 minutos e a porcentagem de células reativas ao teste hiposmótico foi de 37,89%. Correlação positiva e de média intensidade foi encontrada para a motilidade espermática progressiva retilínea pós-descongelamento e o teste hiposmótico (0,21. Entretanto, a correlação da motilidade aos 180 minutos com o teste hiposmótico foi alta (0,64. A porcentagem de células que tiveram acrossoma reagido pós-descongelamento foi de 9,85%, apresentando correlações negativas de média e alta intensidade (-0,25 e -0,46, respectivamente com a motilidade espermática progressiva retilínea pós-descongelamento e após 3 horas de incubação. Não houve correlação dos testes complementares e da motilidade pós-descongelamento com a taxa de gestação. Nenhum parâmetro considerado isoladamente serviu para avaliar a capacidade fertilizante do sêmen congelado/descongelado.The objective of this study was to evaluate the relationship between complementary (hiposmotic, thermo-resistance and acrosome reaction tests and conventional evaluations (physical and morphologic aspects of bovine frozen/thawed semen and conception rates. Average values for spermatic motility evaluated by thermo-resistance test were of 53.48% (post-thawed, 43.69% (60 minutes, 35.88% (120 minutes and 33.04% (180 minutes. The percentage of reactive cells observed for the hiposmotic test was 37.89%. Average intensity was observed for post-thawing spermatic motility, positively correlated to hiposmotic test (0.21. However, correlation between motility in the 180 minutes and hiposmotic test was high (0.64. The percentage of cells presenting post-thawing acrosome reaction was 9.85%, which was negative correlated to post-thawing (-0.25 and after three hours of incubation (-0.46 spermatic motility. No correlation was observed for complementary tests and post-thawed motility and the conception rate. No one of the parameters evaluated in this study was individually able to indicate the fertilizing capacity of the frozen/thawed semen.

Jeanne Broch Siqueira

2007-04-01

338

The possible effects on socio-economic inequalities of introducing HPV-testing as primary test in cervical cancer screening programs.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background HPV-test is more effective than Pap test in preventing cervical cancer. HPV-based screening will imply longer intervals and a triage test for HPV positive women. It will also permit the use of self-sampling devices. These innovations may affect population coverage, participation, and compliance to protocols, and likely in a different way for less educated, poorer, and disadvantaged women. Aim To describe the impact on inequalities, actual or presumed, of the int...

PaoloGiorgi Rossi; GuglielmoRonco

2014-01-01

339

Results of tests in the NASA/LaRC 31 inch CFHT on an 0.010-scale model (32-OT) of the space shuttle configuration 3 to obtain hypersonic aerodynamic characteristics for second stage operation during nominal boost and the abort RTLS mode (IA58)  

Science.gov (United States)

Tests were conducted to obtain hypersonic aerodynamic forces and moments on an 0.010-scale model of the space shuttle vehicle configuration 3. Hypersonic stability data were obtained from tests at Mach 10.3 and dynamic pressure of 150 psf for the integrated orbiter and external tank, orbiter alone, and external tank alone. The effects of solid plume simulation from the main propulsion system as well as elevon, aileron, and rudder deflections were also investigated.

Thornton, D. E.

1974-01-01

340

Field project to obtain pressure core, wireline log, and production test data for evaluation of CO/sub 2/ flooding potential. Texas Pacific Bennett Ranch Unit well No. 310, Wasson (San Andres) Field, Yoakum County, Texas  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The coring, logging and testing of Bennett Ranch Unit well No. 310 was a cooperative effort between Texas Pacific, owner of the well, and Gruy Federal, Inc. The requirements of the contract, which are summarized in Enclosure 1, Appendix A, include drilling and coring activities. The pressure-coring and associated logging and testing programs in selected wells are intended to provide data on in-situ oil saturation, porosity and permeability distribution, and other data needed for resource characterization of fields and reservoirs in which CO/sub 2/ injection might have a high probability of success. This report presents detailed information on the first such project. This project demonstrates the usefulness of integrating pressure core, log and production data to realistically evaluate a reservoir for carbon dioxide flood. The engineering of tests and analysis of such experimental data requires original thinking, but the reliability of the results is higher than data derived from conventional tests.

Swift, T.E.; Goodrich, J.H.; Kumar, R.M.; McCoy, R.L.; Wilhelm, M.H.; Glascock, M.R.

1982-01-01

 
 
 
 
341

Crystal structures of human sulfotransferases SULT1B1 and SULT1C1 complexed with the cofactor product adenosine-3'- 5'-diphosphate (PAP)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Cytosolic sulfotransferases (SULTs), often referred as Phase II enzymes of chemical defense, are a superfamily of enzymes that catalyze the transfer of a sulfonate group from 3{prime}-phosphoadenosine 5{prime}-phosphosulfate (PAPS) to an acceptor group of substrates. This reaction modulates the activities of a large array of small endogenous and foreign chemicals including drugs, toxic compounds, steroid hormones, and neurotransmitters. In some cases, however, SULTs activate certain food and environmental compounds to mutagenenic and carcinogenic metabolites. Twelve human SULTs have been identified, which are partitioned into three families: SULT1, SULT2 and SULT4. The SULT1 family is further divided in four subfamilies, A, B, C, and E, and comprises eight members (1A1, 1A2, 1A3, 1B1, 1C1, 1C2, 1C3, and 1E1). Despite sequence and structural similarity among the SULTs, the family and subfamily members appear to have different biological function. SULT1 family shows substrate-binding specificity for simple phenols, estradiol, and thyroid hormones, as well as environmental xenobiotics and drugs. Human SULT1B1 is expressed in liver, colon, small intestine, and blood leukocytes, and shows substrate-binding specificity to thyroid hormones and benzylic alcohols. Human SULT1C1 is expressed in the adult stomach, kidney, and thyroid, as well as in fetal kidney and liver. SULT1C1 catalyzes the sulfonation of p-nitrophenol and N-hydroxy-2-acetylaminofluorene in vitro. However, the in vivo function of the enzyme remains unknown. We intend to solve the structures for all of the SULTs for which structural information is not yet available, and compare the structural and functional features of the entire SULT superfamily. Here we report the structures of two members of SULT1 family, SULT1B1 and SULT1C1, both in complex with the product of the PAPS cofactor, adenosine-3{prime}-5{prime}-diphosphate (PAP).

Dombrovski, Luidmila; Dong, Aiping; Bochkarev, Alexey; Plotnikov, Alexander N. (Toronto)

2008-09-17

342

Citologia vaginal a fresco na gravidez: correlação com a citologia corada pela técnica de Papanicolaou / Fresh wet mount in pregnancy: correlation with Pap smears  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: analisar o conteúdo vaginal utilizando o exame citológico a fresco na primeira consulta pré-natal em mulheres com ou sem queixas genitais e correlacionar os resultados com os encontrados na citologia corada pela técnica de Papanicolaou. A microscopia direta durante a gravidez deve ser valo [...] rizada e reconhecida como método propedêutico capaz de diagnosticar, de forma imediata, 90% dos casos de vaginose bacteriana, candidose e tricomonose. MÉTODOS: estudo prospectivo em 216 gestantes, selecionadas em ambulatório de pré-natal no período de 30 de outubro de 2001 a 12 de novembro de 2002. Foram colhidas duas amostras do conteúdo existente no fundo de saco vaginal posterior e depositadas em lâminas de vidro para microscopia. Sobre a primeira e a segunda amostra eram colocadas uma gota de NaCl a 0,9% e uma de KOH a 10%, respectivamente. Adicionalmente, em todas as grávidas determinou-se o pH vaginal e realizaram-se os testes de produção das aminas com odores de pescado. O material era examinado ao microscópio em aumentos de 100 vezes, 400 vezes e excepcionalmente 1000 vezes. Foram realizados esfregaços cervicovaginais para citologia corada pelo método de Papanicolaou. A correlação entre os resultados dos métodos citológicos empregados foi realizada pelo cálculo do coeficiente kappa, que avalia a concordância para variáveis qualitativas. RESULTADOS: o encontro nos esfregaços a fresco de flora bacteriana normal foi de 51,8, representando o aspecto citológico mais observado e sem correspondência com os 3,7% apurados na microscopia corada. No exame citológico direto foram observados 30,9% de vaginose bacteriana e 7,9% de candidose. Todavia, no Papanicolaou não foi encontrada tal equivalência, sendo as porcentagens de 0,7 e 24,3%, respectivamente. A ausência de correlação no diagnóstico de colpite bacteriana inespecífica na microscopia direta (17,5%) e corada (51,3%) talvez deva-se ao subdiagnóstico de vaginose neste último método propedêutico. Os diagnósticos de tricomoníase observados em ambos os métodos citológicos (3,7 e 2,7%) traduzem a baixa prevalência destes parasitas na gestação. O cálculo do índice kappa para avaliação da concordância entre os dois procedimentos citológicos nos diversos achados microbiológicos demonstrou baixa correlação nos diagnósticos da vaginose bacteriana e colpites bacterianas inespecíficas, bem como na identificação da flora vaginal normal. CONCLUSÕES: embora a citologia corada apresente melhor acurácia no diagnóstico de fungos não formadores de micélios, a citologia direta a fresco demonstrou ser melhor avaliador dos elementos não epiteliais dos esfregaços vaginais. Entretanto, a microscopia corada pela técnica de Papanicolaou, por permitir melhor apreciação das células epiteliais cervicovaginais, representa o mais importante instrumento revelador das agressões e reações nucleocitoplasmáticas. Abstract in english PURPOSE: to analyze vaginal contents using the fresh wet mount of a cytological exam in the first prenatal visit of women with or without genital complaints and correlate the conclusion with the results from the Pap smears. Microscopy during pregnancy should be valued and recognized as a method capa [...] ble of providing immediate diagnosis in 90% of bacterial vaginosis, candidiasis and trichomoniasis cases. METHODS: a prospective study was performed in 216 pregnant women selected from the prenatal department of a public hospital, between October 30, 2001 and November 12, 2002. Two samples were collected from the posterior vaginal vault and deposited onto two separate microscope slides. To one slide, a droplet of 0.9% NaCl was applied and to the other, a droplet of 10% KOH. Both slides were covered with a coverslip for immediate microscopic evaluation. Tests were perfomed in one drop of the material to examine pH and whiff. The microscopic examination of the material was carried out at a 100X, 400X and exceptionally 1000

Amadeu Ramos da, Silva Filho.

343

Interaction of the Tobacco Mosaic Virus Replicase Protein with the Aux/IAA Protein PAP1/IAA26 Is Associated with Disease Development†  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Virus-infected plants often display developmental abnormalities that include stunting, leaf curling, and the loss of apical dominance. In this study, the helicase domain of the Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) 126- and/or 183-kDa replicase protein(s) was found to interact with the Arabidopsis Aux/IAA protein PAP1 (also named IAA26), a putative regulator of auxin response genes involved in plant development. To investigate the role of this interaction in the display of symptoms, a TMV mutant defecti...

Padmanabhan, Meenu S.; Goregaoker, Sameer P.; Golem, Sheetal; Shiferaw, Haiymanot; Culver, James N.

2005-01-01

344

Structural basis for the activation mechanism of the PlcR virulence regulator by the quorum-sensing signal peptide PapR  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The quorum-sensing regulator PlcR is the master regulator of most known virulence factors in Bacillus cereus. It is a helix-turn-helix (HTH)-type transcription factor activated upon binding of its cognate signaling peptide PapR on a tetratricopeptide repeat-type regulatory domain. The structural and functional properties of PlcR have defined a new family of sensor regulators, called the RNPP family (for Rap, NprR, PrgX, and PlcR), in Gram-positive bacteria. To fully understand the activation ...

Grenha, Rosa; Slamti, Leyla; Nicaise, Magali; Refes, Yacine; Lereclus, Didier; Nessler, Sylvie

2013-01-01

345

A standardized blood test for the routine clinical diagnosis of impaired GM-CSF signaling using flow cytometry.  

Science.gov (United States)

Impaired signaling by granulocyte/macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) drives the pathogenesis of two diseases (autoimmune and hereditary pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP)) representing over ninety percent of patients who develop PAP syndrome but not a broad spectrum of diseases that cause PAP by other mechanisms. We previously exploited the ability of GM-CSF to rapidly increase cell-surface CD11b levels on neutrophils (CD11bSurface) to establish the CD11b stimulation index (CD11b-SI), a test enabling the clinical research diagnosis of impaired GM-CSF signaling based on measuring CD11bSurface by flow cytometry using fresh, heparinized blood. (CD11b-SI is defined as GM-CSF-stimulated- CD11bSurface minus unstimulated CD11bSurface divided by un-stimulated CD11bSurface multiplied by 100.) Notwithstanding important and unique diagnostic utility, the test is sensitive to experimental conditions that can affect test performance. The present study was undertaken to optimize and standardize CD11b-SI test for detecting impaired GM-CSF signaling in heparinized human blood specimens from PAP patients. Results demonstrated the test was sensitive to choice of anticoagulant, pretesting incubation on ice, a delay between phlebotomy and test performance of more than one hour, and the concentration GM-CSF used to stimulate blood. The standardized CD11b-SI test reliably distinguished blood specimens from autoimmune PAP patients with impaired GM-CSF signaling from those of health people with normal signaling. Intra-subject differences were smaller than inter-subject differences in repeated measures. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis identified a CD11b-SI test result of 112 as the optimal cut off threshold for diagnosis of impaired GM-CSF signaling in autoimmune PAP for which the sensitivity and specificity were both 100%. These results support the use of this standardized CD11b-SI for routine clinical identification of impaired GM-CSF signaling in patients with autoimmune PAP. The CD11b-SI may also have utility in clinical trials of novel therapeutic strategies targeting reduction in GM-CSF bioactivity now under evaluation for multiple common autoimmune and inflammatory disorders. PMID:25068538

Kusakabe, Yoshiomi; Uchida, Kanji; Hiruma, Takahiro; Suzuki, Yoko; Totsu, Tokie; Suzuki, Takuji; Carey, Brenna C; Yamada, Yoshitsugu; Trapnell, Bruce C

2014-11-01

346

Accuracy of Results Obtained by Performing a Second Ligase Chain Reaction Assay and PCR Analysis on Urine Samples with Positive or Near-Cutoff Results in the LCx Test for Chlamydia trachomatis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Nucleic acid amplification assays such as the ligase chain reaction and PCR have encountered reproducibility problems. The initial extract and a newly extracted aliquot of urine specimens (n = 120) which had signal-to-cutoff (S/CO) ratios above 0.80 by the LCx Chlamydia assay were retested. Nucleic acid was extracted from an additional urine sample for testing by the AMPLICOR PCR Chlamydia assay. Fifteen percent (18 of 120) of the urine specimens were negative by all repeat tests (initial mea...

Castriciano, S.; Luinstra, K.; Jang, D.; Patel, J.; Mahony, J.; Kapala, J.; Chernesky, M.

2002-01-01

347

Equilibration of [3H]glucosamine and [35S]sulfate with intracellular pools of UDP-N-acetylhexosamine and 3'-phosphoadenosine-5'-phosphosulfate (PAPS) in cultured fibroblasts  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Nucleotides and sugar nucleotides were extracted from cultures of human fibroblasts with perchloric acid, separated by isotachophoresis, and quantified by uv absorption analysis at 254 nm. ATP (936 pmol/micrograms DNA) was, as expected, the dominating nucleotide pool. The energy charge was estimated to 0.9. The UDP-N-acetylhexosamine pool was also a very prominent compound (596 pmol/micrograms DNA). After incubation of fibroblasts with [3H]glucosamine, more than 95% of the acid-soluble radioactivity was found in the UDP-N-acetylhexosamine pool. Incubation with [35S]sulfate resulted in the incorporation of [35S]sulfate into 3'-phosphoadenosine-5'-phosphosulfate (PAPS). The latter could, however, only be measured as radioactivity, as the amount was too small to be quantified as total mass. Pulse-labeling of fibroblasts with [35S]sulfate and [3H]glucosamine from 5 min to 16 h showed that [35S]PAPS was equilibrated in less than 10 min, while [3H]glucosamine required a longer time, 2-4 h, to attain a steady state with UDP-N-acetylhexosamine. [14C]Glucose required approximately the same time as [3H]glucosamine to reach steady state with UDP-acetylhexosamine, which suggests that the reason for the long equilibration time is the slow turnover of this pool

348

Advantages obtained in radiation protection when using computerized radiography tests - CR (digital) in processing plants; Vantagens obtidas em radioprotecao quando do uso do ensaio de radiografia computadorizada - RC (digital) em plantas de processo  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

During the year 2000, the ARCtest initiated the development of the research for adapting the Computerized Radiography - CR, originally conceived for medical applications, for the Industry, trying initially to attend the requirements of the processing plants, concerning to the detection of deterioration mechanisms (evaluation of the piping integrity). Due to the obtained excellent results, the possibility of utilization the Computerized Radiography - CR in the radiographic inspection were studied during the shutdown of the Catalytic Cracking Unit of the PETROBRAS-REPLAN, specifically in the replacement of the CO boiler superheater, where a large number of the small diameter welded joints have been predicted.

Jose, Joao Carlos Videira; Milani, Hilton Sergio B.; Paes, Eliseu Almir de Oliveira; Boita, Mario de [ARCtest Servicos Tecnicos de Inspecao e Manutencao Industrial Ltda., Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: tecnica@arctest.com.br; Souza, Laercio de; Serra, Flavio Augusto dos Santos [PETROBRAS, Paulinia, SP, RJ (Brazil). Refinaria do Planalto Paulista (REPLAN)]. E-mails: laerciosouza@petrobras.com.br; serra@petrobras.com.br

2002-07-01

349

Obtención y evaluación de películas de materiales con aplicaciones electrónicas mediante pruebas aceleradas de corrosión / Obtaining and evaluation of material films with electronic applications by means of accelerated tests of corrosion  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El objetivo de la investigación fue evaluar el comportamiento frente a la corrosión de diferentes materiales utilizados en la electrónica. Se depositaron películas delgadas de Al, Cu, Ni y una bicapa Cu/Au sobre sustratos de mica, mediante evaporación física en fase vapor. Los recubrimientos se some [...] tieron a ensayos acelerados de corrosión en cámara climática, bajo atmósferas de NOx y SO2. Las películas se evaluaron conectadas en circuito y de forma individual. El tiempo total de exposición fue de 9 semanas. Se realizaron medidas de rugosidad y resistencia de los recubrimientos a las diferentes semanas de exposición y se estudiaron por microscopía óptica, STM, SEM y EDS. La bicapa Cu/Au presentó mayor estabilidad respecto al Cu en las pruebas aceleradas de corrosión. Mediante los análisis EDS se encontró la presencia de elementos precursores del proceso corrosivo. Abstract in english The air of this study was to evaluate the corrosion behaviour of different materials employed in electronics. Thin films of Al, Cu, Ni an bilayer of Cu/Au were deposited by PVD on mica substrates. The coatings were exposed at accelerated corrosion test in chamber, using atmospheres containing NOx an [...] d SO2. The films were tested both connected and as individual parts. The total exposure time was weeks. Roughness and electrical resistance of the coatings across the exposure time and they were studied by optical microscopy, STM, SEM and EDS. The bilayer Cu/AU shows more stability compared with Cu according to the accelerated corrosion test. EDS analysis identified the presence of the corrosive aggressive species.

Diana Milena, Marín; Maryory Astrid, Gómez Botero; Rodolfo, Mira; Félix, Echeverría.

2008-06-01

350

Investigation of knowledge and practice regarding Papanikolaou test in women health professionals  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Cervical cancer is among the most frequent cancers worldwide. Its prevention is possible with Papanikolaou test (Pap test.Purpose: The purpose was to investigate the knowledge of women-health professionals, as well as the frequency of Pap testing among them.Material and method: 151 women health professionals, aged 18-65 years old took part in the study. A closed –type questionnaire, consisting of 66 items was used. The statistical test x2 and Mann-Whitney –U were used.Results: 60 % were AEI/TEI graduates and 65 % were residents of provincial towns. Monthly family income was between 1000-2000 Euros in 46% of the participants.60 % of the women knew exactly the purpose of the test, whereas the younger women , those who were unmarried and inhabitants of rural areas were statistically less probable to take the test, even for once in a lifetime(p?0.01.Conclusion: Women health professionals as a whole do not know the exact purpose of Pap test. The young, unmarried women, living in rural areas neglect taking the test.

Anastasios Anastasiades

2010-01-01

351

Electrochemical Genotoxicity Assay Based on a SOS/umu Test Using Hydrodynamic Voltammetry in a Droplet  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The SOS/umu genotoxicity assay evaluates the primary DNA damage caused by chemicals from the ?-galactosidase activity of S. typhimurium. One of the weaknesses of the common umu test system based on spectrophotometric detection is that it is unable to measure samples containing a high concentration of colored dissolved organic matters, sediment, and suspended solids. However, umu tests with electrochemical detection techniques prove to be a better strategy because it causes less interference, enables the analysis of turbid samples and allows detection even in small volumes without loss of sensitivity. Based on this understanding, we aim to develop a new umu test system with hydrodynamic chronoamperometry using a rotating disk electrode (RDE in a microliter droplet. PAPG when used as a substrate is not electroactive at the potential at which PAP is oxidized to p-quinone imine (PQI, so the current response of chronoamperometry resulting from the oxidation of PAP to PQI is directly proportional to the enzymatic activity of S. typhimurium. This was achieved by performing genotoxicity tests for 2-(2-furyl-3-(5-nitro-2-furyl-acrylamide (AF-2 and 2-aminoanthracene (2-AA as model genotoxic compounds. The results obtained in this study indicated that the signal detection in the genotoxicity assay based on hydrodynamic voltammetry was less influenced by the presence of colored components and sediment particles in the samples when compared to the usual colorimetric signal detection. The influence caused by the presence of humic acids (HAs and artificial sediment on the genotoxic property of selected model compounds such as 4-nitroquinoline-N-oxide (4-NQO, 3-chloro-4-(dichloromethyl-5-hydroxy-2(5H-furanone (MX, 1,8-dinitropyrene (1,8-DNP and 1-nitropyrene (1-NP were also investigated. The results showed that the genotoxicity of 1-NP and MX changed in the presence of 10 mg?L–1 HAs. The genotoxicity of tested chemicals with a high hydrophobicity such as 1,8-DNP and 1-NP were decreased substantially with the presence of 1 g?L–1 sediment. This was not observed in the case of genotoxins with a low log Kow value.

Kazuharu Sugawara

2012-12-01

352

Coefficient of variation of normal seedlings obtained from the validation of methods for the seed germination testing of 20 species belonging to the family Fabaceae / Coeficientes de variação de plântulas normais obtidas na validação de métodos para teste de germinação de sementes de 20 espécies florestais da família Fabaceae  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese A uniformização dos resultados inter laboratoriais de testes de germinação de sementes de espécies florestais exige que os métodos sejam robustos. Assim, o objetivo foi comparar e discutir, por meio do coeficiente de variação obtido para plântulas normais, as variabilidades presentes no processo de [...] validação de métodos obtidas no teste de germinação de sementes de 20 espécies da família Fabaceae. Coeficientes de variação para o experimento, por lote e por laboratório para a variável plântulas normais foram calculados. Os coeficientes de variação obtidos para plântulas normais de 20 espécies florestais nativas, são de baixos (até 9,84%) a médios (até 17,66%), contrariando o esperado pela grande variabilidade genética dessas espécies pouco melhoradas. O aumento do coeficiente de variação não está relacionado ao tratamento utilizado para superação de dormência, porém cresce à medida que a qualidade do lote decresce. Os altos coeficientes obtidos por laboratório, superestimados pelo efeito de lotes, são uniformes indicando que os métodos são reproduzíveis. O coeficiente de variação não é um indício capaz de predizer a heterogeneidade das variâncias do modelo. Como a distribuição normal modela eventos aleatórios, a aleatoriedade está presente no processo de validação de métodos das 20 espécies florestais da família Fabaceae. Abstract in english The standardization of inter-laboratory results of germination test of forest species seeds requires that the methods be robust. Therefore, the objective was to compare and discuss, through the coefficient of variation for normal seedlings, the variabilities present in the process of validation meth [...] ods obtained in the germination test for seeds of 20 species of the family Fabaceae. Coefficients of variation for the experiment by lot and by laboratory were calculated for normal seedlings from the statistical analysis of method validations. For normal seedlings of 20 Brazilian forest species, the coefficients of variation are low (up to 9.84%), to average (up to 17.66%), contrary to expectations due to high genetic variability in these barely improved species. The increase of the coefficient is not related to treatment for breaking dormancy, but it grows as the lot quality decreases. The high coefficients by laboratory, overestimated by the lot effect, are uniform indicating that the methods are repeatable. The coefficient is not an indicator capable of predicting the heterogeneity of model variance. As normal distribution models random events, randomness is present in the validation process of the 20 forest species of the Fabaceae family.

Vanderley José, Pereira; Denise Garcia, Santana.

353

Improved Moscovian part of the Gondwana APWP for paleocontinental reconstructions, obtained from a first paleomagnetic pole, age-constrained by a fold test, from In Ezzane area in the Murzuq basin (Algeria, stable Africa)  

Science.gov (United States)

To improve paleocontinental reconstructions, paleomagnetic reference curves (Apparent Polar Wander Path: APWP) feature for large continents have to be continuously refined by adding up new high-quality data. For stable Africa, the Moscovian period was favorable for such aim, with well-dated and widespread geological formations. A new study has been conducted in the Upper “Dembaba” geological formation of Lower Moscovian age outcropping in the western part of the “Murzuq” basin (Saharan platform). Well-defined ChRMs, combined with remagnetization circles data, both constrained in age by a positive fold test, yield a new significant paleomagnetic pole (? = 25.2°S, ? = 59.9°E, K = 55, A95 = 5.4°). When joined with previous African data of the same age, it gives an improved reference pole for Africa (? = 28.9°S, ? = 54.5°E, K = 106, A95 = 3.6°). The Mean Moscovian paleomagnetic pole determined from an updated Gondwana Paleozoic APWP (? = 29.4°S, ? = 51.5°E, K = 11, A95 = 1.8°), associated with the corresponding Laurussia pole (Domeier et al., 2012), yields a more constrained paleocontinental reconstruction for 310 Ma.

Amenna, M.; Derder, M. E. M.; Henry, B.; Bayou, B.; Maouche, S.; Bouabdallah, H.; Ouabadi, A.; Ayache, M.; Beddiaf, M.

2014-11-01

354

Methods for obtaining unpublished data.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

BACKGROUND: In order to minimise publication bias, authors of systematic reviews often spend considerable time trying to obtain unpublished data. These include data from studies conducted but not published (unpublished data), as either an abstract or full-text paper, as well as missing data (data available to original researchers but not reported) in published abstracts or full-text publications. The effectiveness of different methods used to obtain unpublished or missing data has not been sy...

Young, T.; Hopewell, S.

2011-01-01

355

Role of visual inspection of cervix with acetic acid and high risk human papilloma virus DNA testing in screening for cervical cancer  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background: To evaluate the role of VIA alone and in combination with high risk Human Papilloma virus DNA testing as a screening test for cervical dysplasia and cancer. Methods: 400 symptomatic patients from the gynecology outpatient department were screened using Pap smear and VIA. HPV DNA testing was done for 62 VIA positive and 100 VIA negative women. Colposcopy was done for all women. Those found positive on any or all of the screening tests were subjected to cervical biopsy. The results ...

Neha Gami; Gauri Gandhi; Swaraj Batra; Vijay Zutshi; Das, B. C.; Suresh Bhambhani

2013-01-01

356

Prevalencia de alteraciones oncológicas en la citología cervicovaginal de pacientes de una institución prestadora de servicios de salud de Medellín, 2010-2012 / Oncology findings of pap smear in a health provider institution of Medellín, 2010-2012  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Introducción: el cáncer cervico-uterino es la enfermedad maligna más frecuente en mujeres colombianas; la tamización con la citología cérvico-vaginal ha sido útil para disminuir su morbilidad y mortalidad. Objetivo: determinar la prevalencia de alteraciones oncológicas en la citología cervical, en m [...] ujeres atendidas en una institución prestadora de servicios de salud, Medellín 2010-2012. Métodos: estudio de prevalencia en 205 917 mujeres del programa de detección y prevención del cáncer cervicouterino de Metrosalud. Se calculó la prevalencia global de cada uno de los hallazgos oncológicos y de forma específica según el grupo etario y el método de planificación y sector de residencia. Resultados: la prevalencia global de alteraciones citológicas fue 8,5 %; las lesiones intraepiteliales escamosas (LIE) de bajo grado se presentaron en el 2 %, las de alto grado en 0,3 %; las células escamosas atípicas de significado indeterminado en 3,2 % y las células glandulares atípicas de significado indeterminado (AGC-US) 0,4 %. En las menores de 30 años se obtuvo una mayor prevalencia de lesiones intraepiteliales escamosas de bajo grado, las neoplasias intraepiteliales vaginales de alto grado y células escamosas atípicas de significado indeterminado; en las mayores de 50 se observaron las prevalencias más elevadas de lesiones intraepiteliales escamosas de alto grado, inflamación y atrofia. Conclusiones: la prevalencia de alteraciones citológica cervicales fue baja en los subgrupos estudiados; las adolescentes constituyen un grupo de mayor riesgo para las lesiones intraepiteliales escamosas de bajo grado Abstract in english Introduction: Cervical cancer is the most prevalent malignancy in colombian women. The screening with Pap smear has been a key tool for reducing morbidity and mortality. Objectives: to determine the prevalence of oncological alterations in the Pap smear in women of a health provider in institution, [...] Medellín 2010-2012. Methods: The prevalence study in 205,917 women of program to detect and prevent cervical cancer of Metrosalud The overall prevalence of oncologic findings was calculated, also prevalence by age group, the planning method and sector of residence. Results: the overall prevalence of disorders was 8.5 %, low grade Squamous Intraepithelial Lesions (SIL) 2 % and High grade SIL 0.3 %, atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US) 3.2 % and atypical glandular cells of undetermined significance (AGC-US) 0.4 %. The prevalence of HSIL, inflammation and atrophy were highest at woman 50 and older, in the under 30 a higher prevalence of low grade SIL, highgrade vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia, ASCUS and ASC was obtained. Conclusions: The prevalence of cervical cytological abnormalities was low in the subgroups studied; adolescents are a higher risk group for low-grade SIL

JAIBERTH ANTONIO, CARDONA-ARIAS; MARLENY, VALENCIA-ARREDONDO.

2014-01-01

357

The Pap smear screening as an occasion for smoking cessation and physical activity counselling: baseline characteristics of women involved in the SPRINT randomized controlled trial  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Gender-specific smoking cessation strategies have rarely been developed. Evidence of effectiveness of physical activity (PA promotion and intervention in adjunct to smoking cessation programs is not strong. SPRINT study is a randomized controlled trial (RCT designed to evaluate a counselling intervention on smoking cessation and PA delivered to women attending the Italian National Health System Cervical Cancer Screening Program. This paper presents study design and baseline characteristics of the study population. Methods/Design Among women undergoing the Pap examination in three study centres (Florence, Turin, Mantua, participants were randomized to the smoking cessation counselling [S], the smoking cessation + PA counselling [S + PA], or the control [C] groups. The program under evaluation is a standard brief counselling on smoking cessation combined with a brief counselling on increasing PA, and was delivered in 2010. A questionnaire, administered before, after 6 months and 1 year from the intervention, was used to track behavioural changes in tobacco use and PA, and to record cessation rates in participants. Discussion Out of the 5,657 women undergoing the Pap examination, 1,100 participants (55% of smokers were randomized in 1 of the 3 study groups (363 in the S, 366 in the S + PA and 371 in the C groups. The three arms did not differ on any demographic, PA, or tobacco-use characteristics. Recruited smokers were older, less educated than non-participant women, more motivated to quit (33% vs.9% in the Preparation stage, p p p Trial registration number ISRCTN: ISRCTN52660565

Chellini Elisabetta

2011-12-01

358

Bacterial Over-Expression and Purification of the 3'phosphoadenosine 5'phosphosulfate (PAPS Reductase Domain of Human FAD Synthase: Functional Characterization and Homology Modeling  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available FAD synthase (FADS, EC 2.7.7.2 is a key enzyme in the metabolic pathway that converts riboflavin into the redox cofactor, FAD. Human FADS is organized in two domains: -the 3'phosphoadenosine 5'phosphosulfate (PAPS reductase domain, similar to yeast Fad1p, at the C-terminus, and -the resembling molybdopterin-binding domain at the N-terminus. To understand whether the PAPS reductase domain of hFADS is sufficient to catalyze FAD synthesis, per se, and to investigate the role of the molybdopterin-binding domain, a soluble “truncated” form of hFADS lacking the N-terminal domain (?1-328-hFADS has been over-produced and purified to homogeneity as a recombinant His-tagged protein. The recombinant ?1-328-hFADS binds one mole of FAD product very tightly as the wild-type enzyme. Under turnover conditions, it catalyzes FAD assembly from ATP and FMN and, at a much lower rate, FAD pyrophosphorolytic hydrolysis. The ?1-328-hFADS enzyme shows a slight, but not significant, change of Km values (0.24 and 6.23 µM for FMN and ATP, respectively and of kcat (4.2 × 10?2 s?1 compared to wild-type protein in the forward direction. These results demonstrate that the molybdopterin-binding domain is not strictly required for catalysis. Its regulatory role is discussed in light of changes in divalent cations sensitivity of the ?1-328-hFADS versus wild-type protein.

Maria Barile

2012-12-01

359

Web Service Testing Tools - A Comparative Study  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Quality of Service (QoS) has gained more importance with the increase in usage and adoption of web services. In recent years, various tools and techniques developed for measurement and evaluation of QoS of web services. There are commercial as well as open-source tools available today which are being used for monitoring and testing QoS for web services. These tools facilitate in QoS measurement and analysis and are helpful in evaluation of service performance in real-time network. In this pap...

Shariq Hussain; Zhaoshun Wang; Ibrahima Kalil Toure; Abdoulaye Diop

2013-01-01

360

Experimental results obtained at GANIL  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A review of experimental results obtained at GANIL on the study of nuclear structure and nuclear reactions with secondary radioactive beams is presented. Mass measurements by means of the GANIL cyclotrons are described. The possibilities of GANIL/LISE3 for the production and separation of radioactive beams are illustrated through a large variety of experiments. (author). 19 refs., 8 figs

 
 
 
 
361

Mössbauer Characterization of Rust Obtained in an Accelerated Corrosion Test  

Science.gov (United States)

We have performed drying-humectation cyclical processes (CEBELCOR) on eight A36 low carbon steel coupons in NaCl solutions containing 1×10-2 M and 1×10-1 M concentrations. The main purpose of these experiments is to contribute to the understanding of the conditions for akaganeite formation. Additionally, and with the idea to perform a complete characterization of the rust, this work also considers the formation of other iron oxide phases. The corrosion products were characterized by Mössbauer spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction techniques. Gravimetric analysis demonstrates that the coupons presented high corrosion rates. Magnetite/maghemite was common in the rust stuck to the steel surface, whereas akaganeite was present only in traces. In the rust collected from the solutions, i.e., the rust that goes away from the metal surface easily, a magnetite/maghemite was not present and akaganeite showed up in larger quantities. These results support the idea that high concentrations of Cl- ions are required for the akaganeite formation. We concluded that akaganeite is not easily bonded to the rust layer; this may lead to the formation of a less protective rust layer and to higher corrosion rates.

García, K. E.; Morales, A. L.; Arroyave, C. E.; Barrero, C. A.; Cook, D. C.

2003-06-01

362

Moessbauer Characterization of Rust Obtained in an Accelerated Corrosion Test  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We have performed drying-humectation cyclical processes (CEBELCOR) on eight A36 low carbon steel coupons in NaCl solutions containing 1x10-2 M and 1x10-1 M concentrations. The main purpose of these experiments is to contribute to the understanding of the conditions for akaganeite formation. Additionally, and with the idea to perform a complete characterization of the rust, this work also considers the formation of other iron oxide phases. The corrosion products were characterized by Moessbauer spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction techniques. Gravimetric analysis demonstrates that the coupons presented high corrosion rates. Magnetite/maghemite was common in the rust stuck to the steel surface, whereas akaganeite was present only in traces. In the rust collected from the solutions, i.e., the rust that goes away from the metal surface easily, a magnetite/maghemite was not present and akaganeite showed up in larger quantities. These results support the idea that high concentrations of Cl- ions are required for the akaganeite formation. We concluded that akaganeite is not easily bonded to the rust layer; this may lead to the formation of a less protective rust layer and to higher corrosion rates.

363

Moessbauer Characterization of Rust Obtained in an Accelerated Corrosion Test  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We have performed drying-humectation cyclical processes (CEBELCOR) on eight A36 low carbon steel coupons in NaCl solutions containing 1x10{sup -2} M and 1x10{sup -1} M concentrations. The main purpose of these experiments is to contribute to the understanding of the conditions for akaganeite formation. Additionally, and with the idea to perform a complete characterization of the rust, this work also considers the formation of other iron oxide phases. The corrosion products were characterized by Moessbauer spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction techniques. Gravimetric analysis demonstrates that the coupons presented high corrosion rates. Magnetite/maghemite was common in the rust stuck to the steel surface, whereas akaganeite was present only in traces. In the rust collected from the solutions, i.e., the rust that goes away from the metal surface easily, a magnetite/maghemite was not present and akaganeite showed up in larger quantities. These results support the idea that high concentrations of Cl{sup -} ions are required for the akaganeite formation. We concluded that akaganeite is not easily bonded to the rust layer; this may lead to the formation of a less protective rust layer and to higher corrosion rates.

Garcia, K. E.; Morales, A. L.; Arroyave, C. E.; Barrero, C. A. [Universidad de Antioquia, Grupo de Corrosion y Proteccion, Departamento de Ingenieria de Materiales (Colombia); Cook, D. C. [Old Dominion University, Department of Physics (United States)

2003-06-15

364

Obtaining lignin nanoparticles by sonication.  

Science.gov (United States)

Lignin, the main natural aromatic polymer was always aroused researchers interest. Currently around 90% of this biomaterial is burned for energy. It has a very complex and complicated structure which depends on the separation method and plant species, what determine difficulties to use as a raw material widely. This research presents a physical method to modify lignin by ultrasonic irradiation in order to obtain nanoparticles. The nanoparticles synthesized were dimensionally and morphologically characterized. At the same time the preoccupations were to determine the structural and compositional changes that occurred after sonication. To achieve this, two types of commercial lignins (wheat straw and Sarkanda grass) were used and the modifications were analyzed by FTIR-spectroscopy, GPC-chromatography, (31)P-NMR-spectroscopy and HSQC0. The results confirm that the compositional and structural changes of nanoparticles obtained are not significantly modified at the intensity applied but depend on the nature of lignin. PMID:25218770

Gilca, Iulian Andrei; Popa, Valentin I; Crestini, Claudia

2015-03-01

365

Role of visual inspection of cervix with acetic acid and high risk human papilloma virus DNA testing in screening for cervical cancer  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: To evaluate the role of VIA alone and in combination with high risk Human Papilloma virus DNA testing as a screening test for cervical dysplasia and cancer. Methods: 400 symptomatic patients from the gynecology outpatient department were screened using Pap smear and VIA. HPV DNA testing was done for 62 VIA positive and 100 VIA negative women. Colposcopy was done for all women. Those found positive on any or all of the screening tests were subjected to cervical biopsy. The results were analysed for PAP, VIA, HPV and a combined test using VIA and HPV both. Results: VIA had the highest sensitivity (91% to detect any grade of dysplasia. The sensitivity of the combination test (VIA + HPV was 80.6% which was lower than that of VIA (91% and also lower than that of HR HPV DNA detection (86%. The specificity of the combination test (VIA + HPV was 68.3 % which was significantly higher than that of VIA alone (39% (p = 0.000 and also higher than that for HPV DNA detection when used alone (56%. Pap smear had the highest specificity (95.12 % but sensitivity was much lower at 52.7 %. Conclusions: VIA is a highly sensitive screening test. The main disadvantage is its low specificity. However the combination test of VIA + HR HPV testing overcomes this and at the same time maintains a high sensitivity. Thus a test which combines VIA plus HR HPV testing is better screening method than either of the three tests (VIA, HPV, PAP done alone. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2013; 2(2.000: 152-156

Neha Gami

2013-04-01

366

Truncated States Obtained by Iteration  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We introduce the concept of truncated states obtained via iterative processes (TSI) and study its statistical features, making an analogy with dynamical systems theory (DST). As a specific example, we have studied TSI for the doubling and the logistic functions, which are standard functions in studying chaos. TSI for both the doubling and logistic functions exhibit certain similar patterns when their statistical features are compared from the point of view of DST

367

Process for obtaining a composite  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The process for obtaining a micro- or nano- particulated composite comprises: adding at least two Compounds C to a fluid A, with one of said compounds being insoluble in said fluid A; adding a fluid B, such that said fluid B at working pressure Pw is miscible with said mixture A and acts as a co-solvent to form a solution AB, in which said pressure Pw is greater than atmospheric pressure but lower than the critical pressure Pc of the solution AB, and the working temperature Tw is lower than t...

Ventosa Rull, Nora; Veciana Miro?, Jaume; Munto Garrigo?s, Maria

2007-01-01

368

Obtaining the acyclovir labelled compound  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Elemental tritium is obtained during the decontamination process of the moderator from Cernavoda Nuclear Power Plant. It may be stocked for use in controlled fusion, in a relatively far future, or, it can be immediately used as raw material in the synthesis of labelled compounds with important economic values. Acyclovir, C8H11N5O3 is a biologically active compound, with antiviral properties. The use of the radioisotopic labelled compound, accompanied by radiometric measurements in biological samples is recommended in pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic studies for promoting pharmaceutical products. The labelled Acyclovir was obtained by isotopic exchange reaction in heterogenous catalysis, using Acyclovir as substrate and T2 as labelling agent. Pd/C and Pd/BaSO4 were used as catalyst and the mixtures dioxane-water-acetic acid or dimethylformamide-phosphate buffer as solvents. Reaction time was 20-25 hours. The labelled compound was conditioned as aqueous solution. Characterization of labelled compound was accomplished by determination of chemical and radioactive concentrations and purities. (authors)

369

Cada cuánto me tengo que hacer la prueba de Papanicoláu (How Often to Get a Pap Test)  

Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

El cáncer de cuello uterino ha disminuido en los Estados Unidos, pero cada año se le diagnostica a más de 12,000 mujeres y 4,000 mueren. Este podcast habla sobre la importancia de las pruebas de Papanicoláu.  Created: 1/10/2013 by MMWR.   Date Released: 11/4/2013.

2013-01-10

370

Drugs obtained by biotechnology processing  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Nos últimos anos, tem aumentado exponencialmente o número de fármacos de origem biotecnológica ao dispor das mais diversas patologias, entre elas destacam-se, os diferentes tipos de cancêr, as doenças infecciosas (ex. vírus AIDS/HIV), as doenças autoimunes, as doenças cardiovasculares, a Diabetes Me [...] llitus, as doenças neurológicas, as doenças respiratórias, entre outras. A indústria farmacêutica tem recorrido a diferentes tecnologias para a obtenção de novos e promissores princípios ativos, como são exemplo a fermentação, a técnica de DNA Recombinante, a técnica de hidridoma, entre outras. A queda das patentes dos primeiros fármacos de origem biotecnológica e o consequente aparecimento dos produtos biossimilares têm colocado diferentes questões às autoridades de saúde mundiais, sobre a definição, enquadramento e exigências para a autorização de entrada no mercado deste tipo de produtos. Abstract in english In recent years, the number of drugs of biotechnological origin available for many different diseases has increased exponentially, including different types of cancer, diabetes mellitus, infectious diseases (e.g. AIDS Virus / HIV) as well as cardiovascular, neurological, respiratory, and autoimmune [...] diseases, among others. The pharmaceutical industry has used different technologies to obtain new and promising active ingredients, as exemplified by the fermentation technique, recombinant DNA technique and the hybridoma technique. The expiry of the patents of the first drugs of biotechnological origin and the consequent emergence of biosimilar products, have posed various questions to health authorities worldwide regarding the definition, framework, and requirements for authorization to market such products.

Hugo, Almeida; Maria Helena, Amaral; Paulo, Lobão.

2011-06-01

371

Drugs obtained by biotechnology processing  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In recent years, the number of drugs of biotechnological origin available for many different diseases has increased exponentially, including different types of cancer, diabetes mellitus, infectious diseases (e.g. AIDS Virus / HIV as well as cardiovascular, neurological, respiratory, and autoimmune diseases, among others. The pharmaceutical industry has used different technologies to obtain new and promising active ingredients, as exemplified by the fermentation technique, recombinant DNA technique and the hybridoma technique. The expiry of the patents of the first drugs of biotechnological origin and the consequent emergence of biosimilar products, have posed various questions to health authorities worldwide regarding the definition, framework, and requirements for authorization to market such products.Nos últimos anos, tem aumentado exponencialmente o número de fármacos de origem biotecnológica ao dispor das mais diversas patologias, entre elas destacam-se, os diferentes tipos de cancêr, as doenças infecciosas (ex. vírus AIDS/HIV, as doenças autoimunes, as doenças cardiovasculares, a Diabetes Mellitus, as doenças neurológicas, as doenças respiratórias, entre outras. A indústria farmacêutica tem recorrido a diferentes tecnologias para a obtenção de novos e promissores princípios ativos, como são exemplo a fermentação, a técnica de DNA Recombinante, a técnica de hidridoma, entre outras. A queda das patentes dos primeiros fármacos de origem biotecnológica e o consequente aparecimento dos produtos biossimilares têm colocado diferentes questões às autoridades de saúde mundiais, sobre a definição, enquadramento e exigências para a autorização de entrada no mercado deste tipo de produtos.

Hugo Almeida

2011-06-01

372

Correlation between the extent of metastatic lesions in whole body bone scintigraphy of patients with prostatic cancer and prostatic acid phosphatase levels in serum with Eiken PAP RIA kit  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The whole body bone scintigraphy of thirteen patients whose prostatic cancer were histologically confirmed, was processed in four colors, and the bone metastases were quantitatively estimated. On the basis of this estimation, the extent of bone metastases was classified into 4 divisions (grades 0, 1, 2 and 3). And then, the correlation between the extent of bone metastases and prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP), acid phosphatase (AcP) and alkali phosphatase (AlP) levels in serum were investigated

373

Toxoplasmosis Testing  

Science.gov (United States)

... this website will be limited. Search Help? Toxoplasmosis Testing Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also ... years later. How is the sample collected for testing? A blood sample is obtained by inserting a ...

374

Age- and sex-related changes in epoxide hydrolase, UDP-glucuronosyl transferase, glutathione S-transferase, and PAPS sulphotransferase in Sprague-Dawley rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

1. Age- and sex-related patterns in the activity of hepatic phase 2 conjugating enzymes have been studied in Sprague-Dawley (CD) rats. 2. Epoxide hydrolase activity with styrene oxide ranged from 75 to 346 nmol/min per g and increased with age in males, peaking at week 78. In females, activity remained constant, about 80 nmol/min per g. 3. UDP-glucuronosyl transferase activity with p-nitrophenol ranged from 480 to 1050 nmol/min per g; maximal activity was at week 39. Males had greater activity at weeks 12 to 39. Activity with chloramphenicol ranged from 3.8 to 10.3 nmol/min per g with no consistent age or sex relationship. 4. Glutathione S-transferase ranged from 9.5 to 23.6 mumol/min per g with p-nitrobenzyl chloride and from 29.1 to 66.8 mumol/min per g with 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene, peaking at week 51 with both substrates. Males had greater activity from weeks 12 to 78. 5. Reduced glutathione varied between 3.2 and 6.5 mumol/g, with males tending to have higher concentrations than females and older rats (greater than 39 weeks) having slightly lower concentrations. 6. PAPS sulphotransferase ranged from 190 to 338 nmol/min per g, with maximal activity at week 78 with no consistent sex-related differences. PMID:3149822

Chengelis, C P

1988-11-01

375

Biogeochemical variations at the Porcupine Abyssal Plain Sustained Observatory (PAP-SO) in the northeast Atlantic Ocean, from weekly to inter-annual time scales  

Science.gov (United States)

We present high-resolution autonomous measurements of carbon dioxide partial pressure p(CO2) taken in situ at the Porcupine Abyssal Plain sustained observatory (PAP-SO) in the Northeast Atlantic (49° N, 16.5° W; water depth of 4850 m) for the period 2010 to 2012. Measurements of p(CO2) made at 30 m depth on a sensor frame are compared with other autonomous biogeochemical measurements at that depth (including chlorophyll a-fluorescence and nitrate concentration data) to analyse weekly to seasonal controls on p(CO2) flux in the inter-gyre region of the North Atlantic. Comparisons are also made with in situ regional time-series data from a ship of opportunity and mixed layer depth (MLD) measurements from profiling Argo floats. There is a persistent under saturation of CO2 in surface waters throughout the year which gives rise to a perennial CO2 sink. Comparison with an earlier dataset collected at the site (2003 to 2005) confirms seasonal and inter-annual changes in surface seawater chemistry. There is year-to-year variability in the timing of stratification and deep winter mixing. The 2010 to 2012 period shows an overall increase in p(CO2) values when compared to the 2003-2005 period. This is despite similar surface temperature, wind speed and MLD measurements between the two periods of time. Future work should incorporate daily CO2 flux measurements made using CO2 sensors at 1 m depth and the in situ wind speed data now available from the UK Met Office Buoy.

Hartman, S. E.; Jiang, Z.-P.; Turk, D.; Lampitt, R. S.; Frigstad, H.; Ostle, C.

2014-08-01

376

Functional characteristics of sperm obtained by electroejaculation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sperm obtained by electroejaculation in 32 anejaculatory men were examined for functional characteristics. Raw specimens showed high sperm counts but motility averaged only 11%. Average viability was 10% for antegrade and 5% for retrograde fractions. Bovine cervical mucus penetration was normal (30 mm. or more in 30 minutes) in only 24% of the electroejaculation samples but it was normal in all of the donor samples tested. Processed sperm motility averaged 30% with 71% forward progression. At 20 hours patient samples retained 46% of the original motility, while donor controls retained 81%. In the hamster egg penetration assay patient sperm penetrated 14% of the oocytes while donor sperm penetrated 40%. Therefore, we identified 4 characteristics of sperm obtained by electroejaculation: 1) low viability, 2) poor survival after overnight incubation, 3) moderately impaired cervical mucus penetration and 4) moderately poor fertilizing capability as measured by the hamster egg penetration assay. Poor sperm survival and impaired function may explain the low pregnancy rates from insemination with electroejaculated sperm. PMID:1729555

Denil, J; Ohl, D A; Menge, A C; Keller, L M; McCabe, M

1992-01-01

377

Electrolytic Hydrogen obtaining by a photovoltaic source  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

At present, the developed countries allocate large funds for the financing of some global programs for fundamental and applicative research for development of hydrogen non-conventional production technologies. One of these technologies is the photo-assisted electrolysis. This technology is adopted in the research, which results are presented in this paper. The experimental model includes as basic equipment 100 W photovoltaic source, electrolysis battery press filter type, control unit of the electric energy discharged, accumulator, hydrogen storage unit. Five types of material have been tested for the electrolysis cell diaphragm: asbestos; Netrom- unwoven material from fibers of polypropylene; ion changing composite membrane - polysulfone support with an active layer of sulfonated poly-sulfone (PSS/PSJ) and poly-sulfone support with an active layer of sulfonated poly-eter cetone (SPEEK/PSf); ion-exchange membrane made from sulfonated poly-eter cetone (SPEEK). The graphics and results from the test system are presented. The analysis of the experimental results lead to the establishment of the optimal configuration of battery and of the operational conditions of the assembly. The experimental results give the opportunity to obtain electrolytic hydrogen with a photovoltaic source, in an efficient system, and promote the Romanian research at a level of a demonstrative installation

378

Hydrological processes obtained on the plot scale under four simulated rainfall tests during the cycle of different crop systems / Processos hidrológicos obtidos em escala de parcela sob quatro testes de chuva simulada, durante o ciclo de diferentes sistemas de cultivo do solo  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O sistema de cultivo influencia a interceptação de água pelas plantas, a armazenagem de água nas depressões do terreno, a infiltração de água no solo e o escoamento superficial. Este trabalho objetivou quantificar alguns processos hidrológicos em sistemas de cultivo do solo realizados em contorno no [...] declive, em 2009 e 2010, em um Cambissolo Húmico alumínico, cuja área foi mantida sem preparo prévio do solo, nos seguintes tratamentos: solteiros - milho, soja e feijão; e consorciados - milho e feijão. Os tratamentos foram submetidos a quatro testes de chuva simulada, em épocas distintas, com intensidade planejada de 64 mm h-1 e duração de 90 min. O primeiro teste foi aplicado 18 dias após a semeadura e, os demais, aos 39, 75 e 120 dias, após o primeiro. Os diferentes momentos de aplicação das chuvas e os diferentes estádios do ciclo das culturas influenciaram o teor de água no solo antecedente às chuvas, o tempo de início e o de pico da enxurrada e, com isso, os processos hidrológicos de superfície. A lâmina de enxurrada e a de água interceptada pela vegetação + infiltrada no solo + armazenada superficialmente no solo sofreram a influência dos sistemas de cultivo e das chuvas aplicadas nas diferentes épocas. O cultivo de milho foi o tratamento mais eficaz no controle do escoamento superficial, com uma razão de perda de água de 0,38, equivalente a 75 % da razão de perda de água apresentada pelo feijão (0,51), que foi o tratamento menos eficaz em relação aos demais sistemas de cultivo. A perda total de água na forma de enxurrada decresceu linearmente com o aumento do tempo de início da enxurrada, independentemente do tratamento, enquanto o teor de água no solo em base gravimétrica aumentou linearmente do início ao final da chuva. Abstract in english The cropping system influences the interception of water by plants, water storage in depressions on the soil surface, water infiltration into the soil and runoff. The aim of this study was to quantify some hydrological processes under no tillage cropping systems at the edge of a slope, in 2009 and 2 [...] 010, in a Humic Dystrudept soil, with the following treatments: corn, soybeans, and common beans alone; and intercropped corn and common bean. Treatments consisted of four simulated rainfall tests at different times, with a planned intensity of 64 mm h-1 and 90 min duration. The first test was applied 18 days after sowing, and the others at 39, 75 and 120 days after the first test. Different times of the simulated rainfall and stages of the crop cycle affected soil water content prior to the rain, and the time runoff began and its peak flow and, thus, the surface hydrological processes. The depth of the runoff and the depth of the water intercepted by the crop + soil infiltration + soil surface storage were affected by the crop systems and the rainfall applied at different times. The corn crop was the most effective treatment for controlling runoff, with a water loss ratio of 0.38, equivalent to 75 % of the water loss ratio exhibited by common bean (0.51), the least effective treatment in relation to the others. Total water loss by runoff decreased linearly with an increase in the time that runoff began, regardless of the treatment; however, soil water content on the gravimetric basis increased linearly from the beginning to the end of the rainfall.

Ildegardis, Bertol; Roger Robert, Ramos; Fabrício Tondello, Barbosa; Julio César, Ramos; Douglas Henrique, Bandeira; Mitsui Shinosaka, Tanaka.

2014-04-01

379

Perceptions of mailed HPV self-testing among women at higher risk for cervical cancer.  

Science.gov (United States)

Whether human papillomavirus (HPV) self-testing can expand access to cervical cancer screening will depend on making the test accessible and acceptable to higher-risk women. To evaluate a novel delivery mode, we mailed HPV self-test kits to low-income, under-screened women and assessed their perceptions of self-testing and cervical cancer prevention. We conducted a telephone survey of 199 women in North Carolina. Eligibility criteria included not having had a Pap test in 4 years and reporting 1 or more indicators of economic hardship, such as being uninsured. Over half (55 %) of women in the diverse sample were non-Hispanic black, and almost three-quarters (74 %) reported annual household incomes of $20,000 or less. Trust in HPV self-testing was moderate to high, with almost all women (98 %) agreeing the mailed test was safe. A few women (6 %) preferred HPV self-testing to Pap testing for protecting health, but most (75 %) had no preference. Trust in or preference for mailed self-testing did not vary by race or income. However, compared to white women, black women had lower HPV-related knowledge (OR 0.46, 95 % CI 0.23-0.92) and perceived lower cervical cancer risk in the absence of screening (OR 0.44, 95 % CI 0.22-0.86). We found similar patterns of disparities for women with very low (perceptions related to cervical cancer screening. PMID:25120228

Galbraith, Kayoll V; Gilkey, Melissa B; Smith, Jennifer S; Richman, Alice R; Barclay, Lynn; Brewer, Noel T

2014-10-01