WorldWideScience

Sample records for obtain pap tests

  1. Pap Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... female reproductive anatomy during a Pap test. A speculum is shown widening the opening of the vagina. ... and her feet in stirrups. Pap test. A speculum is inserted into the vagina to widen it. ...

  2. Pap Tests and Foreign-Born Women

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2007-11-26

    Foreign-born women living in the U.S. are less likely to have Pap tests to detect cervical cancer than women born in this country. The problem is worse for women from certain countries or regions. Find out why this is a disturbing trend, who these women are and why they are less likely to get a Pap test, and what CDC is doing about it.  Created: 11/26/2007 by National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program.   Date Released: 12/7/2007.

  3. Access to Adequate Healthcare for Hmong Women: A Patient Navigation Program to Increase Pap Test Screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moon S. Chen, Jr

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the development and implementation of a Hmong Cervical Cancer Intervention Program utilizing a patient navigation model to raise cervical cancer awareness for Hmong women through educational workshops and to assist Hmong women in obtaining a Pap test. Out of 402 women who participated in a baseline survey, the Patient Navigation Program was able to enroll 109 participants who had not had a Pap test in the past 3 years and had never had a Pap test. Through utilization of outreach, an awareness campaign and patient navigation support, at least 38 percent of 109 participants obtained a Pap test. Overall, 21 workshops and 43 outreach activities were conducted by the Hmong Women’s Heritage Association, leading to 63 percent of those enrolled in the Patient Navigation Program who could be contacted to obtain a Pap test.

  4. Pap test results. Responding to Bethesda system reports.

    OpenAIRE

    Colgan TJ

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To review the adequacy and diagnostic categories of the Bethesda system for reporting Pap test results (cervicovaginal cytology) and summarize management options. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: The latest research evidence and guidelines from both international and Canadian sources are reviewed. With a few exceptions, good evidence supports particular management approaches for each adequacy statement and diagnostic category. MAIN MESSAGE: Women with unsatisfactory Pap smears should be re-exa...

  5. Making Sense of Your Pap and HPV Test Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... out if you can get free or low-cost tests and where to go, call or visit: Your ... cells begin in the cervix. Cells : The basic unit that makes up all living ... Equivocal (ee-QUIV-o-kal): A Pap test result that is unclear. Your doctor may also ...

  6. Negative HPV screening test predicts low cervical cancer risk better than negative Pap test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Based on a study that included more than 1 million women, investigators at NCI have determined that a negative test for HPV infection compared to a negative Pap test provides greater safety, or assurance, against future risk of cervical cancer.

  7. Evaluation of a nurse-designed mobile health education application to enhance knowledge of Pap testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Stacy

    2014-01-01

    An experimental study was conducted using a 2-group randomized control pretest/ posttest design to determine if knowledge about Pap testing could be increased through use of a nurse-designed mobile smartphone app developed to educate individuals about the Pap test. A 14-item pretest survey of knowledge about Pap tests was distributed to women attending a university in New England. Participants in the intervention group were provided with an Android device on which a digital health education application on Pap testing had been downloaded. The control group was given a standard pamphlet on Pap testing., Paired t test results demonstrated that knowledge scores on the posttest increased significantly in both groups, but were significantly higher in the intervention group. User satisfaction with the app was high. The results of this study may enhance nursing care by informing nurses about a unique way of learning about Pap testing to recommend to patients. PMID:25000742

  8. How Often to Get a Pap Test (A Cup of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-01-10

    Cervical cancer has declined in the U.S., and the decline is largely due to Pap testing and follow-up. Screening recommendations have changed. In this podcast, Meg Watson discusses Pap testing.  Created: 1/10/2013 by MMWR.   Date Released: 1/10/2013.

  9. Papanicolaou (Pap test screening of staff members of a tertiary care teaching hospital in South India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amitabh Jena

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: In India, cancer cervix is the most common cancer among females. Papanicolaou cytological (Pap test helps in detecting the early epithelial abnormalities in cervical cells. Material and Methods: Pap smears of female health care staff members (n=80who underwent voluntary Pap test as part of a screening programme,from January to June 2012 were evaluated. Pap smears were evaluated by light microscopy. The 2001 Bethesda system for reporting cervical cytology was used in evaluating the pap smears. Results: Their mean age was 41.3 ± 5.6 years. Epithelial cell abnormality was noted in the Pap smear in 5 (6.3% cases. Conclusion: Our observations provide supportive evidence for using Pap test as a tool for screening for cervical cancer. There is a need for enhancing the awareness among lay public regarding the utility of this test so that more women will avail this test and precancerous changes in cervix can be detected before they progress to frank malignancy.

  10. Negative HPV test result is better predictor of low cervical cancer risk than negative Pap test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Based on a study that included more than 1 million women, DCEG investigators and colleagues have determined that a negative test for human papillomavirus (HPV) infection compared to a negative Pap test provides greater safety, or assurance, against future risk of cervical cancer. That is, women who test negative on the HPV test have an extremely low risk of developing cervical cancer. The findings appeared online July 18, 2014, in the Journal of the National Cancer Institute.

  11. Abnormal Pap tests and human papillomavirus infections among HIV infected and uninfected women who have sex with women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massad, L. Stewart; Xie, Xianhong; Minkoff, Howard; Darragh, Teresa M.; D’Souza, Gypsyamber; Sanchez-Keeland, Lorraine; Watts, D. Heather; Colie, Christine; Strickler, Howard D.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To estimate the frequency of abnormal Pap and human papillomavirus (HPV) positivity among HIV seropositive and seronegative women who have sex with women (WSW). Methods Pap and HPV DNA PCR tests were obtained every six months from women in a U.S. cohort of HIV seropositive and seronegative women. WSW were women reporting no male and at least one female sex partner over five years. WSW were frequency matched 1:5 to women reporting sex only with men (WSM) and assessed using multivariable generalized estimating equation logistic regression models. Results Paps at study entry were abnormal in 12 (21%) of 49 HIV seropositive WSW, 151 (64%) of 245 HIV seropositive WSM, 3 (9%) of 24 HIV seronegative WSW, and 16 (11%) of 120 seronegative WSM. HPV was found at entry in 18 (42%) HIV seropositive WSW, 109 (52%) HIV seropositive WSM, 6 (27%) HIV seronegative WSW and 13 (13%) HIV seronegative WSM. After controlling for HIV serostatus and CD4 count, WSW had marginally lower odds than WSM of Pap abnormality (O.R. 0.59, 95% C.I. 0.33, 1.03) and of HPV (O.R. 0.53, 95% C.I. 0.32, 0.89). After controlling for partner gender, HIV seropositivity and lower CD4 count were associated with any HPV, oncogenic HPV, any abnormal Pap result, and HSIL or worse (P < 0.0001 for all). Conclusion While risks for abnormal Pap and HPV are modestly lower in WSW than WSM, both are common in HIV seropositive women regardless of sexual preference. WSW and WSM should be screened similarly. PMID:23959300

  12. A Shandon PapSpin liquid-based gynecological test: A split-sample and direct-to-vial test with histology follow-up study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rimiene J

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Studies for liquid-based Papanicolaou (Pap tests reveal that liquid-based cytology (LBC is a safe and effective alternative to the conventional Pap smear. Although there is research on ThinPrep and SurePath systems, information is lacking to evaluate the efficiency and effectiveness of systems based on cytocentrifugation. This study is designed to determine the sensitivity and specificity of the Shandon PapSpin (ThermoShandon, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA liquid-based gynecological system. We used split-sample and direct-to-vial study design. Materials and Methods: 2,945 women referred to prophylactic check-up were enrolled in this study. Split sample design was used in 1,500 women and residual cervical cytology specimen from all these cases was placed in fluid for PapSpin preparation after performing conventional smear. The direct-to-vial study was carried out in another cohort of 1,445 women in whom the entire cervical material was investigated using only the PapSpin technique. Follow up histological diagnoses for 141 women were obtained from both study arms following 189 abnormal cytology cases. 80 LBC cases from the split sample group and 61 LBC cases in the direct-to-vial group were correlated with the histology results. The sensitivity and secificity of the conventional smear and PapSpin tests in both study arms were compared. Results: In the split sample group, conventional smears showed a higher proportion of ASC-US (atypical cells undetermined significance: 31 (2.1% vs 10 (0.7% in PapSpin (P = 0.001. A higher proportion of unsatisfactory samples was found in the conventional smear group: 25 (1.7% vs 6 (0.4% cases (P = 0.001. In the split sample group, the sensitivity of the conventional and PapSpin tests was 68.7% vs 78.1%, and the specificity 93.8% vs 91.8%, respectively. In the direct to vial group PapSpin sensitivity was 75.9% and specificity 96.5%. The differences in sensitivity and specificity were not significant. The positive predictive values for the conventional and PapSpin methods were not different in the split sample group: 88.0% vs 86.2% and 95.7% in the direct-to-vial group. Also, no differences were found for negative predictive value (82.1, 86.8% and 80.0% respectively. Conclusions: PapSpin showed good qualitative results in both study arms, even after the material splitting in the first study arm, and is a good alternative to the conventional Pap smear. Additionally, the PapSpin method offers several advantages such as the opportunity to prepare duplicate slides, option for HPV DNA testing and cell block preparations from residual material. Microscopic evaluation of thinner cell preparations is less time consuming than the conventional Pap smears.

  13. La coloración fluorescente con naranja de acridina y el PAP: validación de ambas técnicas para la detección de Trichomonas vaginalis FLUORESCENT STAINING WITH ACRIDINE ORANGE AND PAP SMEAR: VALIDATION TESTS OF BOTH TECNIQUES FOR THE DETECTION OF Trichomonas vaginalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SIXTO RAUL COSTAMAGNA

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available Se efectuó la validación de la coloración de Papanicolaou, utilizada para citología vaginal, frente a la coloración fluorescente con naranja de acridina, a fin de evaluar el valor de un resultado negativo para Trichomonas vaginalis obtenido en un PAP. Se estudiaron 80 muestras de flujo vaginal de mujeres entre 18 y 45 años, pacientes de consultorios externos de Ginecología del Hospital Municipal de la ciudad de Bahía Blanca, Provincia de Buenos Aires (Argentina. Las muestras se colorearon paralelamente por la técnica de Papanicolaou y por la coloración fluorescente con naranja de acridina. Los resultados mostraron que el PAP presenta una sensibilidad del 54,5% para la detección de T. vaginalis, validación efectuada frente a la coloración fluorescente con naranja de acridina, para una prevalencia de enfermedad en el grupo de mujeres estudiadas del 13,75% y un nivel de confianza del 95%. Para ensayos "en paralelo" con ambas coloraciones, el valor global de la prueba fue del 93,8%, con un valor predictivo del resultado negativo del 93,2%. Concluimos que si bien T. vaginalis es detectada en el PAP, éste no presenta sensibilidad significativamente elevada como para ser considerada como única prueba, debiéndose complementar siempre con una coloración fluorescente con naranja de acridina, u otra prueba de similar valorThe present study examined the validity of PAP staining, as used for vaginal cytology, against fluorescent staining with acridine orange in order to determine the value of a negative result of Trichomonas vaginalis obtained by a PAP smear. We examined eighty vaginal-secretion samples from 18- to 45-year-old female patients of the Hospital Municipal of the city of Bahía Blanca, Province of Buenos Aires, Argentina. The samples were stained in parallel by the PAP smear technique and the fluorescent staining technique with acridine orange described by Fripp in 1975. The results of our validation tests demonstrated that, against fluorescent staining with acridine orange, the PAP smear has a 54.5% sensitivity for the detection of T. vaginalis for a 13.75% prevalence of disease among the females in the study with a 95% confidence level. In assays conducted "in parallel" for both stainings, the global value of the test was 93.8%, with a predictive negative value of 93.2%. We conclude that, although the PAP smear can detect T. vaginalis, its sensitivity is not high enough for the test to be used as the sole diagnostic means and the test must always be supplemented with fluorescent staining with acridine orange or another test of similar value. Otherwise, the diagnostic sensitivity would not be any higher than that of vaginal discharge exams in vitro.

  14. Frequency of Undergoing Mammogram and Pap Test Among Healthcare Providers in Hospitals of Hamadan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasrolahi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background The Mammograms and Papanicolaou (Pap test of women aged 25 to 64 years are Iran’s national strategy for breast and cervical cancer screening, respectively. Widespread primary care services are supplied through a network of primary health centers; nonetheless, little is known about breast and cervical cancer screening-related practices among healthcare workers in hospitals. Objectives The present study aimed to investigate the frequency of undergoing breast and cervical cancer screening among Iranian healthcare providers. Materials and Methods In this cross-sectional study, 460 female healthcare providers from four public hospitals in Hamadan were recruited. Data were collected using a questionnaire, which included socio-demographic characteristics, family history of breast and cervical cancers, and history of undergoing mammography and Pap smear test. Results The rate of positive family history of breast cancer was 15.6%. The mean age at undergoing the first mammogram was 40.7 ± 3.9 years and the mean number of lifetime mammographies was 1.12 ± 0.33. From 460 women in this study, 42.6% had undergone mammography. Specialist physicians had undergone mammography more frequently than other healthcare providers had done. Only 72 participants (15.6% had positive family history of breast cancer among which 15 (62.5 % had undergone mammography. The frequency of undergoing mammography was significantly different among different healthcare providers (? 2 = 12.16; P = 0.007 and positive family history of breast cancer were significant. A total of 268 cases out of 420 had the positive history of undergoing Pap test. The mean age at undergoing the first screening was 27.9 ± 4.6 years and the mean number of lifetime Pap test was 1.64 ± 0.92. Most of the midwives (88.1% had undergone Pap test; the rate was 77.8% in specialist physicians, 61.8% in nurses, and 51.7% in general practitioner. Only 14 out of 420 respondents had positive family history of cervical cancer among which 13 (92.9% had undergone Pap rest. The frequency of undergoing Pap test was significantly different among different healthcare providers (?2 = 12.16, P = 0.007 and positive family history of cervical cancer among those older than 40 years (?2 = 7.24, P = 0.02 were significant. Conclusions Screening for gynecologic cancer is important in early diagnosis and women wellbeing. The acceptance of cancer screening test was low in most of the healthcare providers. The attitude and practice of healthcare provider can affect women’s acceptance of cancer screening test.

  15. How Often to Get a Pap Test (A Minute of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-01-10

    Cervical cancer has declined in the U.S., however every year over 12,000 women are diagnosed and 4,000 die. This podcast discusses the importance of Pap testing.  Created: 1/10/2013 by MMWR.   Date Released: 1/10/2013.

  16. [Factors associated with failure to take a Pap smear test among Quilombola women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Márcio Vasconcelos; Guimarães, Mark Drew Crosland; França, Elisabeth Barboza

    2014-11-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze factors associated with failure to take a Pap smear test among quilombola women living in Vitória da Conquista in the state of Bahia. A cross-sectional, population-based study was conducted with women aged 18 to 64. Descriptive analysis and univariate and multivariate analysis using a multinomial logistic model was applied. Women who had never performed the test or had not had one for over three years were compared separately from those who were examined within the preceding three years. Of the 348 women included in the analysis, 27.3%, reported never having a Pap smear test. The following factors were independently associated with never having taken the test: age of 18 to 29 years and 50 to 59 years; lack of education; not having a partner; seeking care in health-related units/establishments other than their place of residence; and having a clinical breast examination three or more years ago or never having one. The findings indicate a need for reflection in order to combat factors that are associated with not having a Pap smear test among quilombola women, since it is important to implement actions for the prevention of cervical cancer. PMID:25351319

  17. PAP TESTING AMONG VIETNAMESE WOMEN: HEALTH CARE SYSTEM AND PHYSICIAN FACTORS

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, Victoria M; Schwartz, Stephen M.; Yasui, Yutaka; Burke, Nancy; Shu, Jianfen; Lam, D. Hien; Jackson, J. Carey

    2004-01-01

    Cervical cancer occurs more frequently among Vietnamese Americans than women of any other race/ethnicity. In addition, previous studies in California have documented low Papanicolaou (Pap) testing rates in Vietnamese communities. This study focused on health care system factors and physician characteristics associated with recent cervical cancer screening among Vietnamese women. A population-based survey was conducted in Seattle during 2002. In-person interviews were conducted by bilingual, b...

  18. Pap Smear Screening Test and it’s Applications in Cervical Cancer Detection and Classification

    OpenAIRE

    S.Athinarayanan; Dr.M.V.Srinath

    2013-01-01

    A large group of women population, in the world is affected by the cervical cancer in their different age groups. Hence, most of the researchers, pathologists and also more number of collegiate have provided more number of solutions, to identify this cancer from the test images of pap smear screening test. But their results represent, only to an extent, whether the patient is affected by cancer or not, and do not specially identify the exact nature and severity of the cancer. In this paper, i...

  19. Cervical Cancer Prevention Knowledge and Abnormal Pap Test Experiences Among Women Living with HIV/AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wigfall, Lisa T; Bynum, Shalanda A; Brandt, Heather M; Friedman, Daniela B; Bond, Sharon M; Lazenby, Gweneth B; Richter, Donna L; Glover, Saundra H; Hébert, James R

    2015-06-01

    Cervical cancer prevention knowledge deficits persist among women living with HIV/AIDS (WLHA) despite increased risk of developing cervical dysplasia/cancer. We examined associations between WLHA's cervical cancer prevention knowledge and abnormal Pap test history. We recruited 145 urban and rural WLHA from Ryan White-funded clinics and AIDS service organizations located in the southeastern USA between March 2011 and April 2012. For this analysis, women who reported a history of cervical cancer (n?=?3) or had a complete hysterectomy (n?=?14) and observations with missing data (n?=?22) were excluded. Stata/IC 13 was used to perform cross-tabulations and chi-squared tests. Our sample included 106 predominantly non-Hispanic Black (92%) WLHA. Mean age was 46.3?±?10.9 years. Half (50%) had???high school education. One third (37%) had low health literacy. The majority (83 %) had a Pap test shared decisions about their cervical health, they need to be knowledgeable about cervical cancer care options across the cancer control continuum. Providing WLHA with prevention knowledge beyond screening recommendations seems warranted given their increased risk of developing cervical dysplasia/neoplasia. PMID:24928481

  20. Iodamoeba butschlii in an anal pap test confirmed by iodine stain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuetz, Audrey N; Pritt, Bobbi S; Schreiner, Andrew M

    2014-09-01

    We report the finding of Iodamoeba butschlii amebic cysts on a liquid-based anal Pap smear from an HIV-positive male. Iodine staining of the smear confirmed the diagnosis. It is important to distinguish I. butschlii from pathogenic ameobae and other organisms seen on anal Pap smears. PMID:24167099

  1. Mammography and Pap test screening among low-income foreign-born Hispanic women in the USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernandez Maria E.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about the factors influencing screening among low-income Hispanic women particularly among recent immigrants. A sample of 148 low-income, low-literate, foreign-born Hispanic women residing in the Washington DC metropolitan area participated in the study. The mean age of the sample was 46.2 (SD = 11.5, 84% reported annual household incomes<=$15,000. All women were Spanish speakers and had low acculturation levels. Ninety six percent had reported having a Pap smear, but 24% were not in compliance with recommended screening (Pap test within the last 3 years. Among women 40 and older, 62% had received a mammogram, but only 33% were compliant with age appropriate recommended mammography screening guidelines. Women in this study had more misconceptions about cancer than Hispanics in other studies. Multivariate logistic models for correlates of Pap test and mammography screening behavior indicate that factors such as fear of the screening test, embarrassment, and lack of knowledge influenced screening behavior. In conclusion, women in this study had lower rates of mammography screening than non-Hispanic women and lower rates of compliance with recommended Mammography and Pap test screening guidelines.

  2. ¿Cómo afecta el tipo de seguro de salud a la realización del Papanicolaou en Perú? / How does type of health insurance affect receipt of Pap testing in Peru?

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Leslie, Barrionuevo-Rosas; Laia, Palència; Carme, Borrell.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Describir la asociación entre la realización de la citología del cuello uterino y el tipo de seguro de salud en las mujeres peruanas, y determinar el papel de las variables sociodemográficas y de salud sexual en esta relación. MÉTODOS: Se realizó un estudio transversal que utiliza la infor [...] mación de la Encuesta Demográfica y de Salud Familiar (ENDES), Perú, 2005-2008, correspondiente a una selección de 12 272 mujeres de 30 a 49 años de edad. La variable dependiente fue la realización de alguna prueba de Papanicolaou (PAP) en los últimos 5 años. Las variables independientes principales fueron el tipo de seguro de salud, el nivel educativo, el nivel socioeconómico del hogar, la etnia y el área de residencia. La asociación multivariada fue estimada a través de la razón de prevalencias, utilizando la regresión Poisson con varianza robusta. RESULTADOS: Se encontró que 62,7% de las mujeres sexualmente activas se habían realizado algún PAP en los últimos 5 años. Este porcentaje de participación variaba según el tipo de seguro de salud, donde las mujeres con seguro público tenían 1,27 (intervalo de confianza de 95% [IC95%]: 1,24-1,31) y las que tenían seguro privado 1,52 (IC95%:1,46-1,58) veces mayor probabilidad de haberse realizado un PAP que aquellas sin seguro. Esta asociación era explicada predominantemente por las variables de posición socioeconómica. Asimismo las mujeres que tenían la participación más baja eran las analfabetas o con educación primaria, de nivel socioeconómico bajo, con antecedente de lengua indígena y que vivían en la zonas rurales-siendo esta brecha aún mayor cuando además carecían de seguro de salud, llegando a ser hasta la tercera parte en relación con los grupos sociales más favorecidos. CONCLUSIONES: Se hallaron desigualdades según el tipo de seguro de salud en la realización del PAP, siendo las mujeres sin seguro las que menos lo utilizaron, lo cual supone una barrera para el acceso al cribado de cáncer de cérvix en Perú. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: Describe the association between receipt of cervical cytology and type of health insurance in Peruvian women, and determine the role of sociodemographic and sexual health variables in this relationship. METHODS: A cross-sectional study using information on a sample of 12 272 women aged 30 [...] to 49 years from the Demographic and Family Health Survey (ENDES), Peru, 2005-2008. The dependent variable was receipt of at least one Pap smear in the last five years. The primary independent variables were type of health insurance, educational level, household socioeconomic level, ethnicity, and place of residence. Prevalence ratio, obtained from Poisson regression with robust variance, was used to measure multivariate association. RESULTS: Among sexually active women, 62.7% had received at least one Pap test in the last five years. Percentage of women tested varied by type of health insurance. Women with public or private insurance had a greater probability of having received a Pap smear-1.27 (95% CI, 1.24-1.31) and 1.52 (95% CI, 1.46-1.58) times greater, respectively-than uninsured women. This association was primarily explained by socioeconomic status variables. In addition, women who participated the least in screening were characterized by illiteracy or only a primary education, low socioeconomic level, speaking an indigenous language, and living in a rural area. When they also lacked health insurance, the gap widened, rising to as much as one third compared to more advantaged social groups. CONCLUSIONS: Inequalities were found in receipt of Pap testing according to type of health insurance; women without insurance were least likely to be screened, implying existence of a barrier to cervical cancer screening in Peru.

  3. Estimation of Pap-test coverage in an area with an organised screening program: challenges for survey methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raggi Patrizio

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The cytological screening programme of Viterbo has completed the second round of invitations to the entire target population (age 25–64. From a public health perspective, it is important to know the Pap-test coverage rate and the use of opportunistic screening. The most commonly used study design is the survey, but the validity of self-reports and the assumptions made about non respondents are often questioned. Methods From the target population, 940 women were sampled, and responded to a telephone interview about Pap-test utilisation. The answers were compared with the screening program registry; comparing the dates of Pap-tests reported by both sources. Sensitivity analyses were performed for coverage over a 36-month period, according to various assumptions regarding non respondents. Results The response rate was 68%. The coverage over 36 months was 86.4% if we assume that non respondents had the same coverage as respondents, 66% if we assume they were not covered at all, and 74.6% if we adjust for screening compliance in the non respondents. The sensitivity and specificity of the question, "have you ever had a Pap test with the screening programme" were 84.5% and 82.2% respectively. The test dates reported in the interview tended to be more recent than those reported in the registry, but 68% were within 12 months of each other. Conclusion Surveys are useful tools to understand the effectiveness of a screening programme and women's self-report was sufficiently reliable in our setting, but the coverage estimates were strongly influenced by the assumptions we made regarding non respondents.

  4. Progression and regression of cervical pap test lesions in an urban AIDS clinic in the combined antiretroviral therapy era: a longitudinal, retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lofgren, Sarah M; Tadros, Talaat; Herring-Bailey, Gina; Birdsong, George; Mosunjac, Marina; Flowers, Lisa; Nguyen, Minh Ly

    2015-05-01

    Our objective was to evaluate the progression and regression of cervical dysplasia in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive women during the late antiretroviral era. Risk factors as well as outcomes after treatment of cancerous or precancerous lesions were examined. This is a longitudinal retrospective review of cervical Pap tests performed on HIV-infected women with an intact cervix between 2004 and 2011. Subjects needed over two Pap tests for at least 2 years of follow-up. Progression was defined as those who developed a squamous intraepithelial lesion (SIL), atypical glandular cells (AGC), had low-grade SIL (LSIL) followed by atypical squamous cells-cannot exclude high-grade SIL (ASC-H) or high-grade SIL (HSIL), or cancer. Regression was defined as an initial SIL with two or more subsequent normal Pap tests. Persistence was defined as having an SIL without progression or regression. High-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) testing started in 2006 on atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) Pap tests. AGC at enrollment were excluded from progression analysis. Of 1,445 screened, 383 patients had over two Pap tests for a 2-year period. Of those, 309 had an intact cervix. The median age was 40 years and CD4+ cell count was 277 cells/mL. Four had AGC at enrollment. A quarter had persistently normal Pap tests, 64 (31%) regressed, and 50 (24%) progressed. Four developed cancer. The only risk factor associated with progression was CD4 count. In those with treated lesions, 24 (59%) had negative Pap tests at the end of follow-up. More studies are needed to evaluate follow-up strategies of LSIL patients, potentially combined with HPV testing. Guidelines for HIV-seropositive women who are in care, have improved CD4, and have persistently negative Pap tests could likely lengthen the follow-up interval. PMID:25693769

  5. HPV DNA and Pap smear test results in cases with and without cervical pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabit Sinan Özalp

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of the study was to determine the HPV prevalance and its relation to Pap smear, colposcopy and colposcopy directed biopsy in our region of Eskisehir, Turkey.Material and Methods: A total of 615 women who applied to the outpatient clinic between December 2009 and December 2010 constituted our study population. All patients underwent pelvic examination and Pap smear sampling. Patients who had pathological cervical appearance or Pap smear results of ASCUS, AGUS, LSIL or HSIL were referred to colposcopy. Cervical samples for HPV DNA were taken from the patients before Pap smear sampling during the routine examination or before the colposcopic evaluation. Results: Twenty six of 615 patients (4% were HPV positive. Of these 26 patients, 12 were positive for HPV type 16, 3 for type 18, 3 for type 51, 2 for type 6, 1 for type 52, 1 for type 33, 1 for type 16 and type 31, 1 for type 6 and 52, 1 for type 56 and 90, 1 for type 39 and 66. In 4 patients with cervical cancer, and in 3 of 4 CIN III cases both HPV DNA and Pap smear were positive. In the Pap smear examination of 615 patients, cytology revealed 35 ASCUS (5.6% 4 AGUS (0.6%, 2 CIN I (0.3% results who were negative for HPV DNA. These patients with abnormal cytology (n=41 underwent colposcopy directed biopsy, there were 3 CIN I and 1 CIN III and all the other cervical biopsy results of these patients were benign (inflammation, chronic cervicitis. Conclusion: HPV positivity in our hospital setting is low which is compatible with other studies in Turkey. In positive HPV cases there is a good correlation between HPV type and positive cervical biopsy results.

  6. A molecular monopoly? HPV testing, the Pap smear and the molecularisation of cervical cancer screening in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogarth, Stuart; Hopkins, Michael M; Rodriguez, Victor

    2012-02-01

    DNA-based molecular testing for human papillomavirus has emerged as a novel approach to cervical cancer screening in the context of well-entrenched existing technology, the Pap smear. This article seeks to elucidate the process of molecularisation in the context of screening programmes. We illustrate how, although Pap has long been problematised and could be seen as a competing technological option, the existing networks and regime for Pap were important in supporting the entrenchment process for the artefacts, techniques and new diagnostics industry entrant, Digene, associated with the new test. The article provides insights into how the molecularisation of screening unfolds in a mainstream market. We reveal an incremental and accretive, rather than revolutionary, process led by new commercial interests in an era when diagnostic innovation is increasingly privatised. We show Digene's reliance on patents, an international scientific network and their position as an obligatory point of passage in the clinical research field with regard to the new technology's role, as well as on controversial new marketing practices. The article is based on a mixed method approach, drawing on a wide range of contemporary sources (including patents, statutory filings by companies, scientific literature and news sources) as well as interviews. PMID:22118240

  7. The frequency of having pap-smear tests among women between 15-64 years old and the evaluation of the level of their knowledge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To determine the frequency of Pap smear testing among women and to evaluate their level of knowledge about the test and other relevant factors. Methods: The study comprised women who presented to the Gynaecology and Obstetrics Polyclinic of Sakarya Training and Research Hospital, Turkey, between April 1 and 30, 2012. The questionnaire was developed in line with the objectives of the study. They were filled by the participants who were supervised during the process. Women who had had at least one Pap smear test in life were considered to have taken a Pap smear test, and those who had heard of the test were accepted as women who knew of the Pap smear test. Data was analysed using SPSS 15.0. Chi-square test was used for analyses, and statistical significance was set at p<0.05. Results: The age of 601 subjects ranged between 15 and 64 years, with a mean of 31.09+-10.49 years. Of the total, 115 (19.1%) had taken a Pap smear test before and 293 (48.8%) knew of the test. The proportion of the women who had had a Pap smear test was higher among those who were over 30 years of age (n=73; 63.47%), had post-high school educational degrees (n=68; 59.13%), had moderate familial income status (n=74; 64.34%), were married (n=109; 94.78%), had first sexual experience after 25 years of age(n=42; 36.52%), and were not using a contraceptive method (n=97; 84.34%) (p<0.05 for each). Besides, more women with previous knowledge of the test had taken the test (p<0.05). Conclusion: The subjects did not have sufficient information on Pap smear and the frequency of having a test was low. Raising awareness would prove beneficial. (author)

  8. The significance of augmentedhigh-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion detection on pap test examination : partial results from the RODEO study team

    OpenAIRE

    Scapulatempo, Cristovam; Fregnani, Jos?? Humberto T. G.; Campacci, Nat??lia; Resende, J??lio Cesar Possati; LONGATTO FILHO, ADHEMAR

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study sought to ascertain the significance of augmented high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) detection by Pap test using both conventional smear and liquid-based cytology (LBC) in a high-risk population. STUDY DESIGN: We conducted a direct-to-vial study to compare the diagnostic performance of Pap smear versus LBC in a high-risk population of women referred for colposcopy at a gynecologic ambulatory clinic at the Barretos Cancer Hospital in Brazil during ...

  9. PRECANCEROUS AND CANCEROUS LESIONS OF CERVIX DIAGNOSED BY PAP’S SMEAR - A HOSPITAL BASED STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komal Singh

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cervical intra - epithelial neoplasia (CIN and cervical cancer remain important health problems for women worldwide. It is largely a preventable disease that is characterized by a long lead time. The objective of this study was to determine the frequency of precancerous lesions of cervix by Pap smear screening. METHODS : A retrospective hospital based study was conducted at Department of Pathology, in a Tertiary Care Institute and associated hospital, Bhopal. Data was collected from the records of Pap’s smear testing done on 388 patients in years 2011 & 2012. Analysis was done by entering data in SPSS software and Chi - square test was applied to find statistical significance. RESULTS: Most common lesions on Pap’s smear was Low grade squamous intraepithelial les ion (LSIL in 104 (26.8% of cases and High grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL in 15 (3.9% of cases. 44 (11.3% were senile Atopic Changes, parasitic Infection in 27 (7% of cases and 2 (0.5% were carcinoma cervix cases. All the cervical lesion s were most common in age of 31 - 40 yrs. and were significantly associated with age. CONCLUSIONS: Pap’s smear examination information should be spread in community apart from hospitals. Especially the young women should be motivated for regular Pap’s smear. Pap’s smear is the single most important screening method for early detection of precancerous & cancerous cervical lesions

  10. Tecnologia e campos disciplinares: os citotécnicos e a implementação do teste de Papanicolaou no Brasil / Technology and disciplinary fields: cytotechnicians and implementation of the Pap test in Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Luiz Antonio, Teixeira; Leticia, Pumar.

    Full Text Available A apropriação e utilização do teste de Papanicolaou como tecnologia fundamental para o controle do câncer de colo do útero no Brasil foi fruto de escolhas, acordos e embates entre determinados grupos profissionais (médicos de diferentes especialidades, farmacêuticos, biólogos, biomédicos e citotécni [...] cos). Na primeira parte do trabalho apresentamos o processo de formulação das primeiras campanhas de rastreamento populacional com uso do teste Papanicolaou no país e, consequentemente, o surgimento da profissão de citotécnicos (profissionais dedicados a leitura das lâminas de Papanicolaou). Num segundo momento, partimos de algumas questões levantadas pela historiografia internacional no campo da história das ciências e das técnicas para discutimos as peculiaridades do processo de apropriação do teste Papanicolaou no contexto brasileiro. Priorizamos as questões relativas aos debates entre diferentes grupos profissionais envolvidos com a lógica desse exame e às relações entre os setores públicos e privados de saúde. Demonstramos que as visões distintas sobre essa tecnologia no campo de diferentes disciplinas e a relação destas com a dinâmica do mercado de trabalho moldam a trajetória da profissão de citotécnico e a forma como o teste de Papanicolaou foi (e está sendo) apropriado como tecnologia central para o rastreio do câncer de colo do útero no Brasil. Abstract in english The implementation of the Pap test as a primary technology in the control of cervical cancer in Brazil was the result of choices, agreements and disputes among certain professional groups, including physicians from various specialisations, pharmacists, biologists, biomedical scientists and cytotechn [...] ologists. The first part of the paper describes the process of formulating Brazil’s first screening campaigns using the Pap smear, and the subsequent emergence of the profession of cytotechnology, whose practitioners interpret this test. Second, based on questions raised by international historiography in the field of science and technology, we explore in detail how the adoption of the Pap smear transpired within the Brazilian context, focussing on the debates among the various professional groups with an interest in the suitability of the test and on the relationships between the public and private healthcare sectors. We show that the professional career of cytotechnologists and the way in which the Pap smear has been implemented as a central technology for cervical cancer screening in Brazil have been shaped by the conflicting views of this technology held by different disciplines as well as by the relationship between these disciplines and labour market dynamics.

  11. Knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding the Pap test among women in northeastern Brazil / Conhecimentos, atitudes e praticas sobre o exame de Papanicolaou em mulheres do nordeste brasileiro

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Carla Lorenna Ferreira de, Albuquerque; Marla da Paschoa, Costa; Felipe Moreira, Nunes; Roberto Wagner Junior Freire de, Freitas; Paulo Roberto Medeiros de, Azevedo; Jose Verissimo, Fernandes; Juciane Vaz, Rego; Humberto Medeiros, Barreto.

    Full Text Available CONTEXTO E OBJETIVO: O exame de Papanicolaou já mostrou efetividade na prevenção de câncer do colo do útero. A literatura nacional e internacional tem mostrado que o exame de Papanicolaou não tem alcançado o índice de cobertura desejado. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar os conhecimentos, atitud [...] es e práticas entre mulheres em relação ao exame de Papanicolaou e verificar se existe associação entre esses comportamentos e as características sociodemográficas. TIPO DE ESTUDO E LOCAL: Estudo descritivo e transversal realizado em Floriano, Piauí. MÉTODOS: O estudo foi conduzido com 493 mulheres no período de novembro de 2009 a dezembro de 2010. Utilizou-se m questionário com perguntas precodificadas, cujas respostas foram analisadas quanto à adequação dos comportamentos em relação ao exame. RESULTADOS: Os graus de adequação dos conhecimentos, atitudes e práticas em relação ao exame foram de 36,7%, 67,2% e 69,6%, respectivamente. Dentre as principais barreiras para a sua realização, destacaram-se a ausência de sintomas e a vergonha. CONCLUSÃO: As mulheres que realizam consultas periodicamente apresentam prática mais adequada, porém com baixa adequação de conhecimentos frente ao procedimento, sugerindo que não estejam recebendo as informações adequadas sobre os benefícios da realização periódica do exame de Papanicolaou. Abstract in english CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: The Papanicolaou (Pap) test has been shown to be effective in preventing cervical cancer. However, both the national and international literature shows that Pap testing has not reached the level of coverage desired. The objective of this study was to assess women's knowledge [...] , attitudes and practices regarding the Pap test and to investigate whether there are any associations between these three factors and the women's sociodemographic characteristics. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional descriptive study conducted in Floriano, Piauí. METHODS : The study was conducted among 493 women between November 2009 and December 2010. A questionnaire with precoded questions was sed, and the responses were analyzed in terms of appropriateness in relation to the Pap test. RESULTS : The degrees of adequacy of knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding the Pap test were 36.7%, 67.2% and 69.6%, respectively. Among the main barriers against testing, absence of symptoms and a sense of embarrassment were the most notable. CONCLUSIONS: Women who visit doctors periodically had the most appropriate practices regarding the Pap test, but their knowledge of the procedure was poor. This suggests that these women were not receiving adequate information about the benefits of periodic testing.

  12. Pap Smear

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the situation resolves on its own. Almost all cases of cervical cancer are caused by persistent infections with certain strains ... in some instances can be a risk for cervical cancer ; this test result may ... cases, cancer is evident and requires immediate attention. ^ Back ...

  13. Congress: 50 years of the Papanicolaou test. Istituto Superiore di Sanita`. Rome, March 30, 1995; Convegno: 50 anni di Pap test. Istituto Superiore di Sanita`. Roma, 30 marzo 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Branca, Margherita; Cedri, Sabina; Migliore, Giovanna [Istituto Superiore di Sanita`, Rome (Italy). Lab. di Epidemiologia e Biostatistica

    1997-12-01

    The Conference was organized to celebrate the 50th anniversary of the cervical smear test, commonly referred to as the `Pap test` after its creator, George Nicholas Papanicolaou. The reports present the development of the test, its worldwide application, and its performance as the screening test for the detection of cervical cancer. Pap smear screening for precursors of carcinoma of the cervix has led to dramatic decrease in the incidence and deaths from this cancer. The test represents one of the greatest achievements in preventive medicine.

  14. Screening for cervical neoplasia: a community-based trial comparing Pap staining, human papilloma virus testing, and the new bi-functional Celldetect® stain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idelevich, Pavel; Kristt, Don; Schechter, Eduardo; Lew, Sylvia; Elkeles, Adi; Terkieltaub, Dov; Rivkin, Ilia; Bruchim, Ilan; Fishman, Ami

    2012-12-01

    Although cytological screening for cervical neoplasia has lowered mortality rates, current screening methods are plagued by sub-optimal sensitivity and/or specificity. The purpose of this study was to compare the performance of the new CellDetect® staining technology as a potential screening tool. This initial, non-blinded study, utilized samples are taken at a community-based clinic. The diagnostic results using CellDetect® were compared with the performance of Pap staining and human papilloma virus (HPV) testing on the same material, as well as the follow-up biopsies. These data were statistically analyzed in terms of sensitivity, specificity, predictive value (N.P.V and P.P.V), and inter-observer agreement. Bi-functional CellDetect® staining revealed morphological details and tinctorial properties that permitted recognition of neoplasia even at low magnification. Performance-wise, CellDetect® demonstrated non-inferiority for all statistical parameters to both Pap and HPV tests. Importantly, superior sensitivity compared with Pap staining was observed, as well as higher specificity than HPV testing with near equivalent sensitivity. We conclude that CellDetect® is a promising approach to early detection of cervical cancer because of its bi-functional capabilities that afford high sensitivity and specificity. The data suggest that this new methodology warrants further and more extensive clinical evaluation. PMID:21630482

  15. ASC-H in Pap test- definitive categorization of cytomorphological spectrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chivukula Mamatha

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective The American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology (ASCCP guidelines for management of ASC-H is colposcopic examination followed by biopsy. HPV testing (HPVT is recommended after a negative biopsy result. More definitive interpretation of ASC-H could prevent discomfort and minimize the cost. The purpose of this study was to evaluate association of various cytomorphological patterns of ASC-H with various clinical scenarios. Methods We reviewed SurePath™ (TriPath Imaging, Inc. Burlington, NC, USA cervical smears interpreted as ASC-H in 161 women (mean age, 37 {15 to 78} years, over 24 months (2002 to 2003. HPVT (Digene, Hybrid Capture® II HPV test, Digene Corporation, Gaithersburg, MD, USA was performed in 20% of cases (33/161 and biopsy results were available in 54 cases (19 with and 35 without HPVT. Results HPVT was positive in 64% (21/33 cases, and negative in 36% (12/33 cases. In the follow-up biopsies of 71% (15/21 of cases with positive HPVT, 27% showed HPV changes or CIN1, 27% showed CIN2-3, and 46% were negative for epithelial abnormality. Follow-up biopsies from cases with negative HPVT (33%, 4/12 cases, 8% showed CIN1 and 25% were negative for any epithelial abnormality. Six cytomorphological patterns of ASC-H correlated with different clinical categories in relation to HPVT and biopsy results. 35% (19 out of 54 ASC-H cases in which biopsy results were available could be interpreted definitively as HSIL by cytopathology, 11% (6/54 cases as LSIL with cyanophilic atypical parakeratotic pattern, and 31% (17/54 cases as reactive, with HPV status. The interpretation had to be continued as ASC-H in 22% (12/54 cases. Conclusion ASC-H demonstrated a spectrum of cytomorphological patterns. Some of these patterns in liquid-based cervical smears may be more specifically interpreted as LSIL, HSIL, or benign if HPV status is known.

  16. p16INK4a immunohistochemical and histopathologic study of Pap test cases interpreted as HSIL without CIN2-3 identification in subsequent cervical specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solano, Felipe J; Rush, Demaretta S; Wilkinson, Edward J

    2015-05-01

    Tissue biopsy following a pap test diagnosis of high grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) sometimes fails to confirm the presence of a corresponding high grade cervical intraepithelial lesion (CIN 2-3), leading to confusion as to how best to manage the patient. It has been shown that these patients are still at higher risk for future detection of CIN 2-3 even if the initial biopsy fails to detect it. It has also been shown that immunohistochemical staining for p16INK4a can be reliably used as a surrogate marker for infection with high risk human papillomavirus in cervical samples, and that it can be used to enhance detection of CIN2-3 in cases where suspicion is high. To evaluate the use of p16INK4a staining in cases of HSIL which were not confirmed on initial biopsy, two pathologists rereviewed Pap and hematoxylin and eosin preparations from all such cases seen within the preceding 3 years. Immunohistochemical study for p16INK4a was performed and graded on representative sections. The results were tabulated and analyzed. Of the identified 596 HSIL Pap cases, 82% had HSIL on initial cervical specimens. Table 1 shows the 56 cases included in the study with graded and stratified p16INK4a results. On review of the p16INK4a slides, only 2 cases could be upgraded to HSIL/CIN2-3 from the original diagnosis. p16INK4a 2-3+ was expressed more frequently in cases initially interpreted on Pap as low-grade cervical lesion as compared with benign (24 of 35 cases). In the younger than 24-yr-old group p16 2-3+ reactivity was more frequent in benign and low-grade cervical lesion/CIN1 groups (benign: 3 of 5 cases, and CIN1: 6 of 8), and p16 negative reactivity was not seen. p16INK4a was graded 0-1+ more frequently in specimens interpreted as benign in the older than 25 yr olds (10 of 16 cases). The study suggests some diagnostic benefit from the use of p16INK4a immunohistochemical study on cervical specimens from women with a HSIL Pap test without HSIL/CIN2-3 on original hematoxylin and eosin review. PMID:25844545

  17. Pap and HPV Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Clinicians 2012; 62(3):147-172. [PubMed Abstract] Schiffman M, Castle PE, Jeronimo J, Rodriguez AC, Wacholder S. ... Lancet 2007; 370(9590):890-907. [PubMed Abstract] Schiffman M, Wentzensen N, Wacholder S, et al. Human papillomavirus ...

  18. Compreensão de usuárias de uma Unidade de Saúde da Família sobre o exame Papanicolaou / The understanding of users of a Family Health Unit about the pap smear test

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Smalyanna Sgren da Costa, Andrade; Fernanda Maria Chianca da, Silva; Maria do Socorro Sousa e, Silva; Simone Helena dos Santos, Oliveira; Kamila Nethielly Souza, Leite; Merifane Januário de, Sousa.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Na tentativa de prevenir o câncer de colo uterino, foram instituídas várias ações de prevenção, dentre as quais, o Exame Papanicolaou que cumpre com a função de detecção precoce de células cancerosas ou de seus precursores. Portanto, objetivou-se investigar o discurso sobre a compreensão, os sentime [...] ntos e as expectativas de mulheres em relação ao Exame Papanicolaou. Trata-se de um estudo do tipo exploratório com abordagem qualitativa, realizado junto a dez usuárias de uma Unidade Integrada de Saúde da Família, no município de João Pessoa (PB). A coleta de dados se deu em abril de 2011, através de entrevista gravada. Foram identificadas oito ideias centrais: prevenção de doenças; busca por conta própria; busca por estímulo de outra pessoa; sentimento de vergonha e constrangimento; sensação de dor; sentimento de satisfação; conversas durante o exame e troca de conhecimentos acerca da saúde da mulher. Frente aos relatos, muitas são as dificuldades a serem vencidas para proporcionar melhor adesão das mulheres ao exame Papanicolaou. Abstract in english In the attempt to prevent cervical cancer, various preventive measures have been instituted, notable among which is the pap smear test, which fulfills the function of early detection of cancer cells or their precursors. Therefore, the objective was to investigate the discourse on the knowledge, feel [...] ings and expectations of women regarding the pap smear test. This is an exploratory qualitative approach, conducted with ten users of a Integrated Family Health Unit in the city of João Pessoa in the State of Paraíba. Data collection was conducted through recorded interviews in April 2011. Eight core ideas were identified: prevention of disease; self-motivated search, search recommended by another person; sense of shame and embarrassment, sensation of pain, feeling of satisfaction; conversations during the examination and exchange of knowledge about women's health. Based on the reports, there are many difficulties to be overcome to ensure greater adherence of women to the pap smear test.

  19. Cobertura do exame citopatológico na cidade de Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil Pap test coverage in the city of Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juvenal Soares Dias-da-Costa

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available No Brasil, a avaliação da efetividade de programas de prevenção e ações de saúde pública ainda são incipientes. Dessa forma, realizou-se um estudo transversal de base populacional envolvendo a saúde da população adulta residente na zona urbana da cidade de Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil, com o objetivo de verificar a evolução nos níveis de cobertura do exame citopatológico. Investigaram-se fatores associados com a não realização do procedimento. Considerou-se exame citopatológico atualizado aquele realizado nos últimos três anos. A amostra foi constituída por 1.122 mulheres entre 20 e 69 anos, sendo que 72,2% apresentavam exame citopatológico atualizado, 16,6% atrasado e 11,2% nunca o haviam realizado. A não realização do procedimento esteve associada com baixa inserção social e idade avançada. A regressão logística destacou o efeito independente de classe social, baixa renda familiar, idade, cor da pele, estado civil e ausência de consultas médicas no último ano. Contudo, desapareceu o efeito detectado em mulheres com doenças crônicas. Comparando-se os resultados do estudo realizado em 1992 com o atual, observa-se que a cobertura do exame aumentou de 65,0% para 72,2% (1992 para 1999/2000, entretanto, não atingiu os níveis efetivos para evitar câncer de colo uterino.In Brazil, the effectiveness of preventive public heath programs and actions is rarely evaluated. A cross-sectional study was thus performed in a population-based sample focused on several health characteristics of adults living in Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The study aimed to measure temporal trends in coverage of Pap smear testing in the city. The authors studied the factors associated with failure of women to submit to a Pap smear. An updated Pap smear was defined as one performed in the previous 3 years. The sample consisted of 1,122 women ages 20 to 69 years, 72.2% of whom had an updated Pap smear, 16.6% of whom were behind schedule for testing, and 11.2% of whom had never had a Pap smear. Risk factors for never having a test were low socioeconomic status and old age. Logistic regression showed an independent effect of social class, low family income, age, skin color, marital status, and no medical appointment in the previous year. However, the effect of chronic diseases disappeared in logistic regression. The authors compare the results of the study conducted in 1992 with the present. Pap smear coverage increased from 65.0% to 72.2% (1992 to 1999/2000 in the city, yet such figures had still not ensured the effectiveness of the program for uterine cervical cancer prevention.

  20. Cobertura do exame citopatológico na cidade de Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil / Pap test coverage in the city of Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Juvenal Soares, Dias-da-Costa; Maria Teresa Anselmo, Olinto; Denise Petrucci, Gigante; Ana Maria Baptista, Menezes; Silvia, Macedo; Andresa Thier de, Borba; Gledis Lisiane Silveira da, Motta; Sandra Costa, Fuchs.

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available No Brasil, a avaliação da efetividade de programas de prevenção e ações de saúde pública ainda são incipientes. Dessa forma, realizou-se um estudo transversal de base populacional envolvendo a saúde da população adulta residente na zona urbana da cidade de Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil, com o o [...] bjetivo de verificar a evolução nos níveis de cobertura do exame citopatológico. Investigaram-se fatores associados com a não realização do procedimento. Considerou-se exame citopatológico atualizado aquele realizado nos últimos três anos. A amostra foi constituída por 1.122 mulheres entre 20 e 69 anos, sendo que 72,2% apresentavam exame citopatológico atualizado, 16,6% atrasado e 11,2% nunca o haviam realizado. A não realização do procedimento esteve associada com baixa inserção social e idade avançada. A regressão logística destacou o efeito independente de classe social, baixa renda familiar, idade, cor da pele, estado civil e ausência de consultas médicas no último ano. Contudo, desapareceu o efeito detectado em mulheres com doenças crônicas. Comparando-se os resultados do estudo realizado em 1992 com o atual, observa-se que a cobertura do exame aumentou de 65,0% para 72,2% (1992 para 1999/2000), entretanto, não atingiu os níveis efetivos para evitar câncer de colo uterino. Abstract in english In Brazil, the effectiveness of preventive public heath programs and actions is rarely evaluated. A cross-sectional study was thus performed in a population-based sample focused on several health characteristics of adults living in Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The study aimed to measure tempo [...] ral trends in coverage of Pap smear testing in the city. The authors studied the factors associated with failure of women to submit to a Pap smear. An updated Pap smear was defined as one performed in the previous 3 years. The sample consisted of 1,122 women ages 20 to 69 years, 72.2% of whom had an updated Pap smear, 16.6% of whom were behind schedule for testing, and 11.2% of whom had never had a Pap smear. Risk factors for never having a test were low socioeconomic status and old age. Logistic regression showed an independent effect of social class, low family income, age, skin color, marital status, and no medical appointment in the previous year. However, the effect of chronic diseases disappeared in logistic regression. The authors compare the results of the study conducted in 1992 with the present. Pap smear coverage increased from 65.0% to 72.2% (1992 to 1999/2000) in the city, yet such figures had still not ensured the effectiveness of the program for uterine cervical cancer prevention.

  1. Debris removal in Pap-smear images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malm, Patrik; Balakrishnan, Byju N; Sujathan, Vilayil K; Kumar, Rajesh; Bengtsson, Ewert

    2013-07-01

    Since its introduction in the 1940s the Pap-smear test has helped reduce the incidence of cervical cancer dramatically in countries where regular screening is standard. The automation of this procedure is an open problem that has been ongoing for over fifty years without reaching satisfactory results. Existing systems are discouragingly expensive and yet they are only able to make a correct distinction between normal and abnormal samples in a fraction of cases. Therefore, they are limited to acting as support for the cytotechnicians as they perform their manual screening. The main reason for the current limitations is that the automated systems struggle to overcome the complexity of the cell structures. Samples are covered in artefacts such as blood cells, overlapping and folded cells, and bacteria, that hamper the segmentation processes and generate large number of suspicious objects. The classifiers designed to differentiate between normal cells and pre-cancerous cells produce unpredictable results when classifying artefacts. In this paper, we propose a sequential classification scheme focused on removing unwanted objects, debris, from an initial segmentation result, intended to be run before the actual normal/abnormal classifier. The method has been evaluated using three separate datasets obtained from cervical samples prepared using both the standard Pap-smear approach as well as the more recent liquid based cytology sample preparation technique. We show success in removing more than 99% of the debris without loosing more than around one percent of the epithelial cells detected by the segmentation process. PMID:23582663

  2. Fatores associados a não realização de Papanicolau em mulheres quilombolas / Factors associated with failure to take a Pap smear test among Quilombola women

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Márcio Vasconcelos, Oliveira; Mark Drew Crosland, Guimarães; Elisabeth Barboza, França.

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar os fatores associados a não realização do exame de Papanicolaou entre as mulheres quilombolas residentes em Vitória da Conquista, Bahia. Foi utilizado delineamento de estudo transversal de base populacional, com inclusão de mulheres com idade de 18-64 anos. Foram [...] realizadas análise descritiva e de associação univariada e multivariada utilizando modelo logístico multinomial. Mulheres que nunca realizaram o exame ou o realizaram há mais de três anos foram comparadas separadamente com aquelas que realizaram o exame há menos de três anos. De 348 mulheres incluídas na análise, 27,3% afirmaram nunca ter realizado o Papanicolaou. Foram associados de forma independente com nunca ter feito o exame: faixa etária de 18 a 29 anos e 50 a 59 anos, não ter instrução, não ter companheiro, buscar atendimento relacionado à saúde em unidades/estabelecimentos diferentes de seu local de residência e ter realizado exame clínico das mamas há três ou mais anos ou nunca tê-lo realizado. Os achados indicam uma necessidade de reflexão, com o objetivo de melhor enfrentamento dos fatores que se associam à não realização do exame Papanicolaou entre as mulheres quilombolas, sendo importante contemplar ações de prevenção para o câncer de colo uterino. Abstract in english The objective of this study was to analyze factors associated with failure to take a Pap smear test among quilombola women living in Vitória da Conquista in the state of Bahia. A cross-sectional, population-based study was conducted with women aged 18 to 64. Descriptive analysis and univariate and m [...] ultivariate analysis using a multinomial logistic model was applied. Women who had never performed the test or had not had one for over three years were compared separately from those who were examined within the preceding three years. Of the 348 women included in the analysis, 27.3%, reported never having a Pap smear test. The following factors were independently associated with never having taken the test: age of 18 to 29 years and 50 to 59 years; lack of education; not having a partner; seeking care in health-related units/establishments other than their place of residence; and having a clinical breast examination three or more years ago or never having one. The findings indicate a need for reflection in order to combat factors that are associated with not having a Pap smear test among quilombola women, since it is important to implement actions for the prevention of cervical cancer.

  3. Cobertura do exame citopatológico na cidade de Pelotas, Brasil / Pap smear test coverage in the city of Pelotas (Rio Grande do Sul), Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Juvenal Soares Dias da, Costa; Paula Berenhauser, D' Elia; Patrícia, Manzolli; Mônica Regina, Moreira.

    1998-05-01

    Full Text Available Em 1995, o câncer de colo de útero foi a quarta causa de morte mais prevalente para o sexo feminino no estado do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. Tendo em vista que não existem estudos disponíveis sobre a cobertura do exame citopatológico na cidade de Pelotas -- a principal cidade da região sul do estado [...] do Rio Grande do Sul -- , em 1992 realizou-se uma pesquisa transversal, de base populacional, entre mulheres de 20 a 69 anos residentes na zona urbana da cidade de Pelotas. O objetivo do estudo foi verificar a realização do exame citopatológico nos 3 anos anteriores à pesquisa; determinar o índice de cobertura deste exame na cidade de Pelotas; e identificar fatores associados à realização do exame. A classe social foi definida como variável sobredeterminante. Na operacionalização de classe social duas classificações foram utilizadas: a classificação de Bronfman e a classificação preconizada pela Associação Brasileira de Institutos de Pesquisa de Mercado. Das 934 mulheres entrevistadas, 606 (65%) haviam feito o exame citopatológico nos 3 anos que antecederam a pesquisa. A análise multivariada revelou diferenças quanto à realização do exame citopatológico em relação à classe social, idade e freqüência anual de consultas. Não foram encontradas diferenças em relação à escolaridade, tipo de serviço de saúde utilizado e hospitalizações no ano anterior à pesquisa. O estudo conclui que a cobertura do exame citopatológico para mulheres entre 20 e 69 anos em Pelotas é superior à cobertura encontrada em outras partes do país e do mundo. No entanto, nas classes mais baixas, o índice de cobertura ficou entre 52 e 56%. Estes dados podem contribuir para a elaboração de medidas que visem ao aumento da cobertura para setores específicos. Abstract in english In 1995, cervical cancer was the fourth most important cause of death among women in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. There are no available studies on Pap smear examination coverage in Pelotas, which is the largest city in the southern part of Rio Grande do Sul. Accordingly, in 1992 a popula [...] tion-based, cross-sectional study was carried out among 20 to 69 year-old women residing in urban areas of the city. The objectives of the study were to ascertain any Pap smear testing in the 3 years prior to the study, to determine the coverage of cervical cancer screening, and to identify any factors associated with the performance of Pap tests in Pelotas. Social class was chosen as the determining variable. To categorize social class, two classifications were used: Bronfman's classification and the classification used by the Brazilian Association of Market Research Institutes. Among the 934 women interviewed, 606 (65%) had had a Pap smear test in the 3 years before the study. The multivariate analysis revealed significant differences regarding performance of such tests in terms of social class, age, and frequency of medical consultations per year. No significant differences were found in terms of education, type of health service used, or hospitalizations during the year prior to the study. This study reveals that coverage of cervical cancer screening for women between 20 and 69 years of age in Pelotas is higher than the coverage found in other parts of the country or even of the world. However, for women in lower social classes, coverage was found to be between 52 and 56%. These data can contribute to the development of measures aimed at increasing cervical cancer screening among specific sectors of the population.

  4. Exame Papanicolaou: sentimentos relatados por profissionais de enfermagem ao se submeterem a esse exame / Pap smear screening: sensations reported by nursing professionals when submitted to this test

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Roberta Jeane Bezerra, Jorge; Maria Albertina Rocha, Diógenes; Francisco Antonio da Cruz, Mendonça; Luís Rafael Leite, Sampaio; Roberto, Jorge Júnior.

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se conhecer os sentimentos de auxiliares e técnicas de enfermagem ao se submeterem ao exame Papanicolaou. Trata-se de um estudo descritivo com abordagem qualitativa realizado nos meses de setembro a outubro de 2006, com 35 servidoras de uma instituição governamental referência em ginecolog [...] ia na cidade de Fortaleza (CE). Os dados foram coletados através de entrevista semiestruturada, contendo uma questão norteadora gravada e analisada de acordo com referencial teórico metodológico da fenomenologia social. Os relatos foram agrupados em três temáticas: um exame que causa incômodo, medo e vergonha; um exame que gera ansiedade quanto aos resultados; e um exame que "me deixa calma e tranquila". Apesar de as entrevistadas pertencerem a uma instituição que cuida de mulheres na prevenção do câncer cérvico-uterino, elas não deixaram de emitir sentimentos negativos relacionados ao exame. Concluiu-se a importância de realizar projetos educativos, enfatizando a importância do empoderamento das usuárias a fim de minimizar essas questões. Abstract in english This work sought to record the impressions of nursing assistants and technicians after submitting to Pap smear screening. This is a descriptive study using a qualitative approach conducted in September and October of 2006 with 35 employees of a public institution, which is a benchmark in gynecology [...] in Fortaleza in the State of Ceará (Brazil). The data was collected through semi-structured interviews containing a recorded leading question and analyzed according to the methodological-theoretical reference of social phenomenology. The testimonials were separated in three groups: an exam that causes discomfort, fear and shame; an exam that causes anxiety about the results; and an exam that "makes me calm and relaxed". Despite the interviewees being part of an institution that cares for the prevention of cervical-uterine cancer in women, negative feelings about the Pap smear test were nonetheless reported. The conclusion reached is that it is important to stage educational campaigns emphasizing the importance of empowerment of patients in order to minimize these aspects.

  5. Factores asociados a las Alteraciones del test de Papanicolaou Costa Rica, 2009 / Factors associated with changes in PAP Smears in a health center Costa Rica, 2009

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Leandra, Abarca Gómez; Maricela, Salas Estrada; Deyanira, Calvo León; Julia, Freer Vargas; Paula, Cordero.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available El cáncer cervicouterino es en el mundo y en Costa Rica una de las 3 primeras causas de cáncer en las mujeres. La detección temprana de lesiones premalignas o malignas mejora el pronóstico de las usuarias. Objetivo: Encontrar si hay factores asociados a las alteraciones de la citología vaginal en un [...] área de salud urbana de Costa Rica durante 2009. Metodología: Estudio de casos y controles en usuarias de una área de salud urbana de Costa Rica durante 2009. Se definió caso como toda mujer residente de esa área que presentara una citología vaginal alterada, displasia leve, moderada, severa o carcinoma durante 2009. Los controles se seleccionaron de forma aleatoria simple, tomando como marco muestral el registro de mujeres que se habían realizado citologías vaginales durante el 2009 en esa área. La recolección de la información se hizo a través de un cuestionario. Se calcularon medidas de frecuencia, de tendencia central y dispersión, OR, IC 95 %. Resultados: Se incluyeron 62 casos y 137 controles. La edad promedio de los casos fue 43 años (DE±17). El ASCUS fue la lesión más frecuente 39 % (IC 95 %=22,43-51,93). Los factores asociados a la aparición de lesiones fueron tabaco (OR=2.35; IC 95 %=1,26-4,31), inicio de actividad sexual antes de 18 años (OR=2;I C 95 %=1,06-3,64) y haber tenido 3 o más compañeros sexuales (OR=2, 10;IC 95 % 1,11-3,97). Discusión: Se encontró similitud entre lo descrito en la literatura y lo hallado en este estudio. Se recomendó dar a conocer este estudio a las mujeres de esa área de salud, ya que los factores encontrados son modificables y además se planteó a la dirección del área realizar campañas de promoción y prevención que fomenten conductas sexuales sanas. Abstract in english Cervical cancer is among the leading causes of cancer in women globally; in Costa Rica it is among the top three causes. Although the PAP smears is part of the guidelines of care for women, the coverage in some areas of health is low. Objective: Identify demographic and clinical factors associated w [...] ith abnormal Pap test results Methods: We conducted a health center-based case-control study. A case was defined as any woman seeking care in a health center during 2009, having a Pap test positive for either cells of undetermined significance (Atypical Squamous Cells of Undetermined Significance) mild, moderate or severe dysplasia. Controls were selected by simple random sampling using records of women seen at the same health centers in 2009 and having normal PAP smears. Odds ratios and 95 % confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated for associations between potential risk factors and abnormal PAP smears. Results: We identified 62 cases and 137 controls. The average age of cases was 43 was not significantly different from that of controls (Student t p = 0,90). ASCUS was the most frequent cause of abnormal cytology (39 %). Factors found to be significantly associated with abnormal cytology were: tobacco use (OR=2,35; 95 % CI=1,26-4,31), onset of sexual activity before age 18 (OR=2,0; 95 % CI=1,06-3,64) and having a history of > 3 sexual partners (OR=2,0; 95 % CI=1,11-3,97). Conclusions: There was similarity between risk factors we identified as described in the literature, like onset of sexual activity before age 18 and have history of 3 or more sexual parthers. These are common risk factors associated with HPV infection. Our study was limited by the failure to follow-up colposcopy results for definitive diagnoses and no HPV test. Considering these risk factors represent modifiable health behaviors, we recommended dissemination of our findings to local health authorities in order to generate intervention strategies to promote responsible, healthy sexual behaviors as how to reduce tobacco consumption and develop healthy sexual habits.

  6. The MonoPrep Pap test for the detection of cervical cancer and its precursors. Part I: results of a multicenter clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cibas, Edmund S; Alonzo, Todd A; Austin, R Marshall; Bolick, David R; Glant, Michael D; Henry, Michael R; Moriarty, Ann T; Molina, J Thomas; Rushing, Lynda; Slowman, Sally D; Torno, Roosevelt; Eisenhut, Carol C

    2008-02-01

    The MonoPrep Pap Test (MPPT; MonoGen, Lincolnshire, IL) is a novel, liquid-based specimen collection and processing technology for cytologic and molecular testing. Its usefulness in the detection of cervical cancer and its precursors was evaluated in a multicenter, masked, adjudicated, split-sample study of 10,739 samples. After preparation of a conventional smear, the residuum on the collection device was rinsed into a collection vial from which an MPPT slide was prepared. Accuracy was assessed by masked reference interpretation by an independent pathologist. Slides prepared by MPPT, compared with smears, yielded statistically significant increases in relative sensitivity for atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance and worse, atypical squamous cells, cannot exclude high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion/atypical glandular cells and worse, and low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion and worse. There was no significant difference in relative specificity. MPPT provided a 58% reduction in unsatisfactory slides. There was no significant difference in the presentation of endocervical/transformation zone component or the detection of benign conditions. The MPPT is a promising new liquid-based technology for cervical cancer screening. PMID:18208798

  7. Comparison of the Cobas 4800 HPV and HPV 9G DNA Chip Tests for Detection of High-Risk Human Papillomavirus in Cervical Specimens of Women with Consecutive Positive HPV Tests But Negative Pap Smears

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Sun-Young; Park, Eun Su; Kim, Jiyoung; Kang, Jun; Lee, Jae Jun; Bae, Yoonjin; Kim, Sang-Il; Maeng, Lee-So

    2015-01-01

    Detecting high-risk (HR) HPV is important for clinical management of women with persistent HPV-positive and Pap-negative results. The Cobas 4800 HPV test is the first FDA-approved HPV DNA test that can be used alone as a first-line screening tool. The HPV 9G DNA chip test is a PCR-based DNA microarray assay. We evaluated the patients of consecutive HPV-positivity on HPV 9G DNA chip test without cytologic abnormalities. We then compared the performances of HPV 9G DNA chip and the Cobas 4800 HPV tests for detecting HR HPV with each other and confirmed HPV genotyping using direct sequencing. All 214 liquid-based cytology specimens were collected from 100 women with consecutive HPV-positive and Pap-negative results on the HPV 9G DNA chip test between May 2012 and Dec 2013, but only 180 specimens were available for comparing HPV test results. The HPV 9G DNA chip and the Cobas 4800 HPV tests agreed with each other in 81.7% of the samples, and the concordance rate was greater than 97.2% for detecting HPV-16 or -18. For HR genotypes other than HPV types 16 and 18, the two tests agreed for 81.1% of the samples. The sensitivity of both assays for detecting HR HPV was 100%, regardless of HR genotypes. The HPV 9G DNA chip test may be as effective as the Cobas 4800 HPV test in detecting HR HPV, and has a similar ability to identify HPV-16 and -18. PMID:26469982

  8. Frequência da colpocitologia oncótica em jovens com antecedentes obstétricos em Teresina, Piauí, Brasil / Frequency of Pap smear testing in young women with an obstetric history in Teresina, Piauí, Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Michelina F., Barroso; Keila R. O., Gomes; Jesusmar Ximenes, Andrade.

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar a frequência da colpocitologia oncótica em jovens com pelo menos uma gravidez completa em Teresina, capital do Estado do Piauí, Brasil. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal realizado de maio a dezembro de 2008. Foram coletados dados de 464 jovens, selecionadas por amostragem acidental, que [...] finalizaram uma gravidez no primeiro quadrimestre de 2006 em seis maternidades da Cidade de Teresina. Investigou-se a frequência da coleta de colpocitologia oncótica. A frequência inadequada foi definida como coleta em intervalos maiores do que 1 ano. RESULTADOS: A média de idade das participantes foi de 20 anos. A frequência da colpocitologia foi semestral em 180 jovens (39,0%) e anual em 160 (34,5%). Quinze jovens (3,2%) nunca haviam feito a colpocitologia. A regressão logística simples mostrou que o não uso de contraceptivo na primeira relação sexual e não poder optar por atendimento ginecológico por homem ou mulher aumentou o risco em 48,0% (P = 0,049) e 49,0% (P = 0,044), respectivamente, para frequência inadequada de coleta do exame. A regressão logística múltipla mostrou que ter tido mais de uma gravidez elevou em 71,4% a chance de inadequação da frequência de coleta em comparação com ter somente uma gestação (P = 0,011). CONCLUSÕES: O fato de muitas jovens realizarem o exame de colpocitologia oncótica em intervalos menores do que 1 ano não melhora o rastreamento do câncer de colo uterino e pode onerar o serviço público de saúde. A multiparidade foi fator de risco para a frequência inadequada de coleta do exame, devendo esse aspecto ser considerado na assistência à saúde ginecológica de jovens. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To analyze the frequency of Pap smear testing in young women with at least one pregnancy in Teresina, capital of the state of Piauí, Brazil. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was undertaken from May to December 2008. A convenience sample of 464 young women was selected, and data were colle [...] cted using a pre-tested questionnaire. Women giving birth in the first four months of 2006, in six hospitals in Teresina, were included. Inadequate Pap smear frequency was defined as an interval of more than 1 year between tests. RESULTS: Mean age was 20 years. The frequency of Pap smear testing was every 6 months in 180 women (39.0%) and yearly in 160 (34.5%). Fifteen women (3.2%) had never had a Pap smear test. Simple logistic regression showed an increase of 48.0% in the risk of inadequate Pap smear frequency (P = 0.049) in women who did not use any contraceptive method at their first sexual intercourse, and 49.0% (P = 0.044) in those who were not able to choose between a male or female gynecologist when seeking health care services. On multivariate logistic regression, having more than one pregnancy increased the risk of inadequate Pap smear frequency by 71.4% in comparison to having only one pregnancy (P = 0.011). CONCLUSIONS: The fact that many young women had Pap smear testing at intervals shorter than 1 year does not improve cervical cancer screening and may burden the health care system. Multiparity was a risk factor for inadequate Pap smear frequency, an aspect that must be taken into account when providing gynecological care to young women.

  9. A "Pap" test for men? Male urethral smears as screening tool for detecting subclinical human papillomavirus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar, R; Choudhury, M; Fischer, J; Ezpeleta, C

    1991-02-01

    We have explored the potential of using immunoperoxidase staining and in situ DNA hybridization techniques to detect the HPV common antigen and HPV DNA (subtypes 6/11 and 16/18) in urethral smears obtained from men with no grossly visible urethral lesions, with or without HPV-related clinical history. A total of 91 such smears were studied of which 25 (27.5%) were positive for HPV antigen. Of the latter, 20 (80%) were positive for HPV 6/11 DNA, 3 (12%) were positive for HPV 16/18 DNA, one smear (4%) was positive for both, and one was negative for both. The technique of obtaining male urethral smears and immunostaining them for HPV antigen is simple, rapid, specific, and far more sensitive than conventional morphologic observations. Since antigen-positive cells are the source for spreading HPV infection, identifying individuals with such cells can help limit the spread of infection by alerting sexual partners, and also can be used to monitor the infectious status of the patient after therapy. DNA subtyping of HPV-positive patients may be useful in predicting the potential for malignant transformation which varies among the different HPV subtypes. PMID:1846989

  10. Pap-smear Classification Using Efficient Second Order Neural Network Training Algorithms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ampazis, Nikolaos; Dounias, George

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we make use of two highly efficient second order neural network training algorithms, namely the LMAM (Levenberg-Marquardt with Adaptive Momentum) and OLMAM (Optimized Levenberg-Marquardt with Adaptive Momentum), for the construction of an efficient pap-smear test classifier. The algorithms are methodologically similar, and are based on iterations of the form employed in the Levenberg-Marquardt (LM) method for non-linear least squares problems with the inclusion of an additional adaptive momentum term arising from the formulation of the training task as a constrained optimization problem. The classification results obtained from the application of the algorithms on a standard benchmark pap-smear data set reveal the power of the two methods to obtain excellent solutions in difficult classification problems whereas other standard computational intelligence techniques achieve inferior performances.

  11. Cobertura e fatores associados à não realização do exame preventivo de Papanicolaou em São Luís, Maranhão / Coverage and factors associated with not performing Pap smear screening tests in São Luís, Maranhão, Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Márcia Maria Hiluy Nicolau de, Oliveira; Antônio Augusto Moura da, Silva; Luciane Maria Oliveira, Brito; Liberata Campos, Coimbra.

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de estimar a cobertura, a periodicidade, e identificar fatores associados à não realização do exame preventivo de Papanicolau, 465 mulheres de 25 a 49 anos residentes no município de São Luís foram entrevistadas em 1998. Foi realizado inquérito domiciliar pelo método de amostragem por [...] conglomerados em três estágios. Na análise estatística foram calculados intervalos de confiança de 95% corrigidos pelo desenho do estudo, e os "odds ratio" brutos e ajustados por regressão logística. A cobertura do Papanicolaou pelo menos uma vez na vida foi de 82,4% (Intervalo de Confiança 95%, 76,6 - 87,0%), praticamente atingindo a cobertura mínima necessária de 85% para causar impacto epidemiológico na incidência e mortalidade por câncer cérvico-uterino. O intervalo entre a realização dos exames foi curto, pois 65,8% das mulheres repetiram o exame com até um ano. Após o ajuste para fatores de confundimento foram associados à não realização do Papanicolaou: não ter companheiro, ter cinco a oito anos de escolaridade, não ter realizado consulta médica nos três últimos meses e morar em domicílio cujo chefe de família tem ocupação manual não especializada. Ter tido de dois a quatro parceiros sexuais nos três últimos meses foi associado a menor risco de não realização do preventivo. Em capital do Nordeste, a cobertura do exame preventivo de Papanicolaou foi semelhante à relatada em outros estudos nacionais. Entretanto, algumas mulheres realizaram citologias desnecessárias a intervalos curtos, implicando em desperdício de recursos e dificultando o acesso aos grupos mais vulneráveis que apresentaram maiores riscos de não testagem. Abstract in english In 1998, 465 women from 25 to 49 years of age, inhabitants of the municipality of São Luís, Maranhão, Brazil were interviewed to estimate Pap smear coverage, interval between tests and to identify factors associated with not performing Pap smears. A three-stage household cluster survey was performed [...] ; 95% confidence intervals corrected by design effect, and crude and adjusted odds ratio estimates were calculated by logistic regression. Pap smear coverage at least once in a lifetime was 82.4% (95% CI 76.6% - 87.0%) and nearly reached the minimum value of the 85% needed to impact the incidence and mortality of cervical cancer. The interval between tests was low, given that 65.8% of women repeated the test within one year. After adjustment for confounding factors, the risks of not having performed a Pap smear test at least once in a lifetime were higher for women who did not live with a companion, who had five to eight years of schooling, who had not been to a medical appointment in the past three months and who lived in households whose head of family was engaged in a manual and non-qualified occupation. Women who had two to four sexual partners in the past three months were at a lower risk of not having a cervical smear. In this Northeastern state capital, Pap smear coverage was similar to other national studies. However, some women were unnecessarily tested at short intervals, wasting resources and contributing to reduce the access of more vulnerable groups who presented higher risks for not having had a Pap smear test.

  12. Collection of the BD SurePath Pap Test with a broom device plus endocervical brush improves disease detection when compared to the broom device alone or the spatula plus endocervical brush combination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davis-Devine Sharon

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Here we examine the diagnostic utility of the US Food And Drug Administration (FDA approved Spatula + endocervical brush combination for the BD SurePath Pap Test (SPPT and compare it to SPPT collection with the broom alone or to an off-label combination of broom + EC brush. This question is important due to lingering concerns over the value of EC detection to a satisfactory Pap test. Methods: 20,125 SPPT vials were examined for the collection devices contained. The SPPT collection device combinations allowed were: Rovers Cervex-Brush (broom, FDA approved, Medscand Pap Perfect Spatula + Medscand CytoBrush Plus GT (spatula + GT brush, FDA approved or Rovers Cervex-Brush + Surgipath C-E Brush (broom + CE brush, off label. Results: Examination of SPPT vials revealed 11,130 collected with the broom, 4,687 collected with the spatula + GT brush and 2,921 collected with the broom + CE brush. Absence of an endocervical/transformation zone was seen in 22.86% of broom cases, 13.10% of spatula + GT brush cases (p= 0.00005 vs broom and 10.17% of broom + CE brush cases (p= 0.00005 vs broom, p= 0.00005 vs spatula + GT brush. Importantly, LSIL detection was: broom 2.99%; spatula + GT brush 2.45% (p= 0.053 vs broom; broom + CE brush 4.18% (p= 0.034 vs broom, p= 0.0001 vs spatula + GT brush. Conclusion: When broom + brush combination is compared to broom alone or to spatula + GT brush, the broom + CE brush combination better sampled the endocervical/transformation zone and increased LSIL detection.

  13. Relevance of HPV Screening for Triaging Equivocal Cytology Findings in the Pap II-p, Pap III and Pap IIID Groups – Results of Two Long-Term Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luyten, A.; Petry, K. U.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The use of HPV screening for the triage of ASC-US (atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance) cytology results has been established as a sound standard by international trials whereas the data for other cytology findings are in part contradictory. There is a lack of long-term studies on the use of HPV triage in Germany. Materials and Methods: For the present study data from a primary HPV screening project involving women aged over 30 years, ongoing since 2006, and an epidemiological study on women aged between 20 and 27 years, ongoing since 2009, were used. Upon recruitment, all women underwent a smear test for cytology and screening for “high-risk” HPV using Hybrid Capture 2 (HC2). If both tests were positive or if there were persisting remarkable cytology findings or a positive HPV test, then clarification by colposcopy was performed. Results: Altogether, among 282 women with Pap II-p (ASC-US), Pap III (ASC-H) or Pap IIID (LSIL + CIN2) and negative HPV test there was no case of CIN3+. Among the women under 30 years of age, however, 69?% (ASC-US) to 85?% (LSIL + CIN2) of the remarkable findings were HPV positive, also among the older women with Pap IIID, the 71?% prevalence of HPV was too high for a triage and even without triage there was a 23?% risk for CIN3+. On the other hand, of the women over 30 years old with ASC-US (Pap II-p) findings, only 21?% were positive for HPV and the risk for CIN3+ in this group was high at 29?%. Also for ASC-H (Pap III) findings in the age group of over 30 years with an HPV prevalence of 56?% there was an efficient triage for CIN3+. Discussion: In summary, the HPV triage of ASC-US (Pap II-p) findings in women aged over 30 years was found to be efficient; in contrast, LSIL + CIN2 (Pap IIID) findings in this age group justified an immediate referral to colposcopy whereas cytology control appeared to be sufficient for younger women. PMID:26556908

  14. TsPAP1 encodes a novel plant prolyl aminopeptidase whose expression is induced in response to suboptimal growth conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ? A cDNA encoding a novel plant prolyl aminopeptidase, TsPAP1, was obtained from triticale. ? The cloned TsPAP1 cDNA is 1387 bp long and encodes a protein of 390 amino acids. ? The deduced TsPAP1 protein revealed characteristics of the monomeric bacterial PAPs. ? The TsPAP1 mRNA level increased under drought, salinity and in the presence of metal ions. -- Abstract: A triticale cDNA encoding a prolyl aminopeptidase (PAP) was obtained by RT-PCR and has been designated as TsPAP1. The cloned cDNA is 1387 bp long and encodes a protein of 390 amino acids with a calculated molecular mass of 43.9 kDa. The deduced TsPAP1 protein exhibits a considerable sequence identity with the biochemically characterized bacterial and fungal PAP proteins of small molecular masses (?35 kDa). Moreover, the presence of conserved regions that are characteristic for bacterial monomeric PAP enzymes (the GGSWG motif, the localization of the catalytic triad residues and the segment involved in substrate binding) has also been noted. Primary structure analysis and phylogenetic analysis revealed that TsPAP1 encodes a novel plant PAP protein that is distinct from the multimeric proteins that have thus far been characterized in plants and whose counterparts have been recognized only in bacteria and fungi. A significant increase in the TsPAP1 transcript level in the shoots of triticale plants was observed under drought and saline conditions as well as in the presence of cadmium and aluminium ions in the nutrient medium. This paper is the first report describing changes in the transcript levels of any plant PAP in response to suboptimal growth conditions.

  15. TsPAP1 encodes a novel plant prolyl aminopeptidase whose expression is induced in response to suboptimal growth conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szawlowska, Urszula; Grabowska, Agnieszka [Department of Biochemistry, Warsaw University of Life Sciences - SGGW, Nowoursynowska 159, 02-776 Warsaw (Poland); Zdunek-Zastocka, Edyta, E-mail: edyta_zdunek_zastocka@sggw.pl [Department of Biochemistry, Warsaw University of Life Sciences - SGGW, Nowoursynowska 159, 02-776 Warsaw (Poland); Bielawski, Wieslaw [Department of Biochemistry, Warsaw University of Life Sciences - SGGW, Nowoursynowska 159, 02-776 Warsaw (Poland)

    2012-03-02

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A cDNA encoding a novel plant prolyl aminopeptidase, TsPAP1, was obtained from triticale. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The cloned TsPAP1 cDNA is 1387 bp long and encodes a protein of 390 amino acids. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The deduced TsPAP1 protein revealed characteristics of the monomeric bacterial PAPs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The TsPAP1 mRNA level increased under drought, salinity and in the presence of metal ions. -- Abstract: A triticale cDNA encoding a prolyl aminopeptidase (PAP) was obtained by RT-PCR and has been designated as TsPAP1. The cloned cDNA is 1387 bp long and encodes a protein of 390 amino acids with a calculated molecular mass of 43.9 kDa. The deduced TsPAP1 protein exhibits a considerable sequence identity with the biochemically characterized bacterial and fungal PAP proteins of small molecular masses ({approx}35 kDa). Moreover, the presence of conserved regions that are characteristic for bacterial monomeric PAP enzymes (the GGSWG motif, the localization of the catalytic triad residues and the segment involved in substrate binding) has also been noted. Primary structure analysis and phylogenetic analysis revealed that TsPAP1 encodes a novel plant PAP protein that is distinct from the multimeric proteins that have thus far been characterized in plants and whose counterparts have been recognized only in bacteria and fungi. A significant increase in the TsPAP1 transcript level in the shoots of triticale plants was observed under drought and saline conditions as well as in the presence of cadmium and aluminium ions in the nutrient medium. This paper is the first report describing changes in the transcript levels of any plant PAP in response to suboptimal growth conditions.

  16. Cobertura e adequação do exame citopatológico de colo uterino em estados das regiões Sul e Nordeste do Brasil / Pap test coverage and adequacy in the South and Northeast of Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Michele da Silva, Correa; Denise Silva da, Silveira; Fernando Vinholes, Siqueira; Luiz Augusto, Facchini; Roberto Xavier, Piccini; Elaine, Thumé; Elaine, Tomasi.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available O câncer de colo do útero é o segundo mais comum em mulheres no Brasil e no mundo e pode ser evitado através da detecção precoce de lesões precursoras. O exame citopatológico de colo uterino ainda é o mais efetivo e eficiente para realizar este rastreamento. O objetivo do estudo foi investigar a cob [...] ertura e a adequação do exame citopatológico e fatores associados. Foi realizado um estudo transversal com 3.939 mulheres que tiveram filho nos últimos dois anos anteriores à pesquisa, distribuídas em 41 municípios brasileiros. A cobertura do exame na vida foi de 75,3% (IC95%: 74,0-76,7) e a adequação foi de 70,7% (IC95%: 69,3-72,1). A adequação associou-se positivamente com idade maior de 25 anos, maior escolaridade, fazer pré-natal na última gestação e consultar para exame ginecológico no último ano. Foi menos frequente entre mulheres do estrato socioeconômico mais baixo e primíparas. Portanto, faz-se necessário fortalecer as ações preventivas para os subgrupos de mulheres mais vulneráveis, assim como potencializar as situações de utilização dos serviços de saúde. Abstract in english Cervical cancer is the second most common cancer among women both in Brazil and elsewhere in the world and can be averted through early detection of precursor lesions. Pap smear is still the most effective and efficient screening test. This study focused on the coverage and adequacy of Pap test and [...] associated factors. The authors adopted a cross-sectional design with a sample of 3,939 women who had given birth in the two previous years in 41 municipalities (counties) of Brazil. Lifetime Pap test coverage was 75.3% (95%CI: 74.0-76.7), and prevalence of adequacy was 70.7% (95%CI: 69.3-72.1). Adequacy was positively associated with age over 25 years, schooling, prenatal care in the last pregnancy, and gynecological visit in the previous year, and was less frequent among primiparous women and those with lower socioeconomic status. It is thus necessary to strengthen preventive measures in vulnerable subgroups and maximize situations for use of health services.

  17. Study of Pap smear and other feasible tests among self reported symptomatic married women in reproductive age group (15-49 yrs regarding reproductive tract infections in a rural community of Maharashtra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smita S. Chavan

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Reproductive tract infections (RTIs represent a major public health problem in developing countries. Integrating RTIs/STIs management and early detection of cervical dysplasia in broader reproductive health services can improve women?s health. The objectives of the study were 1. To study the association of socio-demographic & reproductive factors among self-reported symptomatic women for reproductive tract infections. 2. To carry out clinical examination & feasible tests like PH, gram staining, VDRL for reproductive tract infections. 3. To study Pap smear among study subjects. Methods: A cross sectional study community based study was carried out in villages under ?Parol? Primary Health Centre of Thane district, Maharashtra, India. A total of 415 married women in reproductive age group were interviewed and examined. Pre-structured, pre-designed questionnaire was used. Clinical examination & feasible laboratory tests were done. Results were analyzed with the help of Microsoft Excel & SPSS 15. Results: A total of 415 women were interviewed, of them 263(63.4% had one or more symptoms of reproductive tract infections. On examination, 69(35% had cervicitis and 30(15.2% pelvic inflammatory disease, 39(19.8% bacterial vaginosis and candidiasis in 61(31%. Cervical erosion was present in 147(74.6% women. On Pap smear, 20(10.2% women had ASCUS (Atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance. Only 2(1% women found HIV positive. No woman was found VDRL reactive. Conclusion: Routine RTI/STI screening and periodic surveys to detect the infection patterns which will helps to control HIV infections in the community is needed in the remote tribal area as the current study shows high prevalence of reproductive tract infection. [Int J Res Med Sci 2013; 1(4.000: 545-551

  18. Modified PAP method to detect heteroresistance to vancomycin among methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates at a tertiary care hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iyer R

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was an attempt at developing, establishing, validating and comparing the modified PAP method for detection of hetero-vancomycin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (h-VRSA with the routine antimicrobial susceptibility testing (using the BSAC standardized disc diffusion method, minimum inhibitory concentrations of vancomycin using standard E-test methodology and the Hiramatsu?s screening method. A total of 50 methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus obtained from various clinical specimens, along with the Mu 3 and Mu 50 strains as controls, were studied. No VRSA isolates were obtained. However, four of the test strains were positive by the Hiramatsu?s screening method, of which only one isolate could be confirmed by the modified PAP analysis method. This isolate was a coloniser from the drain fluid of a liver transplant recipient. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and the overall efficiency of the Hiramatsu?s screening method with the modified PAP analysis as the gold standard were found to be 100, 93.8, 25 and 94%, respectively. It is very essential for clinical laboratories to screen for h-VRSA, given the increasing use of glycopeptide antibiotics in therapy and the potential for failed therapy in patients infected with these strains.

  19. Awareness and uptake of the Pap smear among market women in Lagos, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Francis A. Faduyile; Yetunde A. Kuyinu; Babalola Faseru; Wright, Kikelomo O

    2011-01-01

    Our study evaluates the effect of an educational programme on awareness and uptake of the cervical cancer screening test (Pap smear) by women in a model market in Lagos Nigeria. This was a quasi-experimental study using a multistage sampling technique. A total of 350 women were divided into two groups. A baseline survey on awareness of the Pap test and screening practices was carried out using pre-tested, interviewer administered, structured questionnaires. Participants in the intervention gr...

  20. Factors related to failure to attend the consultation to receive the results of the Pap smear test / Fatores relacionados ao não comparecimento à consulta para receber o resultado do exame colpocitológico

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Camila Teixeira Moreira, Vasconcelos; Denise de Fátima Fernandes, Cunha; Cássia Fernandes, Coelho; Ana Karina Bezerra, Pinheiro; Namie Okino, Sawada.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: identificar os fatores relacionados ao não comparecimento das mulheres à consulta de retorno para receber o resultado do exame colpocitológico. MÉTODO: estudo transversal, realizado com 775 pacientes que se submeteram ao exame colpocitológico no Centro de Saúde da Família de Fortalez [...] a, Ceará, entre setembro de 2010 e fevereiro de 2011. RESULTADOS: a maioria das pesquisadas era jovem (?35 anos), de baixa escolaridade (?7 anos de estudo), com início da vida sexual precoce (?20 anos) e 17,0% delas não retornaram para receber o resultado do exame. Resultados estatisticamente significantes para o não comparecimento ao retorno estiveram relacionados a: mulheres jovens (p=0,001), início precoce da atividade sexual (p=0,047) e conhecimento inadequado sobre o exame colpocitológico (p=0,029). CONCLUSÃO: o fato de a mulher não retornar para receber o resultado é um problema para o controle do câncer cervicouterino e deve ser combatido por meio de estratégias educativas que reforcem a importância do retorno para a detecção precoce desse câncer. Abstract in spanish OBJETIVO: identificar los factores relacionados a la no asistencia de las mujeres a la consulta de retorno para recibir el resultado de la prueba de Papanicolaou. MÉTODO: se trata de un estudio transversal, realizado con 775 pacientes que se sometieron a la prueba de Papanicolaou en el Centro [...] de Salud de la Familia de Fortaleza-CE, entre septiembre de 2010 y febrero de 2011. RESULTADOS: la mayoría de las encuestadas eran jóvenes (?35 años), de baja escolaridad (?7 años de estudio), iniciaron la vida sexual muy temprano (?20 años) y 17,0% de ellas no retornaron para recibir el resultado del examen. Los resultados estadísticamente significativos por no retornar estuvieron relacionados a: mujeres jóvenes (p=0,001); inicio precoz de la actividad sexual (p=0,047); y conocimiento inadecuado sobre la prueba de Papanicolaou (p=0,029). CONCLUSIÓN: el hecho de la mujer no retornar para recibir el resultado es un problema para el control del cáncer de cuello uterino y debe ser combatido por medio de estrategias educativas que refuercen la importancia del retorno para la detección precoz de ese cáncer. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: to identify the factors related to the failure of women to attend the follow-up consultation to receive the results of the Pap smear test. METHOD: a cross-sectional study, carried out with 775 patients who underwent the Pap smear test in the Centro de Saúde da Família of Fortaleza, [...] between September 2010 and February 2011. RESULTS: the majority of the women studied were young (?35 years), had low levels of education (?7 years of study), and commenced sexual activity early (?20 years), with 17.0% of them failing to return to receive the test results. Statistically significant results for the failure to return were related to: young women (p=0.001); early onset of sexual activity (p=0.047); and inadequate knowledge about the Pap smear test (p=0.029). Conclusion the fact that the women failed to return for the result is a problem for the control of cervical cancer and must be addressed through educational strategies that reinforce the importance of the return for the early detection of this cancer.

  1. A Comparison of Three Pap Smear Collection Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Mesdaghinia

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Pap smear test is considered the best screening method for cervical disease, especially for malignant lesions. The crucial factor here is obtaining high-quality samples, as poorly-prepared ones cause a great deal of confusion for patients and physicians alike. Attempts to define an ideal sampling technique have been going on for many years, and in this study we compare three different sampling methods to determine which one provides the best quality. Materials and Methods: This interventional study was performed in a private obstetrics-gynecology clinic and involved 600 women who met the criteria for cervical screening. The Pap test was done by three different methods: "Swab spatula", "Cytobrush – spatula" and "Spatula only". Results: Each method was performed on 200 randomly-selected patients. Cytopathologic examination was done by a single pathologist and in a blind fashion. For each specimen, a quality rating was reported as "satisfactory" or "unsatisfactory". Among the 200 samples obtained by the "Swabspatula” method, 150 (75% were of satisfactory quality and the remaining 50 cases (25% were rated as unsatisfactory. As for the cytobrush–spatula group, 88 samples (94% were satisfactory and 12 (6% were unsatisfactory. Finally, 179 samples (88% in “Spatula-only” group were satisfactory and 24 (12% were unsatisfactory. The difference in the proportion of good-quality samples was significant in pairwise comparisons between the three methods: swab-spatula versus spatula-only (P = 0.0013, swab-spatula versus cytobrush-spatula (P = 0.0001 and cytobrush-spatula versus spatula-only (P = 0.036. Conclusion: The study revealed that the cytobrush-spatula sampling method yielded the highest proportion of high-quality samples. Hence, it would be desirable to familiarize physicians, midwives and other health care workers in this country with the technique of cytobrush cervical sampling and its potential advantages. However, financial and cultural aspects must be taken into account before adopting the procedure for routine cervical screening in Iran.

  2. Knowledge Attitudes and Practice about Pap Smear among Women Reffering to A Public Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakineh Mohammad-Alizadeh- Charandabi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The Pap smear is a reliable, inexpensive and effective screening test for cervical cancer; the second most common cancer among women worldwide. We aimed to determine women’s knowledge, attitudes and practice towards Pap smear and barriers for the screening in a public hospital.Materials and methods: This study, was carried out on 350 outpatient married women reffering for a visit at the clinics of the Alzahra educational hospital, Rasht- Iran, 2011. A questionnaire including demographic characteristics (24 questions, knowledge (14 questions, attitudes (11 statments and practice (10 questions towards Pap smear was completed by interview with the women. The data were analyzed using SPSS ver.13.Results: Mean age of participants was 32 (SD 12 years. Of the respondents, only 44.3% were aware of the Pap smear and 27.1% had had it at least once in their life. The most common reason for having the test was physicians’ or other health workers’ advise and for not having the test was no recommendation by health providers and lack of knowledge about Pap smear. Embarrassing, fear of the test result or economic problems mentioned by only 12 (4.2% as the main barrier. Mean (±SD knowledge score of the women who had heard about the Pap smear was 59.4 (24.3 and attitudes score of all participants was 48.5 (11.6 from possible range score of 0-100. Women with a history of Pap smear had had higher awareness and attitudes score.Conclusion: The knowledge and practice of the women was inadequate and need to be promoted. Considering the main reason mentioned by the participants for not having the test, all health providers should educate and encourage women to do regular Pap smear.

  3. Comparison of visual inspection of cervix and pap smear for cervical cancer screening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To evaluate the performance of visual inspection of cervix (VIA) after application of 3% acetic acid in cervical cancer screening in comparison with PAP smear. Results: Out of 540 subjects, 356 were negative with both screening techniques. One hundred and fifty-six subjects were positive with VIA (28.9%) while PAP smear was positive in seventy-eight subjects (14.4%). The sensitivity of VIA was 93.9% and of PAP smear was 46.9%. Corresponding specificities were 30.4% and 69.5%. There was no significant difference between the positive predictive value (PPV) of both test (p<0.05). The accuracy of VIA was 77.5% compared to 52.8% of PAP smear. The difference was highly significant (p < 0.01). Conclusion: These results indicate that VIA is more sensitive and has a higher accuracy as compared to PAP smear. It could, therefore, be valuable in detection of precancerous lesions of cervix. Low cost, easy applicability and immediate results make VIA a useful screening test in developing countries like Pakistan as compared to PAP smear. (author)

  4. Women's understanding of the term 'Pap smear'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, David L; Hostetter, Sarah Smith; Hunter, Jennifer; Johnson, Nicole; Cooper, Saladin; Malnar, Gerard

    2015-07-01

    To assess the understanding of the term 'Pap smear' among women across the entire adult lifespan after recent changes to the guidelines on cervical cancer screening. Women attending the Obstetrics and Gynecology clinic at a large safety net teaching hospital in a Midwestern city were provided one of two versions of a confidential and anonymous survey to complete. The difference between the two versions was the way the primary research question was worded. There were 174 participants ranging in age from 15 to 69 (mean = 33.9) years. Of the 73 women who completed version A of the survey, 74 % were able to identify at least one correct descriptor for the term 'Pap smear.' Women who could identify at least one correct descriptor for the term 'Pap smear' were on average older than those who could not (mean = 36.9 vs. 28.7 years; p = 0.012). Of the 94 patients completing survey version B, 67 % could not differentiate a pelvic exam from a Pap smear. There was no association between age and ability to differentiate a pelvic exam from a Pap smear. The majority of women cannot distinguish a Pap smear from a pelvic exam. The unexpected finding of less understanding among younger women prompts a need for further research and invites discussion of whether more cervical cancer prevention education, with more emphasis on HPV vaccines in recent years, has neglected the importance of Pap smears-which is beginning to show up in knowledge of younger women. Both these findings suggest a need for increased patient education during female preventive health clinic visits. PMID:25630404

  5. Evaluation of a Worksite Cervical Screening Initiative to Increase Pap Smear Uptake in Malaysia: A Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Fauziah Abdullah; Michael O’Rorke; Liam Murray; Tin Tin Su

    2013-01-01

    Background. Despite the significant burden of cervical cancer, Malaysia like many middle-income countries relies on opportunistic cervical screening as opposed to a more organized population-based program. The aim of this study was to ascertain the effectiveness of a worksite screening initiative upon Papanicolaou smear test (Pap test) uptake among educated working women in Malaysia. Methods. 403 female teachers who never or infrequently attended for a Pap test from 40 public secondary school...

  6. Obtaining reliable Likelihood Ratio tests from simulated likelihood functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Laura Mørch

    2013-01-01

    It is standard practice by researchers and the default option in many statistical programs to base test statistics for mixed models on simulations using asymmetric draws (e.g. Halton draws). This paper shows that when the estimated likelihood functions depend on standard deviations of mixed parameters this practice is very likely to cause misleading test results for the number of draws usually used today. The paper shows that increasing the number of draws is a very inefficient solution strategy...

  7. On obtaining material properties from the ring compression test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A simple theory for the large deformation of a tube compressed diametrically between rigid plates is described. This enables the load-deflection curve, maximum tensile strain in the tube wall and other features of the deformation to be deduced. The application of this theory to the ring compression test is described and its possible modification to account for more complex material behaviour than that assumed in the basic model is discussed. (Auth.)

  8. Associations of demographic variables and the Health Belief Model constructs with Pap smear screening among urban women in Botswana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McFarl

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Ditsapelo M McFarland College of Nursing and Public Health, Adelphi University, Garden City, NY, USA Purpose: Papanicolaou (Pap smear services are available in most urban areas in Botswana. Yet most women in such areas do not screen regularly for cancer of the cervix. The purpose of this article is to present findings on the associations of demographic variables and Health Belief Model constructs with Pap smear screening among urban women in Botswana. Sample and methods: The study included a convenience sample of 353 asymptomatic women aged 30 years and older who were living in Gaborone, Botswana. Data were collected using a demographic questionnaire and items of the Health Belief Model. Data analysis included descriptive statistics for demographic variables and bivariate and ordinal (logit regression to determine the associations of demographic variables. Results: Having health insurance and having a regular health care provider were significant predictors of whether or not women had a Pap smear. Women with health insurance were more likely to have had a Pap smear test than women without health insurance (91% vs 36%. Similarly, women who had a regular health care provider were more likely to have had a Pap smear test than women without a regular health care provider (94% vs 42%. Major barriers to screening included what was described as "laziness" for women who had ever had a Pap smear (57% and limited information about Pap smear screening for women who had never had a Pap smear (44%. Conclusion: There is a need for more information about the importance of the Pap smear test and for increased access to screening services in Botswana. Keywords: cervical, screening, barriers, access, beliefs

  9. Pap-smear Benchmark Data For Pattern Classification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jantzen, Jan; Norup, Jonas

    2005-01-01

    This case study provides data and a baseline for comparing classification methods. The data consists of 917 images of Pap-smear cells, classified carefully by cyto-technicians and doctors. Each cell is described by 20 numerical features, and the cells fall into 7 classes. A basic data analysis includes scatter plots and linear classification results, in order to provide domain knowledge and lower bounds on the acceptable performance of future classifiers. Students and researchers can access the database on the Internet, and use it to test and compare their own classification methods.

  10. Intraoperative BiPAP in OSA Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Bhavna P; Ns, Kodandaram

    2015-04-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSA) is characterized by recurrent episodes of partial or complete upper airway obstructions during sleep. Severe OSA presents with a number of challenges to the anesthesiologist, the most life threatening being loss of the airway. We are reporting a case where we successfully used intraoperative bi level positive pressure ventilation (BiPAP) with moderate sedation and a regional technique in a patient with severe OSA posted for total knee replacement (TKR). A 55-year-old lady with osteoarthritis of right knee joint was posted for total knee replacement. She had severe OSA with an apnea-hypopnea index of 35. She also had moderate pulmonary hypertension due to her long standing OSA. We successfully used in her a combined spinal epidural technique with intraoperative BiPAP and sedation. She had no complications intraoperatively or post operatively and was discharged on day 5. Patients with OSA are vulnerable to sedatives, anaesthesia and analgesia which even in small doses can cause complete airway collapse. The problem, with regional techniques is that it requires excellent patient cooperation. We decided to put our patient on intraoperative BiPAP hoping that this would allow us to sedate her adequately for the surgery. As it happened we were able to successfully sedate her with slightly lesser doses of the commonly used sedatives without any episodes of desaturation, snoring or exacerbation of pulmonary hypertension. Many more trials are required before we can conclusively say that intraoperative BiPAP allows us to safely sedate OSA patients but we hope that our case report draws light on this possibility. Planning ahead and having a BiPAP machine available inside the operating may allow us to use sedatives in these patients to keep them comfortable under regional anaesthesia. PMID:26023625

  11. Presencia de algunos factores de riesgo de cáncer de cérvix en mujeres con citologías normales / Presence of some risk factors for cervix uteri cancer in women with normal Pap's smear test results

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Yoimy, Díaz Brito; María Margarita, Báez Pupo; Jorge Luis, Pérez Rivero; Migdalia, García Placeres.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: el cáncer del cuello del útero es un problema de salud que afecta a las mujeres, son múltiples los factores que lo predisponen. Objetivo: identificar la presencia de algunos factores de riesgo de Cáncer de cervix en mujeres de un Grupo Básico de Trabajo con citologías normales. Método: [...] se realizó un estudio observacional descriptivo, en mujeres pertenecientes al Grupo Básico de Trabajo 1 del Policlínico Docente "Tula Aguilera", del municipio Camagüey, desde septiembre a diciembre del año 2011. De las 997 mujeres registradas en las Historias Clínicas de Salud Familiar, se seleccionaron 191 utilizando el Programa EPIDAT, por muestreo aleatorio simple. Se les aplicó una encuesta y los datos recogidos fueron presentados en tablas de frecuencias. Resultados: se encontró que predominó el grupo de edades entre 35-39 años con un 24,0 %, el 90,0 % comenzaron a tener relaciones antes de los 20 años, el 64,3 % tuvieron tres y más compañeros sexuales, 70,7 % padecieron de infección vaginal. Conclusiones : al concluir el estudio, se aprecia la presencia elevada de factores de riesgo de cáncer del cérvix en las féminas estudiadas. Abstract in english Introduction: the cervix uteri cancer is a health problem affecting women and the number of predisposing factors is large. Objective: to identify some risk factors for cervix uteri cancer in females cared for by a basic work team with normal results in their Pap's smear tests. Methods: an observatio [...] nal and descriptive study was conducted in women, who were cared for by the basic work team no. 1 of "Tula Aguilera" teaching polyclinics in Camaguey municipality from September to December, 2011. The medical records of family health registered 997 from whom 191 were selected through the simple random sampling based on EPIDAT software. They were surveyed and their data presented in frequency tables. Results: it was found that 35-39 y age group predominated with 24%; 90% of them began their sexual relationships prior to being 20 years-old; 64.3% had three or more sexual partners and 70.7% suffered from vaginal infection. Conclusions: at the end of the study, we noticed the significant presence of risk factors for cervix uteri cancer in the studied women.

  12. Isolation and cloning of the Phytolacca americana anti-viral protein PAP-I gene

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Heba A, Mahfouze; Khalid A, El-Dougdoug; Badawi A, Othman; Mostafa A, Gomaa.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available La proteína antiviral del ginseng (PAP), aislada de plantas de Phytolacca americana y Phytolacca acinosa, inhibe la traducción proteica mediante la remoción catalítica de un residuo de adenina específico, en la cadena mayor de la subunidad 60S del ARN ribosomal eucariótico. En este estudio se aisló [...] y secuenció el gen PAP-I de P. americana, y posteriormente se comparó con los genes de otras proteínas inactivadoras de ribosomas (RIP), reportadas en GenBank(r). Se extrajo el ADN total de las hojas tardías del verano de las plantas de P. americana y el fragmento de 868 pb correspondiente al ADN del gen se amplificó con el uso de cebadores específicos, mediante reacción en cadena de la polimerasa (PCR). El producto de la PCR eluido se purificó, se clonó en el vector pTZ57R/T, y se movilizó en células de Escherichia coli cepa DH5a. Tras la secuenciación del producto de la PCR del gen PAP-I, la secuencia mostró una homología nucleotídica de 98 a 82 % y aminoacídica de 94 a 26 %, con las RIP reportadas. El análisis filogenético confirmó que el gen amplificado corresponde a la RIP tipo I de simple cadena (PAP-I). Abstract in english The pokeweed antiviral protein (PAP) isolated from Phytolacca americana and Phytolacca acinosa plants, inhibits protein translation by catalytically removing a specific adenine residue from the large rRNA of the 60S subunit of eukaryotic ribosomes. In this study, the P. americana PAP-I gene was isol [...] ated and sequenced, and further compared to other ribosome-inactivating proteins (RIPs) genes previously reported in GenBank(r). Total DNA was extracted from the late summer leaves of P. americana. A polymerase chain reaction (PCR) 868 bp-long DNA product was obtained, using gene specific primers, based on the expected gene size. The eluted product was purified and cloned into the pTZ57R/T vector, and mobilized into the Escherichia coli strain DH5a. After sequencing, the analysis of the PAP-I PCR product showed 98 to 82 % nucleotide and amino acid 94 to 26 % homologies, respectively, compared to previously reported RIPs. A phylogenetic analysis confirmed that the amplified PAP-I gene corresponds to the single chain Type-I RIP (PAP-I).

  13. Intraoperative BiPAP in OSA Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Bhavna P; NS, Kodandaram

    2015-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSA) is characterized by recurrent episodes of partial or complete upper airway obstructions during sleep. Severe OSA presents with a number of challenges to the anesthesiologist, the most life threatening being loss of the airway. We are reporting a case where we successfully used intraoperative bi level positive pressure ventilation (BiPAP) with moderate sedation and a regional technique in a patient with severe OSA posted for total knee replacement (TKR). ...

  14. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF PAPANICOLAOU STAIN [PAP] WITH RAPID ECONOMIC ACETIC ACID PAPANICOLAOU STAIN (REAP IN CERVICAL CYTOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok Kumar

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The present comparative study of PAP and REAP stain was carried out to assess the quality of staining , duration of staining , cost effectiveness and preservation of staining. MATERIALS AND METHODS : A total of 200 samples were studied over a period of 2 years. The pap smears were obtained from the obstetrics and gynecology out - patient department , fixed in 95% ethyl alcohol and stained simultaneously by both the methods in the department of cytology. RESULTS : Pap stain showed 2 cases (1% of sub optimal cytoplasmic and nuclear staining whereas REAP stain showed 6 cases (3% of suboptimal cytoplasmic staining an d 4 cases (2% of suboptimal nuclear staining. A batch of ten slides each was stained by conventional PAP method and REAP method and the time taken was 35 min and 7 min respectively. The cost per slide worked out to be Rs. 40 in case of conventional PAP me thod and Rs. 10 in case of REAP method. Slides stained by both methods showed excellent preservation for 2 years. CONCLUSION S : The REAP staining method for study of cervical smears in cancer screening programmes is a simple and technician friendly protocol with minimum use of alcohol , that does not compromise on staining quality and diagnostic standards. It can be easily adapted as a viable alternative to conventional PAP method which is time consuming and expensive for mass screening of cervical cancer in limited resource setting like India. We recommend this procedure for all mass cervical cancer screening programmes.

  15. High Element Interactivity Information during Problem Solving May Lead to Failure to Obtain the Testing Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leahy, Wayne; Hanham, José; Sweller, John

    2015-01-01

    The testing effect occurs when learners who are tested rather than relearning material perform better on a final test than those who relearn. Based on cognitive load theory, it was predicted that the testing effect may not be obtained when the material being learned is high in element interactivity. Three experiments investigated conditions of the…

  16. STUDY OF HIGH RISK CASES FOR EARLY DETECTION OF CERVICAL CANCER BY PAP’S SMEAR AND VISUAL INSPECTION BY LUGOL’S IODINE METHOD.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harshad Ladola

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION:Cervical cancer is the commonest genital tract cancer among Indian women. Screening programmes have claimed to reduce incidence and mortality of cervical carcinoma significantly, for which sensitization of women is required through community based approach.OBJECTIVES: Comparison of VILI and cytology by PAP smear for detection of low grade squamous intraepithelial lesion, high grade squamous intraepithelial lesion, carcinoma of cervix and correlation of results with the reference standards(colposcopy and biopsyMATERIAL & METHODS:Study was carried out in 50 women of high risk group, aged 20 to 65 years in the year of May 2008 to May 2010 in our hospital. All women were investigated with colposcopy and biopsy were taken who had abnormal colposcopy.RESULT:Sensitivity, Specificity, Positive predictive value, Negative predictive value of PAP test was 80%, 97%, 80%, 97% respectively, compared with reference standards.Sensitivity, Specificity, Positive predictive value, Negative predictive value of VILI test was 80%, 91.11%,50%,97.6% respectively, compared with reference standards.CONCLUSION:VILI and PAP test can be used effectively for detection of precancerous lesion of cervix at hospital set up as well as community level.

  17. Who is getting Pap smears in urban Peru?

    OpenAIRE

    Paz Soldan, Valerie A; Lee, Frank H; Carcamo, Cesar; Holmes, King K; Garnett, Geoff P; Garcia, Patricia

    2008-01-01

    Background Cervical cancer, although usually preventable by Pap smear screening, remains the leading cause of cancer-related deaths among women in Peru. The percentages and characteristics of women in Peru who have or have not had a Pap smear have not been defined.

  18. Factors associated with obtaining health screening among women of reproductive age.

    OpenAIRE

    Wilcox, L S; Mosher, W D

    1993-01-01

    Death and disability associated with breast and cervical cancer and hypertension can be reduced by early detection and treatment. The authors examined the rates for having obtained a Papanicolaou (Pap) test or pelvic examination, a breast physical examination, and a blood pressure test within the last 12 months among women of reproductive age in the United States in 1988, as reported by the 8,450 women interviewed for the 1988 National Survey of Family Growth. Overall, the annual rates of scr...

  19. Comparison of Visual Inspection with acetic acid and Pap smear in cervical cancer screening at a tertiary care hospital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To determine the accuracy of visual inspection with acetic acid in comparison with Pap smear against colposcopic directed biopsy, for detection of pre-cancerous lesion. Methods: The comparative cross-sectional study was conducted at the Maternal and Child Health Centre (MCHC), Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences (PIMS), Islamabad, from January to December 2010. Every married women with age range 19 to 51 years underwent conventional cytology and visual inspection with 5% acetic acid. Distinct acetowhite areas were taken as positive, while cervical intra-epithelial neoplasia on cytology was labelled as Pap smear positive. Colposcopic directed biopsy was taken as the gold standard. SPSS 13 was used for statistical analysis. Results: Of 519 subjects, 70(13.4%) were screened positive and 29(5.6%) were biopsy positive for cervical intra-epithelial neoplasia. Of these, 26(37.1 %) were positive on visual inspection; 14 (20 %) on cytology; and 30 (42.8%) on combined test. The sensitivity of visual inspection was 78.5% vs 61.1% for Pap smear (p<0.001). The specificity of visual inspection was 99.3% vs 99.4% for cytology (p<0.1). Significantly higher sensitivity and specificity was found for the combined test than either of the two alone; 93.1% and 99.1% respectively (p<0.001). The positive predictive value of visual inspection vs pap was 84.6% vs 78.5% (p<0.001) and negative predictive value was 98.6% vs 96.5% (p<0.1). Both values of combined test were significantly higher than either of the two tests alone (p<0.01). Conclusion: Visual inspection with acetic acid has significantly higher sensitivity than Pap smear and may replace pap smear as a primary screening tool for universal screening. Combined test with higher predictive accuracy may be used for opportunistic screening. (author)

  20. Biochemical and molecular characterization of AtPAP12 and AtPAP26: the predominant purple acid phosphatase isozymes secreted by phosphate-starved Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Hue T; Qian, Weiqiang; Hurley, Brenden A; She, Yi-Min; Wang, Daowen; Plaxton, William C

    2010-11-01

    Plant purple acid phosphatases (PAPs) belong to a large multigene family whose specific functions in Pi metabolism are poorly understood. Two PAP isozymes secreted by Pi-deficient (-Pi) Arabidopsis thaliana were purified from culture filtrates of -Pi suspension cells. They correspond to an AtPAP12 (At2g27190) homodimer and AtPAP26 (At5g34850) monomer composed of glycosylated 60 and 55?kDa subunit(s), respectively. Each PAP exhibited broad pH activity profiles centred at pH 5.6, and overlapping substrate specificities. Concanavalin-A chromatography resolved a pair of secreted AtPAP26 glycoforms. AtPAP26 is dual targeted during Pi stress because it is also the principal intracellular (vacuolar) PAP up-regulated by -Pi Arabidopsis. Differential glycosylation appears to influence the subcellular targeting and substrate selectivity of AtPAP26. The significant increase in secreted acid phosphatase activity of -Pi seedlings was correlated with the appearance of immunoreactive AtPAP12 and AtPAP26 polypeptides. Analysis of atpap12 and atpap26 T-DNA mutants verified that AtPAP12 and AtPAP26 account for most of the secreted acid phosphatase activity of -Pi wild-type seedlings. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR confirmed that transcriptional controls exert little influence on the up-regulation of AtPAP26 during Pi stress, whereas AtPAP12 transcripts correlate well with relative levels of secreted AtPAP12 polypeptides. We hypothesize that AtPAP12 and AtPAP26 facilitate Pi scavenging from soil-localized organophosphates during nutritional Pi deprivation. PMID:20545876

  1. Comparative study of effectiveness of Pap smear versus visual inspection with acetic acid and visual inspection with Lugol?s iodine for mass screening of premalignant and malignant lesion of cervix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuchi Consul

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Cancer of the cervix is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality among women worldwide. Therefore, to curb the disease, there is a need to develop a screening test that has good sensitivity and specificity. The present study is aimed to compare the effectiveness of the Pap smear, visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA and visual inspection with Lugol?s iodine (VILI for mass screening of premalignant and malignant lesions of the cervix; to evaluate the usefulness of VIA and VILI as an adjunct to improve sensitivity of cervical cytology; and to evaluate the role of VILI as a parallel screening method with VIA to enhance its test performance. Design and Setting: This was a prospective, analytical study in which 210 patients of the reproductive age group attending the gynecology OPD were enrolled. Patients and Methods: Patients were first subjected to Pap smear followed by VIA, VILI, colposcopy and biopsy for confirmation of lesion, if needed. Data was obtained and statistically analyzed. Results: Of the 210 patients, 34 (16.27% had positive Pap test, 29 (13.87% had positive VIA and 24 (11.43% had positive VILI and 31 (14.75% showed features of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN on colposcopy. Of the total of 48 patients in whom either of the screening tests was positive and had undergone cervical biopsy, one had CIN-3, three had CIN-2, 12 had CIN-1, three had carcinoma in situ CIS and 29 reported normal. In our study, 40 patients were picked up as positive by combination of these tests, of which 19 (47.50% had CIN on biopsy. Conclusion: Our study showed that VIA and VILI had sensitivity comparable to Pap smear and can thus be a suitable potential alternative/adjunctive screening test not only in a resource-poor setting but in well-equipped centers also. And, use of a combination of tests (Pap+VIA+VILI had 100% sensitivity but at cost of low specificity and more false-positive results.

  2. Mammography and Pap test screening among low-income foreign-born Hispanic women in the USA / Mamografia e teste Papanicolau em mulheres latinas de baixa renda nos Estados Unidos

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Maria E., Fernandez; Guillermo, Tortolero-Luna; Robert S., Gold.

    Full Text Available Este estudo determinou os fatores que influenciam a conduta de mulheres latinas de baixa renda nos EUA, em face do monitoramento pela mamografia (MM) e por meio do teste de Papanicolau (TP), em uma amostra de 148 mulheres latinas, residentes na região metropolitana de Washington DC. A idade média na [...] amostra foi de 46,2 anos (desvio padrão 11,5), e 84% relatavam renda familiar anual menor que quinze mil dólares. Todas as mulheres falavam espanhol e apresentavam níveis reduzidos de aculturação; 96% destas informavam ter realizado TP, mas 24% não relatavam adesão às normas recomendadas de rastreamento. Entre aquelas com quarenta anos ou mais, 62% haviam realizado MM, mas somente 33% de acordo com as normas de rotina. A freqüência de conceitos equivocados sobre o câncer neste grupo de mulheres foi maior que a observada para mulheres latinas em outros estudos. Modelos logísticos multivariados para variáveis correlacionadas à conduta no rastreamento pelo TP e MM indicam que fatores como o medo do teste, vergonha e desconhecimento tiveram influência. Concluiu-se que as mulheres nesse estudo apresentaram menor freqüência de rastreamento por MM que mulheres não latinas, além de apresentarem também níveis mais reduzidos de adesão às normas de rastreamento por TP e MM. Abstract in english Little is known about the factors influencing screening among low-income Hispanic women particularly among recent immigrants. A sample of 148 low-income, low-literate, foreign-born Hispanic women residing in the Washington DC metropolitan area participated in the study. The mean age of the sample wa [...] s 46.2 (SD = 11.5), 84% reported annual household incomes

  3. Mammography and Pap test screening among low-income foreign-born Hispanic women in the USA Mamografia e teste Papanicolau em mulheres latinas de baixa renda nos Estados Unidos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria E. Fernandez

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about the factors influencing screening among low-income Hispanic women particularly among recent immigrants. A sample of 148 low-income, low-literate, foreign-born Hispanic women residing in the Washington DC metropolitan area participated in the study. The mean age of the sample was 46.2 (SD = 11.5, 84% reported annual household incomesEste estudo determinou os fatores que influenciam a conduta de mulheres latinas de baixa renda nos EUA, em face do monitoramento pela mamografia (MM e por meio do teste de Papanicolau (TP, em uma amostra de 148 mulheres latinas, residentes na região metropolitana de Washington DC. A idade média na amostra foi de 46,2 anos (desvio padrão 11,5, e 84% relatavam renda familiar anual menor que quinze mil dólares. Todas as mulheres falavam espanhol e apresentavam níveis reduzidos de aculturação; 96% destas informavam ter realizado TP, mas 24% não relatavam adesão às normas recomendadas de rastreamento. Entre aquelas com quarenta anos ou mais, 62% haviam realizado MM, mas somente 33% de acordo com as normas de rotina. A freqüência de conceitos equivocados sobre o câncer neste grupo de mulheres foi maior que a observada para mulheres latinas em outros estudos. Modelos logísticos multivariados para variáveis correlacionadas à conduta no rastreamento pelo TP e MM indicam que fatores como o medo do teste, vergonha e desconhecimento tiveram influência. Concluiu-se que as mulheres nesse estudo apresentaram menor freqüência de rastreamento por MM que mulheres não latinas, além de apresentarem também níveis mais reduzidos de adesão às normas de rastreamento por TP e MM.

  4. Pap-smear Classification Using Efficient Second Order Neural Network Training Algorithms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ampazis, Nikolaos; Dounias, George; Jantzen, Jan

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we make use of two highly efficient second order neural network training algorithms, namely the LMAM (Levenberg-Marquardt with Adaptive Momentum) and OLMAM (Optimized Levenberg-Marquardt with Adaptive Momentum), for the construction of an efficient pap-smear test classifier. The algorithms are methodologically similar, and are based on iterations of the form employed in the Levenberg-Marquardt (LM) method for non-linear least squares problems with the inclusion of an additional ada...

  5. Papshop: Not a 'melon'choly Pap smear workshop!

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    C, Gordon.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available As Head of Undergraduate Education in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology at the University of Cape Town, South Africa, I have a particular interest in the competencies needed to perform primary care gynaecological procedures, one of which is the Pap smear. I was approached by a group of ke [...] en volunteer students to assist with Pap smear training to roll out a pilot screening programme at studentrun after-hours clinics in Cape Town and at volunteer rural health promotion clinics. This article describes a novel approach to teaching the Pap smear technique, using fruit and toilet rolls, which can easily be replicated in resource-constrained areas. Students branded the workshops as 'Papshops', and the name has stuck. Increasing numbers of students are now taught by peers already trained in prior Papshops, thereby expanding the teaching workforce. To date, during 2013 - 2014, Papshop students have performed almost 300 Pap smears for eligible women in under-resourced areas.

  6. Incontinência urinária em mulheres que buscam exame preventivo de câncer de colo uterino: fatores sociodemográficos e comportamentais / Urinary incontinence in women undergoing Pap smear test: socio-demographic and behavioral factors / Incontinencia urinaria en mujeres que solicitan un examen preventivo de cáncer de cuello uterino: factores socio-demográficos y de comportamiento

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Cinara, Sacomori; Nubia Berenice, Negri; Fernando Luiz, Cardoso.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo transversal objetivou investigar a associação entre, de um lado, fatores sociodemográficos e comportamentais e, de outro, a presença de incontinência urinária referida em 784 mulheres que buscam exame preventivo de câncer de colo uterino na Grande Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brasil. F [...] oram obtidos dados sociodemográficos, estado de saúde, atividade física, constipação e índice de massa corporal, sendo utilizado o International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire-SF. A prevalência de incontinência urinária foi de 30,7% (16,5% perdiam urina uma vez por semana ou menos e 23,8% em pequena quantidade). Na regressão de Poisson bruta, estiveram associados à incontinência urinária os seguintes fatores: baixa escolaridade, renda por pessoa da família até um salário mínimo, etnia não caucasiana, excesso de peso corporal, pior autoavaliação do estado de saúde, constipação e idade. Após ajuste, seguindo modelo hierarquizado, permaneceram associados: escolaridade, etnia, estado de saúde e idade. A alta prevalência de incontinência urinária em mulheres que buscam exame de rastreamento do câncer de colo uterino justifica abordagens preventivas nesses espaços de atuação. Abstract in spanish Este estudio transversal tuvo como objetivo investigar la asociación entre factores socio-demográficos y de comportamiento con la presencia de incontinencia urinaria, informada por 784 mujeres que solicitaron un examen preventivo de cáncer de cuello uterino en el área metropolitana de Florianópolis, [...] Santa Catarina, Brasil. Se obtuvieron datos socio-demográficos, estado de salud, actividad física, estreñimiento e índice de masa corporal, utilizándose el International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire-SF. La prevalencia de incontinencia urinaria fue de un 30,7% (16,5% perdían orina una vez por semana o menos y un 23,8% en pequeña cantidad). En la regresión de Poisson bruta se asoció a la incontinencia urinaria: la baja escolaridad; renta por persona de la familia de hasta un salario mínimo; etnia no caucásica; exceso de peso corporal; peor autoevaluación de estado de salud; estreñimiento y edad. Tras los ajustes, siguiendo un modelo jerarquizado, permanecieron asociados: escolaridad; etnia; estado de salud y edad. La alta prevalencia de incontinencia urinaria de mujeres que solicitaron un examen de indicios de cáncer de cuello uterino justifica aproximaciones preventivas en esos espacios. Abstract in english This cross-sectional study aimed to investigate the association between socio-demographic and behavioral factors and the presence of self-reported urinary incontinence in 784 women undergoing cervical cancer screening in Greater Florianópolis, Santa Catarina State, Brazil. Socio-demographic data, he [...] alth status, physical activity, constipation, and body mass index were obtained, and the International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire-SF was used. Prevalence of urinary incontinence was 30.7% (16.5% reported leakage once a week or less and 23.8% losses in small volumes). Poisson univariate regression showed the following factors associated with urinary incontinence: lower education, lower income, non-white skin color, overweight, worse health status, constipation, and older age. After adjustment, according to a hierarchical model, schooling, ethnicity, health status, and age remained significantly associated. The high prevalence of urinary incontinence in women seeking Pap smear tests justifies preventive approaches in these areas of intervention.

  7. Effect of test procedure on shear strength obtained using the Newcastle dilatometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new dilatometer for in-situ soil testing has been developed which uses a rigid piston to load the soil. The new dilatometer 'called the Newcastle Dilatometer (NDMT)' uses a Hall effect transducer and a magnet system to measure the penetration of the piston during loading of the soil. The pressure required to penetrate the piston is recorded using a pressure transducer. The two transducers together can produce applied pressure-displacement curves for obtaining soil parameters which can be more reliable than those obtained based on just one or two contact pressures values as in the Marchetti dilatometer. Since the NDMT allows more control during in-situ testing, the same was carried out employing two test procedures, 'the stress increment controlled' and 'the constant rate of stress' at a site consisting of firm to stiff clay. This paper presents a comparison of the data obtained from the two test procedures and the effect the test procedure has on the various soil properties, in general and the shear strength, in particular. (author)

  8. Molecular testing of human papillomavirus in cervical specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective was to improve the diagnosis of cervical neoplasia by early detection of human papillomavirus (HPV) in uterine cervix, by adding molecular testing of HPV using hybrid capture 2 (HC2) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) tests to Papanicoalou (Pap) test. One hundred women were enrolled in this study. The mean age (mean+-SD) was 41.97+- 8.76 years and range was 27-65 years. All women had undergone cervical cytological screening with cervical cytology, HPV DNA testing by HC2 and PCR, during the period from January to December 2006, at King Abdul-Aziz University Hospital (KAAUH) and King Fahd research Center, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. The results were obtained by HC2 for detection of HPV were 5(5%) high-risk HPV, one low-risk HPV (1%) and 94(94%) negative cases. The PCR detected only 4(4%) cases. Using the HC2 test as a reference, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive, negative predictive values and accuracy of base line Pap were 50, 85, 17.7, 96.4 and 83%; of final Pap smear were 100, 96.8, 66.7, 100, and 97% and for PCR were 66.7, 100, 100, 97.9 and 98%. The Pap test was repeated within a year for patients with abnormal Pap test with positive HPV DNA. Combined screening by cytology and HPV testing using both HC2 and PCR sensitively detects women with existing disease. The absence of HPV DNA provides reassurance that patients are unlikely to develop cancer for several years. We suggest using Pap with HC2 and PCR in screening programs to ensure that women with the double negative result at baseline might safely be screened at longer intervals. (author)

  9. Results obtained from the inspection of test plates 1 and 2 of the defects detection trials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first phase of the UKAEA defect detection trials (DDT) (described previously) was aimed at determining the ability of selected non-destructive testing (NDT) techniques to detect and correctly classify defects throughout the thickness of an RPV circumferential weld. The techniques were tested on two specially prepared test plates. Each was 1500 x 1500 x 250 mm and contained a central butt weld. These have been designated plates 1 and 2. On completion of the inspections the plates were sectioned at Ispra and in this report the results obtained by the various inspectors are compared with the results of the destructive examination. The plates were scanned ultrasonically from both the clad and the unclad face. The results from the clad face were analysed first. The times required for the initial search and the subsequent analyses were noted, although in this context it is accepted that compared with an RPV inspection the defect population in these test plates is unrealistically high. (author)

  10. Test of irradiation of tellurium oxide for obtaining iodine-131 by dry distillation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the purpose of optimizing to the maximum independently the work of the reactor of those mathematical calculations of irradiation that are already optimized, now it corresponds to carry out irradiation tests in the different positions with their respective neutron fluxes that it counts the reactor for samples irradiation. Then, it is necessary to carry out the irradiation of the tellurium dioxide through cycles, with the purpose of observing the activity that it goes accumulating in each cycle and this way to obtain an activity of the Iodine-131 obtained when finishing the last cycle. (Author)

  11. Strategies for obtaining long constant-pressure test times in shock tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, M. F.; Parise, T.; Tulgestke, A. M.; Spearrin, R. M.; Davidson, D. F.; Hanson, R. K.

    2015-11-01

    Several techniques have been developed for obtaining long, constant-pressure test times in reflected shock wave experiments in a shock tube, including the use of driver inserts, driver gas tailoring, helium gas diaphragm interfaces, driver extensions, and staged driver gas filling. These techniques are detailed here, including discussion on the most recent strategy, staged driver gas filling. Experiments indicate that this staged filling strategy increases available test time by roughly 20 % relative to single-stage filling of tailored driver gas mixtures, while simultaneously reducing the helium required per shock by up to 85 %. This filling scheme involves firstly mixing a tailored helium-nitrogen mixture in the driver section as in conventional driver filling and, secondly, backfilling a low-speed-of-sound gas such as nitrogen or carbon dioxide from a port close to the end cap of the driver section. Using this staged driver gas filling, in addition to the other techniques listed above, post-reflected shock test times of up to 0.102 s (102 ms) at 524 K and 1.6 atm have been obtained. Spectroscopically based temperature measurements in non-reactive mixtures have confirmed that temperature and pressure conditions remain constant throughout the length of these long test duration trials. Finally, these strategies have been used to measure low-temperature n-heptane ignition delay times.

  12. Elastic modulus measurement—obtaining reliable data from the tensile test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lord, J. D.; Morrell, R. M.

    2010-04-01

    Elastic modulus is an intrinsic material property and a key parameter in engineering design and materials development. A wide range of test methods is available for measuring modulus, but there is currently some uncertainty within parts of the user community about the reliability of modulus data, particularly from the tensile test, to the extent that many use standard handbook values in their calculations and designs. This is not recommended and can be addressed through good experimental practice and careful measurement. The paper discusses some of the key practical issues associated with the tensile test that need to be considered to obtain reliable values for Young's modulus such as strain measurement, alignment, data analysis methods, software validation, uncertainty budgets and the use of reference materials.

  13. Cervical cancer screening in primary health care setting in Sudan : a comparative study of visual inspection with acetic acid and Pap smear

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibrahim, Ahmed; Aro, Arja R.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the feasibility of visual inspection with the use of acetic acid (VIA) as a screening method for cervical cancer, an alternative to the Pap smear used in primary health care setting in Sudan, and to compare sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, and histological diagnosis of positive cases of both tests. METHODS: A cross-sectional study of 934 asymptomatic women living in Khartoum, Sudan, was conducted during 2009-2010. A semi-structured questionnaire containing socio-economic and reproductive variables was used to collect data from each participant. Methods of screening used were VIA and conventional Pap smear, followed by colposcopy and biopsy for confirmation of the positive results of both screening tests. RESULTS: The tests identified altogether 119 (12.7%) positive women. VIA detected significantly more positive women than Pap smear (7.6% versus 5.1%; P = 0.004), with an overlap between the two screening tests in 19% of positive results. There was nosignificant difference between VIA and Pap smear findings and sociodemographic and reproductive factors among screened women. Use of colposcopy and biopsy for positive women confirmed that 88/119 (73.9%) were positive for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. VIA had higher sensitivity than Pap smear (74.2% versus 72.9%; P = 0.05) respectively. Out of 88 confirmed positive cases, 22 (25.0%) cases were invasive cervical cancer in stage 1, of which 19 versus three were detected by VIA and Pap smear respectively (P = 0.001). VIA had higher sensitivity and lower specificity than Pap smear (60.2% versus 47.7%) and (41.9% versus 83.8%) respectively. The combination of VIA/Pap has better sensitivity and specificity than each independent test (82.6% and 92.2%). CONCLUSION: The findings of this study showed that VIA has higher sensitivity and lower specificity compared to Pap smear, but a combination of both tests has greater sensitivity and specificity than each test independently. It indicates that VIA is useful forscreening of cervical cancer in the primary health care setting in Sudan, but positive results need to be confirmed by colposcopy and biopsy.

  14. Obtaining Constitutive Relationship for Rate-Dependent Rock in SHPB Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zilong; Li, Xibing; Ye, Zhouyuan; Liu, Kewei

    2010-11-01

    A large number of tests have recently been conducted with the Split Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB) method to determine the characteristics of rock dynamics. However, it is still impossible to get test results at a perfect constant strain rate from this set-up owing to the rate dependency of rock materials. For instance in most cases, dynamic behavior of rock can only be described with an average strain rate. The results from these methods, including rich strain rate information, frequently tend to be inexplicable or self-contradictory. The obtained stress-strain curves can then never be directly treated as constitutive curves as in static tests. In this paper, the reasons behind the controversial stress-strain results with current methods are analyzed. In addition, the requirement for the rock specimen to deform at a constant strain rate is demonstrated after theoretical analysis of correlations among specimen, deforming stress, incident stress, reflected stress and transmitted stress. With test results from SHPB by pulse shaper and special shape striker methods, the requirement is verified. Finally, the method of 3D scattergram considering stress-strain-strain rate simultaneously is brought up to get constitutive relationships of rate-dependent rock. The new method gives reasonable predictions for constitutive relationships of rock at different strain rates. At the same time, the new method has fewer requirements and has a wider application scope for SHPB tests.

  15. Continuous stress-induced dopamine dysregulation augments PAP-I and PAP-II expression in melanotrophs of the pituitary gland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konishi, Hiroyuki, E-mail: konishi@med.osaka-cu.ac.jp [Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka (Japan); The 21st Century COE Program ' Base to Overcome Fatigue' , Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka (Japan); Department of Anatomy and Neuroscience, Nagoya University, Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya (Japan); Ogawa, Tokiko, E-mail: togawa@med.osaka-cu.ac.jp [Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka (Japan); The 21st Century COE Program ' Base to Overcome Fatigue' , Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka (Japan); Kawahara, Shinichi, E-mail: kawahara@med.osaka-cu.ac.jp [Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka (Japan); Matsumoto, Sakiko, E-mail: s-matsumoto@med.osaka-cu.ac.jp [Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka (Japan); Department of Anatomy and Neuroscience, Nagoya University, Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya (Japan); Kiyama, Hiroshi, E-mail: kiyama@med.osaka-cu.ac.jp [Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka (Japan); The 21st Century COE Program ' Base to Overcome Fatigue' , Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka (Japan); Department of Anatomy and Neuroscience, Nagoya University, Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya (Japan)

    2011-04-01

    Research highlights: {yields} We focused on the rat pituitary intermediate lobe (IL) under continuous stress (CS). {yields} CS induced PAP-I and PAP-II expression in melanotrophs of the IL. {yields} This gene induction was triggered by CS-related dopamine dysregulation. {yields} PAP-I and PAP-II may sustain homeostasis of the IL under CS. -- Abstract: Under continuous stress (CS) in rats, melanotrophs, the predominant cell-type in the intermediate lobe (IL) of the pituitary, are hyperactivated to secrete {alpha}-melanocyte-stimulating hormone and thereafter degenerate. Although these phenomena are drastic, the molecular mechanisms underlying the cellular changes are mostly unknown. In this study, we focused on the pancreatitis-associated protein (PAP) family members of the secretory lectins and characterized their expression in the IL of CS model rats because we had identified two members of this family as up-regulated genes in our previous microarray analysis. RT-PCR and histological studies demonstrated that prominent PAP-I and PAP-II expression was induced in melanotrophs in the early stages of CS, while another family member, PAP-III, was not expressed. We further examined the regulatory mechanisms of PAP-I and PAP-II expression and revealed that both were induced by the decreased dopamine levels in the IL under CS. Because the PAP family members are implicated in cell survival and proliferation, PAP-I and PAP-II secreted from melanotrophs may function to sustain homeostasis of the IL under CS conditions in an autocrine or a paracrine manner.

  16. Continuous stress-induced dopamine dysregulation augments PAP-I and PAP-II expression in melanotrophs of the pituitary gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research highlights: ? We focused on the rat pituitary intermediate lobe (IL) under continuous stress (CS). ? CS induced PAP-I and PAP-II expression in melanotrophs of the IL. ? This gene induction was triggered by CS-related dopamine dysregulation. ? PAP-I and PAP-II may sustain homeostasis of the IL under CS. -- Abstract: Under continuous stress (CS) in rats, melanotrophs, the predominant cell-type in the intermediate lobe (IL) of the pituitary, are hyperactivated to secrete ?-melanocyte-stimulating hormone and thereafter degenerate. Although these phenomena are drastic, the molecular mechanisms underlying the cellular changes are mostly unknown. In this study, we focused on the pancreatitis-associated protein (PAP) family members of the secretory lectins and characterized their expression in the IL of CS model rats because we had identified two members of this family as up-regulated genes in our previous microarray analysis. RT-PCR and histological studies demonstrated that prominent PAP-I and PAP-II expression was induced in melanotrophs in the early stages of CS, while another family member, PAP-III, was not expressed. We further examined the regulatory mechanisms of PAP-I and PAP-II expression and revealed that both were induced by the decreased dopamine levels in the IL under CS. Because the PAP family members are implicated in cell survival and proliferation, PAP-I and PAP-II secreted from melanotrophs may function to sustain homeostasis of the IL under CS conditions in an autocrine or a paracrine manner.

  17. Selective indication for positive airway pressure (PAP) in sleep-related breathing disorders with obstruction

    OpenAIRE

    Stasche, N

    2006-01-01

    Positive airway pressure (PAP) is the therapy of choice for most sleep-related breathing disorders (SRBD). A variety of PAP devices using positive airway pressure (CPAP, BiPAP, APAP, ASV) must be carefully considered before application. This overview aims to provide criteria for choosing the optimal PAP device according to severity and type of sleep-related breathing disorder. In addition, the range of therapeutic applications, constraints and side effects as well as alternative methods to PA...

  18. Missed Opportunities for Health Education on Pap Smears in Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayer, Angela M.; Nussbaum, Lauren; Cabrera, Lilia; Paz-Soldan, Valerie A.

    2011-01-01

    Despite cervical cancer being one of the leading causes of cancer-related deaths among women in Peru, cervical Pap smear coverage is low. This article uses findings from 185 direct clinician observations in four cities of Peru (representing the capital and each of the three main geographic regions of the country) to assess missed opportunities for…

  19. Cytological patterns of cervical pap smears with histopathological correlation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhagya Lakshmi Atla

    2015-08-01

    Conclusion: Pap smear is simple, inexpensive and can be performed in the outpatient department. Hence, it should be recommended routinely as a method of improving reproductive health, early detection of premalignant and malignant cervical lesions. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(8.000: 1911-1916

  20. 14 CFR 61.307 - What tests do I have to take to obtain a sport pilot certificate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...What tests do I have to take to obtain a sport pilot certificate? 61.307 Section...FLIGHT INSTRUCTORS, AND GROUND INSTRUCTORS Sport Pilots § 61.307 What tests do I have to take to obtain a sport pilot certificate? To obtain a...

  1. Study of Pap smear and other feasible tests among self reported symptomatic married women in reproductive age group (15-49 yrs) regarding reproductive tract infections in a rural community of Maharashtra

    OpenAIRE

    Smita S. Chavan; Purushottam A Giri; Vijaykumar S. Singh; Shantha Sankaranarayan

    2013-01-01

    Background: Reproductive tract infections (RTIs) represent a major public health problem in developing countries. Integrating RTIs/STIs management and early detection of cervical dysplasia in broader reproductive health services can improve women?s health. The objectives of the study were 1. To study the association of socio-demographic & reproductive factors among self-reported symptomatic women for reproductive tract infections. 2. To carry out clinical examination & feasible tests lik...

  2. Comparison of Hybrid Capture II, Linear Array, and a Bead-Based Multiplex Genotyping Assay for Detection of Human Papillomavirus in Women with Negative Pap Test Results and Atypical Squamous Cells of Undetermined Significance

    OpenAIRE

    Comar, Manola; Iannacone, Michelle R.; Casalicchio, Giorgia; McKay-Chopin, Sandrine; Tommasino, Massimo; Gheit, Tarik

    2012-01-01

    Many methods with different levels of analytical sensitivity and clinical specificity have been developed to detect the presence of high-risk (HR) types of the human papillomavirus (HPV) in cervical samples. The Hybrid Capture II (HC-II) assay is broadly used for primary screening. In addition, several HPV genotyping assays, based on PCR methods, display higher sensitivity than the HC-II and are also used in screening programs. We evaluated the performance of three HPV DNA tests, namely, the ...

  3. Liquid-based cytology versus conventional cytology for evaluation of cervical Pap smears: Experience from the first 1000 split samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikrant Bhar Singh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Context and Aim: Screening programs using conventional cytology conventional Pap smear (CPS have successfully reduced cervical cancer, but newer tests like liquid-based cytology (LBC and human papillomavirus testing might enhance screening. The main aim of the present study was to assess the diagnostic accuracy of LBC versus CPS using "split samples." Materials and Methods: This was a prospective study comprising of 1000 consecutive cervical "split samples" over a period of 1 year. Split sample was obtained using cervex-brush. CPS was prepared from the brush and the brush head was suspended in the LBC vial and processed by SurePath™ LBC. Results: There were 4.3% unsatisfactory (U/S cases in CPS and 1.7% in LBC; the main cause is insufficient cells, and excess of blood in CPS. About 25/100 (2.5% split samples had epithelial abnormalities both in CPS and LBC (1.2%-atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance; 0.4%-low grade squamous intraepithelial lesion; 0.2%-high grade squamous intraepithelial lesion; 0.5%-squamous cell carcinoma; 0.1%-atypical glandular cells favouring neoplasia; 0.2%-adenocarcinoma. Inflammatory organisms were almost equally identified in both techniques but were better seen in LBC samples. Conclusions: LBC technique leads to significant reduction of U/S rate. LBC samples offered better clarity, uniform spread of smears, less time for screening and better handling of hemorrhagic and inflammatory samples. LBC had equivalent sensitivity and specificity to CPS.

  4. Rationale and design of the iPap trial: a randomized controlled trial of home-based HPV self-sampling for improving participation in cervical screening by never- and under-screened women in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Organized screening based on Pap tests has substantially reduced deaths from cervical cancer in many countries, including Australia. However, the impact of the program depends upon the degree to which women participate. A new method of screening, testing for human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA to detect the virus that causes cervical cancer, has recently become available. Because women can collect their own samples for this test at home, it has the potential to overcome some of the barriers to Pap tests. The iPap trial will evaluate whether mailing an HPV self-sampling kit increases participation by never- and under-screened women within a cervical screening program. The iPap trial is a parallel randomized controlled, open label, trial. Participants will be Victorian women age 30–69 years, for whom there is either no record on the Victorian Cervical Cytology Registry (VCCR) of a Pap test (never-screened) or the last recorded Pap test was between five to fifteen years ago (under-screened). Enrolment information from the Victorian Electoral Commission will be linked to the VCCR to determine the never-screened women. Variables that will be used for record linkage include full name, address and date of birth. Never- and under-screened women will be randomly allocated to either receive an invitation letter with an HPV self-sampling kit or a reminder letter to attend for a Pap test, which is standard practice for women overdue for a test in Victoria. All resources have been focus group tested. The primary outcome will be the proportion of women who participate, by returning an HPV self-sampling kit for women in the self-sampling arm, and notification of a Pap test result to the Registry for women in the Pap test arm at 3 and 6 months after mailout. The most important secondary outcome is the proportion of test-positive women who undergo further investigations at 6 and 12 months after mailout of results. The iPap trial will provide strong evidence about whether HPV self-sampling could be used in Australia to improve participation in cervical screening for never-and under-screened women. ANZCTR Identifier: https://www.anzctr.org.au/Trial/Registration/TrialReview.aspx?id; UTN: U1111-1148-3885

  5. Pap-smear Benchmark Data For Pattern Classification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jantzen, Jan; Norup, Jonas; Dounias, Georgios; Bjerregaard, Beth

    2005-01-01

    This case study provides data and a baseline for comparing classification methods. The data consists of 917 images of Pap-smear cells, classified carefully by cyto-technicians and doctors. Each cell is described by 20 numerical features, and the cells fall into 7 classes. A basic data analysis includes scatter plots and linear classification results, in order to provide domain knowledge and lower bounds on the acceptable performance of future classifiers. Students and researchers can access the ...

  6. Phosphorylation regulates the Star-PAP-PIPKI? interaction and directs specificity toward mRNA targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, Nimmy; Sudheesh, A P; Francis, Nimmy; Anderson, Richard; Laishram, Rakesh S

    2015-08-18

    Star-PAP is a nuclear non-canonical poly(A) polymerase (PAP) that shows specificity toward mRNA targets. Star-PAP activity is stimulated by lipid messenger phosphatidyl inositol 4,5 bisphoshate (PI4,5P2) and is regulated by the associated Type I phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate 5-kinase that synthesizes PI4,5P2 as well as protein kinases. These associated kinases act as coactivators of Star-PAP that regulates its activity and specificity toward mRNAs, yet the mechanism of control of these interactions are not defined. We identified a phosphorylated residue (serine 6, S6) on Star-PAP in the zinc finger region, the domain required for PIPKI? interaction. We show that S6 is phosphorylated by CKI? within the nucleus which is required for Star-PAP nuclear retention and interaction with PIPKI?. Unlike the CKI? mediated phosphorylation at the catalytic domain, Star-PAP S6 phosphorylation is insensitive to oxidative stress suggesting a signal mediated regulation of CKI? activity. S6 phosphorylation together with coactivator PIPKI? controlled select subset of Star-PAP target messages by regulating Star-PAP-mRNA association. Our results establish a novel role for phosphorylation in determining Star-PAP target mRNA specificity and regulation of 3'-end processing. PMID:26138484

  7. Cervical and Vaginal Cancer Screening (Pap Test and Pelvic Exam)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov Medicare forms Advance directives & long-term care Electronic prescribing Electronic Health Records (EHRs) Download claims with Medicare’s Blue ... HHS.gov USA.gov Inspector General Plain language Archive Downloadable databases “Medicare & You” Handbook Help with file ...

  8. Intelligent and nature inspired optimization methods in medicine : The Pap smear cell classification problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marinakis, Yannis; Marinaki, Magdalene

    2009-01-01

    The classification problem consists of using some known objects, usually described by a large vector of features, to induce a model that classifies others into known classes. Feature selection is widely used as the first stage of the classification task to reduce the dimension of the problem, decrease noise and improve speed by the elimination of irrelevant or redundant features. The present paper deals with the optimization of nearest neighbour classifiers via intelligent and nature inspired algorithms for a very significant medical problem, the Pap smear cell classification problem. The algorithms used include tabu search, genetic algorithms, particle swarm optimization and ant colony optimization. The proposed complete algorithmic scheme is tested on two sets of data. The first consists of 917 images of Pap smear cells and the second set consists of 500 images, classified carefully by expert cyto-technicians and doctors. Each cell is described by 20 numerical features, and the cells fall into seven classesrepresenting a variety of normal and abnormal cases. Nevertheless, from the medical diagnosis viewpoint, a minimum requirement corresponds to the general two-class problem of correct separation between normal and abnormal cells.

  9. Genetic tests obtainable through pharmacies: the good, the bad, and the ugly

    OpenAIRE

    George P. Patrinos; Baker, Darrol J; Al-Mulla, Fahd; VASILIOU, VASILIS; Cooper, David N.

    2013-01-01

    Genomic medicine seeks to exploit an individual’s genomic information in the context of guiding the clinical decision-making process. In the post-genomic era, a range of novel molecular genetic testing methodologies have emerged, allowing the genetic testing industry to grow at a very rapid pace. As a consequence, a considerable number of different private diagnostic testing laboratories now provide a wide variety of genetic testing services, often employing a direct-to-consumer (DTC) busines...

  10. DETECTION OF ABNORMAL CERVICAL CYTOLOGY BY PAP’S SMEAR AND COMPARISON BETWEEN RURAL AND URBAN WOMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neelam

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT : BACKGROUND: This study was carried out in department of ob stetrics and gynaecology G.R. Medical College Gwalior (MP. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To study the incidence of malignant and pre malignant cases of cancer cervix in women attending outdoor patient department of G R medical college Gwalior. To find out the role of PAP's smear in early detection of premalignant and early carcinoma cervix and to compare the results between urban and rural women. MATERIAL AND METHOD: a total of 400 subjects were selected attending outdoor patient department of G R medical college G walior with equal number of urban and rural areas. Information about age, parity, age at marriage, complaints, clinical findings, Pap’s smears were prepared and histological interpretations were recorded. RESULTS : Maximum number of patients was in the age group of 31 - 40 years. Mean age at marriage was 17.5 years for woman of rural areas and that for urban woman was 21.5 years. In the rural patients highest number were P2 - P4 (53% followed by > P4 (46.5%. In urban patients too maximum number of patients had parity between P2 - P4 (69.5% followed by > P4 (28.5%. Grand multiparity was seen in 20.5% among rural women as compared to 1.5 % among urban women. Among the rural patients use of barrier method of contraception was only 12% while in urban areas it was 3 0%. Percentage of couples who were not using any contraception was 47.5% in rural area and 33% in urban area. The most common presenting complaint was white discharge among both rural and urban groups (75% vs. 72%. The most common clinical finding was cer vical erosion (57.5% Histopathological interpretation of Pap’s smear revealed cervical squamous epithelial lesions (LSIL and HSIL in 10.5% smears of rural and 4.5% smears of urban women. A total of 4% smears were found positive for malignancy in rural wo men as compared to 1.5% smears in urban women

  11. Comparison of Gram stain and Pap smear procedures in the diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis.

    OpenAIRE

    Hakan Postaci; Funda Tasli; Özgül Özgüder; Murat Inal; Izzet Maral; Enver Vardar

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to examine the characteristics of Gram stain versus Pap smear in diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis (BV). METHODS: One-thousand and sixty women were enrolled in this study. All cases with symptoms of BV were determined by Amsel's criteria, which were accepted as the gold standard for diagnosis of BV. Pap smear and Gram stain evaluations were compared according to Amsel's criteria, without viewing the clinical results of the patients. Gram stain and Pap s...

  12. Genetic tests obtainable through pharmacies: the good, the bad, and the ugly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrinos, George P; Baker, Darrol J; Al-Mulla, Fahd; Vasiliou, Vasilis; Cooper, David N

    2013-01-01

    Genomic medicine seeks to exploit an individual's genomic information in the context of guiding the clinical decision-making process. In the post-genomic era, a range of novel molecular genetic testing methodologies have emerged, allowing the genetic testing industry to grow at a very rapid pace. As a consequence, a considerable number of different private diagnostic testing laboratories now provide a wide variety of genetic testing services, often employing a direct-to-consumer (DTC) business model to identify mutations underlying (or associated with) common Mendelian disorders, to individualize drug response, to attempt to determine an individual's risk of a multitude of complex (multifactorial) diseases, or even to determine a person's identity. Recently, we have noted a novel trend in the provision of private molecular genetic testing services, namely saliva and buccal swab collection kits (for deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) isolation) being offered for sale over the counter by pharmacies. This situation is somewhat different from the standard DTC genetic testing model, since pharmacists are healthcare professionals who are supposedly qualified to give appropriate advice to their clients. There are, however, a number of issues to be addressed in relation to the marketing of DNA collection kits for genetic testing through pharmacies, namely a requirement for regulatory clearance, the comparative lack of appropriate genetics education of the healthcare professionals involved, and most importantly, the lack of awareness on the part of both the patients and the general public with respect to the potential benefits or otherwise of the various types of genetic test offered, which may result in confusion as to which test could be beneficial in their own particular case. We believe that some form of genetic counseling should ideally be integrated into, and made inseparable from, the genetic testing process, while pharmacists should be obliged to receive some basic training about the genetic tests that they offer for sale. PMID:23835256

  13. An autoregulatory feedback loop involving PAP1 and TAS4 in response to sugars in Arabidopsis

    OpenAIRE

    Luo, Qing-Jun; Mittal, Amandeep; Jia, Fan; Rock, Christopher D.

    2011-01-01

    miR828 in Arabidopsis triggers the cleavage of Trans-Acting SiRNA Gene 4 (TAS4) transcripts and production of small interfering RNAs (ta-siRNAs). One siRNA, TAS4-siRNA81(?), targets a set of MYB transcription factors including PAP1, PAP2, and MYB113 which regulate the anthocyanin biosynthesis pathway. Interestingly, miR828 also targets MYB113, suggesting a close relationship between these MYBs, miR828, and TAS4, but their evolutionary origins are unknown. We found that PAP1, PAP2, and TAS4 ex...

  14. Combined surgical treatment for severe sleep apnoea, to improve BiPAP compliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ba?al, Ye?im; Aky?ld?z, Utku O?an; Eryilmaz, Aylin

    2015-01-01

    Positive airway pressure (PAP) devices are used in the treatment of obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS). In cases of PAP failure, many different surgical methods can be used for the treatment. The authors present an unusual case of a patient with Bi-level PAP (BiPAP)-intolerant severe OSAS who was treated with combined surgical methods. A 55-year-old man was treated with BiPAP due to OSAS; he was admitted to the clinic with nose stuffiness, respiratory distress and BiPAP adherence with tolerance and compliance problems. Septal deviation, concha hypertrophy, lateral pharyngeal band hypertrophy and Thornwaldt cyst were determined in the examination. Combined surgical methods were administered. The patient's apnoea hypopnoea index (AHI) was 72.8 in diagnostic polysomnography. Preoperative AHI was 7.3 and postoperative AHI was 2.3 while using BiPAP and, after the surgery, the BiPAP intolerance was eliminated. The authors suggest that a combination of different surgical methods would be an adjuvant treatment to increase BiPAP compliance. PMID:26546622

  15. Reliability and validity of pendulum test measures of spasticity obtained with the Polhemus tracking system from patients with chronic stroke

    OpenAIRE

    Harrison Steven; Bohannon Richard W; Kinsella-Shaw Jeffrey

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Spasticity is a common impairment accompanying stroke. Spasticity of the quadriceps femoris muscle can be quantified using the pendulum test. The measurement properties of pendular kinematics captured using a magnetic tracking system has not been studied among patients who have experienced a stroke. Therefore, this study describes the test-retest reliability and known groups and convergent validity of the pendulum test measures obtained with the Polhemus tracking system. M...

  16. The secreted purple acid phosphatase isozymes AtPAP12 and AtPAP26 play a pivotal role in extracellular phosphate-scavenging by Arabidopsis thaliana

    OpenAIRE

    Robinson, Whitney D.; Park, Joonho; Tran, Hue T.; Del Vecchio, Hernan A.; Ying, Sheng; Zins, Jacqui L.; Patel, Ketan; McKnight, Thomas D.; Plaxton, William C.

    2012-01-01

    Orthophosphate (Pi) is an essential but limiting macronutrient for plant growth. Extensive soil P reserves exist in the form of organic P (Po), which is unavailable for root uptake until hydrolysed by secretory acid phosphatases (APases). The predominant purple APase (PAP) isozymes secreted by roots of Pi-deficient (–Pi) Arabidopsis thaliana were recently identified as AtPAP12 (At2g27190) and AtPAP26 (At5g34850). The present study demonstrated that exogenous Po compounds such as glycerol-3-ph...

  17. Comparison of fracture energy values obtained from 3PB, WST and CT test configurations.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Holušová, Tá?a; Seitl, Stanislav; Canteli, A.

    Zurich : Trans Tech Publications, 2014 - (Kotrasová, K.; Kormanikova, E.), s. 89-92 ISBN 978-3-03835-147-4. ISSN 1022-6680. - (Advanced Materials Research. 969). [SPACE 2013 - International Conference on Structural and Physical Aspects of Civil Engineering /2./. Štrbské Pleso (SK), 27.11.2013-29.11.2013] R&D Projects: GA ?R(CZ) GAP104/11/0833 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : Fracture energy * Compact tension * Three-point bending test * Wedge-splitting test * Cement-based composite Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics

  18. Small punch test - the way how to obtain material mechanical properties from very small volumes.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dymá?ek, Petr; Dobeš, Ferdinand

    Brno : Ústav fyziky materiál? AV ?R, v.v , 2015 - (Dlouhý, A.; Kunz, L.). s. 186-186 ISBN 978-80-87434-07-9. [ICSMA-17 International Conference on the Strength of Materials /17./. 09.08.2015-14.08.2015, Brno] Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : small punch test Subject RIV: JG - Metallurgy

  19. Intensity-interferometric test of nuclear collision geometries obtained from the Boltzmann-Uehling-Uhlenbeck equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two-proton correlation functions measured for the 14N+27Al reaction at E/A=75 MeV are compared to correlation functions predicted for collision geometries obtained from numerical solutions of the Boltzmann-Uehling-Uhlenbeck (BUU) equation. The calculations are in rather good agreement with the experimental correlation function, indicating that the BUU equation gives a reasonable description of the space-time evolution of the reaction

  20. Report of test and research results on atomic energy obtained in national institutes in fiscal 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The test and research regarding the utilization of atomic energy carried out in national institutions have produced many valuable results in diverse fields so far, such as nuclear fusion, safety research, food irradiation and medicine, since the budget had been appropriated for the first time in 1956. It has accomplished large role in the promotion of atomic energy utilization in Japan. This report is Volume 25, in which the results of the test and research on atomic energy utilization carried out by national institutions in fiscal year 1984 are summarized. It is hoped that the understanding about the recent trend and the results of the test and research on atomic energy utilization is further promoted by this report. The contents of this report are nuclear fusion; the research on engineering safety and environmental radioactivity safety; food irradiation; the countermeasures against cancer; fertilized soil, the improvement of quality, the protection of plants and the improvement of breeding in agriculture and fishery fields; diagnosis and medical treatment, pharmaceuticals, environmental hygiene and the application to physiology and pathology in medical field; radiation chemistry and radiation measurement in mining and industry fields; nuclear reactor materials and nuclear-powered ships; civil engineering; radioactivation analysis; and the research on the prevention of injuries. (Kako, I.)

  1. Report of test and research results on atomic energy obtained in national institutes in fiscal 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As for the test and research on the utilization of atomic energy by national organizations, the budget was appropriated for the first time in fiscal year 1956. Since then, many valuable results of research have been produced in the diverse fields of nuclear fusion, safety research, food irradiation, medicine and others, in this way, the test and research have played large roles in the promotion of the utilization of atomic energy in Japan. This is the 24th report, in which the results of the test and research on the utilization of atomic energy carried out in fiscal year 1983 by national organizations are summarized. 5 researches on nuclear fusion, 19 researches on engineering safety and environmental radioactivity safety, 3 researches on food irradiation, 6 researches on the countermeasures to cancer, 19 researches on agriculture, forestry and fishery, 30 researches on medicine, pharmaceuticals and environmental hygiene, 6 researches on mining and industry, 6 researches on power reactors and nuclear ships, 1 research on agricultural water, 7 researches on activation analysis and 4 researches on injury prevention are reported. (Kako, I.)

  2. Report of test and research results on atomic energy obtained in national institutes in fiscal 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The test and research on atomic energy utilization in national institutions were begun in 1956, and valuable results have been produced in the fields of nuclear fusion, safety research, food irradiation, medicine and others, thus those have accomplished great roles for the promotion of atomic energy utilization in Japan. Atomic energy technology synthesizes various advanced technologies over wide technical domains, therefore at the time of its research and development, it is important to place emphasis on the creative and innovative regions which cause large technical innovation and in which the effect spreading to general science and technology can be expected. In addition to the test and research according to such recognition, also the basic technology of atomic energy field has been studied. At present foreign countries request Japan to contribute to the development of the world by creating the new technology and knowledge on atomic energy, and national institutions must meet the request. This is the report No.29, in which the results of the test and research in the fields of nuclear fusion, safety research, food irradiation, the countermeasures to cancer, agriculture, forestry and fishery, medicine, mining and industry, power utilization, construction, radioactivation analysis and advanced basic research, carried out in 1988 are summarized. (K.I.)

  3. Report of test and research results on atomic energy obtained in national institutes in fiscal 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The test and research regarding the utilization of atomic energy carried out in national institutions have produced many valuable results in diverse fields so far, such as nuclear fusion, safety research, food irradiation and medicine, since the budget had been appropriated for the first time in 1956. It has accomplished large role in the promotion of atomic energy utilization in Japan. This report is volume 28, in which the results of the test and research on atomic energy utilization carried out by national institutions in fiscal year 1987 are summarized. It is hoped that the understanding about the recent trend and the results of the test and research on atomic energy utilization is further promoted by this report. The contents of this report are nuclear fusion; the research on engineering safety and environmental radioactivity safety; food irradiation; the countermeasures against cancer; fertilized soil, the improvement of quality, the protection of plants and the improvement of breeding in agriculture and fishery fields; diagnosis and medical treatment, pharmaceuticals, environmental hygiene and the application to physiology and pathology in medical field; radiation measurement and process analysis in mining and industry fields; nuclear reactor materials and nuclear-powered ships; civil engineering; radioactivation analysis; the research on the prevention of injuries; and the basic researches on materials and acessment and reduction of irradiation risk. (J.P.N.)

  4. Report of test and research results on atomic energy obtained in national institutes in fiscal 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As for the test and research on the utilization of atomic energy by national organizations, the budget was appropriated for the first time in fiscal year 1956. Since then, many valuable results of research have been produced in the diverse fields of nuclear fusion, safety research, food irradiation, medicine and others, in this way, the test and research have played large roles in the promotion of the utilization of atomic energy in Japan. This is the 23rd report, in which the results of the test and research on the utilization of atomic energy carried out in fiscal year 1982 by national organizations are summarized. 5 researches on nuclear fusion, 12 researches on engineering safety, 5 researches on environmental radioactivity safety, 3 researches on food irradiation, 5 researches on the countermeasures to cancer, 8 researches on soil fertilization, 4 researches on quality improvement, 7 researches on crop protection, 5 researches on the improvement of breeding, 8 researches on diagnosis and treatment, 8 researches on pharmaceuticals, 10 researches on the application to pathology, 6 researches on mining and industry, 6 researches on power reactors and nuclear ships, 1 research on underground water, 6 researches on activation analysis and 3 researches on injury prevention are reported. (Kako, I.)

  5. Detection of pap, sfa, afa, foc, and fim Adhesin-Encoding Operons in Uropathogenic Escherichia coli Isolates Collected From Patients With Urinary Tract Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahdar, Masoud; Rashki, Ahmad; Miri, Hamid Reza; Rashki Ghalehnoo, Mehdi

    2015-01-01

    Background: Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) with its virulence factors is the most prevalent cause of urinary tract infection (UTI). Objectives; This study aimed to determine the occurrence of fim, pap, sfa, and afa genes among 100 UPEC isolates collected from patients diagnosed with UTI. Materials and Methods A total of 100 UPEC isolates were obtained from urine samples of patients with UTI. The prevalence of 5 virulence genes encoding type 1 fimbriae (fimH), pili associated with pyelonephritis (pap), S and F1C fimbriae (sfa and foc) and afimbrial adhesins (afa) were determined through PCR method. We also investigated the phylogenetic background of all isolates. In addition, the distribution of adhesin-encoding operons between the phylogroups was assessed. Results: The prevalence of genes encoding for fimbrial adhesive systems was 95% for fim, 57% for pap, 16% for foc, and 81% for sfa. The operons encoding for afa afimbrial adhesins were identified in 12% of isolates. The various combinations of detected genes were designated as virulence patterns. The fim gene, which occurred in strains from all phylogenetic groups (A, B1, B2, and D) was evaluated and no significant differences were found among these groups. Conversely, significant differences were observed in relation to pap, afa, foc, and sfa operons. Conclusions: These results indicate that the PCR method is a powerful genotypic assay for the detection of adhesin-encoding operons. Thus, this assay can be recommended for clinical use to detect virulent urinary E. coli strains, as well as epidemiological studies. PMID:26464770

  6. The frequency of herpes simplex virus changes in anal Pap smear and its association with squamous intraepithelial lesions in high-risk male patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greebon, Leslie J; Avery, Diane L; Prihoda, Thomas J; Valente, Philip T; Policarpio-Nicolas, Maria Luisa C

    2014-06-01

    While there are studies postulating a model of synergism between human papillomavirus (HPV) and herpes simplex virus (HSV) in cervical carcinogenesis, the frequency of anal herpes as well as its association with anal squamous intraepithelial lesions (ASILs) has been understudied in men. This study evaluates the frequency of HSV changes in anal Pap smears and its association with ASILs in a high-risk population. A computerized search for specimens associated with anal cytology that had positive findings of HSV was performed. The electronic medical records were examined for past diagnosis of herpes, HSV serology prior to or after cytology, and if the patient received treatment after cytologic diagnosis of HSV. Of the 470 anal Pap smears (Thin-prep) examined, seven had cellular changes consistent with HSV infection. All patients were asymptomatic human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) positive males with no prior HSV serology tests. Two patients had prior diagnoses of HSV infection. Cytologic abnormalities were identified in 86% ranging from atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance to high grade squamous intraepithelial lesion. Three patients were treated after the HSV cytologic diagnosis. The frequency of HSV changes in anal Pap smear is low (1.48%), but the presence of concomitant cytologic abnormalities is high (86%). While our findings suggest the possible role of HSV as a HPV co-factor in ASILs, larger studies are needed to support this. Identification of HSV infection on anal Pap smear is important for institution of patient treatment and subsequent reduction of transmission. PMID:24692314

  7. Report of test and research results on atomic energy obtained in national institutes in fiscal 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The tests and researches on the development and utilization of atomic energy in national laboratories were begun in 1956, and have accomplished the great role for the advance of the development and utilization of atomic energy in Japan by having produced many valuable results so far. Atomic energy has been utilized in diverse fields, and also in national laboratories, the research for expanding the development and utilization of atomic energy in food irradiation, medicine, agriculture, forestry, fishery and others in addition to the basic research on nuclear fusion and safety have been advanced. Further expecting the pervasive effect to general science and technology, the development of basic technology and integrated research are promoted from the viewpoint of new techical innovation and creative technology. This is 31st report in which the results of the tests and researches carried out by national laboratories in fiscal year 1990 are summarized. Nuclear fusion, safety research, food irradiation, cancer countermeasures, agriculture, forestry, fishery, medicine, mining and manufacture, power utilization, construction, radioactivation analysis and so on were the main subjects. (K.I.)

  8. Report of test and research results on atomic energy obtained in national institutes in fiscal 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The tests and researches on the development and utilization of atomic energy in national laboratories were begun in 1956, and have accomplished the great role for the advance of the development and utilization of atomic energy in Japan by having produced many valuable results so far. Atomic energy has been utilized not only in the field of nuclear power but also in diverse fields, and in national laboratories, the research for expanding the development and utilization of atomic energy in medicine, agriculture, forestry, fishery, radioactivation analysis and others in addition the basic research on nuclear fusion have been advanced. Further expecting the pervasive effect to general science and technology, the development of integrated research are promoted from the viewpoint of new technical innovation and creative technology. The safety research of nuclear facilities have been carried out to keep them high level on the basis of the yearly program enacted by Nuclear Safety Commission. This is the report No. 33, in which the results of the test and research in the fields of nuclear fusion safety research, food irradiation, cancer countermeasures, agriculture, forestry, fishery, medicine, mining and manufacture, power utilization, construction, radioactivation analysis carried on in fiscal 1992 are summarized. (J.P.N.)

  9. Relation between serum PAP (prostate acid phosphatase) and bone scintigraphy in prostatic cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seventy-seven patients with prostatic cancer were treated at our department in the last 5 years. Of these patients 30 cases were followed by bone scintigraphy and serum PAP. In 27 follow-up scintigraphy procedures changes of bone scintigraphy corresponded to changes in serum PAP levels. Changes of PAP levels did not always correspond to changes of scintigraphy, but almost all cases in which the level of PAP increased in a short period showed progression of bone metastasis. A 3-month interval between bone scintigraphy procedure in stage D2 prostatic cancer patients is generally recommended. However, we think that in prostatic cancer patients follow-up bone scintigraphy at regular short intervals is unnecessary if there is no change in serum PAP levels, symptoms or physical condition. Bone scintigraphy should be performed when the tumor marker changes rapidly or when any physical symptom appears. (author)

  10. Clinical implications of the cervical Papanicolaou test results in the management of anal warts in HIV-infected women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luu, Hung N; Amirian, E Susan; Beasley, R Palmer; Piller, Linda; Chan, Wenyaw; Scheurer, Michael E

    2013-01-01

    The Papanicolaou test (or Pap test) has long been used as a screening tool to detect cervical precancerous/cancerous lesions. However, studies on the use of this test to predict both the presence and change in size of genital warts are limited. We examined whether cervical Papanicolaou test results are associated with the size of the largest anal wart over time in HIV-infected women in an on-going cohort study in the US. A sample of 976 HIV-infected women included in a public dataset obtained from the Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS) was selected for analysis. A linear mixed model was performed to determine the relationship between the size of anal warts and cervical Pap test results. About 32% of participants had abnormal cervical Pap test results at baseline. In the adjusted model, a woman with a result of Atypia Squamous Cell Undetermined Significance/Low-grade Squamous Intraepithelial Lesion (ASCUS/LSIL) had an anal wart, on average, 12.81 mm(2) larger than a woman with normal cervical cytology. The growth rate of the largest anal wart after each visit in a woman with ASCUS/LSIL was 1.56 mm(2) slower than that of a woman with normal cervical results. However, they were not significant (P = 0.54 and P = 0.82, respectively). This is the first study to examine the relationship between cervical Pap test results and anal wart development in HIV-infected women. Even though no association between the size of anal wart and cervical Pap test results was found, a screening program using anal cytology testing in HIV-infected women should be considered. Further studies in cost-effectiveness and efficacy of an anal cytology test screening program are warranted. PMID:24312348

  11. Simulation of spectroscopic patterns obtained in W/C test-limiter sputtering experiment at TEXTOR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On the TEXTOR tokamak various experiments aimed at investigation of tungsten erosion and transport are performed. In one experiment a spherical W/C twin limiter positioned close to the last-closed flux surface in the near scrape-off layer was exposed to a number of comparable plasma discharges with stepwise variations of edge plasma parameters. Spatial distribution of tungsten and carbon light emission was recorded with two dimensional CCD cameras and spectrometer systems with high spectral and spatial resolution. Penetration depths, tungsten sputtering fluxes and erosion yields were measured. Comparison between experimental data and the results of modelling with the 3D Monte-Carlo code ERO is performed. The main objective of this study was to test the adequacy of the existing atomic data for neutral tungsten. The modelled penetration depths of the light emission of tungsten are a factor of 2–3 smaller than in experiment, which may indicate the overestimation of ionization rates

  12. Simulation of spectroscopic patterns obtained in W/C test-limiter sputtering experiment at TEXTOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kondratyev, D., E-mail: d.kondratyev@fz-juelich.de [Institute of Energy and Climate Research – Plasma Physics, Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Association EURATOM-FZJ, Partner in the Trilateral Euregio Cluster, 52425 Jülich (Germany); Borodin, D.; Kirschner, A.; Brezinsek, S.; Coenen, J.W.; Laengner, M. [Institute of Energy and Climate Research – Plasma Physics, Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Association EURATOM-FZJ, Partner in the Trilateral Euregio Cluster, 52425 Jülich (Germany); Stoschus, H. [Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education, Oak Ridge, TN 37830 (United States); Vainshtein, L. [P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute RAS, Leninsky prospect 53, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Pospieszczyk, A.; Samm, U. [Institute of Energy and Climate Research – Plasma Physics, Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Association EURATOM-FZJ, Partner in the Trilateral Euregio Cluster, 52425 Jülich (Germany)

    2013-07-15

    On the TEXTOR tokamak various experiments aimed at investigation of tungsten erosion and transport are performed. In one experiment a spherical W/C twin limiter positioned close to the last-closed flux surface in the near scrape-off layer was exposed to a number of comparable plasma discharges with stepwise variations of edge plasma parameters. Spatial distribution of tungsten and carbon light emission was recorded with two dimensional CCD cameras and spectrometer systems with high spectral and spatial resolution. Penetration depths, tungsten sputtering fluxes and erosion yields were measured. Comparison between experimental data and the results of modelling with the 3D Monte-Carlo code ERO is performed. The main objective of this study was to test the adequacy of the existing atomic data for neutral tungsten. The modelled penetration depths of the light emission of tungsten are a factor of 2–3 smaller than in experiment, which may indicate the overestimation of ionization rates.

  13. Statistical evaluation of the heat transfer data obtained in the HDR containment tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The containment tests conducted at the HDR facility have greatly expanded the experimental data base for energy transfer in large, complex geometry volumes. This data has been made available in a sequence of experimental reports, and its affect on heat-transfer modeling has been analyzed in several studies. Two categories of energy transfer data are provided by the experiments: 1) Integral energy transfer rate, either overall or compartment dependent, has to be inferred from appropriate energy balances utilizing experimental pressure, temperature and blow down rate measurements; 2) Local energy transfer rate is measured directly at up to 12 locations within the containment. The HDR heat-transfer measurements have become the fundamental data-base for benchmarking containment heat transfer modeling. The approaches taken in the modeling are discussed in detail

  14. Friction and wear in liquid-metal systems: comparability problems of test results obtained from different test facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Operational induced relative movements take place between contacting components in the core region of sodium cooled reactors. To ensure reliable long term functioning of such friction loaded components, materials are needed with good sliding properties and high wear resistance. Therefore, tribological properties of material combinations in liquid metal have been investigated experimentally for many years at various research establishments. However, despite identical boundary conditions, the comparison of results published does not yield a satisfactory agreement. The cause must be seen in the individual design and concept of the test sections used. This discrepancy was investigated. The results show that the elasticity, mass movement, and relative motion characteristic to the system prove to be the most important criteria influencing the test results

  15. The secreted purple acid phosphatase isozymes AtPAP12 and AtPAP26 play a pivotal role in extracellular phosphate-scavenging by Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Whitney D; Park, Joonho; Tran, Hue T; Del Vecchio, Hernan A; Ying, Sheng; Zins, Jacqui L; Patel, Ketan; McKnight, Thomas D; Plaxton, William C

    2012-11-01

    Orthophosphate (P(i)) is an essential but limiting macronutrient for plant growth. Extensive soil P reserves exist in the form of organic P (P(o)), which is unavailable for root uptake until hydrolysed by secretory acid phosphatases (APases). The predominant purple APase (PAP) isozymes secreted by roots of P(i)-deficient (-P(i)) Arabidopsis thaliana were recently identified as AtPAP12 (At2g27190) and AtPAP26 (At5g34850). The present study demonstrated that exogenous P(o) compounds such as glycerol-3-phosphate or herring sperm DNA: (i) effectively substituted for P(i) in supporting the P nutrition of Arabidopsis seedlings, and (ii) caused upregulation and secretion of AtPAP12 and AtPAP26 into the growth medium. When cultivated under -P(i) conditions or supplied with P(o) as its sole source of P nutrition, an atpap26/atpap12 T-DNA double insertion mutant exhibited impaired growth coupled with >60 and >30% decreases in root secretory APase activity and rosette total P(i) concentration, respectively. Development of the atpap12/atpap26 mutant was unaffected during growth on P(i)-replete medium but was completely arrested when 7-day-old P(i)-sufficient seedlings were transplanted into a -P(i), P(o)-containing soil mix. Both PAPs were also strongly upregulated on root surfaces and in shoot cell-wall extracts of -P(i) seedlings. It is hypothesized that secreted AtPAP12 and AtPAP26 facilitate the acclimation of Arabidopsis to nutritional Pi deficiency by: (i) functioning in the rhizosphere to scavenge P(i) from the soil's accessible P(o) pool, while (ii) recycling P(i) from endogenous phosphomonoesters that have been leaked into cell walls from the cytoplasm. Thus, AtPAP12 and AtPAP26 are promising targets for improving crop P-use efficiency. PMID:23125358

  16. Pap smears for men: a vision of the future?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Oon, S F

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN) rarely receives as much publicity as its neighbouring orifice, the cervix. As in the cervix, intraepithelial neoplasias are precursors to cancer in the anal canal. AIN and cervical interstitial neoplasia (CIN) undergo dysplasia as a consequence of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. Since the advent of screening with the Pap smear in CIN, cervical cancer has plummeted to a fifth of its initial incidence. Anal cancer, however, has been rising, with a predilection for human immunodeficiency virus-infected men. HPV causes a squamous epithelial dysplasia and converts healthy tissue into AINs of increasing severity until anal cancer manifests. CLINICAL CASE: This article describes a clinical case of anogenital HPV infection refractory to medical and surgical therapy. It also describes an effective surgical excision technique associated with a good cosmetic outcome. CONCLUSIONS: The paper concludes by briefly discussing the implications of a national screening programme against AIN in the future.

  17. Web based Farmers Bulletin for agricultural development using PAP Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.Manikandan

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present era entire world is focusing on agricultural development because of increased population and decreased agricultural production. Reason for decrease in production of agricultural products differs from place to place. The main aim here is to support the farmers in their decision making on which mechanism to choose best for a better productivity at their arms reach. The proposed system focused to increase the profit of the farmer by increasing the efficiency of agricultural input and reducing the cost and risk of production. This can be achieved by providing timely advice to the farmer like, dynamic weather forecasting and use of knowledge engineering to extract best suitable Agricultural information from various source. The PAP (Preprocess Associate and Predict architecture is used for performing knowledge extraction and prediction process. This technique can handle all type of information.

  18. História prévia de realização de teste de Papanicolaou e câncer do colo do útero: estudo caso-controle na Baixada Fluminense, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil Previous history of Pap smears and cervical cancer: a case-control study in the Baixada Fluminense, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Isabel do Nascimento

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo caso-controle hospitalar foi realizado de 2007 a 2010 para estimar a associação de história prévia de colpocitologia e câncer do colo do útero na Baixada Fluminense, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. A amostra consistiu de 152 casos histologicamente confirmados e 169 controles selecionados no mesmo hospital dos casos. A análise foi feita de acordo com um modelo em três níveis hierárquicos; considerando as variáveis sociodemográficas (nível distal, sexual/reprodutivas e de estilo de vida (nível intermediário e a história prévia de colpocitologia (nível proximal. Odds ratios (OR e respectivos intervalos de 95% de confiança (IC95% foram calculados pela regressão logística não condicional. Ter história prévia de três ou mais colpocitologias conferiu uma proteção de 84% (OR = 0,16; IC95%: 0,074; 0,384 após ajuste pelas variáveis selecionadas. Os resultados acentuam a importância do exame preventivo ginecológico no risco desse câncer e fortalecem a necessidade de aumentar a aderência às normas do programa brasileiro, bem como de identificar e capturar mulheres relutantes para o rastreamento da doença.This hospital-based case-control study (2007-2010 aimed to estimate the association between previous Pap smear and cervical cancer diagnosis in the Baixada Fluminense, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. The sample consisted of 152 histologically confirmed cases and 169 controls from the same hospital as the cases. The analysis was conducted according to a model in three hierarchical levels considering sociodemographic characteristics (distal, sexual/reproductive and lifestyle factors (intermediate, and previous Pap smear (proximal. Odds ratios (OR and respective 95% confidence intervals (95%CI were calculated using unconditional logistic regression. History of three or more Pap smears was associated with an 84% reduction in cervical cancer risk (OR = 0.16; 95%CI: 0.074; 0.384 after adjusting for selected variables. The results highlight the importance of preventive gynecological examination for reducing the risk of cervical cancer and emphasize the need to increase adherence to the guidelines of the Brazilian program, besides identifying and scheduling women that have proven reluctant to submit to cervical cancer screening.

  19. História prévia de realização de teste de Papanicolaou e câncer do colo do útero: estudo caso-controle na Baixada Fluminense, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil / Previous history of Pap smears and cervical cancer: a case-control study in the Baixada Fluminense, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Maria Isabel do, Nascimento; Gulnar Azevedo e, Silva; Gina Torres Rego, Monteiro.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo caso-controle hospitalar foi realizado de 2007 a 2010 para estimar a associação de história prévia de colpocitologia e câncer do colo do útero na Baixada Fluminense, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. A amostra consistiu de 152 casos histologicamente confirmados e 169 controles selecionados no mesm [...] o hospital dos casos. A análise foi feita de acordo com um modelo em três níveis hierárquicos; considerando as variáveis sociodemográficas (nível distal), sexual/reprodutivas e de estilo de vida (nível intermediário) e a história prévia de colpocitologia (nível proximal). Odds ratios (OR) e respectivos intervalos de 95% de confiança (IC95%) foram calculados pela regressão logística não condicional. Ter história prévia de três ou mais colpocitologias conferiu uma proteção de 84% (OR = 0,16; IC95%: 0,074; 0,384) após ajuste pelas variáveis selecionadas. Os resultados acentuam a importância do exame preventivo ginecológico no risco desse câncer e fortalecem a necessidade de aumentar a aderência às normas do programa brasileiro, bem como de identificar e capturar mulheres relutantes para o rastreamento da doença. Abstract in english This hospital-based case-control study (2007-2010) aimed to estimate the association between previous Pap smear and cervical cancer diagnosis in the Baixada Fluminense, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. The sample consisted of 152 histologically confirmed cases and 169 controls from the same hospital as [...] the cases. The analysis was conducted according to a model in three hierarchical levels considering sociodemographic characteristics (distal), sexual/reproductive and lifestyle factors (intermediate), and previous Pap smear (proximal). Odds ratios (OR) and respective 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) were calculated using unconditional logistic regression. History of three or more Pap smears was associated with an 84% reduction in cervical cancer risk (OR = 0.16; 95%CI: 0.074; 0.384) after adjusting for selected variables. The results highlight the importance of preventive gynecological examination for reducing the risk of cervical cancer and emphasize the need to increase adherence to the guidelines of the Brazilian program, besides identifying and scheduling women that have proven reluctant to submit to cervical cancer screening.

  20. Does oral contraceptive pill increase the risk of abnormal Pap smear?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binesh, Fariba; Akhavan, Ali; Pirdehghan, Azar; Davoodi, Mahnoosh

    2013-01-01

    Background: It is noted that oral contraceptive pills increase the risk of abnormal Pap smear but results have been inconsistent across the populations. Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the association between oral contraceptive pill (OCP) consumption and abnormal Pap smear in women who referred to Shahid Sadoughi and Madar hospitals in Yazd. Materials and Methods: A cross sectional descriptive study was carried out and a database of all Pap smear reports from 2009-2011 at Cytopathology Department of Shahid Sadoughi and Madar hospitals in Yazd, Iran was reviewed. A total number of 1286 women with history of OCP consumption were selected as the case group and 1218 women applying other contraceptive methods were selected as control group for evaluation. Both case and control groups were matched by age, parity and socioeconomic status. All of the women in this study maintained a single partner as their husband and none of them were considered as smokers. The duration of OCP use was at least 5 years. Results: Abnormal Pap smear results were observed in 0.4% of cases and 0.2% of controls. There was no significant association between OCP consumption and abnormal Pap smear (p=0.727). Conclusion: Our findings did not show any specific association between OCP consumption and abnormal Pap smear results. In addition, the number of abnormal Pap smears in women who consumed OCP was lower than that of western countries. More prospective studies are required. PMID:24639817

  1. Correlation between extent of metastatic lesions in whole body bone scintigraphy of patients with prostatic cancer and prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP) in blood by PAP RIA kit 'Eiken'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whole body bone scintigraphy of thirteen patients who were pathohistologically confirmed prostatic cancer was processed by four colors, and then the extent of bone metastases was estimated quantitatively. On the basis of this estimation, the grade of the expansion of bone metastases was classified into 4 grades (0, 1, 2, and 3 grades). And then, correlations of the expantion of bone metastases with PAP, AcP and AlP levels in blood were investigated. The results are as follows: 1) Correlation between the extent of bone metastases and PAP levels was relatively high (r = 0.81). 2) As for the relation between the expansion grade of bone metastases and PAP levels, the levels did not increase in 0 and 1 grades, but markedly increased in 2 and 3 grades. AcP also showed a little similar tendency. 3) In the correlation of PAP with AcP and with AlP, AcP (r = 0.78) was higher than AlP (r = 0.42). 4) Therefore, PAP levels seem to be a good index of the extent of bone metastases in prostatic cancer. (author)

  2. A Method for Obtaining the Nonlinear Aerodynamic Stability Characteristics of Bodies of Revolution from Free-Flight Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, Donn B.

    1961-01-01

    A method is presented for obtaining the nonlinear aerodynamic stability characteristics of bodies of revolution from free-flight test.s The necessary conditions for the application of this method are: (1) that the roll rate and damping encountered in a single cycle of oscillation be small, and (2) that the resulting motion be reasonably planar. Four approximations to the nonlinear restoring moment are considered and solutions are obtained in closed form: 1. A single-term polynomial in an arbitrary power of the angle of attack. 2. A two-term polynomial having linear and cubic terms. 3. A three-term polynomial having linear, quadratic, and cubic terms. 4. A three-term polynomial having linear, quadratic, and cubic terms. An iteration procedure is formulated to allow the use of each of these approximations for obtaining the aerodynamic coefficients of bodies of revolution from free-flight test data. It is found that although the equations that are solved pertain strictly to planar motion, the solutions are applicable to motions that deviate to a fairly large degree from planar motion.

  3. PAP-1, the mutated gene underlying the RP9 form of dominant retinitis pigmentosa, is a splicing factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PAP-1 is an in vitro phosphorylation target of the Pim-1 oncogene. Although PAP-1 binds to Pim-1, it is not a substrate for phosphorylation by Pim-1 in vivo. PAP-1 has recently been implicated as the defective gene in RP9, one type of autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa (adRP). However, RP9 is a rare disease and only two missense mutations have been described, so the report of a link between PAP-1 and RP9 was tentative. The precise cellular role of PAP-1 was also unknown at that time. We now report that PAP-1 localizes in nuclear speckles containing the splicing factor SC35 and interacts directly with another splicing factor, U2AF35. Furthermore, we used in vitro and in vivo splicing assays to show that PAP-1 has an activity, which alters the pattern of pre-mRNA splicing and that this activity is dependent on the phosphorylation state of PAP-1. We used the same splicing assay to examine the activities of two mutant forms of PAP-1 found in RP9 patients. The results showed that while one of the mutations, H137L, had no effect on splicing activity compared with that of wild-type PAP-1, the other, D170G, resulted in both a defect in splicing activity and a decreased proportion of phosphorylated PAP-1. The D170G mutation may therefore cause RP by altering splicing of retinal genes through a decrease in PAP-1 phosphorylation. These results demonstrate that PAP-1 has a role in pre-mRNA splicing and, given that three other splicing factors have been implicated in adRP, this finding provides compelling further evidence that PAP-1 is indeed the RP9 gene

  4. Immunoperoxidase staining of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded, human renal biopsies with a comparison of the peroxidase-antiperoxidase (PAP) and indirect methods.

    OpenAIRE

    Sinclair, R. A.; Burns, J.; Dunnill, M S

    1981-01-01

    The results of immunoperoxidase staining of 33 routinely processed renal biopsies correlated with the results of direct immunofluorescence in 79% of tests performed. Most of the discrepant results were due to positive immunoperoxidase staining, possibly reflecting greater sensitivity of the method. A comparison of two immunoperoxidase methods showed that the indirect method produced less intense staining than the peroxidase-antiperoxidase (PAP) method when equivalent primary antibody titres w...

  5. Cardiac output obtained from test bolus injections as a factor in contrast injection rate revision of following coronary CT angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background.. Optimal contrast enhancement is crucial for the detection of coronary artery stenoses and atherosclerotic changes in coronary CT angiography (CTA). Purpose To demonstrate the feasibility of using the cardiac output (CO) obtained from the test bolus injection data-set (CO test) as a factor in contrast injection rate revision of the following coronary CTA. Material and Methods. The test bolus injection data-sets of 52 consecutive coronary CTAs were examined. CO test was calculated from the test bolus data-set. Aortic peak enhancement (APE) was measured on the following coronary CTA. We simulated the APE at a fixed contrast injection rate of 4 mL/s (simAPE) in each patient. Results. The ranges of COtest and simAPE were 2.82-7.56 L/min and 194-527 Hounsfield Units, respectively. There was a significant negative correlation (R = -0.802, P < 0.001) between simAPE and COtest. Conclusion. COtest can be used for injection rate revision on coronary CTA

  6. Selective indication for positive airway pressure (PAP in sleep-related breathing disorders with obstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stasche, Norbert

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Positive airway pressure (PAP is the therapy of choice for most sleep-related breathing disorders (SRBD. A variety of PAP devices using positive airway pressure (CPAP, BiPAP, APAP, ASV must be carefully considered before application. This overview aims to provide criteria for choosing the optimal PAP device according to severity and type of sleep-related breathing disorder. In addition, the range of therapeutic applications, constraints and side effects as well as alternative methods to PAP will be discussed. This review is based on an analysis of current literature and clinical experience. The data is presented from an ENT-sleep-laboratory perspective and is designed to help the ENT practitioner initiate treatment and provide support. Different titration methods, current devices and possible applications will be described. In addition to constant pressure devices (CPAP, most commonly used for symptomatic obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA without complicating conditions, BiPAP models will be introduced. These allow two different positive pressure settings and are thus especially suitable for patients with cardiopulmonary diseases or patients with pressure intolerance, increasing compliance in this subgroup considerably. Compliance can also be increased in patients during first night of therapy, patients with highly variable pressure demands or position-dependent OSA, by using self-regulating Auto-adjust PAP devices (Automatic positive airway pressure, APAP. Patients with Cheyne-Stokes breathing, a subtype of central sleep apnoea, benefit from adaptive servo-ventilation (ASV, which analyzes breathing patterns continually and adjusts the actual ventilation pressure accordingly. This not only reduces daytime sleepiness, but can also influence heart disease positively. Therapy with positive airway pressure is very effective in eliminating obstruction-related sleep diseases and symptoms. However, because therapy is generally applied for life, the optimal PAP device must be carefully selected, taking into account side effects that influence compliance.

  7. Detecting Pleiotropy and Epistasis Using Variance Components Linkage Analysis in jPAP

    OpenAIRE

    Hasstedt, Sandra J; Thomas, Alun

    2011-01-01

    jPAP (Java Pedigree Analysis Package) performs variance components linkage analysis of either quantitative or discrete traits. Multivariate linkage analysis of two or more traits (all quantitative, all discrete, or any combination) allows the inference of pleiotropy between the traits. The inclusion of multiple quantitative trait loci in linkage analysis allows the inference of epistasis between loci. A user-friendly graphical user interface facilitates the usage of jPAP.

  8. Cervical cancer screening with pattern of pap smear. Review of multicenter studies.

    OpenAIRE

    Altaf, Fadwa J

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To estimate the frequency of abnormal cervical smears and to compare the findings with earlier reported data from Saudi Arabia. METHODS The study was divided into 2 parts. The prospective part was conducted at King Abdul-Aziz University Hospital and a private laboratory by using the Bethesda System criteria and diagnostic entities in evaluating all the pap smears that were received during the period of January 2000 to December 2004. All reliable published literature on pap...

  9. Pap, gruel, and panada: early approaches to artificial infant feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obladen, Michael

    2014-01-01

    This paper collects information on artificial infant feeding published before 1860, the year when commercial formula became available. We have extensive artifactual evidence of thousands of feeding vessels since the Bronze Age. Special museum collections can be found in London, Paris, Cologne, Fécamp, Toronto, New Mexico, and elsewhere. The literature on the use of animal milk for infant feeding begins with Soranus in the 2nd century CE. Literature evidence from the very first printed books in the 15th century proves that physicians, surgeons, midwives, and the laity were aware of the opportunities and risks of artificial infant feeding. Most 17th to 19th century books on infant care contained detailed recipes for one or several of the following infant foods: pap, a semisolid food made of flour or bread crumbs cooked in water with or without milk; gruel, a thin porridge resulting from boiling cereal in water or milk, and panada, a preparation of various cereals or bread cooked in broth. During the 18th century, the published opinion on artificial feeding evolved from health concerns to a moral ideology. This view ignored the social and economic pressures which forced many mothers to forego or shorten breast-feeding. Bottle-feeding has been common practice throughout history. PMID:24577423

  10. ABNORMAL FINDINGS IN PAP SMEARS: ISFAHAN PROVIENCE 1997-1998

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.H SADRI

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Background. Cervical cancer is a common female malignancy in developing countries. In our health care system, the screening program is performed by doing pap smears with the interval of three years. This study was designed to determine the prevalence and frequency disturbation of abnormal smears. Methods. This is a cross sectional study was done in 1997-1998. Sample group were all the under coverage married women aged 20-65 years who have a factor of referal criteria. Papsmears samples were interpreted by a pathologist. Papsmear results were documented by colposcopy and biopsy. Results. The prevalence of abnormal smears in under coverage women is 0.05 percent. Results of abnormal papsmears due to more investigations (colposcopy and biopsy were: Normal 25 percent, ASCUS 57 percent, CIN 14 percent, CIN 2 1 percent, CIN 3 1 percent invasive cancer 2 percent. Conclusion. Refering of women with abnormal signs such as leukoplakia, cervical erosion, and history of contact bleeding is necessary. The number of false positive results in cytotechnologlsts diagtlosfs is high. This result shows that on-job-training for cytotechnologists is important.

  11. Citologia oncológica, captura de híbridos II e inspeção visual no rastreamento de lesões cervicais / Pap smear, hybrid capture II, and visual inspection in screening for uterine cervical lesions

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Renata Clementino, Gontijo; Sophie Françoise Mauricette, Derchain; Eliana Borin Lopes, Montemor; Luis Otávio Zanatta, Sarian; Márcia Milena Pivatto, Serra; Luiz Carlos, Zeferino; Kari Juhani, Syrjanen.

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Avaliar as alterações na citologia oncológica, na captura híbrida II e na inspeção visual com ácido acético (IVA) a 5% em 684 mulheres atendidas em uma unidade de saúde, e avaliar o desempenho e a concordância entre os exames. Procurar descrever as características sócio-demográficas e reprodutivas ( [...] SDR) destas mulheres e sua associação com a presença de doença. As mulheres foram submetidas à coleta de citologia, captura e IVA, e as com exame positivo foram submetidas à colposcopia com biopsia, se necessário. Foi calculado o desempenho dos testes e a associação dos fatores SDR com o diagnóstico histológico foi avaliada por intermédio do cálculo do odds ratio. Embora 198 mulheres apresentassem pelo menos um teste alterado, apenas 21 apresentaram lesão histológica. A sensibilidade dos testes foi semelhante enquanto as especificidades da IVA e da citologia foram maiores que a da captura híbrida II. Apenas a ausência de citologia esteve associada à presença de doença. O desempenho da citologia foi maior que o da IVA, que foi maior que o da captura. A ausência de citologia foi associada com doença histológica. Abstract in english The objective of this study was to evaluate alterations in Pap smear, hybrid capture II (HCII), and visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA) in 684 women treated at a primary health care unit. The performance and agreement of the exams were evaluated. The study also described social, demographic, an [...] d reproductive factors and their association with uterine cervical lesions. Women had specimens taken for Pap smear, HCII, and VIA. When at least one of the tests was positive, colposcopy was performed and targeted biopsies were taken from any suspicious lesions. Performance of tests was evaluated. Women's distribution in relation to social, demographic, and reproductive factors and histological diagnosis was evaluated using the odds ratio. Among 198 women with at least one positive screening test, only 21 showed histological disease. Sensitivities of the tests were similar. VIA and Pap smear presented higher specificity than HCII. Only absence of a previous Pap smear was associated with the presence of histological disease. Pap smear performed better than VIA and HC II. Absence of previous cytology was associated with histological disease.

  12. Nutritional Composition of Five Varieties of Pap Commonly Consumed in Maroua (Far-North, Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ponka Roger

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the nutritional composition of five varieties of pap (cereal product commonly consumed in Maroua, city of the Far-North Region of Cameroon. The proximate composition (moisture, ash, protein, lipid, and crude fibre was determined by standard AOAC methods. Minerals (calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, iron, zinc, copper and manganese were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry and phosphorus was determined colorimetrically. Amino acid composition was determined by ion-exchange chromatography. All the pap varieties had a very high carbohydrate content (79.47-85.29 g/100 g dry matter. Appreciable levels of phosphorus and potassium were recorded in all the pap varieties (137.5-231.0 mg/100 g dry matter and 198.20-322.22 mg/100 g dry matter, respectively. Consumption of each pap (100 g by children 1-2 year old would meet 9.86-17.46% and 0.08-19.51% of their daily recommended intake respectively for protein and minerals. Leucine and glutamic acid were the most abundant essential amino acids and non-essential amino acids respectively in the pap. Essential amino acids in most of the pap samples met the recommended children requirement of the FAO/WHO/UNU for 1-2 year old children except methionine+cysteine and lysine.

  13. Aero thermal test results obtained on the n. C 5 EL 4 Cluster in the atmospheric pressure cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the framework of thermal studies on the EL-4 cluster, the full-scale tests at atmospheric pressure are designed to permit measurement of local values of the wall temperature, of the velocity and of the temperature in the fluid. The experimental results, obtained with the help of an original measuring apparatus, make it possible to follow the changes in these values along the cluster and to predict in much detail the in-pile thermal behaviour. In particular it is shown that changes in the wall temperature along the cluster are greatly influenced by disruption of the flow caused by grids and supports. (author)

  14. Fracture characteristics obtained from the instrumented impact test of A533B steel for reactor pressure vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Analyses of the date obtained from the instrumented impact test and of its correlation with static and dynamic J integral values and various tensile properties are made in this study. It is shown that a dynamic bending yield load recorded in the instrumented Charpy V test can be easily converted to a dynamic tensile yield stress using Server's equation. It is also possible to estimate a true fracture strain, COD value, and SZW easily if the load point displacement is recorded. Temperature dependency of Charpy V energy and J integral values is rather well simulated by a curve fitting method. However, a half value transition temperture obtained in that method has no physical meaning. Dynamic J sub(ID) is larger than a static J sub(IC) in the ductile fracture range in this study. This rise is proportional to the yield stress ratio ?sub(yd)/?sub(y)(--1.2-1.3). It is found, therefore, that the following relation exists in the both cases; J sub(I)/?sub(y) = 1.6GOD. Gorrelation between the fracture toughness and tensile properties proposed by Hahn and Rosenfield shows a good result, but ROLFE-NOVAK'S equation on the impact value gives a poor one. (author)

  15. Adoption of Evidence-Based Interventions in Local Health Departments: "1-2-3 Pap NC".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winterbauer, Nancy L; Bridger, Colleen M; Tucker, Ashley; Rafferty, Ann P; Luo, Huabin

    2015-08-01

    Descriptions of barriers and facilitators to adoption of evidence-based interventions in local health departments (LHDs) are limited. This study was conducted by the North Carolina Public Health Practice-Based Research Network to identify factors associated with adoption of an evidence-based human papillomavirus video intervention, "1-2-3 Pap NC," in North Carolina LHDs. A sequential mixed-method study design was used. Data from the 2013 National Profile of Local Health Departments were used to test associations between LHD characteristics and adoption of the intervention. Qualitative, key stakeholder interviews with LHD directors provided the context for quantitative data. Data collection and analysis continued from March 3, 2014, to September 15, 2014. Overall, 28% of North Carolina health jurisdictions (33 of 100 counties) implemented the intervention. Of the three channels used to deliver the intervention to clients, most LHDs opted to show the video in the exam room (42%), followed by website/other social media (36%) and video loop in the lobby/waiting room (22%). In logistic regression, gender of the director (female) was significantly and positively associated with adoption of the intervention (AOR=4.44, pcommunication (awareness and positive attitudes) and agency directors' evaluation of resources, balanced against intervention complexity and flexibility, competing priorities, and mandates, influenced adoption. Adoption of evidence-based interventions by LHDs is critical to improve population health. Practice-based research can contribute to understanding facilitators and modifying barriers to this process. PMID:26190805

  16. IFPE/CAGR-UOX-SWELL, Fuel swelling Data Obtained from the AGR/Halden Ramp Test Programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Description: An extensive study of fuel swelling in oxide fuel has been performed on fuel which has been ramp-tested in the Halden Heavy Boiling Water Reactor. The ramp-tests were performed to study the mechanisms of P CI in Advanced Gas-cooled Reactor fuel (AGR) but the initial clad deformation measurements were later supplemented by the use of Transmission Electron Microscopy (Tem) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (Sem). The driving force for P CI arises from a combination of pellet thermal expansion and the creation of fission gas porosity during a temperature/rating transient. Fuel specimens from thirteen ramped rods and two control-reference rods have been examined using Tem and Sem. Swelling measurements have been made at four or five radial locations in the fuel. At least six full grain boundaries were used for the inter-granular study at each location and three complete trans-granular fractures employed for the intra-granular bubbles. In the latter case, the trans-granular regions were examined under very high magnifications to reveal pores as small as 20-25 nm diameter. The Sem study comprises nearly three thousand micrographs. The microscope study was augmented by use of the Enigma fuel modelling code to obtain estimates of the local temperatures and conditions from which the Sem/Tem samples were obtained. Nea-1705/02: The analysis from the 4135, 4136 and 4140 data has been incorporated. Data 4000, 4004, 4064, 4065, 4162, and 4163 have been revised. Many of the tables have been improved. The main report has been extensively modified from the earlier version

  17. Total sleep time obtained from actigraphy versus sleep logs in an academic sleep center and impact on further sleep testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Auger RR

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available R Robert Auger,1,2 Ranji Varghese,1 Michael H Silber,1,3 Nancy L Slocumb1 1Center for Sleep Medicine, 2Department of Psychiatry and Psychology, 3Department of Neurology, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Rochester, MN, USA Background: While actigraphy has been deemed ideal for the longitudinal assessment of total sleep time (TST by select groups, endorsement has not been universal and reimbursement is lacking, preventing its widespread use in clinical practice. This study compares longitudinal TST data obtained by actigraphy and logs preceding a clinical evaluation, and secondarily ascertains whether longitudinal TST impacts clinicians' decisions to proceed with further sleep testing. Methods: This was a retrospective, consecutive chart review spanning about 4 months in an academic sleep center. Eighty-four patients wore actigraphs in anticipation of clinical evaluations. Concomitant completion of sleep logs is routinely requested in this setting. Longitudinal TST data available in complete form was reviewed in a blinded fashion among a subset of these patients. A review of text from clinical notes of an expanded cohort with complete actigraphy data (regardless of the degree of completion of logs enabled determination of the frequency and rationale for cancellation of prescheduled sleep testing. Results: Of 84 actigraphy recordings, 90% produced complete data, and 30% produced fully completed logs. Among the subset with both available in complete form, significant mean TST differences were observed on weekends (7.06 ± 2.18 hours versus 8.30 ± 1.93 hours, P = 0.009, but not on weekdays (7.38 ± 1.97 hours versus 7.72 ± 1.62 hours, P = 0.450 for actigraphy and logs, respectively. Further analyses revealed poor agreement between the two measures, with predominantly increased TST estimation with logs. Among those with complete actigraphy data (±logs, testing was cancelled in 11 (15%, eight of whom (73% presented with hypersomnia and three of whom (27% presented with insomnia. Determination of insufficient sleep time was cited as the primary reason for cancellation (64%. Conclusion: Actigraphy and sleep logs provided discrepant mean TST data on weekends only, and the latter predominantly estimated increased TST. Actigraphy was completed more reliably than logs. Longitudinal TST information influenced clinicians' decisions to proceed with further testing, particularly among patients presenting with hypersomnia. Keywords: sleep diaries, polysomnography, multiple sleep latency testing

  18. Get Tested for Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Print This Topic En español Get Tested for Cervical Cancer Browse Sections The Basics Overview Cervical Cancer Pap ... Cervical Cancer 1 of 7 sections The Basics: Cervical Cancer What is cervical cancer? Cervical cancer is cancer ...

  19. Predictive permeability model of faults in crystalline rocks; verification by joint hydraulic factor (JH) obtained from water pressure tests

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Hamidreza Rostami Barani; Gholamreza Lashkaripour; Mohammad Ghafoori

    2014-08-01

    In the present study, a new model is proposed to predict the permeability per fracture in the fault zones by a new parameter named joint hydraulic factor (JH). JH is obtained from Water Pressure Test WPT) and modified by the degree of fracturing. The results of JH correspond with quantitative fault zone descriptions, qualitative fracture, and fault rock properties. In this respect, a case study was done based on the data collected from Seyahoo dam site located in the east of Iran to provide the permeability prediction model of fault zone structures. Datasets including scan-lines, drill cores, and water pressure tests in the terrain of Andesite and Basalt rocks were used to analyse the variability of in-site relative permeability of a range from fault zones to host rocks. The rock mass joint permeability quality, therefore, is defined by the JH. JH data analysis showed that the background sub-zone had commonly > 3 Lu (less of 5 × 10?5 m3/s) per fracture, whereas the fault core had permeability characteristics nearly as low as the outer damage zone, represented by 8 Lu (1.3 × 10?4 m3/s) per fracture, with occasional peaks towards 12 Lu (2 × 10?4 m3/s) per fracture. The maximum JH value belongs to the inner damage zone, marginal to the fault core, with 14–22 Lu (2.3 × 10?4 –3.6 × 10?4 m3/s) per fracture, locally exceeding 25 Lu (4.1 × 10?4 m3/s) per fracture. This gives a proportional relationship for JH approximately 1:4:2 between the fault core, inner damage zone, and outer damage zone of extensional fault zones in crystalline rocks. The results of the verification exercise revealed that the new approach would be efficient and that the JH parameter is a reliable scale for the fracture permeability change. It can be concluded that using short duration hydraulic tests (WPTs) and fracture frequency (FF) to calculate the JH parameter provides a possibility to describe a complex situation and compare, discuss, and weigh the hydraulic quality to make predictions as to the permeability models and permeation amounts of different zone structures.

  20. Comparison of ViraPap, Southern hybridization, and polymerase chain reaction methods for human papillomavirus identification in an epidemiological investigation of cervical cancer.

    OpenAIRE

    Guerrero, E. (Enrique); Daniel, R W; Bosch, F.X.; Castellsagué, X; Muñoz, N.; Gili, M.; Viladiu, P; Navarro, C.; Zubiri, M L; Ascunce, N.

    1992-01-01

    In order to provide a reliable diagnosis for the presence and type of human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA in a case-control study of cervical cancer in Colombia and Spain, 926 cervical scrapes from female subjects were examined by ViraPap (VP) and Southern hybridization (SH), and 510 of these (263 cases and 247 controls) were also tested by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using the HPV L1 consensus primers. HPV DNA prevalence was much higher in cases than in controls by each of the three tests. Th...

  1. Analysis of data obtained in combined tests of an electromagnetic liquid argon calorimeter with a hadronic scintillating tile calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The future ATLAS experiment at LHC-CERN will include in the central region a calorimeter system composed of two separate units, the Liquid Argon (LAr) electromagnetic calorimeter with hermetic accordion geometry and a scintillating tile hadronic calorimeter, using iron as absorber, in which the tile are placed perpendicular to the colliding beams. This system must be able to identify electrons, photons and jets and to reconstruct their energies and angles as well as to measure the missing transverse energy in the events. Three algorithm, employed to reconstruct the hadron energy, are described. A special interest was devoted to the study of energy deposition in various depth samples of the test calorimeter stack to obtain the longitudinal and transverse shower shapes. The longitudinal profiles in the electromagnetic and hadronic calorimeters for pions with different energies were compared with the Monte Carlo predictions. The GEANT simulations reproduces reasonably well the shape of the data in hadronic compartment, while a difference is observed in the electromagnetic part. We intend to study in more details the problems connected with the energy leakage which cause a degradation of the energy resolution as well as tails in the energy distributions

  2. 14 CFR 61.405 - What tests do I have to take to obtain a flight instructor certificate with a sport pilot rating?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...obtain a flight instructor certificate with a sport pilot rating? 61.405 Section 61...INSTRUCTORS Flight Instructors With a Sport Pilot Rating § 61.405 What tests...obtain a flight instructor certificate with a sport pilot rating? To obtain a flight...

  3. Potential application of electronic nose in processed animal proteins (PAP detection in feedstuffs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dell'Orto V.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Electronic nose and olfactometry techniques represent a modern analytical approach in food industry since they could potentially improve quality and safety of food processing. The aim of this study was to evaluate possible application of electronic nose in PA P detection and recognition in feed. For this purpose 6 reference feedstuffs (CRA-W / UE STRAT F E E D Project were used. The basis of the test samples was a compound feed for bovine fortified with processed animal proteins ( PAP consisting of meat and bone meal (MBM and/or fish meal at different concentrations. Each feed sample was tested in glass vials and the odour profile was determined by the ten MOS (metal oxide semi-conductor sensors of the electronic nose. Ten different descriptors, representing each ten sensors of electronic nose, were used to characterise the odour of each sample. In the present study, electronic nose was able to discriminate the blank sample from all other samples containing PA P ( M B M , fish meal or both. Samples containing either 0.5% of MBM or 5% of fish meal were identified, while samples containing a high fish meal content (5% associated with a low MBM content (0.5% were not discriminated from samples containing solely fish meal at that same high level (5%. This latter indicates that probably the high fish meal level, in samples containing both MBM and fish meal, tended to mask MBM odour. It was also evident that two odour descriptors were enough to explain 72.12% of total variability in odour pattern. In view of these results, it could be suggested that electronic nose and olfactometry techniques can provide an interesting approach for screening raw materials in feed industry, even though further studies using a wider set of samples are needed.

  4. In silico Comparative Modeling of PapA1 and PapA2 Proteins Involved in Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Sulfolipid-1 Biosynthesis Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rana Adnan Tahir

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis is one of the most serious health problems, as globally; around 2 billion or one third of the world's total population has been infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a unique among bacterial pathogens in that it displays a wide array of complex lipids and lipoglycans on its cell surface. One such glycolipid, sulfolipid-1 (SL-1, is the most sulfatide, consists of a trehalose core, four fatty acyl groups, and a sulfate ester. Several proteins involved in SL-1 biosynthesis have been identified, the enzymes that acylate the T2S core to form SL1278 and SL-1, and the biosynthetic order of these acylation reactions, are unknown. Here we studied the in silico identification of PapA2 and PapA1, proteins responsible for the sequential acylation of T2S to form SL1278 and are essential for SL-1 biosynthesis, by applying different bioinformatics tools. Benchmark, of 3 different homology modeling programs Modeller, Swiss-Model (Deep View, and ESyPred3D, has been performed used to transform the alignment to a 3D model. The 3D structures of targeted proteins were evaluated by evaluation tools, ANOLEA and Verify3D. It is concluded that in SL-1 biosynthesis pathway, PapA1 and PapA2 proteins could be used as drug target, drug lead design and to find out the other proteins involved in this pathway that not yet have been identified and may be used to the cure of tuberculosis infection.

  5. STUDY OF HIGH RISK CASES FOR EARLY DETECTION OF CERVICAL CANCER BY PAP’S SMEAR AND VISUAL INSPECTION BY LUGOL’S IODINE METHOD.

    OpenAIRE

    Harshad Ladola; Ami Mehta; Kamlesh Kotadiya; Rebecca Edwin; Vibhuti Patel; Vaibhavi Patel

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION:Cervical cancer is the commonest genital tract cancer among Indian women. Screening programmes have claimed to reduce incidence and mortality of cervical carcinoma significantly, for which sensitization of women is required through community based approach.OBJECTIVES: Comparison of VILI and cytology by PAP smear for detection of low grade squamous intraepithelial lesion, high grade squamous intraepithelial lesion, carcinoma of cervix and correlation of results with the reference ...

  6. Design of PAP-1, a selective small molecule Kv1.3 blocker, for the suppression of effector memory T cells in autoimmune diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, Alexander; Sankaranarayanan, Ananthakrishnan; Azam, Philippe; Schmidt-Lassen, Kristina; Homerick, Daniel; Hänsel, Wolfram; Wulff, Heike

    2005-11-01

    The lymphocyte K+ channel Kv1.3 constitutes an attractive pharmacological target for the selective suppression of terminally differentiated effector memory T (TEM) cells in T cell-mediated autoimmune diseases, such as multiple sclerosis and type 1 diabetes. Unfortunately, none of the existing small-molecule Kv1.3 blockers is selective, and many of them, such as correolide, 4-phenyl-4-[3-(methoxyphenyl)-3-oxo-2-azapropyl]cyclohexanone, and our own compound Psora-4 inhibit the cardiac K+ channel Kv1.5. By further exploring the structure-activity relationship around Psora-4 through a combination of traditional medicinal chemistry and whole-cell patch-clamp, we identified a series of new phenoxyalkoxypsoralens that exhibit 2- to 50-fold selectivity for Kv1.3 over Kv1.5, depending on their exact substitution pattern. The most potent and "drug-like" compound of this series, 5-(4-phenoxybutoxy)psoralen (PAP-1), blocks Kv1.3 in a use-dependent manner, with a Hill coefficient of 2 and an EC50 of 2 nM, by preferentially binding to the C-type inactivated state of the channel. PAP-1 is 23-fold selective over Kv1.5, 33- to 125-fold selective over other Kv1-family channels, and 500- to 7500-fold selective over Kv2.1, Kv3.1, Kv3.2, Kv4.2, HERG, calcium-activated K+ channels, Na+,Ca2+, and Cl- channels. PAP-1 does not exhibit cytotoxic or phototoxic effects, is negative in the Ames test, and affects cytochrome P450-dependent enzymes only at micromolar concentrations. PAP-1 potently inhibits the proliferation of human TEM cells and suppresses delayed type hypersensitivity, a TEM cell-mediated reaction, in rats. PAP-1 and several of its derivatives therefore constitute excellent new tools to further explore Kv1.3 as a target for immunosuppression and could potentially be developed into orally available immunomodulators. PMID:16099841

  7. Physical Activity and Cervical Cancer Testing among American Indian Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muus, Kyle J.; Baker-Demaray, Twyla B.; Bogart, T. Andy; Duncan, Glen E.; Jacobsen, Clemma; Buchwald, Dedra S.; Henderson, Jeffrey A.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Studies have shown that women who engage in high levels of physical activity have higher rates of cancer screening, including Papanicalaou (Pap) tests. Because American Indian (AI) women are at high risk for cervical cancer morbidity and mortality, we examined Pap screening prevalence and assessed whether physical activity was associated…

  8. Comparative study of visual inspection of the cervix by 3% acetic acid (VIA versus Pap smear by Bethesda method in sexually active women aged 25-50 years as an equally or more effective cervical cancer screening method in a low resource setup

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohit Rajendra Saraogi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cervical cancer is the most common cancer in Indian women and is a preventable cancer. Pap smear being an expensive screening test, increased emphasis is being laid on the development of a reliable and cost effective screening method for cervical cancer. This study aims at early detection of cervical dysplastic lesions using a simple and cost-effective screening test like visual inspection of cervix with 3% acetic acid (VIA and comparing its diagnostic efficacy with the more expensive Pap screening by Bethesda method. Methods: Ours was a prospective study carried out on a 100 sexually active women aged 25-50 years, coming to our OPD. The women were subjected to both a VIA and Pap smear. All Pap and VIA positive women were subjected to a cervical biopsy, whose histopathological report was taken as the gold standard. Results: In our study the sensitivity of VIA was more than that of cytology (100% versus 66.67% but the specificity was significantly lesser (47.83% compared to the 73.91%. The negative predictive value of VIA was comparable with Pap smear (100% and 85% respectively as was the positive predictive value (42.86% and 50%. However the diagnostic accuracy of VIA was lower than that of Pap smear (66.67% and 81.25% in our study. Conclusions: In this study VIA was found to have efficacy comparable to Pap smear in screening cervical cancer. Thus we recommend that VIA could be used as an alternative screening tool to detect early cervical dysplasia - especially in poor resource settings. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2014; 3(3.000: 688-691

  9. 77 FR 72905 - Pipeline Safety: Random Drug Testing Rate; Contractor MIS Reporting; and Obtaining DAMIS Sign-In...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-06

    ...annual percentage rate for random drug testing, reminder...report contractor MIS data, and new method for operators...change the minimum annual random drug testing rate is based on the reported random drug test positive rate...pipeline industry. The data considered by the...

  10. The cell wall-targeted purple acid phosphatase AtPAP25 is critical for acclimation of Arabidopsis thaliana to nutritional phosphorus deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Vecchio, Hernan A; Ying, Sheng; Park, Joonho; Knowles, Vicki L; Kanno, Satomi; Tanoi, Keitaro; She, Yi-Min; Plaxton, William C

    2014-11-01

    Plant purple acid phosphatases (PAPs) belong to a relatively large gene family whose individual functions are poorly understood. Three PAP isozymes that are up-regulated in the cell walls of phosphate (Pi)-starved (-Pi) Arabidopsis thaliana suspension cells were purified and identified by MS as AtPAP12 (At2g27190), AtPAP25 (At4g36350) and AtPAP26 (At5g34850). AtPAP12 and AtPAP26 were previously isolated from the culture medium of -Pi cell cultures, and shown to be secreted by roots of Arabidopsis seedlings to facilitate Pi scavenging from soil-localized organophosphates. AtPAP25 exists as a 55 kDa monomer containing complex NX(S/T) glycosylation motifs at Asn172, Asn367 and Asn424. Transcript profiling and immunoblotting with anti-AtPAP25 immune serum indicated that AtPAP25 is exclusively synthesized under -Pi conditions. Coupled with potent mixed-type inhibition of AtPAP25 by Pi (I50 = 50 ?m), this indicates a tight feedback control by Pi that prevents AtPAP25 from being synthesized or functioning as a phosphatase except when Pi levels are quite low. Promoter-GUS reporter assays revealed AtPAP25 expression in shoot vascular tissue of -Pi plants. Development of an atpap25 T-DNA insertion mutant was arrested during cultivation on soil lacking soluble Pi, but rescued upon Pi fertilization or complementation with AtPAP25. Transcript profiling by quantitative RT-PCR indicated that Pi starvation signaling was attenuated in the atpap25 mutant. AtPAP25 exhibited near-optimal phosphatase activity with several phosphoproteins and phosphoamino acids as substrates. We hypothesize that AtPAP25 plays a key signaling role during Pi deprivation by functioning as a phosphoprotein phosphatase rather than as a non-specific scavenger of Pi from extracellular P-monoesters. PMID:25270985

  11. Assessing the impact of common forensic presumptive tests on the ability to obtain results using a novel rapid DNA platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donachie, Gillian E; Dawnay, Nick; Ahmed, Romana; Naif, Sarah; Duxbury, Nicola J; Tribble, Nicholas D

    2015-07-01

    The rise of DNA evidence to the forefront of forensic science has led to high sample numbers being submitted for profiling by investigators to casework laboratories: bottleneck effects are often seen resulting in slow turnaround times and sample backlog. The ParaDNA(®) Screening and Intelligence Tests have been designed to guide investigators on the viability of potential sources of DNA allowing them to determine which samples should be sent for full DNA analysis. Both tests are designed to augment the arsenal of available forensic tests for end users and be used concurrently to those commonly available. Therefore, assessing the impact that common forensic tests have on such novel technology is important to measure. The systems were tested against various potential inhibitors to which samples may be exposed as part of the investigative process. Presumptive test agents for biological materials (blood, semen and saliva) and those used as fingerprint enhancement agents were both used. The Screening Test showed a drop in performance following application of aluminium powder and cyanoacrylate (CNA) on fingerprints samples; however this drop in performance was not replicated with high template DNA. No significant effect was observed for any agent using the Intelligence Test. Therefore, both tests stand up well to the chemical agents applied and can be used by investigators with confidence that system performance will be maintained. PMID:25864157

  12. CIR, a corepressor of CBF1, binds to PAP-1 and effects alternative splicing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have reported that PAP-1, a product of a causative gene for autosomal retinitis pigmentosa, plays a role in splicing. In this study, CIR, a protein originally identified as a CBF1-interacting protein and reported to act as a transcriptional corepressor, was identified as a PAP-1 binding protein and its function as a splicing factor was investigated. In addition to a basic lysine and acidic serine-rich (BA) domain and a zinc knuckle-like motif, CIR has an arginine/serine dipeptide repeat (RS) domain in its C terminal region. The RS domain has been reported to be present in the superfamily of SR proteins, which are involved in splicing reactions. We generated CIR mutants with deletions of each BA and RS domain and studied their subcellular localizations and interactions with PAP-1 and other SR proteins, including SC35, SF2/ASF, and U2AF35. CIR was found to interact with U2AF35 through the BA domain, with SC35 and SF2/ASF through the RS domain, and with PAP-1 outside the BA domain in vivo and in vitro. CIR was found to be colocalized with SC35 and PAP-1 in nuclear speckles. Then the effect of CIR on splicing was investigated using the E1a minigene as a reporter in HeLa cells. Ectopic expression of CIR with the E1a minigene changed the ratio of spliced isoforms of E1a that were produced by alternative selection of 5'-splice sites. These results indicate that CIR is a member of the family of SR-related proteins and that CIR plays a role in splicing regulation

  13. Procedures for obtaining stress-strain curve including post-necking strain (applicability of testing method (IFD method) and estimation method (K-fit method) for stainless steels)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Testing and estimation procedures for obtaining true stress-strain curves of stainless steels were discussed in order to calculate load carrying capacity of nuclear power plant components by elastic-plastic finite element analyses. Type 316 stainless steel specimens of various degrees of cold working were subjected to tensile tests with different test speeds. It was shown that faster test speed reduced elongation and ultimate strength of the specimens. The strain on the specimen surface measured by the digital image correlation (DIC) technique exhibited an inhomogeneous strain distribution even when the strain was less than the uniform elongation (necking strain). The strain was elevated locally at the center of the specimen and its magnitude was about 1.2 times the nominal strain measured by an extensometer. A testing method (IFD method) has been developed to obtain the true stress-strain curve including post-necking strain by using an hourglass type specimen. In this study, the IFD method was improved so that it was applicable to the round-bar smooth specimens used for the tensile tests. Then, the stress-strain curves were estimated from the 0.2% proof and ultimate strengths by the K-fit method, which has been proposed by the current author. It was shown that K-fit method could estimate the stress-strain curves including the post-necking strain. Finally, a tensile test was carried out using a plate specimen with round notches. Elastic-plastic finite element analyses using the stress-strain curves estimated by the improved IFD method and K-fit method could simulate the deformation and strain distribution. The load carrying capacity obtained by the finite element analyses were almost equivalent to that obtained by the tensile test. However, the yielding load obtained by the finite element analyses were slightly higher than that obtained by the test due to the strain rate dependency of the stress-strain curve. (author)

  14. Acquirement of True Stress-strain Curve Using True Fracture Strain Obtained by Tensile Test and FE Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work, we predict a true fracture strain using load-displacement curves from tensile test and finite element analysis (FEA), and suggest a method for acquiring true stress-strain (SS) curves by predicted fracture strain. We first derived the true SS curve up to necking point from load-displacement curve. As the beginning, the posterior necking part of true SS curve is linearly extrapolated with the slope at necking point. The whole SS curve is then adopted for FE simulation of tensile test. The Bridgman factor or suitable plate correction factors are applied to pre and post FEA. In the load-true strain curve from FEA, the true fracture strain is determined as the matching point to test fracture load. The determined true strain is validated by comparing with test fracture strain. Finally, we complete the true SS curve by combining the prior necking part and linear part, the latter of which connects necking and predicted fracture points

  15. Acquirement of true stress-strain curve using true fracture strain obtained by tensile test and FE analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work, we predict a true fracture strain using load-displacement curves from tensile test and Finite Element Analysis (FEA), and suggest a method for acquiring true Stress-Strain (SS) curves by predicted fracture strain. We first derived the true SS curve up to necking point from load-displacement curve. As the beginning, the posterior necking part of true SS curve is linearly extrapolated with the slope at necking point. The whole SS curve is then adopted for FE simulation of tensile test. The Bridgman factor or suitable plate correction factors are applied to pre and post FEA. In the load-true strain curve from FEA, the true fracture strain is determined as the matching point to test fracture load. The determined true strain is validated by comparing with test fracture strain. Finally, we complete the true SS curve by combining the prior necking part and linear part, the latter of which connects necking and predicted fracture points.

  16. Comparison of visual field test results obtained through Humphrey matrix frequency doubling technology perimetry versus standard automated perimetry in healthy children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibel Kocabeyoglu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims : The aim of this study was to compare the visual field test results in healthy children obtained via the Humphrey matrix 24-2 threshold program and standard automated perimetry (SAP using the Swedish interactive threshold algorithm (SITA-Standard 24-2 test. Materials and Methods: This prospective study included 55 healthy children without ocular or systemic disorders who underwent both SAP and frequency doubling technology (FDT perimetry visual field testing. Visual field test reliability indices, test duration, global indices (mean deviation [MD], and pattern standard deviation [PSD] were compared between the 2 tests using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test and paired t-test. The performance of the Humphrey field analyzer (HFA 24-2 SITA-standard and frequency-doubling technology Matrix 24-2 tests between genders were compared with Mann-Whitney U-test. Results: Fifty-five healthy children with a mean age of 12.2 ± 1.9 years (range from 8 years to 16 years were included in this prospective study. The test durations of SAP and FDT were similar (5.2 ± 0.5 and 5.1 ± 0.2 min, respectively, P = 0.651. MD and the PSD values obtained via FDT Matrix were significantly higher than those obtained via SAP (P < 0.001, and fixation losses and false negative errors were significantly less with SAP (P < 0.05. A weak positive correlation between the two tests in terms of MD (r = 0.352, P = 0.008 and PSD (r = 0.329, P = 0.014 was observed. Conclusion: Children were able to complete both the visual test algorithms successfully within 6 min. However, SAP testing appears to be associated with less depression of the visual field indices of healthy children. FDT Matrix and SAP should not be used interchangeably in the follow-up of children.

  17. Multisite Reproducibility of Results Obtained by Two Broth Dilution Methods for Susceptibility Testing of Mycobacterium avium Complex

    OpenAIRE

    Woods, Gail L; Williams-Bouyer, Natalie; Wallace, Jr., Richard J.; Brown-Elliott, Barbara A.; Witebsky, Frank G.; Conville, Patricia S.; Plaunt, Marianne; Hall, Geraldine; Aralar, Priscilla; Inderlied, Clark

    2003-01-01

    A multicenter study was conducted to assess the interlaboratory reproducibility of susceptibility testing of Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) by broth microdilution using two different media (cation-adjusted Mueller-Hinton broth with 5% oleic acid-albumin-dextrose-catalase and 7H9 broth with casein) and by macrodilution using the BACTEC 460TB and 12B media at pH 6.8 and 7.3 to 7.4. Ten well-characterized strains of MAC (four macrolide susceptible, six macrolide resistant) were tested against...

  18. Psychological impact, support and information needs for women with an abnormal Pap smear: comparative results of a questionnaire in three European countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Anna

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Extensive information on cervical cancer is currently available. Its effectiveness in reducing anxiety in women receiving abnormal Pap tests is not clear. We investigated current practices of communicating abnormal Pap results to evaluate women's reactions and determine the sources of information they use subsequently. Methods A self-administered questionnaire-based study was performed in 1475 women in France, Spain and Portugal who had received an abnormal Pap smear result in the 12 months prior to completing the questionnaire. Questions covered methods of communication of the result, emotional reactions, support received (from the physician and entourage, and information sources, using pre-specified check box options and rating scales. Data were analyzed by country. Results Pap test results were mostly communicated by phone to Spanish women (76%, while physician letters were common in France (59% and Portugal (36%. Frequent reactions were anxiety, panic and stress, which were less common in Spanish women than their French and Portuguese counterparts. After discussing with their physician, half of the participants were worried, despite rating highly the psychological support received. Over 90% of women in each country discussed their results with family or friends. Partners provided a high level of support. Overall, the abnormal diagnosis and consequences had a low to medium impact on daily, professional and family life and their relationships with their partner. Impact was higher in Spanish women than the French or Portuguese. Information on the diagnosis and its treatment was rated average, and nearly 80% of participants wanted more information, notably French women. Preferred sources were the physician and the Internet. Conclusions Women expressed a strong wish for more information about cervical cancer and other HPV-related diseases, and that their physician play a major role in its provision and in support. There was a heavy reliance on the close entourage and the Internet for information, highlighting the need for dissemination of accurate material. Differences between countries suggest information management strategies may need to be tailored to different geographical regions.

  19. Affective and cognitive attitudes, uncertainty avoidance and intention to obtain genetic testing: an extension of the Theory of Planned Behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Katharina; Nordin, Karin; Brun, Wibecke; Berglund, Gunilla; Kvale, Gerd

    2011-09-01

    To ensure successful implementation of genetic screening and counselling according to patients best interests, the attitudes and motives of the public are important to consider. The aim of this study was to apply a theoretical framework in order to investigate which individual and disease characteristics might facilitate the uptake of genetic testing. A questionnaire using an extended version of the Theory of Planned Behaviour was developed to assess the predictive value of affective and cognitive expected outcomes, subjective norms, perceived control and uncertainty avoidance on the intention to undergo genetic testing. In addition to these individual characteristics, the predictive power of two disease characteristics was investigated by systematically varying the diseases fatality and penetrance (i.e. the probability of getting ill in case one is a mutation carrier). This resulted in four versions of the questionnaire which was mailed to a random sample of 2400 Norwegians. Results showed genetic test interest to be quite high, and to vary depending on the characteristics of the disease, with participants preferring tests for highly penetrant diseases. The most important individual predictor was uncertainty avoidance. PMID:21347976

  20. Problems in obtaining sufficient anaesthesia with propofol and remifentanil : three cases, a test infusion, and a review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bache, Stefan Holst; Stendell, Line

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: /st>Over a 5 yr period, we have encountered three patients in whom remifentanil appeared to have no clinical effect during general anaesthesia (GA). We describe seven anaesthetics in these three patients. METHODS: /st>We reviewed the literature on this subject. A simple reproducible test to explore this response was designed. This involved a controlled infusion of increasing doses of remifentanil while observing respiratory variables, pain threshold, pupil size, and Glasgow coma scale score. In addition, blood was sampled for genotyping. RESULTS: /st>No description of this impaired response was found in the review of the literature. Two of the patients agreed to participate in the test. In both patients, we found a seemingly normal analgesic response but a lack of respiratory depression and almost no depression of consciousness, even at doses well above the recommended level for clinical use. The genotyping did not explain the results of the test. CONCLUSIONS: /st>The potential causes of this effect are discussed. We advise clinicians to be aware of this unusual response to remifentanil. If such a response is suspected, we recommend the use of another opioid. If this is suspected before GA, we propose the use of our test as a diagnostic tool.

  1. Clinical Implications of the Cervical Papanicolaou Test Results in the Management of Anal Warts in HIV-Infected Women

    OpenAIRE

    Hung N. Luu; Amirian, E. Susan; Beasley, R. Palmer; Piller, Linda; CHAN, WENYAW; Scheurer, Michael E.

    2013-01-01

    The Papanicolaou test (or Pap test) has long been used as a screening tool to detect cervical precancerous/cancerous lesions. However, studies on the use of this test to predict both the presence and change in size of genital warts are limited. We examined whether cervical Papanicolaou test results are associated with the size of the largest anal wart over time in HIV-infected women in an on-going cohort study in the US. A sample of 976 HIV-infected women included in a public dataset obtained...

  2. Time of Incubation for Antifungal Susceptibility Testing of Aspergillus fumigatus: Can MIC Values Be Obtained at 24 Hours??

    OpenAIRE

    Rodriguez-Tudela, Juan Luis; Alcazar-Fuoli, Laura; Alastruey-Izquierdo, Ana; Monzon, Araceli; Mellado, Emilia; Cuenca-Estrella, Manuel

    2007-01-01

    A collection of Aspergillus fumigatus isolates was used to check if MICs can be read at 24 h. At 24 h, the geometric mean MIC of itraconazole for resistant isolates was determined to be 5.11 mg/liter, but the MIC was read as 16 mg/liter at 48 h. At 24 h, MICs for 51.5% of resistant strains were determined to be ?2 mg/liter. MICs must be obtained at 48 h.

  3. Cantilever beam test in Zr-2.5%Nb: Comparative study between pipe material obtained by laminating and wire drawing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Zr-2.5Nb alloy is used in the manufacture of pressure tubes for the CANDU nuclear power reactors. These tubes are subjected to severe service conditions: one o f them, the heavy water corrosion due to the coolant generates release of hydrogen, part of which ingress in the material raising its initial concentration and exposing them to a phenomena referred as delay hydrogen cracking. The results presented in this paper show the performance of a pressure tube of domestic manufacture under conditions of tension and hydrogen content in order to be compared with the behavior of a standard pressure tube in operation in the nuclear power plant. To do this is, cantilever notched and pre cracked samples were hydrided from both kinds of tubes. Each one of these samples was subjected to the cantilever beam test, which consists in a bending test performed in a furnace at 250oC. Starting from a stress intensity factor Ki which determines the propagation start of the crack, the growth is followed by the acoustic emission technique up to the arrest of the crack by controlling the bending load. This work presents the comparative data such as critical voltages, behavior of hydrides, and DHC parameters from both trials. Although the number of tests is reduced; results show a good performance of the tubes of domestic manufacture (author)

  4. Test of a numerical optimization algorithm for obtaining cross sections for multiple collision processes from electron swarm data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A numerical optimization technique is used to obtain low-energy momentum transfer, j = 0 ? 2 rotational and v = 0 ? vibrational sections from measured electron swarm data for parahydrogen. The downhill simplex algorithm is used to find cross sections that represent the best numerical fit to the measured electron drift velocity and characteristic energy over a range of E/N. These results, which are in excellent agreement with published cross sections derived using traditional swarm analysis techniques, demonstrates the feasibility of using automated computational algorithms for swarm analysis involving the estimation of multiple cross sections. (Author)

  5. Deoxygenation and the blood volume signals in the flexor carpi ulnaris and radialis muscles obtained during the execution of the Mirallas's test of judo athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdaguer-Codina, Joan; Mirallas, Jaume A.

    1996-12-01

    The technique of execution of any movement in Judo is extremely important. The coaches want tests and tools easy to use and cheaper, to evaluate the progress of a judoist in the tatame. In this paper we present a test developed by Mirallas, which has his name 'Test of Mirallas' to evaluate the maximal power capacity of the judoist. The near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) signals were obtained to have a measurement of the metabolic work of the flexor carpi ulnaris and radialis muscles, during the execution of the ippon-seoi-nage movement, allowing this measurement to assess by NIRS the maximal oxygen uptake. Also obtained were tympanic, skin forehead, and biceps brachii temperatures during the test time and recovery phase to study the effects of ambient conditions and the post-exercise oxygen consumption. The deoxygenation and blood volume signals obtained gave different results, demonstrating the hypothesis of the coaches that some judoist do the execution of the ippon-seoi-nage movement correctly and the rest didn't. The heart rate frequency obtained in the group of judoist was between 190-207 bpm, and in the minute five of post-exercise was 114-137 bpm; the time employed in the MIrallas's test were from 7 feet 14 inches to 13 feet 49 inches, and the total of movements were from 199 to 409. The data obtained in the skin forehead, and skin biceps brachii confirms previous works that the oxygen consumption remains after exercise in the muscle studied. According to the results, the test developed by Mirallas is a good tool to evaluate the performance of judoist any time, giving better results compared with standard tests.

  6. Hydrological processes obtained on the plot scale under four simulated rainfall tests during the cycle of different crop systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ildegardis Bertol

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The cropping system influences the interception of water by plants, water storage in depressions on the soil surface, water infiltration into the soil and runoff. The aim of this study was to quantify some hydrological processes under no tillage cropping systems at the edge of a slope, in 2009 and 2010, in a Humic Dystrudept soil, with the following treatments: corn, soybeans, and common beans alone; and intercropped corn and common bean. Treatments consisted of four simulated rainfall tests at different times, with a planned intensity of 64 mm h-1 and 90 min duration. The first test was applied 18 days after sowing, and the others at 39, 75 and 120 days after the first test. Different times of the simulated rainfall and stages of the crop cycle affected soil water content prior to the rain, and the time runoff began and its peak flow and, thus, the surface hydrological processes. The depth of the runoff and the depth of the water intercepted by the crop + soil infiltration + soil surface storage were affected by the crop systems and the rainfall applied at different times. The corn crop was the most effective treatment for controlling runoff, with a water loss ratio of 0.38, equivalent to 75 % of the water loss ratio exhibited by common bean (0.51, the least effective treatment in relation to the others. Total water loss by runoff decreased linearly with an increase in the time that runoff began, regardless of the treatment; however, soil water content on the gravimetric basis increased linearly from the beginning to the end of the rainfall.

  7. Reliability Criteria for Testing the Goodness of the Activation Energy Values Obtained by the Peak Shape Methods in Thermoluminescence Experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Kitis

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to give some expressions able to give a criteria of acceptance for the activation energy values determined through the so called peak shape methods. The expressions are derived for both first and second order kinetics. Furthermore, using approximations concerning the peak temperature parameters, the reliability expressions are simplified for getting a more quickly criteria of acceptance. A table lists several data, from literature, concerning the activation energy determined for various Thermoluminescence materials; the experimental values are then tested using the criteria of acceptance showing the goodness of the method here presented in this research.

  8. RELIABILITY AND VALIDITY OF PHYSIOLOGICAL DATA OBTAINED WITHIN A CYCLE-RUN TRANSITION TEST IN AGE-GROUP TRIATHLETES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica Vleck

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the validity and reliability of a sequential "Run-Bike-Run" test (RBR in age-group triathletes. Eight Olympic distance (OD specialists (age 30.0 ± 2.0 years, mass 75.6 ± 1.6 kg, run VO2max 63.8 ± 1.9 ml·kg-1·min-1, cycle VO2peak 56.7 ± 5.1 ml·kg-1·min-1 performed four trials over 10 days. Trial 1 (TRVO2max was an incremental treadmill running test. Trials 2 and 3 (RBR1 and RBR2 involved: 1 a 7-min run at 15 km·h-1 (R1 plus a 1-min transition to 2 cycling to fatigue (2 W·kg-1 body mass then 30 W each 3 min; 3 10-min cycling at 3 W·kg-1 (Bsubmax; another 1-min transition and 4 a second 7-min run at 15 km·h-1 (R2. Trial 4 (TT was a 30-min cycle - 20-min run time trial. No significant differences in absolute oxygen uptake (VO2, heart rate (HR, or blood lactate concentration ([BLA] were evidenced between RBR1 and RBR2. For all measured physiological variables, the limits of agreement were similar, and the mean differences were physiologically unimportant, between trials. Low levels of test-retest error (i.e. ICC <0.8, CV<10% were observed for most (logged measurements. However [BLA] post R1 (ICC 0.87, CV 25.1%, [BLA] post Bsubmax (ICC 0.99, CV 16.31 and [BLA] post R2 (ICC 0.51, CV 22.9% were least reliable. These error ranges may help coaches detect real changes in training status over time. Moreover, RBR test variables can be used to predict discipline specific and overall TT performance. Cycle VO2peak, cycle peak power output, and the change between R1 and R2 (deltaR1R2 in [BLA] were most highly related to overall TT distance (r = 0.89, p < 0. 01; r = 0.94, p < 0.02; r = 0.86, p < 0.05, respectively. The percentage of TR VO2max at 15 km·h-1, and deltaR1R2 HR, were also related to run TT distance (r = -0.83 and 0.86, both p < 0.05

  9. The Pap smear screening as an occasion for smoking cessation and physical activity counselling: effectiveness of the SPRINT randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorini Giuseppe

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The organized Cervical Cancer Screening Programme (CCSP in Italy might represent an occasion to deliver smoking cessation (SC counselling to women attending the Pap test examination. Evidence of effectiveness of physical activity (PA promotion and intervention in adjunct to SC counselling is not strong. Objective of the SPRINT trial was to evaluate the effectiveness of a standard SC counselling intervention delivered by trained midwives in the CCSP, and whether the adjunct of a PA counselling to the SC counselling might increase quit rates. Methods/Design We undertook a randomized controlled trial of 1,100 women undergoing the Pap examination in the three study centres Florence, Turin, and Mantua: 363 were randomly assigned to the SC counselling arm, 366 to the SC?+?PA counselling arm, and 371 to the control group. The intervention was a standard brief SC counselling combined with a brief counselling on increasing PA, and was tailored according to the Di Clemente-Prochaska motivational stages of change for SC and/or PA. Primary outcomes were quit rates, improvement in the motivational stages of change for SC, and reduced daily cigarette consumption. Analysis was by intention to treat. Results Participants randomized in both intervention arms and in the preparation stage of change for SC doubled their likelihood of quitting at 6-month follow-up in comparison to controls (odds ratio [OR]=2.1, 95% confidence interval [95% CI]:1.0-4.6. Moreover, participants in the intervention arms and in the contemplation stage were more likely to reduce their daily cigarette consumption after the intervention (OR=1.8, 95% CI:1.1-3.0. Our study did not show any effect of PA counselling on various outcomes. Conclusions Smoking cessation counselling delivered by midwives to smokers in preparation and contemplation stages of change during the Pap-smear screening was effective and should be recommended, given the high number of women attending the cervical cancer screening programme in Italy. Moreover, the daily number of women invited for the Pap-smear examination should be slightly lowered, in order to let midwives deliver SC counselling to smokers. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN52660565

  10. Papanicolaou na pós-menopausa: fatores associados a sua não realização / Factors associated with lack of Pap smear screening in a group of postmenopausal Brazilian women

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Sheila Cristina Rocha, Brischiliari; Cátia Millene, Dell' Agnolo; Laís Moraes, Gil; Tiara Cristina, Romeiro; Ângela Andréia França, Gravena; Maria Dalva de Barros, Carvalho; Sandra Marisa, Pelloso.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar os fatores de risco relacionados à não realização do exame de Papanicolaou entre as mulheres que vivenciam a menopausa. Neste estudo de base populacional, composto de mulheres de 45-69 anos, residentes na área urbana de Maringá, Paraná, Brasil, foram avaliadas 45 [...] 6 mulheres no período da menopausa, as quais apresentaram uma média de 58,7 ± 5,7 anos, sendo 48,0 ± 5,0 anos a idade média do início da menopausa. A maior parte relatou ter até sete anos de estudo, apresentava companheiro, realizava atividade remunerada, era sedentária e não usuária de terapia de reposição hormonal. A cobertura de rastreamento de Papanicolaou foi de 84,5%. Após ajuste por análise multivariada, a faixa etária de 45-69 anos, ocupação remunerada, sem consulta ao ginecologista no último ano e sem realização de mamografia nos últimos dois anos foram associadas à não realização do exame. Os esforços para melhorar o rastreamento do câncer de colo do útero devem estar focados no conhecimento das mulheres e na diminuição dos fatores contribuintes para a não realização do exame de Papanicolaou. Abstract in english This study aimed to analyze risk factors for lack of Pap smear screening among menopausal women. This population-based study evaluated 456 women 45-69 years of age (mean 58.7; SD 5.7), with age at menopause 48.0 years (SD 5.0) living in the urban area of Maringá, Paraná State, Brazil. Most reported [...] having 7 years of schooling or less, were married or living with a partner, had paid work, were sedentary, and were not on hormone replacement therapy. Coverage of Pap smear screening was 84.5%. After adjustment by multivariate analysis, the 45-69-year age bracket, paid work, no visit to the gynecologist in the previous year, and no mammogram in the two previous years were statistically associated with lack of Pap smear screening. Efforts to improve cervical cancer screening should focus on women's knowledge and reduce the factors that hinder women from performing Pap smear tests.

  11. Obese women’s barriers to mammography and Pap smear: The possible role of personality

    OpenAIRE

    Friedman, Asia M.; Hemler, Jennifer R.; Rossetti, Elisa; Clemow, Lynn P.; Ferrante, Jeanne M

    2012-01-01

    Obese women are at increased risk of developing and dying from cancer, but are less likely than non-obese women to receive cancer screening examinations. Our qualitative study explores obese women’s barriers to Pap smears and mammograms in greater depth than previous research. We also seek to understand why some obese women undergo screening while others do not. A purposive sample of moderately to severely obese women over age 40 was recruited from community-based organizations, health clinic...

  12. Abnormal Pap Smear and Diagnosis of High-Grade Vaginal Intraepithelial Neoplasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sopracordevole, Francesco; Mancioli, Francesca; Clemente, Nicolò; De Piero, Giovanni; Buttignol, Monica; Giorda, Giorgio; Ciavattini, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to analyze the correlation between the first diagnosis of high-grade Vaginal Intraepithelial Neoplasia (HG-VaIN: VaIN 2–VaIN 3) and the cytological abnormalities on the referral pap smear. All the women with histological diagnosis of HG-VaIN consecutively referred to the Gynecological Oncology Unit of the Aviano National Cancer Institute (Aviano, Italy) from January 1991 to April 2014 and with a pap smear performed in the 3 months before the diagnosis were considered, and an observational cohort study was performed. A total of 87 women with diagnosis of HG-VaIN were identified. Major cytological abnormalities (HSIL and ASC-H) on the referral pap smear were significantly more frequent than lesser abnormalities (ASC-US and LSIL) in postmenopausal women (64.9% vs 36.7%, P?=?0.02) and in women with a previous diagnosis of HPV-related cervical preinvasive or invasive lesions (70.5% vs 39.5%, P?=?0.01). Diagnosis of VaIN 3 was preceded by major cytological abnormalities in most of the cases (72.7% vs 27.3%, P?HPV-related disease. However, ASC-US or LSIL do not exclude HG-VaIN, especially VaIN2. An accurate examination of the whole vaginal walls (or vaginal vault) must be performed in all the women who underwent colposcopy for an abnormal pap smear, and a biopsy of all suspicious areas is mandatory. PMID:26496321

  13. Abnormal Pap Smear and Diagnosis of High-Grade Vaginal Intraepithelial Neoplasia: A Retrospective Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sopracordevole, Francesco; Mancioli, Francesca; Clemente, Nicolò; De Piero, Giovanni; Buttignol, Monica; Giorda, Giorgio; Ciavattini, Andrea

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the correlation between the first diagnosis of high-grade Vaginal Intraepithelial Neoplasia (HG-VaIN: VaIN 2-VaIN 3) and the cytological abnormalities on the referral pap smear.All the women with histological diagnosis of HG-VaIN consecutively referred to the Gynecological Oncology Unit of the Aviano National Cancer Institute (Aviano, Italy) from January 1991 to April 2014 and with a pap smear performed in the 3 months before the diagnosis were considered, and an observational cohort study was performed.A total of 87 women with diagnosis of HG-VaIN were identified. Major cytological abnormalities (HSIL and ASC-H) on the referral pap smear were significantly more frequent than lesser abnormalities (ASC-US and LSIL) in postmenopausal women (64.9% vs 36.7%, P?=?0.02) and in women with a previous diagnosis of HPV-related cervical preinvasive or invasive lesions (70.5% vs 39.5%, P?=?0.01). Diagnosis of VaIN 3 was preceded by major cytological abnormalities in most of the cases (72.7% vs 27.3%, P?HPV-related disease. However, ASC-US or LSIL do not exclude HG-VaIN, especially VaIN2. An accurate examination of the whole vaginal walls (or vaginal vault) must be performed in all the women who underwent colposcopy for an abnormal pap smear, and a biopsy of all suspicious areas is mandatory. PMID:26496321

  14. Thermal isocreep curves obtained during multi-axial creep tests on recrystallized Zircaloy-4 and M5™ alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rautenberg, M., E-mail: mrautenb@gmail.com [AREVA, AREVA NP, 10 rue Juliette Récamier, 69456 Lyon (France); CIRIMAT, CNRS/UPS/INPT, 4 allée Emile Monso, 31030 Toulouse (France); Poquillon, D. [CIRIMAT, CNRS/UPS/INPT, 4 allée Emile Monso, 31030 Toulouse (France); Pilvin, P. [LIMATB, University Bretagne-Sud, rue de Saint-Maudé, 56321 Lorient (France); Grosjean, C. [AREVA, AREVA NP, 10 rue Juliette Récamier, 69456 Lyon (France); CIRIMAT, CNRS/UPS/INPT, 4 allée Emile Monso, 31030 Toulouse (France); Cloué, J.M. [AREVA, AREVA NP, 10 rue Juliette Récamier, 69456 Lyon (France); Feaugas, X. [LEMMA, Université de La Rochelle, Avenue Michel Crépeau, 17042 La Rochelle (France)

    2014-04-01

    Zirconium alloys are widely used in the nuclear industry. Several components, such as cladding or guide tubes, undergo strong mechanical loading during and after their use inside the pressurized water reactors. The current requirements on higher fuel performances lead to the developing on new Zr based alloys exhibiting better mechanical properties. In this framework, creep behaviors of recrystallized Zircaloy-4 and M5™, have been investigated and then compared. In order to give a better understanding of the thermal creep anisotropy of Zr-based alloys, multi-axial creep tests have been carried out at 673 K. Using a specific device, creep conditions have been set using different values of ? = ?{sub zz}/?{sub ??}, ?{sub zz} and ?{sub ??} being respectively the axial and hoop creep stresses. Both axial and hoop strains are measured during each test which is carried out until stationary creep is stabilized. The steady-state strain rates are then used to build isocreep curves. Considering the isocreep curves, the M5™ alloy shows a largely improved creep resistance compared to the recrystallized Zircaloy-4, especially for tubes under high hoop loadings (0 < ? < 1). The isocreep curves are then compared with simulations performed using two different mechanical models. Model 1 uses a von Mises yield criterion, the model 2 is based on a Hill yield criterion. For both models, a coefficient derived from Norton law is used to assess the stress dependence.

  15. Restriction fragment length polymorphisms among uropathogenic Escherichia coli isolates: pap-related sequences compared with rrn operons.

    OpenAIRE

    Arthur, M; Arbeit, R D; Kim, C.; Beltran, P; Crowe, H; Steinbach, S; Campanelli, C; R.A. Wilson; Selander, R. K.; Goldstein, R.

    1990-01-01

    Among the adhesin-encoding virulence operons associated with uropathogenic Escherichia coli, only pap (pyelonephritis-associated pilus)-related gene clusters typically exhibit variation in their structure and chromosomal copy number. To access further such variability, we compared pap restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) with those detected among rRNA (rrn) operons, which encode an essential host function unrelated to virulence. To place such findings in a phylogenetic perspectiv...

  16. Associations of demographic variables and the Health Belief Model constructs with Pap smear screening among urban women in Botswana

    OpenAIRE

    McFarl; DM.

    2013-01-01

    Ditsapelo M McFarland College of Nursing and Public Health, Adelphi University, Garden City, NY, USA Purpose: Papanicolaou (Pap) smear services are available in most urban areas in Botswana. Yet most women in such areas do not screen regularly for cancer of the cervix. The purpose of this article is to present findings on the associations of demographic variables and Health Belief Model constructs with Pap smear screening among urban women in Botswana. Sample and methods: The study included a...

  17. Ten years of sodium cooled steam generator tests on the C.G.V.S. Synthesis of the results obtained on these equipments and operation experiments of an industrial size test facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From 1970 to 1980, Electricite de France carried out tests on four steam generators of the fast neutron reactor series on an industrial size testing equipment, the C.G.V.S. (large power testing Circuit for Steam Generators heated by Sodium). After a presentation of the testing installation, types of tests carried out and tested apparatus, a balance of lessons drawn from the circuit exploitation, and from the main results obtained on the tested equipments and on the means of calculation COPI and SICLE codes developed or adopted to simulate steam generator operation. 33 figs., 50 refs

  18. Citopatológico de colo uterino entre gestantes no Sul do Brasil: um estudo transversal de base populacional / Pap smears among pregnant women in Southern Brazil: a representative cross-sectional survey

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Juraci Almeida, Cesar; Gabriela Breitembach dos, Santos; Andrea Tomais, Sutil; Carolina Fischer, Cunha; Samuel de Carvalho, Dumith.

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar a prevalência e identificar fatores associados ao não rastreamento voluntário para citopatológico (CP) de colo uterino entre puérperas em Rio Grande (RS). MÉTODOS: Entrevistadores previamente treinados aplicaram questionário padronizado, ainda na maternidade, em busca de informa [...] ções sobre características demográficas da gestante, nível socioeconômico da família e tipo de assistência recebida durante o pré-natal para todas aquelas residentes nesse município que tiveram filhos entre 1º de janeiro e 31 de dezembro de 2010. Foram utilizados o teste do ?² para comparar proporções e a regressão de Poisson com ajuste robusto da variância na análise multivariável. RESULTADOS: Dentre as 2.288 entrevistadas, 33% não se submeteram ao CP de colo uterino. Destas, dois terços disseram desconhecer a necessidade de realizá-lo, 18% não fizeram este exame por medo ou vergonha e as demais por outras razões. Após ajuste para diversos fatores de confusão, as maiores razões de prevalência (RP) para não buscar por CP ocorreram entre aquelas de menor idade (RP=1,5; IC95% 1,25 - 1,80) e escolaridade (RP=1,5; IC95% 1,12 - 2,12), que viviam sem companheiro (RP=1,4; IC95% 1,24 - 1,62), fumantes (RP=1,2; IC95% 1,07 - 1,39), que não planejaram a gravidez (RP=1,3; IC95% 1,21 - 1,61), que completaram menos de seis consultas durante pré-natal (RP=1,4; IC95% 1,32 - 1,69) e usuárias de contraceptivo oral (RP=1,2; IC95% 1,04 - 1,38). CONCLUSÕES: Quanto maior o risco para câncer de colo uterino, menor a probabilidade de a gestante se submeter ao CP de colo uterino. Isso, certamente, tem contribuído para o aumento da morbimortalidade por esta doença nesta localidade. Abstract in english PURPOSE: To determine the prevalence and risk factors associated with failure of voluntary screening for cervical cancer during the gestational period in Rio Grande, Rio Grande do Sul State, Southern Brazil. METHODS: Previously trained interviewers applied a standardized questionnaire in the materni [...] ty to all mothers from this municipality who had delivered from January 1st to December 31st 2010 to obtain information about the demographic characteristics of the pregnant women, family socioeconomic status, and prenatal care received. The ?² test was used to compare proportions and Poisson regression with robust adjustment of variance was used in the multivariate analysis. RESULTS: Among the 2,288 respondents, 33% were not submitted to the Pap smear during pregnancy. Two thirds of these women stated that they were not aware of the need to perform it, 18% were not screened out of fear or shame, and the rest for other reasons. After adjustment, the highest prevalence ratios (PR) for noncompliance with the Pap smear occurred among young women (PR=1.5; 95%CI 1.25 - 1.80), with lower educational level (PR=1.5; 95%CI 1.12 - 2.12), who were living without a partner (PR=1.4; 95%CI 1.24 - 1.62), smokers (PR=1.2; 95%CI 1.07 - 1.39), who did not plan the current pregnancy (PR=1.3; 95%CI 1,21 - 1.61), who had attended less than six medical visits during the prenatal period (PR=1.4; 95%CI 1.32 - 1.69) and among users of oral contraceptives (PR=1.2; 95%CI 1.04 - 1.38). CONCLUSIONS: The higher the risk for uterine cervical cancer, the less likely a pregnant woman is to undergo a Pap smear. This definitely contributed to the increased morbidity and mortality from this disease in this setting.

  19. The Anal Pap Smear: Cytomorphology of squamous intraepithelial lesions

    OpenAIRE

    Arain Shehla; Walts Ann; Thomas Premi; Bose Shikha

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Background Anal smears are increasingly being used as a screening test for anal squamous intraepithelial lesions (ASILs). This study was undertaken to assess the usefulness and limitations of anal smears in screening for ASILs. Methods The cytomorphological features of 200 consecutive anal smears collected in liquid medium from 198 patients were studied and findings were correlated with results of surgical biopsies and/or repeat smears that became available for 71 patients within six...

  20. Microspores irradiation in anther culture: testing a new technique to obtain mutations immediatly detected and fixed (Application to Nicotiana tabacum)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to consider the effects of microspores irradiation on embryo development, and in order to observe the morphological responses of haploid plantlets derived from androgenetic anthers to ionizing irradiation, 1000, 1500 and 2000r of gamma rays were delivered on anthers of Nicotiana tabacum (DL50 range calculated: 1500r). The cytological studies of embryo development revealed an apparent increase in irradiated microspores: cell division is stimulated but followed by an early mortality. A sharp rise in lethality effects was observed when gamma rays were applied beyond the seventh day of culture, when the proembryo contains an average of 4 cells. Morphological aberrations and colour changes in the Mo progeny derived from irradiated microspores are diverse. But after chromosome doubling and mutation checking out, all the plants were not recorded to have transmitted their aberrant characters. Thus, heritable character 'mutations) and not heritable character (variations) were obtained. The variations characters include dwarfing, excessive branching, fasciation and dichotomy of the stems, altered flower form, especially of petals. As to the leaves, they usually show induced changes in their colour (chlorotic areas, mosaic-colour changes, or an over-all colour changes), in their form (irregularity in outline) and in their texture (thickening, hairless leaf). Among the mutants, a monster tobacco, with excrescences on the leaves and the flowers is certainly the most conspicuous. But mutants also include altered leaf colour (over-all pale green) and altered flower colour, (dark red, clear pink, white)

  1. Outline of test and research results obtained with research commissioning expense for peaceful use of atomic energy in fiscal 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report was compiled by the Atomic Energy Bureau, Science and Technology Agency. Six reports on radiation injury prevention, six reports on radiation utilization, and three reports on nuclear fuel cycle are collected, and the outline of respective tests and research is described. In radiation injury prevention, the scattering of radioisotopes, the evaluation of gaseous radioactive nuclides, the distribution and the behavior of natural and artificial radioactive nuclides, the risk estimation of delayed injuries and hereditary injuries due to low dose radiation, and the epidemiologic study of the group repeatedly exposed to low dose for radiation risk estimation were taken up. In radiation utilization, the hereditary safety of irradiated foods, the automation of the production of short life, RI-labeled compounds, the safety of radioisotope-using facilities in earthquakes, the techniques of treating radioactive wastes in RI utilization, the cleaning of radioactivity-contaminated things with organic solvent, and the facility for treating radioactive liquid using a new filter were studied. In nuclear fuel cycle, the behavior of uranium hexafluoride in fire, the dynamic concentrated management system for the information on safeguard measures and the low level radioactive wastes produced in fuel fabrication establishments were researched. (Kako, I.)

  2. Cloning, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction studies of Escherichia coli PapD-like protein (EcpD)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Escherichia coli PapD-like protein (EcpD), from uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC), which is a periplasmic chaperon of Yad fimbriae was cloned, overexpressed, purified and crystallized. The crystals obtained diffracted X-rays to 1.67 Å resolution and belonged to space group C2221. Many Gram-negative bacteria are characterized by hair-like proteinaceous appendages on their surface known as fimbriae. In uropathogenic strains of Escherichia coli, fimbriae mediate attachment by binding to receptors on the host cell, often contributing to virulence and disease. E. coli PapD-like protein (EcpD) is a periplasmic chaperone that plays an important role in the proper folding and guiding of Yad fimbrial proteins to the outer membrane usher protein in a process known as pilus biogenesis. EcpD is essential for pilus biogenesis in uropathogenic E. coli and plays an important role in virulence. In the present study, EcpD was cloned, overexpressed, purified and crystallized by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. The crystals diffracted to 1.67 Å resolution and belonged to the orthorhombic space group C2221, with unit-cell parameters a = 100.3, b = 127.6, c = 45.9 Å. There was a single molecule in the asymmetric unit and the corresponding Matthews coefficient was calculated to be 3.02 Å3 Da?1, with 59% solvent content. Initial phases were determined by molecular replacement

  3. The Anal Pap Smear: Cytomorphology of squamous intraepithelial lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arain Shehla

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anal smears are increasingly being used as a screening test for anal squamous intraepithelial lesions (ASILs. This study was undertaken to assess the usefulness and limitations of anal smears in screening for ASILs. Methods The cytomorphological features of 200 consecutive anal smears collected in liquid medium from 198 patients were studied and findings were correlated with results of surgical biopsies and/or repeat smears that became available for 71 patients within six months. Results Adequate cellularity was defined as an average of 6 or more nucleated squamous cells/hpf. A glandular/transitional component was not required for adequacy. Dysplastic cells, atypical parakeratotic cells and bi/multinucleated cells were frequent findings in ASIL while koilocytes were infrequent. Smears from LSIL cases most frequently showed mildly dysplastic and bi/multinucleate squamous cells followed by parakeratotic cells (PK, atypical parakeratotic cells (APK, and koilocytes. HSIL smears contained squamous cells with features of moderate/severe dysplasia and many APKs. Features of LSIL were also found in most HSIL smears. Conclusions In this study liquid based anal smears had a high sensitivity (98% for detection of ASIL but a low specificity (50% for predicting the severity of the abnormality in subsequent biopsy. Patients with cytologic diagnoses of ASC-US and LSIL had a significant risk (46–56% of HSIL at biopsy. We suggest that all patients with a diagnosis of ASC-US and above be recommended for high resolution anoscopy with biopsy.

  4. Charging and discharging tests for obtaining an accurate dynamic electro-thermal model of high power lithium-ion pack system for hybrid and EV applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mihet-Popa, Lucian; Camacho, Oscar Mauricio Forero

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a battery test platform including two Li-ion battery designed for hybrid and EV applications, and charging/discharging tests under different operating conditions carried out for developing an accurate dynamic electro-thermal model of a high power Li-ion battery pack system. The aim of the tests has been to study the impact of the battery degradation and to find out the dynamic characteristics of the cells including nonlinear open circuit voltage, series resistance and parallel transient circuit at different charge/discharge currents and cell temperature. An equivalent circuit model, based on the runtime battery model and the Thevenin circuit model, with parameters obtained from the tests and depending on SOC, current and temperature has been implemented in MATLAB/Simulink and Power Factory. A good alignment between simulations and measurements has been found.

  5. Combined Hierarchical Watershed Segmentation and SVM Classification for Pap Smear Cell Nucleus Extraction / Extracción de núcleos de células en imágenes de la prueba de Papanicolaou usando watershed jerárquico y máquinas de vectores soporte

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Maykel, Orozco-Monteagudo; Cosmin, Mihai; Hichem, Sahli; Alberto, Taboada-Crispi.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se presenta un método en dos etapas para la segmentación y clasificación de núcleos de células en imágenes tomadas de la prueba de Papanicolaou. La primera etapa, la etapa de segmentación, está formada por un algoritmo morfológico (watershed o marcas de agua) y un algoritmo je [...] rárquico de mezclado (waterfall o salto de agua). Para realizar el mezclado de regiones, waterfall usa información espectral, de forma y de las regiones que se separarán. En la segunda etapa, la etapa de clasificación, el objetivo es obtener los núcleos a partir de las clasificaciones de las regiones obtenidas en la primera etapa. Antes de realizar la clasificación, fueron probadas tres medidas no supervisadas de calidad de la segmentación para determinar el mejor resultado de la mezcla de regiones. La clasificación de las regiones se realizó usando Máquinas de Vector Soporte. Los resultados fueron comparados con las segmentaciones realizadas por patólogos demostrándose la eficacia del método propuesto. Abstract in english In this paper, we propose a two-phase approach to nuclei segmentation/classification in Pap smear test images. The first phase, the segmentation phase, includes a morphological algorithm (watershed) and a hierarchical merging algorithm (waterfall). In the merging step, waterfall uses spectral and sh [...] ape information as well as the class information. In the second phase, classification, the goal is to obtain nucleus regions and cytoplasm areas by classifying the regions resulting from the first phase based on their spectral and shape features, merging of the adjacent regions belonging to the same class. Between the two phases, three unsupervised segmentation quality criteria were tested in order to determine the best one selecting the best level after merging. The classification of individual regions is obtained using a Support Vector Machine (SVM) classifier. The segmentation and classification results are compared to the segmentation provided by expert pathologists and demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed method.

  6. Análise da cobertura e dos exames colpocitológicos não retirados de uma Unidade Básica de Saúde Análisis de la cobertura y de los exámenes de papanicolaou no retirados de una Unidad Basica de Salud Analysis of coverage and of the pap test exams not retired of a Basic Health Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Teixeira Moreira Vasconcelos

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Analisar a cobertura e os exames colpocitológicos não retirados de uma Unidade de Saúde. Pesquisa documental retrospectiva, na qual foram avaliados os dados de cobertura de 2007 e os 225 exames realizados e não retirados da unidade até janeiro de 2008. Para a análise estatística foi aplicado o cálculo da freqüência das variáveis pesquisadas. A média mensal de exames realizados foi de 102,6 exames. A cobertura do exame em 2007 foi de 11,22% entre as mulheres de 25 a 59 anos. Dos 938 exames realizados entre fevereiro e novembro de 2007, 225 (23,98% mulheres não receberam o resultado. A maioria das mulheres (67,5%, que realizou o exame e não retornou, tinha até 30 anos de idade. O não retorno das mulheres para receber o resultado do exame dificulta o acompanhamento, a integralidade e continuidade da assistência, contribuindo para uma intervenção em fases mais avançadas da doença.Analizar la cobertura y los resultados de los exámenes colpocitológicos no retirados de una Unidad de Salud. Investigación documental retrospectiva, en la que fueron evaluados los datos de cobertura de 2007 y las 225 pruebas realizadas y no retiradas en la unidad hasta enero de 2008. Para el análisis estadístico se utilizó el cálculo de la frecuencia de las variables estudiadas. El promedio mensual de exámenes efectuados fue 102,6. La cobertura del examen en 2007 fue del 11,22% entre las mujeres de 25 a 59 años. Sobre los 938 análisis realizados entre febrero y noviembre de 2007, 225 (23,98% mujeres no retiraron el resultado. La mayoría de las mujeres (67,5% que llevaron a cabo el examen y no retornaron tenían 30 años de edad o menos. El no retorno de la mujer a recibir el resultado del examen dificulta el seguimiento, la integralidad y la continuidad de la atención, lo cual aumenta la posibilidad de una intervención en etapas más avanzadas de la enfermedad.To analyze the coverage and the colpocytology exams that were not collected from a Health Center. This is a retrospective documentary study, in which the data were evaluated for coverage of 2007 and all 225 tests that were performed but were not collected by the patients unit until January 2008. Statistical analysis was performed using the frequency of the studied variables. The average monthly number of tests was 102.6 examinations. The coverage of the examination in 2007 was 11.22% among women with 25 to 59 years of age. Of the 938 tests conducted between February and November 2007, 225 (23.98% women did not receive the result. Most women (67.5% who performed the examination and had not returned were 30 years old or younger. The women's attitude of not returning to collect their exam results increases the difficulty of follow up, and providing comprehensive and continuity of care, contributing with an intervention in advanced stages of the disease.

  7. Wirkung eines synthetisch hergestellten Pheromonanalogs (PAP) auf das Wohlbefinden von Mastschweinen beim Transport zum Schlachthof

    OpenAIRE

    Maier, Christophe

    2005-01-01

    The effect of a synthetically produced pheromone (PAP) on the well-being of pigs during transport to the slaughter house Even though numerous attempts to reduce stress during the transport of slaughter pigs, the losses due to transportation induced stress are between 0.03% and 0.5% in the EU and 0.4% in Germany. PSE is seen in 10 to 20% of the animals. A naturally occurring pheromone is secreted by the mammary glands of the sow, which have a calming and stress reducing effect on the pigl...

  8. Pap Smears

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... quickly. What Happens? The doctor will use a speculum to gently widen the vagina. A speculum is a thin piece of plastic or metal ... allows it to open and close. If the speculum is metal, the doctor or nurse will warm ...

  9. Prevalence of abnormal Pap smear during pregnancy in a teaching hospital in South India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varsha Mishra

    2015-10-01

    Results: Among the 316 women studied the mean (SD age at marriage was 22 (3 years. The mean period of gestation was 30 weeks. Only one participant (0.3% reported high risk behaviour. The speculum examination was found to be normal in 99.7% women. There was one abnormal Pap smear report. Specific infection with Candida was reported in 14.6%; in none of these the speculum examination showed a characteristic discharge of candidiasis. Further a significantly higher prevalence of Candida infection was found in rural compared to urban population (Chi square 3.7, p=0.046. Conclusions: The prevalence of abnormal Pap smear is particularly low at 0.3% in our study group. However the prevalence of asymptomatic Candida infection which was missed on speculum exam because of lack of the characteristic discharge was high at 14.6%. Thus the authors recommend routine prenatal microbiological examination to detect candida infection. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2015; 4(5.000: 1296-1299

  10. An Approach to More Accurate Model Systems for Purple Acid Phosphatases (PAPs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernhardt, Paul V; Bosch, Simone; Comba, Peter; Gahan, Lawrence R; Hanson, Graeme R; Mereacre, Valeriu; Noble, Christopher J; Powell, Annie K; Schenk, Gerhard; Wadepohl, Hubert

    2015-08-01

    The active site of mammalian purple acid phosphatases (PAPs) have a dinuclear iron site in two accessible oxidation states (Fe(III)2 and Fe(III)Fe(II)), and the heterovalent is the active form, involved in the regulation of phosphate and phosphorylated metabolite levels in a wide range of organisms. Therefore, two sites with different coordination geometries to stabilize the heterovalent active form and, in addition, with hydrogen bond donors to enable the fixation of the substrate and release of the product, are believed to be required for catalytically competent model systems. Two ligands and their dinuclear iron complexes have been studied in detail. The solid-state structures and properties, studied by X-ray crystallography, magnetism, and Mössbauer spectroscopy, and the solution structural and electronic properties, investigated by mass spectrometry, electronic, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), and Mössbauer spectroscopies and electrochemistry, are discussed in detail in order to understand the structures and relative stabilities in solution. In particular, with one of the ligands, a heterovalent Fe(III)Fe(II) species has been produced by chemical oxidation of the Fe(II)2 precursor. The phosphatase reactivities of the complexes, in particular, also of the heterovalent complex, are reported. These studies include pH-dependent as well as substrate concentration dependent studies, leading to pH profiles, catalytic efficiencies and turnover numbers, and indicate that the heterovalent diiron complex discussed here is an accurate PAP model system. PMID:26196255

  11. Fødevareemballager af trykt papir og pap : Udvikling og validering af analysekoncept

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Jens HØjslev; Jensen, Lisbeth Krüger

    2013-01-01

    Der er i dette projekt udviklet et analysekoncept der kan anvendes som et led i trykkeriernes vurdering af om fødevareemballager af trykt pap og papir lever op til lovgivningens krav. Der er arbejdet med vurderinger baseret på såvel ”worst-case” ekstraktion af de trykte materialer som på migrationstest foretaget med fødevaresimulatoren for tørre fødevarer. Fødevaresimulatoren er en adsorbent (polymeren Tenax) som effektivt optager stoffer der via gasfasen afgives fra tryksagen. Der er valideret og sammenlignet analysemetoder baseret på ekstraktioner af både tryksagerne og Tenax med henholdsvis ethanol og superkritisk kuldioxid. I alle tilfælde er slutbestemmelsen sket ved gaskromatografi med massespektrometrisk detektion (GC-MS). Med det anvendte udstyr kunne vi i nogle tilfælde detektere kendte stoffer i koncentrationer svarende til 10 ?g/kg fødevare. Følsomheden i en screeningsanalyse for ukendte stoffer ligger desværre en del højere. På baggrund af flere fødevareskandaler de senere år, stilles der fra forbrugere, fødevareproducenter og myndighederne stadig større krav til trykkerier af emballager af pap og papir om at levere produkter af høj og dokumenteret kvalitet. I rapporten gennemgås derfor summarisk de gældende europæiske regler på området som trykkerierne skal leve op til og der henvises til relevante vejledninger fra myndigheder og brancheforeninger. Det er væsentligt at trykkerierne arbejder efter god fremstillingsmæssig praksis (GMP) og det beskrives hvordan dette kan organiseres. Ved fremstillingen af en tryksag indgår mange processer, materialer og kemikalier. Det er derfor fundet nødvendigt at give en oversigt over de forskellige trykteknikker som er relevante for pap og papir ligesom råvarerne, fra forskellige papkvaliteter over trykfarverne til det fugtevand som indgår i produktionen af en tryksag bliver gennemgået. Som et led i trykkeriernes GMP vil det være naturligt at indsamle informationer om råvarenes eventuelle indhold af sundhedsskadelige stoffer. Trykfarve- og lakproducenternes manglende vilje til at oplyse om deres produkters sammensætning vanskeliggør desværre trykkeriernes opgave med at dokumentere, at den færdige emballage er i overensstemmelse med lovgivningen. Det ville derfor være ønskeligt, at man havde en generel kemisk analysemetode som kunne sikre at en tryksag er i orden. Men der findes desværre ikke en metode der kan sikre at bare migrationsgrænserne bliver overholdt for de mere end 6000 stoffer, der eksempelvis står opført i den svejtsiske lovgivning om trykfarver. Men jo mere trykkerierne ved om råvarernes sammensætning, jo simplere metoder kan man bruge til at dokumentere overensstemmelse med reglerne. Ved analyse af en række tryksager gennem projektforløbet fandt vi flere problematiske forhold. Eksempelvis førte anvendelsen af de såkaldt UV-hybrid-farver til en for høj migration af to fotoinitiatorer. Trykkeriet har derfor valgt at lade disse farver udgå af sortimentet. Selv om projektet handlede om trykfarver er kvaliteten af materialet der trykkes på meget væsentligt for slutproduktet. Det skal derfor nævnes at pap og papir ofte fremstilles helt eller delvis af genbrugsfibre som potentielt indeholder forureninger der kan give anledning til forurening af fødevarerne. I afsnit 9 opsummeres en samling anbefalinger til trykkerierne om GMP, valg af egnet pap og trykfarver og en strategi for arbejdet med analytisk at sikre overensstemmelse med reglerne.

  12. Pap Smear Diagnosis Using a Hybrid Intelligent Scheme Focusing on Genetic Algorithm Based Feature Selection and Nearest Neighbor Classification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marinakis, Yannis; Dounias, Georgios; Jantzen, Jan

    2009-01-01

    The term pap-smear refers to samples of human cells stained by the so-called Papanicolaou method. The purpose of the Papanicolaou method is to diagnose pre-cancerous cell changes before they progress to invasive carcinoma. In this paper a metaheuristic algorithm is proposed in order to classify the cells. Two databases are used, constructed in different times by expert MDs, consisting of 917 and 500 images of pap smear cells, respectively. Each cell is described by 20 numerical features, and the...

  13. NMR Structure in a Membrane Environment Reveals Putative Amyloidogenic Regions of the SEVI Precursor Peptide PAP248–286

    OpenAIRE

    Nanga, Ravi P.; Jeffrey R. Brender; Vivekanandan, Subramanian; Popovych, Nataliya; Ramamoorthy, Ayyalusamy

    2009-01-01

    Semen is the main vector for HIV transmission worldwide. Recently, a peptide fragment (PAP248–286) has been isolated from seminal fluid that dramatically enhances HIV infectivity by up to four to five orders of magnitude. PAP248–286 appears to enhance HIV infection by forming amyloid fibers known as SEVI, which are believed to enhance the attachment of the virus by bridging interactions between virion and host-cell membranes. We have solved the atomic-level resolution structure of the SEVI pr...

  14. Results obtained during accelerated transonic tests of the Bell XS-1 airplane in flights to a Mach number of 0.92

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Hubert M; Mclaughlin, Milton D; Goodman, Harold R

    1948-01-01

    Results are presented of tests up to a Mach number of 0.92 at altitudes around 30,000 feet. The data obtained show that the airplane can be flown to this Mach number above 30,000 feet. Longitudinal trim changes have been experienced but the forces involved have been small. The elevator effectiveness decreased about one-half with increase of Mach number from 0.70 to 0.87. Buffeting has been experienced in level flight but it has been mild and the associated tail loads have been small. No aileron buzz or other flutter phenomena have been noted.

  15. A heterodimer of human 3'-phospho-adenosine-5'-phosphosulphate (PAPS) synthases is a new sulphate activating complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    3'-Phospho-adenosine-5'-phosphosulphate (PAPS) synthases are fundamental to mammalian sulphate metabolism. These enzymes have recently been linked to a rising number of human diseases. Despite many studies, it is not yet understood how the mammalian PAPS synthases 1 and 2 interact with each other. We provide first evidence for heterodimerisation of these two enzymes by pull-down assays and Foerster resonance energy transfer (FRET) measurements. Kinetics of dimer dissociation/association indicates that these heterodimers form as soon as PAPSS1 and -S2 encounter each other in solution. Affinity of the homo- and heterodimers were found to be in the low nanomolar range using anisotropy measurements employing proteins labelled with the fluorescent dye IAEDANS that - in spite of its low quantum yield - is well suited for anisotropy due to its large Stokes shift. Within its kinase domain, the PAPS synthase heterodimer displays similar substrate inhibition by adenosine-5'-phosphosulphate (APS) as the homodimers. Due to divergent catalytic efficacies of PAPSS1 and -S2, the heterodimer might be a way of regulating PAPS synthase function within mammalian cells.

  16. Expression and Purification of the Uropathogenic Escherichia coli PapG Protein and its Surface Absorption on Lactobacillus reuteri: Implications for Surface Display System Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashrafi, Fatemeh; Fallah Mehrabadi, Jalil; Siadat, Seyed Davar; Aghasadeghi, Mohammad Reza

    2015-01-01

    Background: Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) is one of the most common bacteria that can cause urinary tract infections (UTIs). Unfortunately, no human vaccine against UTIs has been developed. Therefore, it is necessary to develop an efficient and safe vaccine that is able to induce mucosal and systemic immune responses. The use of lactic acid bacteria as a delivery system is a promising method to induce the immune system. Objectives: The aim of this study was to establish Lactobacillus reuteri harboring the E. coli PapG antigen on its surface. Materials and Methods: In this study, the gene encoding PapG was fused to the AcmA gene (which encodes an anchor protein in Lactobacillus) and cloned into the pEX A vector. The PapG.AcmA fusion gene was digested with BamHI and NdeI and sub-cloned into the pET21a expression vector at the digestion sites. Subsequently, the recombinant plasmids (pET21a-PapG.AcmA and pET21a-PapG) were transformed into the E. coli Origami strain using the calcium chloride method and the fusion protein was expressed under 1 mM IPTG induction. The expression of the fusion protein was confirmed by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and western blotting. Purification of the PapG and PapG.AcmA proteins was carried out using a Ni-NTA column, and surface adsorption was estimated on Lactobacillus. Finally, surface localization of the fusion protein was verified by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results: The PapG.AcmA fusion was successfully sub-cloned in the pET21a expression vector. The expression of PapG and PapG.AcmA proteins in the E. coli Origami strain was indicated as protein bands in SDS-PAGE and confirmed by western blotting. In addition, the fusion protein was displayed on the surface of L. reuteri. Conclusions: In conclusion, we developed a method to express the PapG.AcmA protein on the surface of Lactobacillus. This is the first report on the successful application of lactic acid bacteria displaying the PapG.AcmA fusion protein. It will be interesting to determine the immune responses against the PapG protein in near future using this surface display strategy. PMID:26487922

  17. Early detection of oral cancer: PAP and AgNOR staining in brush biopsies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajput Dinesh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the diagnostic accuracy of routine Papanicolaou stain (PAP and Silver stained Nucleolar Organizer Regions (AgNOR staining in brush biopsies taken from suspected oral lesions for early detection of oral cancer. Materials and Methods: Brush biopsies were collected from macroscopically suspicious lesions of the oral cavity of 34 patients and 10 normal-aged and sex-matched controls. The numbers of AgNORs were counted in 100 squamous epithelial cell nuclei per slide after silver staining of the smears (Ploton?s one-step method. Results: Sensitivity and specificity of PAP analysis in the oral smears for detection of oral cancer and normal cells was 91.176% and 100%. The positive and negative prediction values were 100% and 76.92%, respectively. Sensitivity and specificity of AgNOR analysis in the oral smears for detection of oral cancer and normal cells was 100%. The positive and negative prediction values were 100% each. Conclusion: Based on the above facts, we conclude that brush biopsy in conjunction with AgNOR staining is an easily practicable, non-invasive, safe and accurate screening method for the detection of macroscopically suspicious oral cancerous lesions. Because of its simple technique and high reliability for cellular proliferation, AgNOR staining in brush smears can be used as an adjunct to other routine cytological diagnoses for the early detection of oral cancer. However, further investigations with more number of study samples will be needed to establish this correlation beyond doubt.

  18. Obese women's barriers to mammography and pap smear: the possible role of personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Asia M; Hemler, Jennifer R; Rossetti, Elisa; Clemow, Lynn P; Ferrante, Jeanne M

    2012-08-01

    Obese women are at increased risk of developing and dying from cancer, but are less likely than nonobese women to receive cancer screening examinations. Our qualitative study explores obese women's barriers to Pap smears and mammograms in greater depth than previous research. We also seek to understand why some obese women undergo screening whereas others do not. A purposive sample of moderately to severely obese women over age 40 was recruited from community-based organizations, health clinics, and retail establishments. Semi-structured in-depth interviews (N = 33) informed by the Theory of Care-Seeking Behavior and three prior focus groups of obese women (N = 18) were recorded and transcribed. Qualitative analysis was iterative, using a grounded theory approach involving a series of immersion/crystallization cycles. Participants verified many barriers to cervical and breast cancer screening previously identified in the general population, including fear, modesty, competing demands, and low perceived risk. Participants also highlighted several weight-related barriers, including insensitive comments about weight and equipment and gowns that could not accommodate them. Comparison of participants who were up-to-date with both Pap smears and mammograms with those not up-to-date with either screening showed no discernable differences in these barriers, however. Instead, we found that the participants who followed through on their cancer screenings may share certain personality traits, such as conscientiousness or self-regulatory ability, that allow them to complete difficult or feared tasks. Our research therefore suggests that personality may act as an important mediator in health behavior, and should be taken into account in future theoretical models and health behavior interventions, particularly for obese women. PMID:22370590

  19. Determination of crack arrest toughness in A508 CL.3 forging steel from ASTM E1221-88 procedure. Comparison with the values obtained from thermal loading tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A crack arrest study is under way at Electricite de France as part of the analysis of the risk of fast fracture of PWR vessels in emergency conditions. The first objective of this study is to evaluate the toughness which characterizes crack arrest through tests on reduced-size specimens. Some of the tests on a forging steel (A508 Cl.3) were conducted in conformity with two experimental methods. One method recommended by the ASTM calls for the use of an imposed-displacement mechanical loading on specimens kept under homogeneous temperature. Since the stress intensity factor K applied to the outside loading decreases along the crack growth, we can observe the arrest of the crack. In order to obtain brittle crack initiations in cleavage in the whole studied range of temperature and crack propagation of a sufficient length, the application of a weld point at the top of the notch is done. The other experimental method is based on a thermal loading. It requires the use of a disk or a cylinder with a longitudinal initial crack of the external surface. We dip this specimen in liquid nitrogen and we heat its internal surface with inducing current. There is a temperature gradient in the thickness of the specimen which produces a stress field which tends to open the crack. When the value of K is reached the crack initiation takes place. Several phenomena act to oppose the crack growth, they even go as far as stopping it. First the value of K, after increasing, gets steady then decreases, then, the rate of energy dissipated by plasticity at the top of the crack increases because the crack meets warmer and warmer areas on its way. The arrest toughness values which were obtained were then analyzed and compared to one another and with values proposed by RCC-m code. (authors). 12 refs., 11 figs., 3 tabs

  20. Diacyltransferase Activity and Chain Length Specificity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis PapA5 in the Synthesis of Alkyl ?-Diol Lipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touchette, Megan H; Bommineni, Gopal R; Delle Bovi, Richard J; Gadbery, John E; Nicora, Carrie D; Shukla, Anil K; Kyle, Jennifer E; Metz, Thomas O; Martin, Dwight W; Sampson, Nicole S; Miller, W Todd; Tonge, Peter J; Seeliger, Jessica C

    2015-09-01

    Although they are classified as Gram-positive bacteria, Corynebacterineae possess an asymmetric outer membrane that imparts structural and thereby physiological similarity to more distantly related Gram-negative bacteria. Like lipopolysaccharide in Gram-negative bacteria, lipids in the outer membrane of Corynebacterineae have been associated with the virulence of pathogenic species such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). For example, Mtb strains that lack long, branched-chain alkyl esters known as dimycocerosates (DIMs) are significantly attenuated in model infections. The resultant interest in the biosynthetic pathway of these unusual virulence factors has led to the elucidation of many of the steps leading to the final esterification of the alkyl ?-diol, phthiocerol, with branched-chain fatty acids known as mycocerosates. PapA5 is an acyltransferase implicated in these final reactions. Here, we show that PapA5 is indeed the terminal enzyme in DIM biosynthesis by demonstrating its dual esterification activity and chain-length preference using synthetic alkyl ?-diol substrate analogues. By applying these analogues to a series of PapA5 mutants, we also revise a model for the substrate binding within PapA5. Finally, we demonstrate that the Mtb Ser/Thr kinases PknB and PknE modify PapA5 on three overlapping Thr residues and that a fourth Thr is unique to PknE phosphorylation. These results clarify the DIM biosynthetic pathway and indicate post-translational modifications that warrant further elucidation for their roles in the regulation of DIM biosynthesis. PMID:26271001

  1. Testing for measurement equivalence of human values across online and paper-and-pencil surveys

    OpenAIRE

    Davidov, Eldad; Depner, Felix

    2011-01-01

    The following study investigates the measurement quivalence of an online and paper-and-pencil (PAP) survey of human values. For this purpose, a total of 250 respondents completed the 21-item version of the Portrait Value Questionnaire (PVQ) either online (n = 125) or by PAP (n = 125). This questionnaire was developed by Shalom Schwartz and has been included in the European Social Survey (ESS) since 2002 to test his theory of basic human values (Schwartz, 1992). Measurement invariance was test...

  2. CIEMAT Interlaboratories Comparison of the Results obtained in the Proficiency Test Run by IAEA; Comparacion Interlaboratorios del CIEMAT de los Resultados Obtenidos en la Prueba de Capacitacion de Analisis de Transuranicos en Cenizas propocionadas por el OIEA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gasco, C.; Anton, M. P.; Alvarez, A.; Navarro, N.; Meral, J.; Gonzalez, A.; Higueras Lafaja, E. [Ciemat. Madrid (Spain)

    2000-07-01

    This report contains the results obtained by two different laboratories from CIEMAT after participating in the Proficiency Test organised by IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency) in 1999. This test involves the analysis of fly ashes containing natural radionuclides and different amounts of added transuranics. The extraction techniques, counting methods and results obtained are detailed. This type of test are used for the labs to achieve their accreditation and check the reliability of the procedures routinely employed. (Author) 4 refs.

  3. Pap Smear Diagnosis Using a Hybrid Intelligent Scheme Focusing on Genetic Algorithm Based Feature Selection and Nearest Neighbor Classification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marinakis, Yannis; Dounias, Georgios

    2009-01-01

    The term pap-smear refers to samples of human cells stained by the so-called Papanicolaou method. The purpose of the Papanicolaou method is to diagnose pre-cancerous cell changes before they progress to invasive carcinoma. In this paper a metaheuristic algorithm is proposed in order to classify the cells. Two databases are used, constructed in different times by expert MDs, consisting of 917 and 500 images of pap smear cells, respectively. Each cell is described by 20 numerical features, and the cells fall into 7 classes but a minimal requirement is to separate normal from abnormal cells, which is a 2 class problem. For finding the best possible performing feature subset selection problem, an effective genetic algorithm scheme is proposed. This algorithmic scheme is combined with a number of nearest neighbor based classifiers. Results show that classification accuracy generally outperforms other previously applied intelligent approaches.

  4. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate rapidly remodels PAP85-120, SEM1(45-107), and SEM2(49-107) seminal amyloid fibrils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellano, Laura M; Hammond, Rebecca M; Holmes, Veronica M; Weissman, Drew; Shorter, James

    2015-01-01

    Semen harbors amyloid fibrils formed by proteolytic fragments of prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP248-286 and PAP85-120) and semenogelins (SEM1 and SEM2) that potently enhance HIV infectivity. Amyloid but not soluble forms of these peptides enhance HIV infection. Thus, agents that remodel these amyloid fibrils could prevent HIV transmission. Here, we confirm that the green tea polyphenol, epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), slowly remodels fibrils formed by PAP248-286 termed SEVI (semen derived enhancer of viral infection) and also exerts a direct anti-viral effect. We elucidate for the first time that EGCG remodels PAP85-120, SEM1(45-107), and SEM2(49-107) fibrils more rapidly than SEVI fibrils. We establish EGCG as the first small molecule that can remodel all four classes of seminal amyloid. The combined anti-amyloid and anti-viral properties of EGCG could have utility in preventing HIV transmission. PMID:26319581

  5. Comparison of two procedures for routine IUD exchange in women with positive Pap smears for actinomyces-like organisms

    OpenAIRE

    Merki-Feld, G S; Rosselli, M; Imthurn, B

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In the female genital tract, up to 30% of Papanicolaou (Pap)-stained cervicovaginal smears of intrauterine device (IUD) users are positive for actinomyces-like organisms (ALOs). Many clinicians believe that no therapeutic intervention is necessary if women with ALOs are without symptoms. However, there are no recommendations for the procedure in ALO-positive women with need for a routine IUD exchange. STUDY DESIGN: In this retrospective study, the incidence of ALOs was compared in...

  6. Self-reported history of Pap-smear in HIV-positive women in Northern Italy: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghinelli Florio

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The incidence of invasive cervical cancer in HIV-positive women is higher than in the general population. There is evidence that HIV-positive women do not participate sufficiently in cervical cancer screening in Italy, where cervical cancer is more than 10-fold higher in women with AIDS than in the general population. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the history of Pap-smear in HIV-positive women in Italy in recent years. We also examined the sociodemographic, clinical, and organizational factors associated with adherence to cervical cancer screening. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted between July 2006 and June 2007 in Emilia-Romagna region (Northern Italy. All HIV-positive women who received a follow-up visit in one of the 10 regional infectivology units were invited to participate. History of Pap-smear, including abnormal smears and subsequent treatment, was investigated through a self-administered anonymous questionnaire. The association between lack of Pap-smear in the year preceding the interview and selected characteristics was assessed by means of odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals adjusted for study centre and age. Results A total of 1,002 HIV-positive women were interviewed. Nine percent reported no history of Pap-smear, and 39% had no Pap-smear in the year prior to the date of questionnaire (last year. The lack of Pap-smear in the last year was significantly associated with age Three hundred five (34% women reported a previous abnormal Pap-smear, and of the 178 (58% referred for treatment, 97% complied. Conclusions In recent years the self-reported history of Pap-smear in HIV-positive women, in some public clinics in Italy, is higher than previously reported, but further efforts are required to make sure cervical cancer screening is accessible to all HIV-positive women.

  7. Preliminary interpretations of geologic results obtained from boreholes UE25a-4, -5, -6, and -7, Yucca Mountain, Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since 1978, the USGS (US Geological Survey) has been providing technical assistance in characterizing suitable rock masses at or contiguous to the NTS (Nevada Test Site) for long-term storage of high-level nuclear waste. Current efforts have been focused on investigating Yucca Mountain, a volcanic highland situated along the western boundary of NTS in southern Nevada. Detailed stratigraphic and structural studies have been in progress along a northeastern segment of the highland in a wedge-shaped area bounded by Basin and Range faults, most of which trend north-northeast. A series of four locally steep-walled, nearly parallel, linear washes transect the northeastern half of the area of interest and display trends similar to major faults to the northeast. Prior to the present study, drill hole UE25a-1, located about 1600 feet southeast of the edge of the area of interest, was cored to a depth of 2500 feet. Subsurface information derived from the upper 500 feet of this drill hole is included in this report to compare with recently acquired data. Surface electrical surveys have been conducted by both the University of Utah and the USGS perpendicular to the trend of the washes in an attempt to better understand factors that have influenced the present drainage pattern. Preliminary data of both pole-dipole and dipole-dipole resistivity/IP electrical methods indicate numerous vertical and horizontal discontinuities between adjacent resistive bodies that strongly suggest a broad zone of faulting, fracturing, and (or) brecciation. To verify the existence of structural discontinuities suggested by the linear washes and electrical anomalies, a drilling program was initiated in June 1979, to obtain geologic information within the southernmost of four northwest-trending washes

  8. Prevalence of HPV Infection and Its Association with Cytological Abnormalities of Pap Smears in Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Jamali Zavarei Jamali Zavarei

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Human papillomavirus infection is one of the most common genital infections. More than 100 types of this virus have been identified, and most of them are capable of infecting the genital mucosa. Human papillomavirus is in association with cancerous and precancerous lesions of the cervix; some types like HPV 16 and 18 are highly carcinogenic, some types like HPV 31 and 33 are moderately and some types like HPV 6 and 11 are mildly carcinogenic. In this research, the relationship between cytological changes of the squamous epithelial cells and the presence of HPV infections in our cases has been assessed."nMethods: In this prospective study, we collected 681 samples from women admitted to different hospitals and private gynecological clinics in Tehran, during the years 2003-2005. Two specimens were collected from each patient; one for a Pap smear study and the other for PCR assay in order to detect HPV."nResults: Out of our 681 samples, 600 specimens were suitable for PCR assay, and 34 cases were HPV positive in PCR assay. This means that 5.7 percent of our patients were infected with HPV."nConclusion: HPV infection is common in Iran and is nearly identical to European countries such as Germany, and Spain. Also, we found that using PCR assay in order to detect the presence of HPV viruses in vaginal discharges can be very helpful.

  9. Clinical Evaluation of A New Model of Self-Obtained Method for the Assessment of Genital Human Papilloma Virus Infection in an Underserved Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Chang Chang

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: We designed a self-sampling method to collect exfoliated genital cells forhuman papilloma virus (HPV detection. The aim was to assess whether itwas suitable as an assistant tool for the early detection of cervical pre-cancerand cancer in a special category of the women who are not frequentlyscreened for cervical cancer.Methods: We compared the results of HPV detection that were self-obtained and physician-obtained cervical swabs from the same patient that were analyzed usinghybrid capture II assay. The diagnostic rate of cervical pre-cancer and cancerbetween self-obtained method and physician-obtained method were analyzed.Results: A total of 1194 women were prospectively registered from September 1997through September 1999. Among them, 144 (12.1% of self-test samplesand 155 (13% of physician-obtained samples were oncogenetic associated-HPV positive. Statistically, no significant differences existed in the screeningrate for cervical cancer using either the self-collected samples or thephysician-obtained samples ( p > .05. The sensitivity of cervical precanceror cancer detection using self-obtained HPV testing was higher (96.3% ascompared with the Pap smear (79.2% ( p < .02.Conclusion: The detection correlation of the HPV test between the self-obtained methodand physician-obtained method was 93%. Our results indicated that self-samplingwas a reliable method for testing for HPV. The identification of HPVinfection through the self-obtained method can be used in early identificationof high-risk women with cervical precancer and cancer especially in underservedpopulations.

  10. Charging and discharging tests for obtaining an accurate dynamic electro-thermal model of high power lithium-ion pack system for hybrid and EV applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mihet-Popa, Lucian; Camacho, Oscar Mauricio Forero; Nørgård, Per Bromand

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a battery test platform including two Li-ion battery designed for hybrid and EV applications, and charging/discharging tests under different operating conditions carried out for developing an accurate dynamic electro-thermal model of a high power Li-ion battery pack system. The aim of the tests has been to study the impact of the battery degradation and to find out the dynamic characteristics of the cells including nonlinear open circuit voltage, series resistance and paralle...

  11. Prevalence of high-risk human papillomavirus types 16 and 18 in healthy women with cytologically negative pap smear in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safaei Akbar

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Because human papillomavirus (HPV is one of the causal factors in cervical cancer, understanding the epidemiology of this infection is an important step towards developing strategies for prevention. Materials and Methods: We evaluated the prevalence of high-risk human papillomavirus Types 16 and 18 in cervical samples from 402 healthy women with normal Pap smears by testing with type-specific primers in the polymerase chain reaction. Participants were seen at two gynecological clinics affiliated to the Shiraz University of Medical Sciences in Iran. Result: The prevalence of positive HPV findings was 5.5%; high-risk HPV human papillomavirus Type 16 prevalence was 2% and no patient harbored HPV-18. The prevalence of HPV was 4.5% in younger age group and gradually increased to 20% in the 4 th decade. Conclusion: The prevalence of high-risk HPV was highest in the youngest women and gradually decreased with age. Overall, the prevalence of HPV in our population is low.

  12. Preliminary Results Obtained from Flight Test of a Rocket Model Having the Tail Only of the Grumman XF10F Airplane Configuration, TED No. NACA DE 354

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, William N.; Edmondson, James L.

    1950-01-01

    A flight test was made to determine the servoplane effectiveness and stability characteristics of the free-floating horizontal stabilizer to be used on the XF10F airplane. The results of this test indicate that servoplane effectiveness is practically constant through the speed range up to a Mach number of 1.15, and the stabilizer static stability is satisfactory. A loss of damping occurs over a narrow Mach number range near M = 1.0, resulting in dynamic instability of the stabilizer in this narrow range. Above M = 1.0 there is a gradual positive trim change of the stabilizer.

  13. IMPLEMENTASI HASIL PAP SMEARS PADA PENGEMBANGAN SURVEILANS TERPADU INFEKSI MENULAR SEKSUAL DI JAWA TIMUR (ANALISIS UNTUK MENGEMBANGKAN SURVEILANS-RESPONS IMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widjiartini Widjiartini

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The implementation analysis of Pap Smears result to the integrated Surveillance development of sexual infection in order to respond the IMS and HIV/AIDS cases which increased especially among the housewife and its aim to the implementation Pap Smears result. Results: The Analysis result: 1. Based on the Pap Smears analysis result when its managed properly might be benefited the information not merely detected service cancer which is tend to increase but its also detected fungal infection and 5 types of IMS data: Haemavilus Vaginalis (HV, Gonococoes (Cocen, Trichomonas Vaginalis (TV, Herpes and Virus Papiloma Humanus (HPV which is Cocen and TV tend to increase every years. This data might be used for Surveillance Respond of Pap Smears intended to the productive housewife who is representing susceptible age group against sexual infection and HIV/AIDS. 2. The integrated Surveillance activity of HIV and sexual infection along with eight steps of respond Pap Smears, the structure is matching up with Surveillance of WHO respond and the system and mechanism base on decision of Minister of Health number 1116/2003 to instruct the formation of Surveillance technical implementation and the formation Surveillance technical implementation and the formation Surveillance networking among those units. 3. Developing the integrated Surveillance of sexual infection and HIV/AIDS through the uphold unit Pap Smears is required the determination of basis function, the Surveillance uphold unit, the Respond Surveillance uphold and function, formulation of Protap and Instruction, Training, Monitoring and Evaluation Surveillance System, Communication, Procurement of Coordination and Resources. Exceptional the above mentioned it is necessary pay attention as well as Surveillance structure and quality. Suggestion: 1. Improving the Surveillance Respond System by improving the users of culture information and data for making a decision the unit of Pap Smears entirely levels of administrative at Central or Regional. 2. Developing the production of Health Information System that is able to convert data into information Pap Smears to facilitate analysis and interpretation of data. 3. Developing Data Centers, Surveillance and Health Information in accordance with decision of Minister of Health number 116/2003 and filling those units with functional staff epidemiologists and health information experts. Key words: Pap Smears, Surveillance Respond, Sexual Infection-housewife

  14. Results of an investigation of the space shuttle integrated vehicle aerodynamic heating characteristics obtained using the 0.0175-scale model 60-OTS in AEDC tunnel A during tests IH41 and IH41A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, J. W.; Dye, W. H.

    1977-01-01

    A thin skin thermocouple test was conducted to obtain heat-transfer data on the space shuttle integrated vehicle during the ascent phase of the flight profile. The test model was the 0.0175-scale thin skin thermocouple model (60-OTS) of the Rockwell International vehicle 5 configuration. The test was conducted at nominal Mach numbers of 2.5, 3.5, 4.5, and 5.5, and a free stream unit Reynolds number of 5 million per ft. Heat transfer data were obtained for angles of attack of 0, + or - 5, and 10 deg and yaw angles of 0, 3, and 6 deg. The integrated vehicle model was tested with the external tank configured with both a smooth ogive nose and an ogive nose with a spherical nose tip (nipple nose). The remainder of the test was conducted with the external tank installed alone in the tunnel.

  15. User's guide for polyethylene-based passive diffusion bag samplers to obtain volatile organic compound concentrations in wells. Part 2, Field tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vroblesky, Don A.

    2001-01-01

    Diffusion samplers installed in observation wells were found to be capable of yielding representative water samples for chlorinated volatile organic compounds. The samplers consisted of polyethylene bags containing deionized water and relied on diffusion of chlorinated volatile organic compounds through the polyethylene membrane. The known ability of polyethylene to transmit other volatile compounds, such as benzene and toluene, indicates that the samplers can be used for a variety of volatile organic compounds. In wells at the study area, the volatile organic compound concentrations in water samples obtained using the samplers without prior purging were similar to concentrations in water samples obtained from the respective wells using traditional purging and sampling approaches. The low cost associated with this approach makes it a viable option for monitoring large observation-well networks for volatile organic compounds.

  16. Comparison of Results Obtained with Amplicor HIV-1 DNA PCR Test Version 1.5 Using 100 versus 500 Microliters of Whole Blood?

    OpenAIRE

    Piwowar-Manning, Estelle; Lugalia, Lebah; Kafufu, Bosco; JACKSON, J. BROOKS

    2008-01-01

    The Amplicor HIV-1 DNA PCR assay (Roche Diagnostics, Branchburg, NJ) requires 500 ?l of whole blood for a diagnosis of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection, and this amount is often difficult to obtain from infants. A comparison was performed using 100 and 500 ?l of whole blood from infants less than 18 months of age. The concordance rate for HIV DNA PCR-negative and -positive samples was 100% for the two different volumes.

  17. One year of Seaglider dissolved oxygen concentration profiles at the PAP site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binetti, Umberto; Kaiser, Jan; Heywood, Karen; Damerell, Gillian; Rumyantseva, Anna

    2015-04-01

    Oxygen is one of the most important variables measured in oceanography, influenced both by physical and biological factors. During the OSMOSIS project, 7 Seagliders were used in 3 subsequent missions to measure a multidisciplinary suite of parameters at high frequency in the top 1000 m of the water column for one year, from September 2012 to September 2013. The gliders were deployed at the PAP time series station (nominally at 49° N 16.5° W) and surveyed the area following a butterfly-shaped path. Oxygen concentration was measured by Aanderaa optodes and calibrated using ship CTD O2 profiles during 5 deployment and recovery cruises, which were in turn calibrated by Winkler titration of discrete samples. The oxygen-rich mixed layer deepens in fall and winter and gets richer in oxygen when the temperature decreases. The spring bloom did not happen as expected, but instead the presence of a series of small blooms was measured throughout spring and early summer. During the summer the mixed layer become very shallow and oxygen concentrations decreased. A Deep Oxygen Maximum (DOM) developed along with a deep chlorophyll maximum during the summer and was located just below the mixed layer . At this depth, phytoplankton had favourable light and nutrient conditions to grow and produce oxygen, which was not subject to immediate outgassing. The oxygen concentration in the DOM was not constant, but decreased, then increased again until the end of the mission. Intrusions of oxygen rich water are also visible throughout the mission. These are probably due to mesoscale events through the horizontal transport of oxygen and/or nutrients that can enhance productivity, particularly at the edge of the fronts. We calculate net community production (NCP) by analysing the variation in oxygen with time. Two methods have been proposed. The classical oxygen budget method assumes that changes in oxygen are due to the sum of air-sea flux, isopycnal advection, diapycnal mixing and NCP. ERA-Interim provides climatological data to calculate air-sea gas exchange fluxes based on wind-speed parameterisations of the gas exchange coefficient. The second method exploits the high frequency of the measurements to determine the increment of oxygen over time during daylight hours to measure NCP. Together with the O2 concentration decrease during the night (due to community respiration), this method also allows us to derive gross oxygen production rates. The results of these two methods are compared.

  18. Evaluation of the relationship between capillary and venous plasma glucose concentrations obtained by the HemoCue Glucose 201+ system during an oral glucose tolerance test

    OpenAIRE

    Ignell, Claes; Berntorp, Kerstin

    2011-01-01

    Abstract In 55 women with previous gestational diabetes mellitus, simultaneous capillary and venous plasma glucose concentrations were measured at 0, 30 and 120 min during a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). The aims of the study were to examine the relationship between capillary and venous glucose measurements, and to establish equations for the conversion of capillary and venous glucose concentrations using the HemoCue Glucose 201+ system. Additionally, the correlation between the ca...

  19. The Correlation of Blood Test Results with the Data Obtained from MRI Images during the Determination of Pathology in Small Bones.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Marcon, P.; Bartušek, Karel; Šprláková, A.; Dohnal, P.

    Berlin : IEEE, 2014, s. 490-493. ISBN 978-80-214-4983-1. ISSN 1805-5435. [TSP 2014. International Conference on Telecommunications and Signal Processing /37./. Berlín (DE), 01.07.2014-03.07.2014] R&D Projects: GA ?R GAP102/12/1104 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : blood test results * bone * correlation * MRI images Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers

  20. Natural variation for anthocyanin accumulation under high-light and low-temperature stress is attributable to the ENHANCER OF AG-4 2 (HUA2) locus in combination with PRODUCTION OF ANTHOCYANIN PIGMENT1 (PAP1) and PAP2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilk, Nadine; Ding, Jia; Ihnatowicz, Anna; Koornneef, Maarten; Reymond, Matthieu

    2015-04-01

    Growing conditions combining high light intensities and low temperatures lead to anthocyanin accumulation in plants. This response was contrasted between two Arabidopsis thaliana accessions, which were used to decipher the genetic and molecular bases underlying the variation of this response. Quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for flowering time (FT) and anthocyanin accumulation under a high-light and low-temperature scenario versus a control environment were mapped. Major QTLs were confirmed using near-isogenic lines. Candidate genes were examined using mutants and gene expression studies as well as transgenic complementation. Several QTLs were found for FT and for anthocyanin content, of which one QTL co-located at the ENHANCER OF AG-4 2 (HUA2) locus. That HUA2 is a regulator of both pathways was confirmed by the analysis of loss-of-function mutants. For a strong expression of anthocyanin, additional allelic variation was detected for the PRODUCTION OF ANTHOCYANIN PIGMENT1 (PAP1) and PAP2 genes which control the anthocyanin pathway. The genetic control of variation for anthocyanin content was dissected in A. thaliana and shown to be affected by a common regulator of flowering and anthocyanin biosynthesis together with anthocyanin-specific regulators. PMID:25425527

  1. Analyses of the accuracy of calculated results obtained by CONTAIN 2.0 code for the KAEVER aerosol tests - ISP44

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CONTAIN 2.0 code has been employed to simulate the KAEVER Test series K123A, K148A, K186A, K188A that were proposed as International Standard Problem-44 by OECD/CSNI, and the accuracy of the calculation results has been analyzed. All of these tests were conducted to investigate the behavior of the aerosol depletion with steam condensing on the particle surface under highly saturated steam conditions. The code predicts considerably slower aerosol depletion than the experiment for the CsOH aerosol which is highly hygroscopic, and also showed very similar results for the CsI aerosol which is moderately hygroscopic. For the Ag aerosol which is non-hygroscopic, however, the code predicts much faster depletion compared with the experimental data. For the mixed aerosol of hygroscopic CsOH and non-hygroscopic Ag, the calculation results show the same depletion pattern for both components, which is different from usual anticipation, and do show remarkably slower depletion compared with the experimental data

  2. Endocervical curettage and brushing during colposcopic evaluation in patients having suspected changes in pap smear and negative colposcopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borré-Arrieta Orlando

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: the aim of this study was to evaluate the utility of endocervical curettage and brushing during colposcopic evaluation in patients having suspected changes in Pap smear and negative colposcopy.Methodology: results from 43 women having abnormal Pap smear and negative satisfactory colposcopy; endocervical curettage during colposcopic evaluation were thus compared to endocervical brushing during colposcopic evaluation.Results: the endocervical curettage was useful to detect cervical intraepithelial neoplasia no suspected during satisfactory colposcopic evaluation. The endocervical brushings was useful too, but the endocervical curettage was better.Conclusion: this study suggests that endocervical curettage can be useful during negative satisfactory colposcopic evaluation of a patient with an abnormal Papnicolaou smear.RESUMENObjetivos: El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar la utilidad del cepillado y legrado endocervical durante la evaluación colposcópica en pacientes con citología anormal y colposcopia satisfactoria negativa. Materiales y métodos: Se incluyeron 43 mujeres con citología anormal y colposcopia satisfactoria negativa. Se realizó legrado y cepillado endocervical y se compararon los resultados.Resultados: El legrado endocervical fue útil en detectar neoplasia intraepitelial cervical no observada durante la evaluación colposcópica satisfactoria. El cepillado endocervical también fue útil, pero el legrado fue mejor.Conclusión: Este estudio sugiere que el legrado endocervical puede ser de utilidad durante la evaluación colposcópica satisfactoria negativa de pacientes con una citología anormal.

  3. Cytologic differential diagnosis of follicular lymphoma grades 1 and 2 from reactive follicular hyperplasia: cytologic features of fine-needle aspiration smears with Pap stain and fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis to detect t(14;18)(q32;q21) chromosomal translocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishimoto, Koji; Kitamura, Takashi; Fujita, Kazuhiro; Tate, Genshu; Mitsuya, Toshiyuki

    2006-01-01

    Fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) is a well-established technique for diagnosis of malignant lymphoma (ML). Generally, Giemsa but not Pap stain is used in FNAC. However, cytologic features obtained from Pap stain are also valuable. Very few studies on the cytologic characteristics of ML, as determined by Pap stain, are available. It is easier to observe nuclear irregularity and to identify nucleoli in ML cells by Pap stain than by Giemsa stain. Here, we applied Pap stain for cytomorphologic differential diagnosis of follicular lymphoma (FL) from reactive follicular hyperplasia (RFH). Eighteen biopsy-confirmed cases of FL grades 1 and 2, with available FNAC smears, and six cases of RFH were selected for this study. Low-power magnification showed well-known features, and tingible body macrophages and lymphoid cell aggregates were observed frequently in RFH and FL, respectively. In addition, the so-called two-nuclei-like cleaved cells were observed frequently in FL. These cells showed notably cleaved nuclei, and therefore, appeared to possess two nuclei. Under high-power magnification, the occurrence of cells with nucleoli >1 microm and of cleaved cells was high in FL compared to RFH. It is believed that FL derives from centrocytes and that FL cells are slightly larger than non-neoplastic small lymphocytes. However, analysis of cell diameter in this study indicated that small lymphoma cells were predominant in half the cases of FL grades 1 and 2, and the percentage of these cells was similar to that in RFH, showing why false-negative diagnosis of FL grades 1 and 2 occasionally occurs. There are limitations of FNAC in the diagnosis of FL. However, we believe that the appearance of two-nuclei-like cleaved cells and the high percentage of nucleoli-possessing cells, which we describe here, provide significant and valuable clues for the differential diagnosis of FL from RFH. Of 18 cases of FL grades 1 and 2, t(14;18)(q32;q21) was found in 13 cases with the use of destained FNAC smears. Our study suggests that, together with the cytomorphologic findings described earlier, FISH analysis for the chromosomal translocation, t(14;18)(q32;q21), is crucial for final cytologic diagnosis of FL grades 1 and 2. PMID:16355396

  4. Study of the role of Pap1 as a sensor of H2O2 and as a transcriptional activator of stress responses in Schizosaccharimyces pombe

    OpenAIRE

    Calvo Arnedo, María Isabel, 1983-

    2012-01-01

    En el laboratorio se utiliza como sistema modelo la levadura Schizosaccaromyces pombe para poder estudiar la respuesta a estrés oxidativo. Las dos rutas principales de respuesta a estrés oxidativo son las del factor de transcripción Pap1 y la de la MAP quinasa Sty1. Cuando aplicamos a la célula bajas dosis de H2O2, Pap1 que se encuentra en el citoplasma en estado reducido, sufre un cambio conformacional, se oxida, y activo viaja al núcleo, donde se une a diferentes promotores para activar su ...

  5. Interpretation of data obtained from non-destructive and destructive post-test analyses of an intact-core column of culebra dolomite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucero, Daniel L.; Perkins, W. George

    1998-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has been developing a nuclear waste disposal facility, the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), located approximately 42 km east of Carlsbad, New Mexico. The WIPP is designed to demonstrate the safe disposal of transuranic wastes produced by the defense nuclear-weapons program. Pefiormance assessment analyses (U.S. DOE, 1996) indicate that human intrusion by inadvertent and intermittent drilling for resources provide the only credible mechanisms for significant releases of radionuclides horn the disposal system. These releases may occur by five mechanisms: (1) cuttings, (2) cavings, (3) spallings, (4) direct brine releases, and (5) long- term brine releases. The first four mechanisms could result in immediate release of contaminant to the accessible environment. For the last mechanisq migration pathways through the permeable layers of rock above the Salado are important, and major emphasis is placed on the Culebra Member of the Rustler Formation because this is the most transmissive geologic layer in the disposal system. For reasons of initial quantity, half-life, and specific radioactivity, certain isotopes of T~ U, Am, and Pu would dominate calculated releases from the WIPP. In order to help quantifi parameters for the calculated releases, radionuclide transport experiments have been carried out using five intact-core columns obtained from the Culebra dolomite member of the Rustler Formation within the Waste Isolation Pilot Pknt (WIPP) site in southeastern New Mexico. This report deals primarily with results of analyses for 241Pu and 241Am distributions developed during transport experiments in one of these cores. All intact-core column transport experiments were done using Culebra-simukmt brine relevant to the core recovery location (the WIPP air-intake shaft - AK). Hydraulic characteristics (i.e., apparent porosity and apparent dispersion coefficient) for intact-core columns were obtained via experiments using conservative tracer `Na. Elution experiments carried out over periods of a few days with tracers `2U and `?Np indicated that these tracers were weakly retarded as indicated by delayed elution of these species. Elution experiments with tracers 24% and 24*Arn were performed, but no elution of either species was observed in any flow experiment to date, including experiments of many months' duration. In order to quanti~ retardation of the non-eluted species 24*Pu and 241Arn afler a period of brine flow, non-destructive and destructive analyses of an intact-core column were carried out to determine distribution of these actinides in the rock. Analytical results indicate that the majority of the 241Am is present very near the top (injection) surface of the core (possibly as a precipitate), and that the majority of the 241Pu is dispersed with a very high apparent retardation value. The 24]Pu distribution is interpreted using a single-porosity advection-dispersion model, and an approximate retardation value is reported for this actinide. The specific radionuclide isotopes used in these experiments were chosen to facilitate analysis. Even though these isotopes are not necessarily the same as those that are most important to WIPP performance, they are isotopes of the same elements, and their chemical and transport properties are therefore identical to those of isotopes in the inventory.

  6. Evaluation of the relationship between capillary and venous plasma glucose concentrations obtained by the HemoCue Glucose 201+ system during an oral glucose tolerance test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ignell, Claes; Berntorp, Kerstin

    2011-12-01

    In 55 women with previous gestational diabetes mellitus, simultaneous capillary and venous plasma glucose concentrations were measured at 0, 30 and 120 min during a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). The aims of the study were to examine the relationship between capillary and venous glucose measurements, and to establish equations for the conversion of capillary and venous glucose concentrations using the HemoCue Glucose 201+ system. Additionally, the correlation between the capillary and venous glucose concentrations with the diagnostic cut-off limits proposed by the World Health Organization (WHO) in 1999 was evaluated. Capillary glucose concentrations were consistently higher than venous glucose concentrations at all time points of the OGTT (p < 0.001), and the correlations between the measurements were statistically highly significant (p < 0.001). The differences between the samples were greatest in the non-fasting state as revealed by the 95% prediction intervals (mmol/L) in Bland-Altman plots; ± 0.54 at 0 min, ± 2.01 at 30 min, and ± 1.35 at 120 min. Equivalence values for capillary plasma glucose concentrations derived from this study tended to be higher than those proposed by the WHO as diagnostic cut-off limits. Stratifying subjects by glucose tolerance status according to the WHO criteria revealed disagreements related to glucose values close to the diagnostic cut-off points. The study findings highlight the uncertainty associated with derived equivalence values. However, capillary plasma glucose measurements could be suitable for diagnostic purposes in epidemiological studies and when translating results on a group basis. PMID:21961814

  7. Resultados histológicos e detecção do HPV em mulheres com células escamosas atípicas de significado indeterminado e lesão escamosa intra-epitelial de baixo grau na colpocitologia oncológica / Histological results and HPV detection in women with pap smear showing atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance and low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    André Luis Ferreira, Santos; Sophie Françoise Mauricette, Derchain; Luis Otávio, Sarian; Elizabete Aparecida, Campos; Marcos Roberto dos, Santos; Gislaine Aparecida, Fonsechi-Carvasan.

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: avaliar o desempenho da colpocitologia oncológica (CO) e da Captura de Híbridos II (CHII) para o diagnóstico de lesão cervical histológica significativa (NIC2/3) em mulheres encaminhadas com CO contendo atipias celulares de significado indeterminado (ASCUS) ou lesão escamosa intra-epiteli [...] al de baixo grau (LSIL). MÉTODOS: estudo de corte transversal no qual foram incluídas 161 mulheres encaminhadas, entre agosto de 2000 e setembro de 2002, devido a CO com resultado de ASCUS ou LSIL. As mulheres responderam a questionário específico sobre características sociodemográficas e reprodutivas e foram submetidas a exame ginecológico com coleta de CO e CHII, sendo realizada colposcopia com eventual biópsia de áreas suspeitas. Foi aplicado o teste do qui-quadrado para as associações da idade, uso de condom, uso de anticoncepcional oral e tabagismo com os resultados da CHII. Foram calculados a sensibilidade, especificidade, valor preditivo positivo e valor preditivo negativo da CO e da CHII para detectar NIC2/3. Todos os cálculos foram realizados com intervalos de confiança estatística de 95%. RESULTADOS: sessenta e sete porcento das mulheres com menos de 30 anos de idade tiveram testes positivos para o HPV. A CO e CHII tiveram sensibilidade de 82% em detectar NIC2/3 quando considerados como positivos ASCUS, LSIL ou HSIL. Quando se consideram como positivas apenas as CO com HSIL, este exame apresenta acentuado ganho de especificidade (de 29 para 95%) e valor preditivo positivo (de 12 para 50%), superando a CHII, porém com redução igualmente significativa de sua sensibilidade (de 82 para 41%). CONCLUSÕES: nossos resultados indicaram grande potencial da CHII para detectar mulheres com NIC2/3 entre as pacientes com ASCUS/LSIL na CO de encaminhamento. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: to assess the ability of Pap smear and hybrid capture II (HCII) to detect clinically significant cervical lesions (CIN2/3) in women referred to hospital due to atypical squamous cells of unknown significance (ASCUS) or low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL). METHODS: a cross-se [...] ctional study comprising 161 women referred to the Taubaté University Hospital due to ASCUS/LSIL, between August 2000 and September 2002. All women responded to a questionnaire regarding sociodemographic and reproductive characteristics and were subjected to gynecological examination with specimen collection for Pap test and HCII, along with colposcopy and eventual cervical biopsy. The relationship between HCII results and age, use of condom, oral hormonal contraception, and smoking were evaluated by the chi-square test. The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of both Pap test and HCII were calculated. All calculations were performed within 95% confidence intervals. RESULTS: sixty-seven percent of the women that tested positive for HPV were less than 30 years old. Pap smear and HCII showed the same 82% sensitivity in detecting CIN2/3 when the threshold for a positive Pap result was ASCUS, LSIL or HSIL. Pap smear specificity and positive predictive values were substantially increased when only HSIL results were considered as positive (from 29 to 95% and 12 to 50%, respectively). These figures were superior to those of HCII, but at the expense of an expressive loss of sensitivity (from 82% to 41%). CONCLUSIONS: our results substantiate the potential of HCII in detecting CIN2/3 among women referred due to ASCUS/LSIL.

  8. Citologia vaginal a fresco na gravidez: correlação com a citologia corada pela técnica de Papanicolaou Fresh wet mount in pregnancy: correlation with Pap smears

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amadeu Ramos da Silva Filho

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: analisar o conteúdo vaginal utilizando o exame citológico a fresco na primeira consulta pré-natal em mulheres com ou sem queixas genitais e correlacionar os resultados com os encontrados na citologia corada pela técnica de Papanicolaou. A microscopia direta durante a gravidez deve ser valorizada e reconhecida como método propedêutico capaz de diagnosticar, de forma imediata, 90% dos casos de vaginose bacteriana, candidose e tricomonose. MÉTODOS: estudo prospectivo em 216 gestantes, selecionadas em ambulatório de pré-natal no período de 30 de outubro de 2001 a 12 de novembro de 2002. Foram colhidas duas amostras do conteúdo existente no fundo de saco vaginal posterior e depositadas em lâminas de vidro para microscopia. Sobre a primeira e a segunda amostra eram colocadas uma gota de NaCl a 0,9% e uma de KOH a 10%, respectivamente. Adicionalmente, em todas as grávidas determinou-se o pH vaginal e realizaram-se os testes de produção das aminas com odores de pescado. O material era examinado ao microscópio em aumentos de 100 vezes, 400 vezes e excepcionalmente 1000 vezes. Foram realizados esfregaços cervicovaginais para citologia corada pelo método de Papanicolaou. A correlação entre os resultados dos métodos citológicos empregados foi realizada pelo cálculo do coeficiente kappa, que avalia a concordância para variáveis qualitativas. RESULTADOS: o encontro nos esfregaços a fresco de flora bacteriana normal foi de 51,8, representando o aspecto citológico mais observado e sem correspondência com os 3,7% apurados na microscopia corada. No exame citológico direto foram observados 30,9% de vaginose bacteriana e 7,9% de candidose. Todavia, no Papanicolaou não foi encontrada tal equivalência, sendo as porcentagens de 0,7 e 24,3%, respectivamente. A ausência de correlação no diagnóstico de colpite bacteriana inespecífica na microscopia direta (17,5% e corada (51,3% talvez deva-se ao subdiagnóstico de vaginose neste último método propedêutico. Os diagnósticos de tricomoníase observados em ambos os métodos citológicos (3,7 e 2,7% traduzem a baixa prevalência destes parasitas na gestação. O cálculo do índice kappa para avaliação da concordância entre os dois procedimentos citológicos nos diversos achados microbiológicos demonstrou baixa correlação nos diagnósticos da vaginose bacteriana e colpites bacterianas inespecíficas, bem como na identificação da flora vaginal normal. CONCLUSÕES: embora a citologia corada apresente melhor acurácia no diagnóstico de fungos não formadores de micélios, a citologia direta a fresco demonstrou ser melhor avaliador dos elementos não epiteliais dos esfregaços vaginais. Entretanto, a microscopia corada pela técnica de Papanicolaou, por permitir melhor apreciação das células epiteliais cervicovaginais, representa o mais importante instrumento revelador das agressões e reações nucleocitoplasmáticas.PURPOSE: to analyze vaginal contents using the fresh wet mount of a cytological exam in the first prenatal visit of women with or without genital complaints and correlate the conclusion with the results from the Pap smears. Microscopy during pregnancy should be valued and recognized as a method capable of providing immediate diagnosis in 90% of bacterial vaginosis, candidiasis and trichomoniasis cases. METHODS: a prospective study was performed in 216 pregnant women selected from the prenatal department of a public hospital, between October 30, 2001 and November 12, 2002. Two samples were collected from the posterior vaginal vault and deposited onto two separate microscope slides. To one slide, a droplet of 0.9% NaCl was applied and to the other, a droplet of 10% KOH. Both slides were covered with a coverslip for immediate microscopic evaluation. Tests were perfomed in one drop of the material to examine pH and whiff. The microscopic examination of the material was carried out at a 100X, 400X and exceptionally 1000X magnification. Pap smears were performed in all pregnant patients. The correlation between the r

  9. Citologia vaginal a fresco na gravidez: correlação com a citologia corada pela técnica de Papanicolaou / Fresh wet mount in pregnancy: correlation with Pap smears

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Amadeu Ramos da, Silva Filho.

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: analisar o conteúdo vaginal utilizando o exame citológico a fresco na primeira consulta pré-natal em mulheres com ou sem queixas genitais e correlacionar os resultados com os encontrados na citologia corada pela técnica de Papanicolaou. A microscopia direta durante a gravidez deve ser valo [...] rizada e reconhecida como método propedêutico capaz de diagnosticar, de forma imediata, 90% dos casos de vaginose bacteriana, candidose e tricomonose. MÉTODOS: estudo prospectivo em 216 gestantes, selecionadas em ambulatório de pré-natal no período de 30 de outubro de 2001 a 12 de novembro de 2002. Foram colhidas duas amostras do conteúdo existente no fundo de saco vaginal posterior e depositadas em lâminas de vidro para microscopia. Sobre a primeira e a segunda amostra eram colocadas uma gota de NaCl a 0,9% e uma de KOH a 10%, respectivamente. Adicionalmente, em todas as grávidas determinou-se o pH vaginal e realizaram-se os testes de produção das aminas com odores de pescado. O material era examinado ao microscópio em aumentos de 100 vezes, 400 vezes e excepcionalmente 1000 vezes. Foram realizados esfregaços cervicovaginais para citologia corada pelo método de Papanicolaou. A correlação entre os resultados dos métodos citológicos empregados foi realizada pelo cálculo do coeficiente kappa, que avalia a concordância para variáveis qualitativas. RESULTADOS: o encontro nos esfregaços a fresco de flora bacteriana normal foi de 51,8, representando o aspecto citológico mais observado e sem correspondência com os 3,7% apurados na microscopia corada. No exame citológico direto foram observados 30,9% de vaginose bacteriana e 7,9% de candidose. Todavia, no Papanicolaou não foi encontrada tal equivalência, sendo as porcentagens de 0,7 e 24,3%, respectivamente. A ausência de correlação no diagnóstico de colpite bacteriana inespecífica na microscopia direta (17,5%) e corada (51,3%) talvez deva-se ao subdiagnóstico de vaginose neste último método propedêutico. Os diagnósticos de tricomoníase observados em ambos os métodos citológicos (3,7 e 2,7%) traduzem a baixa prevalência destes parasitas na gestação. O cálculo do índice kappa para avaliação da concordância entre os dois procedimentos citológicos nos diversos achados microbiológicos demonstrou baixa correlação nos diagnósticos da vaginose bacteriana e colpites bacterianas inespecíficas, bem como na identificação da flora vaginal normal. CONCLUSÕES: embora a citologia corada apresente melhor acurácia no diagnóstico de fungos não formadores de micélios, a citologia direta a fresco demonstrou ser melhor avaliador dos elementos não epiteliais dos esfregaços vaginais. Entretanto, a microscopia corada pela técnica de Papanicolaou, por permitir melhor apreciação das células epiteliais cervicovaginais, representa o mais importante instrumento revelador das agressões e reações nucleocitoplasmáticas. Abstract in english PURPOSE: to analyze vaginal contents using the fresh wet mount of a cytological exam in the first prenatal visit of women with or without genital complaints and correlate the conclusion with the results from the Pap smears. Microscopy during pregnancy should be valued and recognized as a method capa [...] ble of providing immediate diagnosis in 90% of bacterial vaginosis, candidiasis and trichomoniasis cases. METHODS: a prospective study was performed in 216 pregnant women selected from the prenatal department of a public hospital, between October 30, 2001 and November 12, 2002. Two samples were collected from the posterior vaginal vault and deposited onto two separate microscope slides. To one slide, a droplet of 0.9% NaCl was applied and to the other, a droplet of 10% KOH. Both slides were covered with a coverslip for immediate microscopic evaluation. Tests were perfomed in one drop of the material to examine pH and whiff. The microscopic examination of the material was carried out at a 100X, 400X and exceptionally 1000X magnification. Pap smears were performed in all pregnant p

  10. Follow-up of women with inadequate Pap smears: a prospective cohort study / Acompanhamento de mulheres com esfregaços de Papanicolaou inadequados: um estudo prospectivo de coorte

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Fanny, López-Alegría; Dino Roberto Soares De, Lorenzi; Orlando Quezada, Poblete.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXTO E OBJETIVO: Esfregaços inadequados de Papanicolaou não fornecem amostra satisfatória de células para avaliação, ficando assim mais difícil detectar anomalias citológicas cervicais. O objetivo deste estu [...] do foi determinar os resultados de seguimento citológico e histológico de mulheres com relatórios de esfregaços inadequados nas unidades básicas de saúde em Santiago, Chile, 2010-2011. DESENHO E LOCAL: Estudo prospectivo de coorte em unidades básicas de saúde em Santiago, Chile. MÉTODOS: A população foi selecionada do banco de dados Cito-Expert em 2010. Na sequência, os dados foram organizados pelos resultados de seguimento citológico e histológico de 2.547 mulheres com relatórios inadequados de citologia cervical pelo período de 12 meses. As amostras foram atri-buídas a grupos com base na causa de inadequação (esfregaços com células endocervicais; amostras insuficientes, inflamatórias, ou com má fixação, amostras insuficientes e hemorrágicas, ou espéci-mes insuficientes e inflamatórios). Os dados foram analisados com base no “conditional probability tree diagram" e estatísticas descritivas. RESULTADOS: Metade das mulheres (n = 1.285) preencheram os requisitos do Ministério da Saúde para repetir esses esfregaços; dessas mulheres, 1.104 tiveram resultados normais para citologia (85,9%). A detec-ção de lesões cervicais por grupo variou de 0% (esfregaços com apenas células endocervicais e espécimes insuficientes e hemorrágicos) para 4,1% (má fxação). CONCLUSÃO: Uma grande proporção de resultados normais justifica a revisão das diretrizes clínicas atuais. Os resultados mostraram que não é necessário repetir tão cedo o teste de Papanicolaou, exceto em resul-tados inadequados de hemorragia e citologia inflamatória. Abstract in english CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Inadequate Pap smears do not provide satisfactory cell samples for evaluation, thus making it more difficult to detect cervical cytological abnormalities. The objective of this study was t [...] o determine the cytological and histological follow-up results from women with inadequate smear reports in primary healthcare centers in Santiago, Chile 2010-2011. DESIGN AND SETTING: Prospective cohort study at primary healthcare clinics in Santiago, Chile. METHODS: The population was taken from the “Cito-Expert" database of 2010. The data were then organized according to the cytological and histological follow-up results of 2,547 women with inadequate cervical cytological reports over the 12-month period. The samples were assigned to groups based on the cause of inadequacy (smears with endocervical cells alone; insufficient, hemorrhagic, inflammatory or poorly fixed samples; insufficient and hemorrhagic samples; or insufficient and inflammatory specimens). The data were analyzed using the “conditional probability tree diagram" and descriptive statistics. RESULT: Half of the women (n = 1,285) met the requirements of the Ministry of Health for repeating these inadequate smears, and 1,104 of these women had normal cytological results (85.9%). The detection rate for cervical lesions according to group ranged from 0% (smears with endocervical cells alone or insufficient and hemorrhagic specimens) to 4.1% (poor fixation). CONCLUSION: The large proportion of normal results justifies revision of the current clinical guidelines. The results showed that it is not necessary to repeat the Pap test early on, with the exception of inadequate hemorrhagic and inflammatory cytological results.

  11. Experiences and unmet needs of women undergoing Pap smear cervical cancer screening: impact on uptake of cervical cancer screening in south eastern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chigbu, Chibuike O; Onyebuchi, Azubuike K; Egbuji, Chuma C; Ezugwu, Eusebus C

    2015-03-01

    The burden of cervical cancer is on the increase in sub-Saharan Africa mainly due to inadequate provision and utilisation of cervical cancer prevention services. Several evidence-based strategies have been deployed to improve cervical cancer screening uptake without much success. However, patients' experiences and satisfaction with service provision has not been adequately studied. Inefficiencies in service delivery and less fulfilling experiences by women who attend cervical cancer screening could have considerable impact in future voluntary uptake of cervical cancer screening. Six hundred and eighty women who underwent Pap smear screening in three health care facilities in two states in south eastern Nigeria were interviewed to evaluate their satisfaction, willingness to undertake future voluntary screening, unmet needs and correlation between satisfaction level and willingness to undergo future screening. Satisfaction with Pap smear screening correlated positively with willingness to undertake future voluntary screening (Pearson's correlation coefficient?=?0.78, P?=?0.001). The mean satisfaction score was significantly higher among participants handled by nurses than those handled by the physicians (3.16?±?0.94 vs 2.52?±?0.77, P?=?0.001). 'Scrapping discomfort' of the spatula was reported as the most dissatisfying aspect of Pap smear experience. The need for less invasive screening procedures was the most unmet need. It was concluded that improving the Pap smear screening experience of women and providing less invasive methods of cervical cancer screening with immediate results could improve uptake of cervical cancer screening in south eastern Nigeria. PMID:24980966

  12. Pattern of abnormal Pap smears in developing countries : A report from a large referral hospital in Saudi Arabia using the revised 2001 Bethesda System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Layla

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Reports describing the frequency and pattern of abnormal Pap smears in developing countries using the revised Bethesda system for Pap smear are few. We studied the pattern of cervical intraepithelial le--sions and carcinoma detected in Pap smears of Saudi females in the western region of Saudi Arabia using the revised system. Methods: All cervical Pap smears reported in the Department of Pathology of King Abdulaziz Medical City, Jeddah, from 1 January 1998 to 31 August 2005 were reclassified according to the revised system with age ranges identified. RESULTS: Of 5590 sufficient smears, 261 (5% were identified as abnormal and were further classified as atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US (103 cases, 40%, atypical squamous cells of high grade (6 cases, 2%, low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL (56 cases, 22%, high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL (31 cases, 12%, glandular cell abnormalities (30 cases, 11% and invasive squa--mous cell carcinoma (21 cases, 9%. The ASC-US/SIL ratio was 1.9%. Invasive adenocarcinoma accounted for 14 cases (4% with a similar age range as invasive squamous cell carcinoma. Conclusion: Although this study showed a lower incidence and a wider age range of cervical epithelial cell abnormalities than others published internationally, the results emphasize the need for a well-organized cervi--cal screening program supplemented by larger national studies on the pattern of cervical abnormalities in this country. The information provided in this study will encourage use of the Pap smear as a screening method for cervical cancer in developing countries.

  13. HIP/PAP Gene, Encoding a C-Type Lectin Overexpressed in Primary Liver Cancer, Is Expressed in Nervous System as well as in Intestine and Pancreas of the Postimplantation Mouse Embryo

    OpenAIRE

    Lasserre, Chantal; Colnot, Céline; BRÉCHOT, CHRISTIAN; Poirier, Françoise

    1999-01-01

    We originally isolated the HIP/PAP gene in a differential screen of a human hepatocellular carcinoma cDNA library. This gene is expressed at high levels in 25% of primary liver cancers but not in nontumorous liver. HIP/PAP belongs to the family of C-type lectins and acts as an adhesion molecule for hepatocytes. In normal adult human tissues, HIP/PAP expression is found in pancreas (exocrine and endocrine cells) and small intestine (Paneth and neuroendocrine cells). In order to gain insight in...

  14. Comportamiento de las citologías orgánicas alteradas en un área de salud Behavior of organic altered Pap in one health area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Eulalia Prieto Herrera

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: el cáncer de útero es, después del cáncer de mama, el que más frecuentemente afecta a la mujer. La detección y tratamiento temprano de las lesiones premalignas garantizan la durabilidad de esta afección. Objetivo: conocer el comportamiento de las citologías orgánicas alteradas en un área de salud. Métodos: se realizó un estudio descriptivo, transversal y retrospectivo en el Policlínico Este del municipio Camagüey en el período de enero de 2005 a diciembre de 2010. El universo estuvo constituido por las 189 mujeres que presentaron citologías orgánicas anormales en el período antes señalado. Se recogieron variables como: grupo de edades, resultados de las citologías orgánicas según toma de muestra, edad de las primeras relaciones sexuales, número de partos, diagnóstico citológico de infección por virus del papiloma humano (VPH. Resultados: poco menos de la mitad de las mujeres inició las relaciones sexuales antes de los 18 años (46,56 % y la mayoría tenía entre 1 y 3 partos (83,06 %. El 56,08 % de las pacientes presentaron infección por VPH. Conclusiones: predominaron las pacientes con neoplasia intraepitelial cervical II, el año 2006 fue el de mayor incidencia de lesiones de cuello uterino.Introduction: uterine cancer is the type of cancer which most frequently affects women after breast cancer. The early detection and treatment of pre-malignant damage guarantees the durability of this condition. Objective: to understand the behavior of organic altered Pap in one health area. Methods: a descriptive, cross-sectional and retrospective study was conducted I, the eastern polyclinic in Camagüey municipality from January 2005 to December 2010. The sample consisted of 189 women who had abnormal Pap organic in the aforementioned period. Variables were collected such as: age group, organic cytology results according to sampling, age of first intercourse, parity, cytological diagnosis of infection with human papillomavirus (HPV. Results: slightly less than half of these women had their first sex intercourse before the age of 18 (46.56 % and most had had 1-3 births (83.06 %. 56.08 % of these patients had HPV infection. Conclusions: cervical intraepithelial neoplasia II was predominant in these patients. The highest incidence of cervical lesions occurred in 2006.

  15. Comportamiento de las citologías orgánicas alteradas en un área de salud / Behavior of organic altered Pap in one health area

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    María Eulalia, Prieto Herrera; Jorge Luis, Pérez Rivero; Maité, Camacho Vázquez; Martha, Ordán Áreas; Niurka, Rodríguez Sánchez.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: el cáncer de útero es, después del cáncer de mama, el que más frecuentemente afecta a la mujer. La detección y tratamiento temprano de las lesiones premalignas garantizan la durabilidad de esta afección. Objetivo: conocer el comportamiento de las citologías orgánicas alteradas en un ár [...] ea de salud. Métodos: se realizó un estudio descriptivo, transversal y retrospectivo en el Policlínico Este del municipio Camagüey en el período de enero de 2005 a diciembre de 2010. El universo estuvo constituido por las 189 mujeres que presentaron citologías orgánicas anormales en el período antes señalado. Se recogieron variables como: grupo de edades, resultados de las citologías orgánicas según toma de muestra, edad de las primeras relaciones sexuales, número de partos, diagnóstico citológico de infección por virus del papiloma humano (VPH). Resultados: poco menos de la mitad de las mujeres inició las relaciones sexuales antes de los 18 años (46,56 %) y la mayoría tenía entre 1 y 3 partos (83,06 %). El 56,08 % de las pacientes presentaron infección por VPH. Conclusiones: predominaron las pacientes con neoplasia intraepitelial cervical II, el año 2006 fue el de mayor incidencia de lesiones de cuello uterino. Abstract in english Introduction: uterine cancer is the type of cancer which most frequently affects women after breast cancer. The early detection and treatment of pre-malignant damage guarantees the durability of this condition. Objective: to understand the behavior of organic altered Pap in one health area. Methods: [...] a descriptive, cross-sectional and retrospective study was conducted I, the eastern polyclinic in Camagüey municipality from January 2005 to December 2010. The sample consisted of 189 women who had abnormal Pap organic in the aforementioned period. Variables were collected such as: age group, organic cytology results according to sampling, age of first intercourse, parity, cytological diagnosis of infection with human papillomavirus (HPV). Results: slightly less than half of these women had their first sex intercourse before the age of 18 (46.56 %) and most had had 1-3 births (83.06 %). 56.08 % of these patients had HPV infection. Conclusions: cervical intraepithelial neoplasia II was predominant in these patients. The highest incidence of cervical lesions occurred in 2006.

  16. Preliminary Results Obtained from Flight Test of a 1/7-Scale Rocket-Powered Model of the Grumman XF10F Airplane Configuration in the Swept-Wing Condition, TED No. NACA DE 354

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, William N.

    1951-01-01

    A flight investigation of a 1/7-scale rocket-powered model of the XF10F Grumman XFl0F airplane in the swept-wing configuration has been made. The purpose of this test was to determine the static longitudinal stability, damping in pitch, and longitudinal control effectiveness of the airplane with the center of gravity at 20 percent of the wing mean aerodynamic chord. Only a small amount of data was obtained from the test because, immediately after booster separation at a Mach number of 0.88, the configuration was directionally unstable and diverged in sideslip. Simultaneous with the sideslip divergence, the model became longitudinally unstable at 3 degree angle of attack and -6 degree sideslip and diverged in pitch to a high angle of attack. During the pitch-up the free-floating horizontal tail became unstable at 5 degree angle of attack and the tail drifted against its positive deflection limit.

  17. Análise espectral do sinal eletromiográfico do músculo eretor da espinha obtido do teste de Sorensen / Spectral analysis of the electromyographic signal of the erector spinae muscle obtained from Sorensen test

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Fernando Sérgio Silva, Barbosa; Camila Cristina Rodeline, Almeida; Mauro, Gonçalves.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: A fadigabilidade excessiva dos músculos lombares é um achado comum em pacientes portadores de dor lombar. Por isso, a avaliação da resistência isométrica desses músculos tem sido recomendada nessa população. OBJETIVO: O objetivo deste estudo foi identificar e analisar objetivamente o com [...] portamento da fadiga do músculo eretor da espinha em um teste de resistência isométrica realizado até a exaustão. METODOLOGIA: Nove sujeitos saudáveis realizaram o teste de Sorensen modificado com contrações em intensidades correspondentes a 5%, 10%, 15% e 20% da contração voluntária máxima. A fadiga muscular foi identificada pela análise do comportamento da frequência mediana (FM) em função do tempo. RESULTADOS: O tempo de resistência isométrica foi inversamente correlacionado com a intensidade da contração. Contudo, a intensidade da contração não demonstrou efeito sobre a taxa de declínio da FM. A fadiga muscular foi significante em todas as porções do músculo eretor da espinha. Comparações entre os músculos eretor da espinha direito e esquerdo não revelaram diferenças significantes, enquanto que comparações entre porções do músculo eretor da espinha localizadas em diferentes níveis lombares revelaram maiores níveis de fadiga em L4-L5 bilateralmente. CONCLUSÃO: A análise espectral do sinal eletromiográfico foi eficaz para idenficação da fadiga do músculo eretor da espinha. Também foi possível identificar diferenças funcionais entre as diferentes porções desse músculo. O conhecimento dessas particularidades permite intervir de forma mais específica na prevenção e reabilitação dos distúrbios da coluna lombar. Abstract in english INTRODUCTION: Excessive fatigability of the low back muscles is a common finding in low back pain patients. Therefore, the assessment of the isometric endurance of these muscles has been recommended in this population. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to identify and to analyze objectively t [...] he behavior of the erector spinae muscle fatigue in an isometric endurance test performed until exhaustion. METHOD: Nine healthy subjects performed a modified Sorensen test with contractions of 5%, 10%, 15%, and 20% of the maximal voluntary contraction. The muscle fatigue was identified for the analysis of the behavior of the median frequency (MF) over time. The endurance time was inversely correlated with the contraction intensity. However, the contraction intensity did not show effect on the rate of decline of the MF. The muscle fatigue was significant in all the portions of the erector spinae muscle. RESULTS: Comparisons between the erector spinae muscles from right and left side did not show significant differences, while that the comparisons between the portions of the erector spinae muscle localized at different vertebral levels showed higher fatigue levels at L4-L5 bilaterally. CONCLUSION: Thus, the spectral analysis of the electromyographic signal was effective for the identification of the erector spinae muscle fatigue. Also, it was possible to identify functional differences between the different portions of this muscle. The knowledge of these particularities allows managing in a more specific way the prevention e rehabilitation of the low back troubles.

  18. Noninvasive mechanical ventilation with BiPAP therapy for comatose exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease through an endotracheal tube: is it justified?

    OpenAIRE

    Esquinas A; Agarwal R

    2012-01-01

    Antonio Esquinas,1 Ritesh Agarwal21Intensive Care Unit, Hospital Morales Meseguer, Murcia, Spain; 2Department of Pulmonary Medicine, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, IndiaWe read with interest the paper by Rawat et al1 related to the role of bilevel positive airway pressure (BiPAP) delivered via endotracheal tube in unconscious patients suffering from acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in a real-world situation. Although the autho...

  19. Tobacco expressing pap1 increases the responses to par and uv-a by enhancing soluble sugars and flavonoids and elevating plant protections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Five lines of transgenic tobacco over-expressing Production of Anthocyanin Pigment 1 (PAP1) cDNA were analysis of metabolic response against the radiation and their protection of the plant under tissue culture condition. PAP1 transgenic and wild type (WT) plants were treated with the radiations of photosynthetically activate radiation (PAR) or PAR combined with UV-A. All lines of transgenic significantly increased in amounts of p-coumaric acid, naringenin apigenin more than WT under both treatments. Additional UV-A radiating to plant rose up kaempferol content in WT plant (1.5 times) and in PAP1 transgenics (1.8 times). These transgenic plants treated under both conditions had also increased anthocyanin substances (pelargonidin) with significant value after compared to WT. Content of total soluble sugar (TSS) was related to the content of total flavonoids in transgenic. PAR combined with UV-A had a lower induction of the electrolyte leakage percentage and malondialdehyde (MDA) level in the transgenic leaf tissue compared to WT tissue. The metabolic substance levels were considered on its protection of plant cells. In transgenic tissue, the enhancement of apigenin level strongly diminished the increase level of electrolyte leakage while the levels of TSS, p-coumaric acid and naringinin less affected. Moreover, the increase levels of kaempferol and pelargonidin associated with the decrease level of MDA, while the TSS level reversely responded. The PAP1 transgenic increased response of light by adaptation of their metabolites (TSS, p-coumaric acid and flavonoids) consequently enhance parameter indicating protections of the cell. (author)

  20. Modification of the synthesis of bioactive flavonoids in transgenic hop Humulus lupulus L. by PAP1/MYB75 from Arabidopsis thaliana L.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Aldinger, C.; Stanke, M.; Alheit, C.; Gatíca, A.; Höhnle, M.; Matoušek, Jaroslav; Weber, G.

    Hüll : Scientific Commission of the International Hop Growers Convention, 2009 - (Seigner, E.), s. 49-52 ISSN 1814-2192. [Scientific Commission of the International Hop Growers Convention Meeting. León (ES), 21.06.2009-25.06.2009] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50510513 Keywords : flavonoid biosynthesis * transgenic hop Humulus lupulus L. cv. Tettnanger * Arabidopsis thaliana PAP1/MYB75 regulatory gene Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry

  1. Cobertura do exame de Papanicolaou no Brasil e seus fatores determinantes: uma revisão sistemática da literatura Coverage of the Pap smear in Brazil and its determining factors: a systematic literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Felipe Leite Martins

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: apresentar o panorama da cobertura do exame de Papanicolaou no Brasil, com ênfase nos seus fatores determinantes. MÉTODOS: foram pesquisadas as bases de dados "on line" LILACS (Literatura Latino-Americana e do Caribe em Ciências da Saúde, MEDLINE - 1966 a 2004 (Literatura Internacional em Ciências da Saúde, PAHO (Acervo da Biblioteca da Organização Pan-Americana de Saúde e WHOLIS (Sistema de Informação da Biblioteca da OMS. A revisão foi ampliada por meio da busca a referências bibliográficas dos estudos relevantes, solicitação de estudos publicados e não publicados a especialistas e outras fontes. Foram selecionados artigos que preenchiam os seguintes critérios: ser um estudo transversal, ter sido realizado no Brasil, conter informações sobre a cobertura do exame Papanicolaou (alguma vez na vida ou nos últimos três anos ou sobre seus fatores determinantes. Foram excluídas as duplicidades e os artigos sem resumo. Um total de 13 artigos foram selecionados atendendo a esses critérios. RESULTADOS: são poucos os estudos sobre a cobertura do exame de Papanicolaou no Brasil. A maioria concentra-se nas grandes cidades das regiões Sul e Sudeste do país. Além da escassez, existe pouca padronização metodológica em relação à amostragem e perfil das mulheres a serem investigadas, o que torna difícil a comparação entre si. Estas diferenças metodológicas devem ter contribuído para a grande variabilidade nas coberturas encontradas. Entretanto, apesar de todos os problemas, observa-se tendência de aumento temporal no percentual de mulheres que foram submetidas a pelo menos um exame de Papanicolaou: os dois únicos estudos realizados nos anos 80 mostram coberturas de 55,0 e 68,9% na vida, ao passo que um inquérito domiciliar realizado em 15 capitais e no Distrito Federal entre 2002 e 2003 apresenta valores que variam de 73,4 a 92,9%; porém, dois estudos de abrangência nacional realizados em 2003 apresentaram coberturas abaixo de 70,0% nos últimos três anos. Por outro lado, algumas variáveis foram mais freqüentemente observadas nas mulheres não submetidas ao exame de Papanicolaou: ter baixo nível socioeconômico, ter baixa escolaridade, ter baixa renda familiar e pertencer às faixas etárias mais jovens. CONCLUSÃO: os dados aqui apresentados apontam para desigualdades regionais na cobertura do exame de Papanicolaou na população feminina brasileira e para a necessidade de intervenção junto àqueles fatores a ela associados.PURPOSE: to present an overview of the coverage of the Pap smear in Brazil, emphasizing the determinant factors associated with failure of women to submit to the test. METHODS: the literature was reviewed using the LILACS (Latin-American and Caribbean Literature in Sciences of the Health, MEDLINE - 1966 to 2004 (International Literature in Sciences of the Health, PAHO (Collection of the Library of the Pan-American Organization of Health, and WHOLIS (System of Information of the Library of OMS databases. The review was enlarged through the search of bibliographical references of relevant studies, request for published and unpublished studies by specialists, and other sources. Articles that fulfilled the following criteria were selected: to be a cross-sectional study, carried out in Brazil, including information about periodicity of the Pap test (some time in life or in the last three years and/or containing information about factors associated with failure of women to submit to the test. Duplicates and articles without summary were excluded. A total of 13 articles fulfilling these criteria were selected. RESULTS: there are few studies on the coverage of Pap smear in Brazil. Most of them are concentrated in the big cities of the South and Southeast regions of the country. Besides the shortage, little methodological standardization exists in relation to the sampling and profile of the investigated women, which turns difficult the comparison among them. These methodological differences must have contributed to the great variability found in

  2. [Previous history of Pap smears and cervical cancer: a case-control study in the Baixada Fluminense, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, Maria Isabel do; Silva, Gulnar Azevedo e; Monteiro, Gina Torres Rego

    2012-10-01

    This hospital-based case-control study (2007-2010) aimed to estimate the association between previous Pap smear and cervical cancer diagnosis in the Baixada Fluminense, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. The sample consisted of 152 histologically confirmed cases and 169 controls from the same hospital as the cases. The analysis was conducted according to a model in three hierarchical levels considering sociodemographic characteristics (distal), sexual/reproductive and lifestyle factors (intermediate), and previous Pap smear (proximal). Odds ratios (OR) and respective 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) were calculated using unconditional logistic regression. History of three or more Pap smears was associated with an 84% reduction in cervical cancer risk (OR = 0.16; 95%CI: 0.074; 0.384) after adjusting for selected variables. The results highlight the importance of preventive gynecological examination for reducing the risk of cervical cancer and emphasize the need to increase adherence to the guidelines of the Brazilian program, besides identifying and scheduling women that have proven reluctant to submit to cervical cancer screening. PMID:23090165

  3. Identification of hemostatic genes expressed in human and rat leg muscles and a novel gene (LPP1/PAP2A suppressed during prolonged physical inactivity (sitting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zderic Theodore W

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Partly because of functional genomics, there has been a major paradigm shift from solely thinking of skeletal muscle as contractile machinery to an understanding that it can have roles in paracrine and endocrine functions. Physical inactivity is an established risk factor for some blood clotting disorders. The effects of inactivity during sitting are most alarming when a person develops the enigmatic condition in the legs called deep venous thrombosis (DVT or “coach syndrome,” caused in part by muscular inactivity. The goal of this study was to determine if skeletal muscle expresses genes with roles in hemostasis and if their expression level was responsive to muscular inactivity such as occurs in prolonged sitting. Methods Microarray analyses were performed on skeletal muscle samples from rats and humans to identify genes associated with hemostatic function that were significantly expressed above background based on multiple probe sets with perfect and mismatch sequences. Furthermore, we determined if any of these genes were responsive to models of physical inactivity. Multiple criteria were used to determine differential expression including significant expression above background, fold change, and non-parametric statistical tests. Results These studies demonstrate skeletal muscle tissue expresses at least 17 genes involved in hemostasis. These include the fibrinolytic factors tetranectin, annexin A2, and tPA; the anti-coagulant factors TFPI, protein C receptor, PAF acetylhydrolase; coagulation factors, and genes necessary for the posttranslational modification of these coagulation factors such as vitamin K epoxide reductase. Of special interest, lipid phosphate phosphatase-1 (LPP1/PAP2A, a key gene for degrading prothrombotic and proinflammatory lysophospholipids, was suppressed locally in muscle tissue within hours after sitting in humans; this was also observed after acute and chronic physical inactivity conditions in rats, and exercise was relatively ineffective at counteracting this effect in both species. Conclusions These findings suggest that skeletal muscle may play an important role in hemostasis and that muscular inactivity may contribute to hemostatic disorders not only because of the slowing of blood flow per se, but also potentially because of the contribution from genes expressed locally in muscles, such as LPP1.

  4. [KI-67 PAP stain for histologic grading of brain tumors by squash preparations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, T; Ostertag, C B; Volk, B

    1989-01-01

    Using Ki-67 monoclonal antibody to the nuclear antigen of proliferating cells, the squash preparations of 141 brain tumors and the 36 frozen sections from corresponding tumor tissues were stained with peroxidase-antiperoxidase method. The staining indices in squash preparations correlated well to those in the corresponding frozen sections. There were good correlations between the percentage of stained cells and the histologic grade in agreement with known biologic behavior. In order of decreasing malignancy, the averages of Ki-67 staining indices were 26.7% for metastatic carcinomas, 12.6% for glioblastomas, and less than 2.8% for benign mesodermal tumor groups. Ki-67 staining with squash preparations could be applied to small tissues obtained by transsphenoidal surgery and stereotactic surgery as valuable adjuncts to intraoperative histologic diagnosis and the estimation of histologic malignancy. PMID:2470401

  5. The Possible Effects on Socio-Economic Inequalities of Introducing HPV Testing as Primary Test in Cervical Cancer Screening Programs

    OpenAIRE

    Giorgi Rossi, Paolo; Baldacchini, Flavia; Ronco, Guglielmo

    2014-01-01

    Background: Screening with HPV is more effective than Pap test in preventing cervical cancer. HPV as primary test will imply longer intervals and a triage test for HPV positive women. It will also permit the development of self-sampling devices. These innovations may affect population coverage, participation, and compliance to protocols, and likely in a different way for less educated, poorer, and disadvantaged women. Aim: To describe the impact on inequalities, actual or presumed, of the ...

  6. “1-2-3 Pap” Intervention Improves HPV Vaccine Series Completion among Appalachian Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderpool, Robin C.; Cohen, Elisia; Crosby, Richard A.; Jones, Maudella G.; Bates, Wallace; Casey, Baretta R.; Collins, Tom

    2015-01-01

    Completion of the Human Papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine series is a national priority. This study not only identified correlates of intent to complete the vaccine series and actual series completion, but also tested the efficacy of a DVD intervention to promote series completion. Women’s beliefs that all three doses reduced cancer risk predicted intent and completion. Intention predicted completion, as did the belief that having a friend accompany the woman would promote completion. Beyond these effects, women assigned to the intervention were 2.44 times more likely than women in the control group to complete the series. Thus, in controlled analyses, a theory-grounded DVD intervention successfully promoted HPV series completion in a community setting. This method of intervention has high translational potential.

  7. Prevalencia de alteraciones oncológicas en la citología cervicovaginal de pacientes de una institución prestadora de servicios de salud de Medellín, 2010-2012 / Oncology findings of pap smear in a health provider institution of Medellín, 2010-2012

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    JAIBERTH ANTONIO, CARDONA-ARIAS; MARLENY, VALENCIA-ARREDONDO.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: el cáncer cervico-uterino es la enfermedad maligna más frecuente en mujeres colombianas; la tamización con la citología cérvico-vaginal ha sido útil para disminuir su morbilidad y mortalidad. Objetivo: determinar la prevalencia de alteraciones oncológicas en la citología cervical, en m [...] ujeres atendidas en una institución prestadora de servicios de salud, Medellín 2010-2012. Métodos: estudio de prevalencia en 205 917 mujeres del programa de detección y prevención del cáncer cervicouterino de Metrosalud. Se calculó la prevalencia global de cada uno de los hallazgos oncológicos y de forma específica según el grupo etario y el método de planificación y sector de residencia. Resultados: la prevalencia global de alteraciones citológicas fue 8,5 %; las lesiones intraepiteliales escamosas (LIE) de bajo grado se presentaron en el 2 %, las de alto grado en 0,3 %; las células escamosas atípicas de significado indeterminado en 3,2 % y las células glandulares atípicas de significado indeterminado (AGC-US) 0,4 %. En las menores de 30 años se obtuvo una mayor prevalencia de lesiones intraepiteliales escamosas de bajo grado, las neoplasias intraepiteliales vaginales de alto grado y células escamosas atípicas de significado indeterminado; en las mayores de 50 se observaron las prevalencias más elevadas de lesiones intraepiteliales escamosas de alto grado, inflamación y atrofia. Conclusiones: la prevalencia de alteraciones citológica cervicales fue baja en los subgrupos estudiados; las adolescentes constituyen un grupo de mayor riesgo para las lesiones intraepiteliales escamosas de bajo grado Abstract in english Introduction: Cervical cancer is the most prevalent malignancy in colombian women. The screening with Pap smear has been a key tool for reducing morbidity and mortality. Objectives: to determine the prevalence of oncological alterations in the Pap smear in women of a health provider in institution, [...] Medellín 2010-2012. Methods: The prevalence study in 205,917 women of program to detect and prevent cervical cancer of Metrosalud The overall prevalence of oncologic findings was calculated, also prevalence by age group, the planning method and sector of residence. Results: the overall prevalence of disorders was 8.5 %, low grade Squamous Intraepithelial Lesions (SIL) 2 % and High grade SIL 0.3 %, atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US) 3.2 % and atypical glandular cells of undetermined significance (AGC-US) 0.4 %. The prevalence of HSIL, inflammation and atrophy were highest at woman 50 and older, in the under 30 a higher prevalence of low grade SIL, highgrade vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia, ASCUS and ASC was obtained. Conclusions: The prevalence of cervical cytological abnormalities was low in the subgroups studied; adolescents are a higher risk group for low-grade SIL

  8. Field project to obtain pressure core, wireline log, and production test data for evaluation of CO/sub 2/ flooding potential, Conoco MCA unit well No. 358, Maljamar Field, Lea County, New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swift, T.E.; Marlow, R.E.; Wilhelm, M.H.; Goodrich, J.H.; Kumar, R.M.

    1981-11-01

    This report describes part of the work done to fulfill a contract awarded to Gruy Federal, Inc., by the Department of Energy (DOE) on Feburary 12, 1979. The work includes pressure-coring and associated logging and testing programs to provide data on in-situ oil saturation, porosity and permeability distribution, and other data needed for resource characterization of fields and reservoirs in which CO/sub 2/ injection might have a high probability of success. This report details the second such project. Core porosities agreed well with computed log porosities. Core water saturation and computed log porosities agree fairly well from 3692 to 3712 feet, poorly from 3712 to 3820 feet and in a general way from 4035 to 4107 feet. Computer log analysis techniques incorporating the a, m, and n values obtained from Core Laboratories analysis did not improve the agreement of log versus core derived water saturations. However, both core and log analysis indicated the ninth zone had the highest residual hydrocarbon saturations and production data confirmed the validity of oil saturation determinations. Residual oil saturation, for the perforated and tested intervals were 259 STB/acre-ft for the interval from 4035 to 4055 feet, and 150 STB/acre-ft for the interval from 3692 to 3718 feet. Nine BOPD was produced from the interval 4035 to 4055 feet and no oil was produced from interval 3692 to 3718 feet, qualitatively confirming the relative oil saturations as calculated. The low oil production in the zone from 4022 to 4055 and the lack of production from 3692 to 3718 feet indicated the zone to be at or near residual waterflood conditions as determined by log analysis. This project demonstrates the usefulness of integrating pressure core, log, and production data to realistically evaluate a reservoir for carbon dioxide flood.

  9. CRITICAL ASSESSMENT OF THE EFFECTIVENESS OF PROJECT IMPLEMENTATION THROUGH DONORS’ SUPPORT: A CASE STUDY OF THE PAN-AFRICAN PARLIAMENT (PAP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Innocents Edoun

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The study seeks to analyse the effectiveness of project implementation through Donors’ support using the PAP as a case study. Using quantitative analysis as a method of inquiry, the researchers felt that it was important to determine the correlations between the scores of various variables for an in-depth understanding of the study. These variables are (donors’ support, performance management, and team work, coordination and follow-up. Pearson’s coefficient correlation (r was therefore chosen to calculate and use to measure the degree of association between the variables.

  10. Self-reported history of Pap-smear in HIV-positive women in Northern Italy: a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Ghinelli Florio; Polesel Jerry; de Bianchi Priscilla; Lise Mauro; Franceschi Silvia; Dal Maso Luigino; Falcini Fabio; Finarelli Alba C

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background The incidence of invasive cervical cancer in HIV-positive women is higher than in the general population. There is evidence that HIV-positive women do not participate sufficiently in cervical cancer screening in Italy, where cervical cancer is more than 10-fold higher in women with AIDS than in the general population. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the history of Pap-smear in HIV-positive women in Italy in recent years. We also examined the sociodemographic, ...

  11. Resíduos vegetais na superfície e carbono orgânico do solo e suas relações com a densidade máxima obtida no ensaio proctor Mulch and soil organic carbon content and their relationship with the maximum soil density obtained in the proctor test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Alfredo Braida

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available A susceptibilidade do solo à compactação, avaliada pelo ensaio Proctor, torna-se menor à medida que cresce a quantidade de material orgânico existente. Em geral, para um mesmo nível de energia, quanto maior o teor de matéria orgânica do solo, menor é o valor de densidade máxima obtido e maior é o teor de água necessário para atingi-lo. As características da palha, como sua baixa densidade, elasticidade e susceptibilidade à deformação, tornam-na potencialmente capaz de atenuar as cargas aplicadas sobre o solo. O presente trabalho foi realizado para estudar o efeito da matéria orgânica do solo no comportamento da curva de compactação e avaliar a capacidade dos resíduos vegetais em dissipar a energia compactante. Amostras superficiais (0-0,05 m de um Argissolo Vermelho-Amarelo arênico, de textura franco-arenosa, e de um Nitossolo Vermelho distrófico, de textura argilosa, ambos com variações nos teores de matéria orgânica, foram submetidas ao ensaio Proctor Normal, determinando-se a densidade máxima e a umidade crítica para compactação. Determinaram-se, também, os limites de liquidez e de plasticidade e o teor de carbono orgânico. Para avaliar a capacidade da palha em dissipar a energia de compactação, amostras do Argissolo foram compactadas com a aplicação de uma camada de palha sobre o solo, dentro do cilindro do aparelho de Proctor, em quantidades correspondentes a 2, 4, 8 e 12 Mg ha-1 de matéria seca. O acúmulo de matéria orgânica nos solos, proporcionado por diferentes sistemas de manejo, reduziu a densidade máxima e aumentou a umidade crítica para compactação do solo, significando que o solo torna-se mais resistente à compactação. A magnitude desses efeitos, contudo, foi dependente da granulometria do solo. A palha na superfície do solo, durante a realização do ensaio Proctor, dissipou até 30 % da energia de compactação utilizada, com redução da densidade obtida, confirmando a hipótese de que a palha existente sobre o solo é capaz de absorver parte da energia de compactação produzida pelo trânsito de máquinas e animais.The susceptibility of soils to compaction, measured by the Proctor test, decreases with increasing soil organic matter (SOM content. For a given energy level, with increasing SOM contents the maximum obtained density decreases and the corresponding critical moisture content increases. Due to its low density, elasticity and deformation susceptibility, straw is potentially able to dissipate applied loads. This study was conducted to evaluate the SOM effect on the soil compaction curve and to evaluate the ability that mulch has to absorb compactive energy in the Proctor test. The compaction test was carried out using soil surface samples (0 to 0.05 m of a Hapludalf, with sandy loam texture at its soil surface, and an Oxisol, with clayey texture at its soil surface, both with variations in the SOM content. The maximum density, the critical moisture content, the liquid and plastic limits, and the soil organic carbon content were determined. A second test was performed to evaluate the ability of mulch to absorb compactive energy, by compacting Hapludalf samples with the presence of a straw layer on the soil surface, inside a Proctor cylinder, at amounts corresponding to 2, 4, 8 and 12 Mg ha-1. SOM accumulation reduced the maximum density and increased the critical moisture content, suggesting an increased resistance to soil compaction. In the Proctor test the straw on the soil surface dissipated up to 30 % of the compactive energy and reduced the bulk density, confirming the hypothesis that mulch can absorb part of the compactive energy caused by machine traffic and by animals.

  12. Aplicação do método de ensaio das frequências naturais de vibração para obtenção do módulo de elasticidade de peças estruturais de madeira / Analysis of the natural vibration frequency test method to obtain the modulus of elasticity of wood structural components

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Pedro Gutemberg de Alcântara, Segundinho; Leiliane Cristina, Cossolino; Antônio Henrique Alves, Pereira; Carlito, Calil Junior.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Existem diversas técnicas para caracterização do módulo de elasticidade de madeiras e, dentre as atualmente empregadas, destacam-se aquelas que utilizam as frequências naturais de vibração, por serem técnicas não destrutivas e, portanto, apresentarem resultados que podem ser repetidos e comparados a [...] o longo do tempo. Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a eficácia, dos métodos de ensaios baseados nas frequências naturais de vibração comparando-os aos resultados obtidos na flexão estática na obtenção das propriedades elásticas em peças estruturais de madeira de reflorestamento que são usualmente empregadas na construção civil. Foram avaliadas 24 vigas de Eucalyptus sp. com dimensões nominais (40 x 60 x 2.000 mm) e 14 vigas de Pinus oocarpa com dimensões nominais (45 x 90 x 2.300 mm), ambas sem tratamento; 30 pranchas com dimensões nominais (40 x 240 x 2.010 mm) e 30 pranchas com dimensões nominais (40 x 240 x 3.050 mm), ambas de Pinnus oocarpa e com tratamento preservativo à base de Arseniato de Cobre Cromatado - CCA. Os resultados obtidos apresentaram boa correlação quando comparados aos resultados obtidos pelo método mecânico de flexão estática, especialmente quando empregada a frequência natural de vibração longitudinal. O emprego da frequência longitudinal mostrou-se confiável e prático, portanto recomendada para a determinação do módulo de elasticidade de peças estruturais de madeira. Verificou-se ainda que, empregando a frequência longitudinal, não há necessidade de um suporte específico para os corpos de prova ou calibrações prévias, reduzindo assim o tempo de execução e favorecendo o ensaio de grande quantidade de amostras. Abstract in english There are several techniques to characterize the elastic modulus of wood and those currently using the natural frequencies of vibration stand out as they are non-destructive techniques, producing results that can be repeated and compared over time. This study reports on the effectiveness of the test [...] ing methods based on the natural frequencies of vibration versus static bending to obtain the elastic properties of reforested structural wood components usually employed in civil construction. The following components were evaluated: 24 beams of Eucalyptus sp. with nominal dimensions (40 x 60 x 2.000 mm) and 14 beams of Pinus oocarpa with nominal dimensions (45 x 90 x 2.300 mm) both without treatment; 30 boards with nominal dimensions (40 x 240 x 2.010 mm) and 30 boards with nominal dimensions (40 x 240 x 3.050 mm), both of Pinus oocarpa and with chromate copper arsenate (CCA) preservative treatment. The results obtained in thiswork show good correlation when compared to the results obtained by the static bending mechanical method, especially when applying the natural frequency of longitudinal vibration. The use of longitudinal frequency was reliable and practical, therefore recommended for determining the modulus of elasticity of wood structural elements. It was also found that no specific support is needed for the specimens using the longitudinal frequency, as well as no previous calibrations, reducing the execution time and enabling to test many samples.

  13. Obtaining zircaloy powder through hydriding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dupim, Ivaldete da Silva; Moreira, Joao M.L., E-mail: joao.moreira@ufabc.edu.b [Universidade Federal do ABC, Santo Andre, SP (Brazil). Centro de Engenharia e Ciencias Sociais Aplicadas; Silva, Selma Luiza; Silva, Cecilia Chaves Guedes e; Nunes Junior, Oswaldo; Gomide, Ricardo Goncalves, E-mail: celia.chaves@ctmsp.mar.mil.b, E-mail: gomide@ctmsp.mar.mil.b [Centro Tecnologico da Marinha em Sao Paulo (CTMSP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    Zirconium alloys are good options for the metal matrix in dispersion fuels for power reactors due to their low thermal neutron absorption cross-section, good corrosion resistance, good mechanical strength and high thermal conductivity. A necessary step for obtaining such fuels is producing Zr alloy powder for the metal matrix composite material. This article presents results from the Zircaloy-4 hydrogenation tests with the purpose to embrittle the alloy as a first step for comminuting. Several hydrogenation tests were performed and studied through thermogravimetric analysis. They included H{sub 2} pressures of 25 and 50 kPa and temperatures ranging between from 20 to 670 deg C. X-ray diffraction analysis showed in the hydrogenated samples the predominant presence of ZrH{sub 2} and some ZrO{sub 2}. Some kinetics parameters for the Zircaloy-4 hydrogenation reaction were obtained: the time required to reach the equilibrium state at the dwell temperature was about 100 minutes; the hydrogenation rate during the heating process from 20 to 670 deg C was about 21 mg/h, and at constant temperature of 670 deg C, the hydride rate was about 1.15 mg/h. The hydrogenation rate is largest during the heating process and most of it occurs during this period. After hydrogenated, the samples could easily be comminuted indicating that this is a possible technology to obtain Zircaloy powder. The results show that only few minutes of hydrogenation are necessary to reach the hydride levels required for comminuting the Zircaloy. The final hydride stoichiometry was between 2.7 and 2.8 H for each Zr atom in the sample (author)

  14. Experimental and clinical testings of 99mTc-pertechnetate and 131I without carrier obtained at the Institute of Nuclear Physics of the National Nuclear Center of the Republic of Kazakhstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During 2000-2002 in the Almaty city's medical centers both experimental and clinical tests of the domestic radiopharmaceuticals on the basis of 131I and 99mTc radioisotopes produced at the Institute of Nuclear Physics of the National Nuclear Center of the Republic of Kazakhstan (INP of NNC RK) were carried out. The experimental studies on the rates showing the conformity of the 131I and 99mTc distribution in the animals' organism to its pharmacologic and kinetic properties and analogous organic trophy in the relation to the thyroid. It is emphasized that injection of the pharmaceuticals into the animal's organism does not caused both negative reactions and side toxic exhibitions. In the experimental and clinical approbation the radiometric, scanning, and scintigraphic methods were used. Radiometry have been conducted 2, 4 and 24 hours after 131I injection and scanning after 24 hours in 27 patients. 5 patients without the thyroid pathology made up the control group. The conducted examinations allow to receive data reflecting the anatomical, topographical, structural and functional status of the thyroid. High tireotrophy of the 131I permits to study in vivo iodine exchange conditions and got the qualitative image of the thyroid. With help of the 99mTc-pertechnetate the dynamical and static scintigraphy studies of 11 patients with different thyroid pathologies and 7 patients with the head brain pathologies were examined. The changes revealed by the radionuclide method corresponding to clinical diagnosis and distinguishing from the control group. As well as the dynamic scintigraphy angiography of kidneys with help of 99mTc-DTPA, static scintigraphy of kidneys with 99mTc-DMCA, the liver dynamical scintigraphy with 99mTc-Technide, the liver static al scintigraphy with 99mTc-phytone (7 patients) ware carried out. The obtained results confirm the labelled compound strength manufacture with 99mTc of domestic manufacture. The reactions on the radionuclide administration during/after examination of the patient did not observed, and clinical and laboratory changes did not noted as well. By the result of testing the sterile sodium pertechnetate (99mTc) and sodium iodide (131I) produced at the INP of NNC RK are recommended to the commercial production for radionuclide diagnostics use

  15. Distribution of human papillomavirus (HPV) genotypes detected by routine pap smear in uyghur-muslim women from Karasay Township Hotan (Xinjiang, China).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mijit, Fatima; Ablimit, Tangnur; Abduxkur, Guzalnur; Abliz, Guzalnur

    2015-11-01

    HPV infection is an important public health problem in developing countries. We investigated HPV genotypes in the Uyghur female population of Karasay Township, Hotan region. A population-based cervical cancer screening was conducted for 4,500 women in Karasay Township, Xinjiang Hotan, China. A total of 900 women were selected by systematic sampling with a 5:1 proportion (ages 20-69). The subjects completed a questionnaire and consented to HPV typing and Pap smear examination. Colposcopic biopsies were performed for patients with cytological abnormalities (?ASCUS). A total of 117 of the 900 women (13%) assessed were infected with HPV. The most common subtype was HPV-16, and other common high-risk types included HPV-58 and HPV-39. A total of 40 women (4.44%) were identified with abnormal cytology (?ASCUS) by Pap smear. A significant link was found between HPV prevalence and cytological diagnosis. The HPV infection rates for the patients with cervical inflammation, CIN, and cancer were 18.18%, 64.71%, and 100%, respectively. Significant differences in HPV infection rates were found among the patients with the three groups of pathological results. In Karasay, the HPV infection rate in Uyghur women is lower than previously reported; however, the proportion infected with HR-HPV is higher. HPV-16, HPV-58, and HPV-39 are the most prevalent genotypes. J. Med. Virol. 87:1960-1965, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26081269

  16. Cervical Cancer Screening for the Reluctant - HPV Testing of Air-Dried Vaginal Discharge

    OpenAIRE

    Tong, Tommy R.; Yau, Rae Wai-nang; Chan, Olivia Wai-hing; Yu, Vivian; Lo, Joyce Wing-sze; Chow, Tat-chong; Chan, Billy Wai-hon; Lee, Kam-cheong

    2006-01-01

    Despite the availability of the PAP test, cervical cancer continues to cause considerable morbidity and mortality. Many women default cervical cytology for a variety of reasons. This demands the development of alternative screening strategies, such as HPV testing on self-procured cervical-vaginal specimens in order to capture this group of women. We investigated the self-procured air-dried vaginal discharge for HPV testing. We recruited 82 patients with HPV-associated cervical lesions and 36 ...

  17. From the definition of silicosis at the 1930 Johannesburg conference to the blurred boundaries between pneumoconioses, sarcoidosis, and pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Michel; Chemarin, Cecile; Cavalin, Catherine; Catinon, Mikael; Rosental, Paul-André

    2015-11-01

    The 1930 International Labour Office Conference on silicosis in Johannesburg identified silicosis by setting a medicolegal framework to its nosology: as with other occupational illnesses, its medical content was fixed under economic pressure. This article follows a reading of all the proceedings of this conference (debates and reports of experts) to examine their potential impact on the etiology and nosology of other diseases, specifically sarcoidosis and pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP), "idiopathic" diseases in which inorganic particles may be involved. We propose renewed study of the role of inorganic particles in these diseases. To do this, we propose to mobilize detection means such as mineralogical analysis and electron microscopy and in depth interviewing that are currently seldom used in France, in order to establish diagnosis and the potential occupational and environmental origin of these diseases. Am. J. Ind. Med. 58:S31-S38, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26509752

  18. The Pap smear screening as an occasion for smoking cessation and physical activity counselling: baseline characteristics of women involved in the SPRINT randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chellini Elisabetta

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gender-specific smoking cessation strategies have rarely been developed. Evidence of effectiveness of physical activity (PA promotion and intervention in adjunct to smoking cessation programs is not strong. SPRINT study is a randomized controlled trial (RCT designed to evaluate a counselling intervention on smoking cessation and PA delivered to women attending the Italian National Health System Cervical Cancer Screening Program. This paper presents study design and baseline characteristics of the study population. Methods/Design Among women undergoing the Pap examination in three study centres (Florence, Turin, Mantua, participants were randomized to the smoking cessation counselling [S], the smoking cessation + PA counselling [S + PA], or the control [C] groups. The program under evaluation is a standard brief counselling on smoking cessation combined with a brief counselling on increasing PA, and was delivered in 2010. A questionnaire, administered before, after 6 months and 1 year from the intervention, was used to track behavioural changes in tobacco use and PA, and to record cessation rates in participants. Discussion Out of the 5,657 women undergoing the Pap examination, 1,100 participants (55% of smokers were randomized in 1 of the 3 study groups (363 in the S, 366 in the S + PA and 371 in the C groups. The three arms did not differ on any demographic, PA, or tobacco-use characteristics. Recruited smokers were older, less educated than non-participant women, more motivated to quit (33% vs.9% in the Preparation stage, p p p Trial registration number ISRCTN: ISRCTN52660565

  19. Algunos factores biológicos asociados con la aparición de citologías alteradas Some biological factors associated with the appearance of altered Pap smears

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René Mustelier Despaigne

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio observacional, de tipo caso-control, basado en 54 mujeres con estudios citológicos alterados (casos y 108 supuestamente sanas con citologías normales (controles, para identificar algunos factores biológicos asociados con la aparición del fenómeno durante 1994 en el área de salud "Frank País García" de Santiago de Cuba. En el análisis estadístico se determinó la razón de productos cruzados, el intervalo de confianza, el nivel de asociación y el riesgo atribuible en expuesto porcentual, para determinar aquellos factores que al incidir sobre ellos garantizaran una mayor influencia positiva en la población expuesta, estos fueron: tener antecedentes personales de afecciones benignas de cuello uterino, manipulaciones e infecciones por oncovirus, así como antecedentes patológicos familiares de cáncer cervical; razones que justifican dar a conocer estos datos a los médicos y enfermeras del área, con vistas a trazar estrategias de trabajo encaminadas a actuar tempranamente sobre la población con riesgo.A limited controlled observational trial based on 54 women with altered Pap smears (cases and 108 apparently sound women with normal Pap smears (controls was conducted aimed at identifying some biological factors associated with the appearance of this phenomenon during 1994 at the "Frank País García" health area, in Santiago de Cuba. The ratio of crossed products, the confidence interval, the level of association, and the attributable risk in percent exposé were determinated by statistical analysis to identify those factors that on inciding on them guarantee a higher positive influence on the exposed population. The following factors were found: personal history of benign affections of the cervix uteri, manipulations and infections caused by oncovirus, and pathological family history of cervix uteri cancer. It is important for physicians and nurses to know these data in order to lay down working strategies that allow the early treatment of the population at risk.

  20. Static Longitudinal and Lateral Stability and Control Data Obtained from Tests of a 1/15-Scale Model of the Goodyear XZP5K Airship, TED No. NACA DE 211

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, Michael D.

    1956-01-01

    Static longitudinal and lateral stability and control data are presented of an investigation on a l/15-scale model of the Goodyear XZP5K airship over a pitch and yaw range of +/-20 deg and 0 deg to 30 deg, respectively, for various rudder and elevator deflections. Two tail configurations of different plan forms were tested and wake and boundary-layer surveys were conducted. Testing was conducted in the Langley full-scale tunnel at a Reynolds number of approximately 16.5 x 10(exp 6) based on hull length, and corresponds to a Mach number of about 0.12.

  1. Advantages obtained in radiation protection when using computerized radiography tests - CR (digital) in processing plants; Vantagens obtidas em radioprotecao quando do uso do ensaio de radiografia computadorizada - RC (digital) em plantas de processo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jose, Joao Carlos Videira; Milani, Hilton Sergio B.; Paes, Eliseu Almir de Oliveira; Boita, Mario de [ARCtest Servicos Tecnicos de Inspecao e Manutencao Industrial Ltda., Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: tecnica@arctest.com.br; Souza, Laercio de; Serra, Flavio Augusto dos Santos [PETROBRAS, Paulinia, SP, RJ (Brazil). Refinaria do Planalto Paulista (REPLAN)]. E-mails: laerciosouza@petrobras.com.br; serra@petrobras.com.br

    2002-07-01

    During the year 2000, the ARCtest initiated the development of the research for adapting the Computerized Radiography - CR, originally conceived for medical applications, for the Industry, trying initially to attend the requirements of the processing plants, concerning to the detection of deterioration mechanisms (evaluation of the piping integrity). Due to the obtained excellent results, the possibility of utilization the Computerized Radiography - CR in the radiographic inspection were studied during the shutdown of the Catalytic Cracking Unit of the PETROBRAS-REPLAN, specifically in the replacement of the CO boiler superheater, where a large number of the small diameter welded joints have been predicted.

  2. HPV DNA testing improves CIN2+ risk stratification and detection of CIN2+ in delayed triage of ASCUS and LSIL. A population-based follow-up study from Western Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Budal, Elisabeth B; Haugland, Hans K; Skar, Robert; Mæhle, Bjørn O.; Bjørge, Tone; Vintermyr, Olav K.

    2013-01-01

    In Norway, Pap smears with atypical squamous cells of uncertain significance (ASCUS) and low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL) are triaged after 6?months. The aim of the study was to evaluate effects of implementing human papillomavirus (HPV) test (2005) in delayed triage of ASCUS and LSIL in a cohort of women from Western Norway. After a survey of 119,469 cervical Pap smears during 2005–2007, a total of 1055 women with an index ASCUS or LSIL were included in the study and followe...

  3. Obtención y evaluación de películas de materiales con aplicaciones electrónicas mediante pruebas aceleradas de corrosión / Obtaining and evaluation of material films with electronic applications by means of accelerated tests of corrosion

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Diana Milena, Marín; Maryory Astrid, Gómez Botero; Rodolfo, Mira; Félix, Echeverría.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de la investigación fue evaluar el comportamiento frente a la corrosión de diferentes materiales utilizados en la electrónica. Se depositaron películas delgadas de Al, Cu, Ni y una bicapa Cu/Au sobre sustratos de mica, mediante evaporación física en fase vapor. Los recubrimientos se some [...] tieron a ensayos acelerados de corrosión en cámara climática, bajo atmósferas de NOx y SO2. Las películas se evaluaron conectadas en circuito y de forma individual. El tiempo total de exposición fue de 9 semanas. Se realizaron medidas de rugosidad y resistencia de los recubrimientos a las diferentes semanas de exposición y se estudiaron por microscopía óptica, STM, SEM y EDS. La bicapa Cu/Au presentó mayor estabilidad respecto al Cu en las pruebas aceleradas de corrosión. Mediante los análisis EDS se encontró la presencia de elementos precursores del proceso corrosivo. Abstract in english The air of this study was to evaluate the corrosion behaviour of different materials employed in electronics. Thin films of Al, Cu, Ni an bilayer of Cu/Au were deposited by PVD on mica substrates. The coatings were exposed at accelerated corrosion test in chamber, using atmospheres containing NOx an [...] d SO2. The films were tested both connected and as individual parts. The total exposure time was weeks. Roughness and electrical resistance of the coatings across the exposure time and they were studied by optical microscopy, STM, SEM and EDS. The bilayer Cu/AU shows more stability compared with Cu according to the accelerated corrosion test. EDS analysis identified the presence of the corrosive aggressive species.

  4. Coefficient of variation of normal seedlings obtained from the validation of methods for the seed germination testing of 20 species belonging to the family Fabaceae / Coeficientes de variação de plântulas normais obtidas na validação de métodos para teste de germinação de sementes de 20 espécies florestais da família Fabaceae

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Vanderley José, Pereira; Denise Garcia, Santana.

    Full Text Available A uniformização dos resultados inter laboratoriais de testes de germinação de sementes de espécies florestais exige que os métodos sejam robustos. Assim, o objetivo foi comparar e discutir, por meio do coeficiente de variação obtido para plântulas normais, as variabilidades presentes no processo de [...] validação de métodos obtidas no teste de germinação de sementes de 20 espécies da família Fabaceae. Coeficientes de variação para o experimento, por lote e por laboratório para a variável plântulas normais foram calculados. Os coeficientes de variação obtidos para plântulas normais de 20 espécies florestais nativas, são de baixos (até 9,84%) a médios (até 17,66%), contrariando o esperado pela grande variabilidade genética dessas espécies pouco melhoradas. O aumento do coeficiente de variação não está relacionado ao tratamento utilizado para superação de dormência, porém cresce à medida que a qualidade do lote decresce. Os altos coeficientes obtidos por laboratório, superestimados pelo efeito de lotes, são uniformes indicando que os métodos são reproduzíveis. O coeficiente de variação não é um indício capaz de predizer a heterogeneidade das variâncias do modelo. Como a distribuição normal modela eventos aleatórios, a aleatoriedade está presente no processo de validação de métodos das 20 espécies florestais da família Fabaceae. Abstract in english The standardization of inter-laboratory results of germination test of forest species seeds requires that the methods be robust. Therefore, the objective was to compare and discuss, through the coefficient of variation for normal seedlings, the variabilities present in the process of validation meth [...] ods obtained in the germination test for seeds of 20 species of the family Fabaceae. Coefficients of variation for the experiment by lot and by laboratory were calculated for normal seedlings from the statistical analysis of method validations. For normal seedlings of 20 Brazilian forest species, the coefficients of variation are low (up to 9.84%), to average (up to 17.66%), contrary to expectations due to high genetic variability in these barely improved species. The increase of the coefficient is not related to treatment for breaking dormancy, but it grows as the lot quality decreases. The high coefficients by laboratory, overestimated by the lot effect, are uniform indicating that the methods are repeatable. The coefficient is not an indicator capable of predicting the heterogeneity of model variance. As normal distribution models random events, randomness is present in the validation process of the 20 forest species of the Fabaceae family.

  5. Field project to obtain pressure core, wireline log, and production test data for evaluation of CO/sub 2/ flooding potential. Conoco MCA unit well No. 358, Maljamar Field, Lea County, New Mexico. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swift, T.E.; Kumar, R.M.; Marlow, R.E.; Wilhelm, M.H.

    1982-08-01

    Field operations, which were conducted as a cooperative effort between Conoco and Gruy Federal, began on January 16, 1980 when the well was spudded. The well was drilled to 3692 feet, and 18 cores recovered in 18 core-barrel runs (144 feet). Upon completion of the coring phase, the hole was drilled to a total depth of 4150 feet and a complete suite of geophysical logs was run. Logging was then followed by completion and testing by Concoco. Core porosities agreed well with computed log porosities. Core water saturation and computed log porosities agree fairly well from 3692 to 3712 feet, poorly from 3712 to 3820 feet and in a general way from 4035 to 4107 feet. Computer log analysis techniques did not improve the agreement of log versus core derived water saturations. However, both core and log analysis indicated the ninth zone had the highest residual hydrocarbon saturations. Residual oil saturation were 259 STB/acre-ft for the 4035 - 4055 feet interval, and 150 STB/acre-ft for the 3692 - 3718 feet interval. Nine BOPD was produced from the 4035 - 4055 feet interval and no oil was produced from 3692 to 3718 feet interval, qualitatively confirming the relative oil saturations. The low oil production in the zone from 4022 to 4055 and the lack of production from 3692 to 3718 feet indicated the zone to be at or near residual waterflood conditions as determined by log analysis. 68 figures, 11 tables.

  6. Oxidation State Analysis of a Four-Component Redox Series [Os(pap)2(Q)]n Involving Two Different Non-Innocent Ligands on a Redox-Active Transition Metal.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Das, D.; Sarkar, B.; Mondal, T. K.; Mobin, S. M.; Fiedler, Jan; Kaim, W.; Lahiri, G. K.

    2011-01-01

    Ro?. 50, ?. 15 (2011), s. 7090-7098. ISSN 0020-1669 R&D Projects: GA ?R GA203/09/0705; GA MŠk LD11086 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : oxidation state analysis * [Os(pap)2(Q)]n * redox-active transition metal Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 4.601, year: 2011

  7. Uso del Papanicolaou en mujeres que acuden al programa de detección oportuna de cáncer cérvico-uterino: un acercamiento a la satisfacción con el servicio / Use of Pap in women attending early detection of cervical cancer: an approach to meeting the service

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Jesús, Vega Chávez; Sandra Olimpia, Gutiérrez Enríquez; Yolanda, Terán Figueroa.

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: describir la satisfacción de las usuarias con el servicio de detección oportuna de cáncer cérvico-uterino a través del análisis de indicadores y características socio-demográficas. Metodología: estudio descriptivo. Participan 101 mujeres que se someten al Papanicolaou entre junio y julio d [...] e 2007 en 13 centros de salud urbanos de la Jurisdicción 1 de la Secretaría de Salud de San Luis Potosí, México. Se aplica una encuesta con tres apartados: características socio-demográficas, indicadores del uso del servicio y nivel de satisfacción. Resultados: la edad promedio de las mujeres es de 36 años, 42.6% tienen secundaria, 80.2% son casadas y 54.5% están afiliadas al Seguro Popular. Sus conocimientos acerca de la prueba del Papanicolaou y el cáncer son adecuados (51.5% y 76.2%, respectivamente), mientras que la accesibilidad a la prueba de tamizaje es adecuada en un 67.3%; las mujeres que más se presentan a la prueba por primera vez son las de 18 a 30 años y las casadas; asisten en menor proporción las de 51 a 61 años. El nivel de satisfacción es alto respecto al tiempo de espera, 66.3%; consideran la información completa, veraz, oportuna y comprensible 78.2%, y encuentran adecuado el trato 87.1%, Conclusiones: las usuarias están satisfechas con el servicio. En este estudio no se encuentra asociación entre la utilización de la prueba del Papanicolaou y la satisfacción de las usuarias; sin embargo, hay asociación entre la primera cita y la edad para realizarse el tamizaje y entre el estado civil y la edad de la primera cita al Papanicolaou. Abstract in english Objetive: to describe the satisfaction of service users with the timely detection of cervical cancer through the analysis of indicators and socio-demographic characteristics. Methodology: descriptive study. 101 women participate; they have PAP test in July 2007 in 13 urban health centers from San Lu [...] is Potosi Health Department Jurisdiction 1. Socio-demographic characteristics and use of service indicators are measured, including also satisfaction level. Results: the average age is 36 years old. Maximum level of education is ninth grade (42.6%) and 54.5% of the participants have Popular Insurance; 80.2% are married; the women that more attend for the first time are the youngest (18-31 years), and the married ones; and the ones that attend less are those between 51 and 61 years old. Those that are more willing for the first time are the married ones; and the ones with less attendance are the divorced, separated and widows. General knowledge about PAP test and uterine cervix cancer is adequate in 51.5% and 76.2%, respectively, whereas the accessibility is adequate in 67.3%. Satisfaction level was high on waiting time (66.3%); with complete, truthful, opportune, and understandable information (78.2%), as well as an appropriate treatment from health personal (87.1%) and accessibility (80.2%). Conclusions: the users are satisfied with the service. In this article we find that Papanicolaou test is not associated with women satisfaction. Age and marital status are associated to the appointment for the PAP.

  8. The Pap Test and Bethesda 2014: "The reports of my demise have been greatly exaggerated. (after a quotation from Mark Twain)".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayar, Ritu; Wilbur, David C

    2015-07-01

    The Bethesda System for gynecologic cytopathology has standardized reporting terminology over the past quarter of a century. In doing so, it has allowed for improved communication among practitioners around the world, facilitated large research projects and clinical trials, and has provided the basis from which uniformly accepted risk-based management strategies have been developed. Over time, changes in terminology and the underlying science require revisions, and the third edition of the Bethesda "Atlas" is the result of a yearlong effort to provide such an update. New material was developed and proposed via an Internet bulletin board, allowing for wide commentary that was compiled and incorporated. New images were collected, which comprised many new examples of equivocal presentations and mimics. New background material on the scientific basis supporting the terminology categories, the most current management algorithms, and comprehensive references were included. The effort completely refurbishes this standard reference that forms an inexpensive and, therefore, widely available resource for the world's cytology community. PMID:25943863

  9. Cobertura do exame citopatológico na cidade de Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil Pap test coverage in the city of Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Juvenal Soares Dias-da-Costa; Maria Teresa Anselmo Olinto; Denise Petrucci Gigante; Ana Maria Baptista Menezes; Silvia Macedo; Andresa Thier de Borba; Gledis Lisiane Silveira da Motta; Sandra Costa Fuchs

    2003-01-01

    No Brasil, a avaliação da efetividade de programas de prevenção e ações de saúde pública ainda são incipientes. Dessa forma, realizou-se um estudo transversal de base populacional envolvendo a saúde da população adulta residente na zona urbana da cidade de Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil, com o objetivo de verificar a evolução nos níveis de cobertura do exame citopatológico. Investigaram-se fatores associados com a não realização do procedimento. Considerou-se exame citopatológico atualiza...

  10. Cada cuánto me tengo que hacer la prueba de Papanicoláu (How Often to Get a Pap Test)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-01-10

    El cáncer de cuello uterino ha disminuido en los Estados Unidos, pero cada año se le diagnostica a más de 12,000 mujeres y 4,000 mueren. Este podcast habla sobre la importancia de las pruebas de Papanicoláu.  Created: 1/10/2013 by MMWR.   Date Released: 11/4/2013.

  11. Comparison of Exfoliative Pap Stain and AgNOR Counts of the Tongue in Smokers and Nonsmokers

    OpenAIRE

    Fontes, Patrícia Campos; Corrêa, Gustavo Henrique Marques; Issa, Jaqueline Scholz; Adriana Aigotti Haberbeck BRANDÃO; ALMEIDA, JANETE DIAS

    2008-01-01

    Objective To compare exfoliative cytology from the oral mucosa of smokers and nonsmokers, with emphasis on proliferative activity. Methods Exfoliative cytology specimens were obtained from clinical normal mucosa from the lateral border of the tongue in 30 nonsmokers and 30 smokers ranging in age from 40 to 70 years of age, who were seen at the Heart Institute’s Patient Center and the Smoking Cessation Program of the University Hospital, University of São Paulo Medical School (InCor-HCFMUSP). ...

  12. Patterns of epithelial cell abnormalities in Pap smears and its clinicopathological and demographic association: a descriptive study from Visakhapatnam city, Andhra Pradesh, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bhagya Lakshmi

    2014-02-01

    Results: Among the 194 women, in 8 subjects, the smears collected were unsatisfactory for evaluation. Analysis was done in the remaining 186 subjects. Among the latter, in 83.9%, the smears were negative for intraepithelial lesions (NIEL and 16.1% revealed epithelial cell abnormalities (ECA. Among those with ECA, Atypical cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS was identified in 66.67%, Low grade squamous intraepithelial lesions(LSIL in 16.67%, Atypical squamous cells-cannot exclude HSIL (ASC-H and Atypical glandular cells-not otherwise specified (AGC-NOS in 6.67% each and High grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL in 3.33%. Epithelial cell abnormalities were more common in women in the age group of 30-60 years (80%, they were more common in those with age at marriage between 13-18 years (63.3% and in those with age at first child birth between 15-19 years (56.7%. Conclusions: Therefore there is a need for Pap screening at regular intervals through camp based approach in these populations to motivate the women, increase their awareness, ensure follow up and referral and timely intervention in appropriate cases. [Int J Res Med Sci 2014; 2(1.000: 300-305

  13. Organoclays obtaining starting up of clays sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clays have several applications in many areas of fields of technology, however, modification of these materials using organic compounds can be performed to obtain further hydrophobic materials, for applications in the adsorption of organic pollutants. This study aimed to analyze the effects of modifying two clays using sodium quaternary ammonium surfactants through ion exchange reaction process, in obtaining organoclays. The samples with sodium and organoclays were characterized by the techniques of X-ray diffraction (XRD), Infrared Spectroscopy in the region (IV), Gravimetric and Differential Thermal Analysis (DTA / TG) and organic adsorption tests. The results show that the process of obtaining organoclay is efficient, and materials have the potential for future applications in removing organic contaminants. (author)

  14. Employment Obtaining and Business Starting

    OpenAIRE

    Jian Lan

    2009-01-01

    The implementation of business starting education in higher vocational colleges is of important and realistic meanings for cultivating advanced technology application-type talents and for releasing the employment obtaining pressure of higher vocational students. Based on the analysis on the employment situation of higher vocational graduates, this paper explores the thoughts and methods for higher vocational colleges to implement business starting education.

  15. Employment Obtaining and Business Starting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Jian

    2009-01-01

    The implementation of business starting education in higher vocational colleges is of important and realistic meanings for cultivating advanced technology application-type talents and for releasing the employment obtaining pressure of higher vocational students. Based on the analysis on the employment situation of higher vocational graduates, this…

  16. Drugs obtained by biotechnology processing

    OpenAIRE

    Hugo Almeida; Maria Helena Amaral; Paulo Lobão

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, the number of drugs of biotechnological origin available for many different diseases has increased exponentially, including different types of cancer, diabetes mellitus, infectious diseases (e.g. AIDS Virus / HIV) as well as cardiovascular, neurological, respiratory, and autoimmune diseases, among others. The pharmaceutical industry has used different technologies to obtain new and promising active ingredients, as exemplified by the fermentation technique, recombinant DNA tec...

  17. Moessbauer Characterization of Rust Obtained in an Accelerated Corrosion Test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have performed drying-humectation cyclical processes (CEBELCOR) on eight A36 low carbon steel coupons in NaCl solutions containing 1x10-2 M and 1x10-1 M concentrations. The main purpose of these experiments is to contribute to the understanding of the conditions for akaganeite formation. Additionally, and with the idea to perform a complete characterization of the rust, this work also considers the formation of other iron oxide phases. The corrosion products were characterized by Moessbauer spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction techniques. Gravimetric analysis demonstrates that the coupons presented high corrosion rates. Magnetite/maghemite was common in the rust stuck to the steel surface, whereas akaganeite was present only in traces. In the rust collected from the solutions, i.e., the rust that goes away from the metal surface easily, a magnetite/maghemite was not present and akaganeite showed up in larger quantities. These results support the idea that high concentrations of Cl- ions are required for the akaganeite formation. We concluded that akaganeite is not easily bonded to the rust layer; this may lead to the formation of a less protective rust layer and to higher corrosion rates.

  18. Viscoelastic properties of denture base resins obtained by underwater test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiromori, K; Fujii, K; Inoue, K

    2000-06-01

    The viscoelastic properties of denture base polymers, such as poly(methylmethacrylate) (PMMA), polycarbonate (PC), polysulfone (PSF) and polyethersulfone (PES) which have been used in current clinical dentistry were investigated. In addition, water absorption, diffusion coefficient of water into material, cubical expansion, specific volume and residual monomer were also determined. From the results of this study, the viscoelastic behaviours of the denture base polymers in water have been discussed. The relaxation modulus (Er(5)) which was calculated using a stress at 5 s from the start of measurement for the specimen which reached an equilibrium moisture content (wet specimen), decreased from 23.1 to 25.5% compared with that of PMMA stored in a desiccator (37 degrees C) for 1 week (dry specimen). In contrast, this decreasing ratio was 7.0 to 10.0% for PC, PSF and PES. It is suggested that this phenomenon is caused by the increase of specific volume (cm3/g) with water absorption in each material. The water absorption of the PMMA group was relatively large in comparison with other material and was 1.81-1.85%. This value was within the range from 0.38 to 1.74% for PC, PSF and PES. The diffusion coefficients of water for PC, PSF and PES increased by approximately 1.5-2.7 times that of PMMA. Furthermore, the coefficient of cubical expansion of the wet specimen was larger than that of the dry specimen. The increasing ratio was 1.03-1.10 times for the PMMA group and 1. 18-2.38 times for PC, PSF and PES. The variation of Er(5) of the PMMA group with temperature in water was larger than those of PC, PSF and PES. PMID:10888280

  19. Antimicrobial coatings — obtaining and characterization

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Cornelia Guran; Alexandra Pica; Denisa Ficai; Anton Ficai; Cezar Comanescu

    2013-04-01

    In this paper, we present inorganic–organic hybrid coatings with polymer matrix (water soluble) that contain silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). The structure and morphology of coating materials were determined by infrared spectroscopy (FT–IR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Therefore, the antimicrobial activities and mechanisms of coatings for several pathogenic bacteria (Bacilius cereus and Staphylococcus aureus) were investigated. It was demonstrated that the obtained material with silver nanoparticles keep their antimicrobial effect even if they are subjected to several cycles of washing with water and detergent.

  20. Obtaining the acyclovir labelled compound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elemental tritium is obtained during the decontamination process of the moderator from Cernavoda Nuclear Power Plant. It may be stocked for use in controlled fusion, in a relatively far future, or, it can be immediately used as raw material in the synthesis of labelled compounds with important economic values. Acyclovir, C8H11N5O3 is a biologically active compound, with antiviral properties. The use of the radioisotopic labelled compound, accompanied by radiometric measurements in biological samples is recommended in pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic studies for promoting pharmaceutical products. The labelled Acyclovir was obtained by isotopic exchange reaction in heterogenous catalysis, using Acyclovir as substrate and T2 as labelling agent. Pd/C and Pd/BaSO4 were used as catalyst and the mixtures dioxane-water-acetic acid or dimethylformamide-phosphate buffer as solvents. Reaction time was 20-25 hours. The labelled compound was conditioned as aqueous solution. Characterization of labelled compound was accomplished by determination of chemical and radioactive concentrations and purities. (authors)

  1. The Insecticides Obtained from Turpentine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Pestana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Over a period of millions of years there has been a close association, evolution and adaptation between plants and insects. The plants have developed terpenes and their derivatives for their own protection and pollination. The insects interact with these substances, ingesting and using them or their biosynthesized derivatives for their own bio-regulation. They have used them as sex hormones, growth and development hormones and pheromones of behaviour such as feeding, aggregation, alarm, and defence. It is also known that turpentine (the volatile fraction of the pine resin, obtained by its distillation and some of its derivatives have in their constitution substances known as insecticides. This article reviews the most important products - the thiocyanates, the chlorinated terpenes, the chrysanthemum-carboxylic acids, the terpenes and derivatives and the terpene polymers - discussing their main characteristics, chemical synthesis, advantages and disadvantages.

  2. Point-Counterpoint: Cervical Cancer Screening Should Be Done by Primary Human Papillomavirus Testing with Genotyping and Reflex Cytology for Women over the Age of 25 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoler, Mark H; Austin, R Marshall; Zhao, Chengquan

    2015-09-01

    Screening for cervical cancer with cytology testing has been very effective in reducing cervical cancer in the United States. For decades, the approach was an annual Pap test. In 2000, the Hybrid Capture 2 human papillomavirus (HPV) test was approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for screening women who have atypical squamous cells of underdetermined significance (ASCUS) detected by Pap test to determine the need for colposcopy. In 2003, the FDA approved expanding the use of the test to include screening performed in conjunction with a Pap test for women over the age of 30 years, referred to as "cotesting." Cotesting allows women to extend the testing interval to 3 years if both tests have negative results. In April of 2014, the FDA approved the use of an HPV test (the cobas HPV test) for primary cervical cancer screening for women over the age of 25 years, without the need for a concomitant Pap test. The approval recommended either colposcopy or a Pap test for patients with specific high-risk HPV types detected by the HPV test. This was based on the results of the ATHENA trial, which included more than 40,000 women. Reaction to this decision has been mixed. Supporters point to the fact that the primary-screening algorithm found more disease (cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 3 or worse [CIN3+]) and also found it earlier than did cytology or cotesting. Moreover, the positive predictive value and positive-likelihood ratio of the primary-screening algorithm were higher than those of cytology. Opponents of the decision prefer cotesting, as this approach detects more disease than the HPV test alone. In addition, the performance of this new algorithm has not been assessed in routine clinical use. Professional organizations will need to develop guidelines that incorporate this testing algorithm. In this Point-Counterpoint, Dr. Stoler explains why he favors the primary-screening algorithm, while Drs. Austin and Zhao explain why they prefer the cotesting approach to screening for cervical cancer. PMID:25948606

  3. Drugs obtained by biotechnology processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Almeida

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the number of drugs of biotechnological origin available for many different diseases has increased exponentially, including different types of cancer, diabetes mellitus, infectious diseases (e.g. AIDS Virus / HIV as well as cardiovascular, neurological, respiratory, and autoimmune diseases, among others. The pharmaceutical industry has used different technologies to obtain new and promising active ingredients, as exemplified by the fermentation technique, recombinant DNA technique and the hybridoma technique. The expiry of the patents of the first drugs of biotechnological origin and the consequent emergence of biosimilar products, have posed various questions to health authorities worldwide regarding the definition, framework, and requirements for authorization to market such products.Nos últimos anos, tem aumentado exponencialmente o número de fármacos de origem biotecnológica ao dispor das mais diversas patologias, entre elas destacam-se, os diferentes tipos de cancêr, as doenças infecciosas (ex. vírus AIDS/HIV, as doenças autoimunes, as doenças cardiovasculares, a Diabetes Mellitus, as doenças neurológicas, as doenças respiratórias, entre outras. A indústria farmacêutica tem recorrido a diferentes tecnologias para a obtenção de novos e promissores princípios ativos, como são exemplo a fermentação, a técnica de DNA Recombinante, a técnica de hidridoma, entre outras. A queda das patentes dos primeiros fármacos de origem biotecnológica e o consequente aparecimento dos produtos biossimilares têm colocado diferentes questões às autoridades de saúde mundiais, sobre a definição, enquadramento e exigências para a autorização de entrada no mercado deste tipo de produtos.

  4. Drugs obtained by biotechnology processing

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Hugo, Almeida; Maria Helena, Amaral; Paulo, Lobão.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Nos últimos anos, tem aumentado exponencialmente o número de fármacos de origem biotecnológica ao dispor das mais diversas patologias, entre elas destacam-se, os diferentes tipos de cancêr, as doenças infecciosas (ex. vírus AIDS/HIV), as doenças autoimunes, as doenças cardiovasculares, a Diabetes Me [...] llitus, as doenças neurológicas, as doenças respiratórias, entre outras. A indústria farmacêutica tem recorrido a diferentes tecnologias para a obtenção de novos e promissores princípios ativos, como são exemplo a fermentação, a técnica de DNA Recombinante, a técnica de hidridoma, entre outras. A queda das patentes dos primeiros fármacos de origem biotecnológica e o consequente aparecimento dos produtos biossimilares têm colocado diferentes questões às autoridades de saúde mundiais, sobre a definição, enquadramento e exigências para a autorização de entrada no mercado deste tipo de produtos. Abstract in english In recent years, the number of drugs of biotechnological origin available for many different diseases has increased exponentially, including different types of cancer, diabetes mellitus, infectious diseases (e.g. AIDS Virus / HIV) as well as cardiovascular, neurological, respiratory, and autoimmune [...] diseases, among others. The pharmaceutical industry has used different technologies to obtain new and promising active ingredients, as exemplified by the fermentation technique, recombinant DNA technique and the hybridoma technique. The expiry of the patents of the first drugs of biotechnological origin and the consequent emergence of biosimilar products, have posed various questions to health authorities worldwide regarding the definition, framework, and requirements for authorization to market such products.

  5. Validez del curetaje endocervical en la detección de lesiones no sospechadas durante el estudio colposcópico de pacientes con citología anormal escamosa Efficacy of endocervical curettage in colposcopic assessment of patients having abnormal squamous pap smear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio González-Mazuelo

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: el uso del curetaje endocervical (CEC durante la colposcopia está actualmente en medio de una importante controversia: se duda de su utilidad diagnóstica en las pacientes con sospecha de anormalidad escamosa en la citología cervicovaginal y el enfoque clásico del problema, compara el resultado del mismo contra el estudio histológico del cuello, utilizado por diversos autores, no ha ayudado a resolver el dilema. La presente investigación da un nuevo enfoque al incluir en el análisis la biopsia dirigida y orientado a la búsqueda de lesiones no sospechadas por el examinador, a fin de mejorar la seguridad del diagnóstico colposcópico. Metodología: se tomaron los datos de 306 mujeres con citología anormal escamosa y CEC durante el estudio colposcópico, el cual se comparó con el resultado histopatológico de la totalidad del cuello uterino en la búsqueda de lesiones no sospechadas en la biopsia dirigida y analizadas respecto a la satisfacción o no de la colposcopia y el resultado de la citología. Resultados: en general se encontraron valores de sensibilidad bajos, mientras que el valor predictivo negativo y la especificidad fueron altos. Conclusión: el CEC realizado bajo indicaciones precisas, de acuerdo al tipo de colposcopia y anormalidad citológica, es de utilidad y mejora la seguridad del diagnóstico coloscópico.Objective: using endocervical curettage during colposcopy is currently being questioned; its usefulness as a diagnostic tool in patients having suspected squamous changes in pap smear is controversial. The classical approach to this problem adopted by many authors has yielded little help; it consists of matching histological results from the cervix with the problem itself. The current research provides a new approach by including biopsy orientated towards searching for lesions which were not suspected during examination; this was aimed at trying to improve the safety of colposcopy when used as a diagnostic tool. Methodology: results from 306 women having abnormal pap smear and endocervical curettage during colposcopic evaluation were thus compared to histopathological results from cervical specimens in the search for non-suspicious lesions during guided biopsy and analysed according to colposcopy and pap smear results. Results: overall, sensitivity was low while specificity and negative predictive values were high. Conclusion: the outcomes led to the conclusion that endocervical curettage performed in line with strict indications, according to the type of colposcopy and pap smear abnormality, is of great help and improves the safety of colposcopic diagnosis.

  6. Use of AffiProbe HPV test kit for detection of human papillomavirus DNA in genital scrapes.

    OpenAIRE

    Ranki, M; Leinonen, A W; Jalava, T; Nieminen, P; Soares, V R; Paavonen, J; Kallio, A

    1990-01-01

    The presence of human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA in cervical and vaginal scrapes was analyzed by the AffiProbe HPV test kit (Orion Corp., Orion Pharmaceutica, Helsinki, Finland), which is a 1-day solution hybridization test for HPV type 6/11, 16, or 18. The AffiProbe test was compared with a commercially available dot blot test (ViraPap and ViraType tests; Life Technologies Inc., Gaithersburg, Md.). The study group consisted of 178 patients seen in a gynecological outpatient clinic. Altogether,...

  7. Determinantes sociales del abandono del diagnóstico y el tratamiento de mujeres con Papanicolaou anormal en Buenos Aires, Argentina / Social determinants of dropout from diagnosis and treatment by women with abnormal Pap smears in Buenos Aires, Argentina

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Melisa, Paolino; Rengaswamy, Sankaranarayanan; Silvina, Arrossi.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO:Determinar la magnitud y los motivos del abandono del proceso de diagnóstico y tratamiento de las mujeres con citología anormal, así como la relación entre las características socioeconómicas de las mujeres y dicho abandono. MÉTODOS: Estudio transversal-retrospectivo. Se realizó un análisis [...] de fuentes secundarias y entrevistas domiciliarias a mujeres con Papanicolaou (Pap) anormal atendidas en el sistema público municipal entre 2009 y 2011. RESULTADOS: El abandono confirmado en la población de estudio fue de 18,3%. Las mujeres con mayor probabilidad de abandono fueron las que vivían en hogares con presencia de niños menores de 5 años de edad (razón de probabilidades [RP]: 2,4; intervalo de confianza de 95% [IC95%]: 1,2-4,8) y las que vivían en hogares con hacinamiento (RP: 2,9; IC95%: 1,2-7,3). Las mujeres que realizaron el Pap inicial en un centro de atención primaria poseían 4,6 veces más probabilidad de abandono que las atendidas en el hospital (IC95%: 1,7-12,3). Los principales motivos de abandono reportados fueron problemas con la organización de los servicios de salud y la carga de trabajo doméstico. CONCLUSIONES: Las condiciones de vida de las mujeres, y la organización y calidad de los servicios de salud, inciden en el abandono del proceso de diagnóstico y tratamiento de las lesiones precancerosas. Es fundamental desarrollar estrategias que actúen sobre los determinantes sociales del abandono como un modo de asegurar la efectividad de los programas de tamizaje del cáncer cervicouterino. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: Determine the extent and reasons why women with abnormal Pap smears drop out from diagnosis and treatment, and the relationship between women's socioeconomic characteristics and dropping out. METHODS: Cross-sectional retrospective study. Analysis of secondary sources and household intervi [...] ews with women with abnormal Pap smears seen in the public municipal system from 2009 to 2011. RESULTS: Confirmed dropout in the study population was 18.3%. Women with the greatest probability of dropping out lived in homes where there were children under five (probability ratio [PR]: 2.4; 95% confidence interval [95%CI]: 1.2-4.8) and where there was overcrowding (PR: 2.9; 95%CI: 1.2-7.3). Women whose initial Pap smear was done in a primary care center had a 4.6 times greater probability of dropping out than those seen in a hospital (95%CI: 1.7-12.3). The main reasons reported for dropping out were problems with health services organization and domestic workload. CONCLUSIONS: Women's living conditions and the organization and quality of health services affect dropout from diagnosis and treatment of precancerous lesions. Strategies need to be developed that address social determinants of dropping out as a way to ensure effectiveness of cervical cancer screening programs.

  8. Electrolytic Hydrogen obtaining by a photovoltaic source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At present, the developed countries allocate large funds for the financing of some global programs for fundamental and applicative research for development of hydrogen non-conventional production technologies. One of these technologies is the photo-assisted electrolysis. This technology is adopted in the research, which results are presented in this paper. The experimental model includes as basic equipment 100 W photovoltaic source, electrolysis battery press filter type, control unit of the electric energy discharged, accumulator, hydrogen storage unit. Five types of material have been tested for the electrolysis cell diaphragm: asbestos; Netrom- unwoven material from fibers of polypropylene; ion changing composite membrane - polysulfone support with an active layer of sulfonated poly-sulfone (PSS/PSJ) and poly-sulfone support with an active layer of sulfonated poly-eter cetone (SPEEK/PSf); ion-exchange membrane made from sulfonated poly-eter cetone (SPEEK). The graphics and results from the test system are presented. The analysis of the experimental results lead to the establishment of the optimal configuration of battery and of the operational conditions of the assembly. The experimental results give the opportunity to obtain electrolytic hydrogen with a photovoltaic source, in an efficient system, and promote the Romanian research at a level of a demonstrative installation

  9. Hydrological processes obtained on the plot scale under four simulated rainfall tests during the cycle of different crop systems / Processos hidrológicos obtidos em escala de parcela sob quatro testes de chuva simulada, durante o ciclo de diferentes sistemas de cultivo do solo

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ildegardis, Bertol; Roger Robert, Ramos; Fabrício Tondello, Barbosa; Julio César, Ramos; Douglas Henrique, Bandeira; Mitsui Shinosaka, Tanaka.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available O sistema de cultivo influencia a interceptação de água pelas plantas, a armazenagem de água nas depressões do terreno, a infiltração de água no solo e o escoamento superficial. Este trabalho objetivou quantificar alguns processos hidrológicos em sistemas de cultivo do solo realizados em contorno no [...] declive, em 2009 e 2010, em um Cambissolo Húmico alumínico, cuja área foi mantida sem preparo prévio do solo, nos seguintes tratamentos: solteiros - milho, soja e feijão; e consorciados - milho e feijão. Os tratamentos foram submetidos a quatro testes de chuva simulada, em épocas distintas, com intensidade planejada de 64 mm h-1 e duração de 90 min. O primeiro teste foi aplicado 18 dias após a semeadura e, os demais, aos 39, 75 e 120 dias, após o primeiro. Os diferentes momentos de aplicação das chuvas e os diferentes estádios do ciclo das culturas influenciaram o teor de água no solo antecedente às chuvas, o tempo de início e o de pico da enxurrada e, com isso, os processos hidrológicos de superfície. A lâmina de enxurrada e a de água interceptada pela vegetação + infiltrada no solo + armazenada superficialmente no solo sofreram a influência dos sistemas de cultivo e das chuvas aplicadas nas diferentes épocas. O cultivo de milho foi o tratamento mais eficaz no controle do escoamento superficial, com uma razão de perda de água de 0,38, equivalente a 75 % da razão de perda de água apresentada pelo feijão (0,51), que foi o tratamento menos eficaz em relação aos demais sistemas de cultivo. A perda total de água na forma de enxurrada decresceu linearmente com o aumento do tempo de início da enxurrada, independentemente do tratamento, enquanto o teor de água no solo em base gravimétrica aumentou linearmente do início ao final da chuva. Abstract in english The cropping system influences the interception of water by plants, water storage in depressions on the soil surface, water infiltration into the soil and runoff. The aim of this study was to quantify some hydrological processes under no tillage cropping systems at the edge of a slope, in 2009 and 2 [...] 010, in a Humic Dystrudept soil, with the following treatments: corn, soybeans, and common beans alone; and intercropped corn and common bean. Treatments consisted of four simulated rainfall tests at different times, with a planned intensity of 64 mm h-1 and 90 min duration. The first test was applied 18 days after sowing, and the others at 39, 75 and 120 days after the first test. Different times of the simulated rainfall and stages of the crop cycle affected soil water content prior to the rain, and the time runoff began and its peak flow and, thus, the surface hydrological processes. The depth of the runoff and the depth of the water intercepted by the crop + soil infiltration + soil surface storage were affected by the crop systems and the rainfall applied at different times. The corn crop was the most effective treatment for controlling runoff, with a water loss ratio of 0.38, equivalent to 75 % of the water loss ratio exhibited by common bean (0.51), the least effective treatment in relation to the others. Total water loss by runoff decreased linearly with an increase in the time that runoff began, regardless of the treatment; however, soil water content on the gravimetric basis increased linearly from the beginning to the end of the rainfall.

  10. "Tem mulher, tem preventivo": sentidos das práticas preventivas do câncer do colo do útero entre mulheres de Salvador, Bahia, Brasil / "Where there's a woman, there's a Pap smear": the meanings assigned to cervical cancer prevention among women in Salvador, Bahia State, Brazil / "Hay mujer, hay Papanicolaou": sentidos de las prácticas preventivas del cáncer de cuello de útero entre mujeres de Salvador, Bahía, Brasil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ana María, Rico; Jorge Alberto Bernstein, Iriart.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi compreender os significados das práticas preventivas do câncer do colo do útero entre mulheres de bairros populares de Salvador, Bahia, Brasil. Trata-se de estudo qualitativo, baseado na análise de conteúdo de entrevistas semiestruturadas com 15 mulheres entre 24 e 68 a [...] nos. Os resultados evidenciam alta valorização do Papanicolaou, que é realizado como parte de exames de rotina, sem, no entanto, sustentar-se no conhecimento biomédico sobre as suas funções. Além da acessibilidade aos serviços de saúde e da qualidade destes, outros fatores interferem na forma como essas mulheres significam a prevenção do câncer do colo do útero. Valores morais associados à sexualidade e ao gênero interferem na percepção de risco, na adoção de práticas preventivas e na interpretação dos resultados da citologia cervical. A realização continuada do Papanicolaou faz parte da construção da feminilidade, que é associada com maturidade e responsabilidade pessoal pelo cuidado de si em um contexto de medicalização do corpo feminino. Abstract in spanish El objetivo de este trabajo fue comprender los significados de las prácticas preventivas del cáncer de cuello de útero entre mujeres de barrios populares de Salvador, Bahía, Brasil. Se trata de un estudio cualitativo, basado en el análisis de contenido de entrevistas semiestructuradas con 15 mujeres [...] entre 24 y 68 años. Los resultados evidencian una alta valorización del Papanicolaou, que es realizado como parte de exámenes de rutina sin estar basado, no obstante, en el conocimiento biomédico sobre sus funciones. Más allá de la accesibilidad y de la calidad de los servicios de salud, otros factores influyen en la forma en que estas mujeres consideran la prevención del cáncer de cuello de útero. Los valores morales asociados a la sexualidad y al género influyen en la percepción de riesgo, en la adopción de prácticas preventivas y en la interpretación de los resultados de la citología cervical. La realización continuada del Papanicolaou forma parte de la construcción de la feminidad, que está asociada con la madurez y la responsabilidad personal por el cuidado de uno mismo en un contexto de medicalización del cuerpo femenino. Abstract in english This study focuses on the meanings assigned to practices for cervical cancer prevention among women from low-income neighborhoods in Salvador, Bahia State, Brazil. This was a qualitative study based on content analysis of semi-structured interviews with 15 women 24 to 68 years of age. The results sh [...] owed high appreciation of the Pap smear test, performed as part of routine gynecological examination (but without the patient necessarily having biomedical knowledge of its role). Besides accessibility and quality of health services, other factors influence the way the women assign meaning to cervical cancer prevention. Moral values associated with sexuality and gender influence risk perception, adoption of preventive practices, and interpretation of cervical cytology results. The ongoing practice of the Pap smear test is part of the construction of femininity, which is associated with maturity and personal responsibility for self care in a context of medicalization of the female body.

  11. Helicobacter pylori Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... using a procedure called endoscopy. Tests include: Without Endoscopy Stool/fecal antigen test Detects the presence of ... confirmed using stool antigen or breath test. With Endoscopy: tissue biopsy sample obtained; good tests but less ...

  12. Human papillomavirus testing improves the accuracy of colposcopy in detection of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monsonego, J; Pintos, J; Semaille, C; Beumont, M; Dachez, R; Zerat, L; Bianchi, A; Franco, E

    2006-01-01

    To assess the performance of human papillomavirus (HPV) testing and colposcopy in detection of cervical pathology. A series of 389 women referred for colposcopy due to an abnormal Pap smear had cervical swabs analyzed for oncogenic (high-risk [HR]) HPV types using Hybrid Capture II (HC2) assay. Loop electrical excision procedure cone biopsy (88%) or colposcopic biopsy (11%) was used as the gold standard. Of the atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) smears, 48% were positive for HR HPV, as compared to 76.3% of low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL) smears. HR HPV was detected in 66.7% and 90% of patients with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) 1 and CIN2 (or higher), respectively. The sensitivity of the Pap smear using an ASCUS threshold in detecting high-grade CIN was 94.5% (95% confidence intervals (CI): 91-97%) and that of colposcopy 98.5% (95% CI: 95-99%). The respective specificities were 30% (95% CI: 17-28%) and 35.6% (CI: 29-42%). HC2 test had comparable sensitivity, 90% (95% CI: 85-93%), but higher specificity, 54.3% (95% CI: 47-61%). Combining HC2 test with Pap increased specificity, 66.7% and 41.3% for ASCUS and LSIL cutoff, respectively. The minor-abnormality threshold together with HC2 increased specificity of colposcopy with no changes in sensitivity. High viral load (>100 relative light unit/positive control) was associated with significant disease. HPV DNA testing improves the accuracy of colposcopy in the detection of high-grade CIN in women with ASCUS or LSIL smears. PMID:16681731

  13. Mechanisms of Obtaining Membership of Farmer Collectives

    OpenAIRE

    Debin HOU; Wang*, Hai

    2013-01-01

    This paper puts forward the corresponding solutions and suggestions through analyzing mechanisms of obtaining membership of farmer collectives in the normative sense, and aiming at the plight of obtaining farmer collective membership.

  14. Polyfluoroalkyl phosphate esters and perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids in target food samples and packaging--method development and screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebbink, Wouter A; Ullah, Shahid; Sandblom, Oskar; Berger, Urs

    2013-11-01

    Polyfluoroalkyl phosphate mono-, di-, and tri-esters (mono-, di-, and triPAPs) are used to water- and grease-proof food packaging materials, and these chemicals are known precursors to perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs). Existing analytical methods for PAPs lack sample clean-up steps in the sample preparation. In the present study, a method based on ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC/MS/MS) was developed and optimized for the analysis of mono-, di-, and triPAPs, including a clean-up step for the raw extracts. The method was applied to food samples and their PAP-containing packaging materials. The optimized UPLC/MS/MS method enabled the separation and identification of a total of 4 monoPAPs, 16 diPAPs, and 7 triPAPs in the technical mixture Zonyl®-RP. For sample clean-up, weak anion exchange solid phase extraction columns were tested. PAPs standard solutions spiked onto the columns were separated into a fraction containing neutral compounds (triPAPs) and a fraction with ionic compounds (mono- and diPAPs) with recoveries between 72-110%. Method limits of quantification for food samples were in the sub to low picogram per gram range. For quantitative analysis of PAPs, compound-specific labeled internal standards showed to be essential as sorption and matrix effects were observed. Mono-, di-, and/or triPAPs were detected in all food packaging materials obtained from the Swedish market. Up to nine diPAPs were detected in the food samples, with the 6:2/6:2 and 6:2/8:2 diPAPs as the dominant compounds. DiPAP concentrations in the food samples ranged from 0.9 to 36 pg/g, which was comparable to individual PFCA concentrations in the same samples. Consumption of food packed in PAP-containing materials could be an indirect source of human exposure to PFCAs. PMID:23494682

  15. Identification of pathogens and virulence profile of Rhodococcus equi and Escherichia coli strains obtained from sand of parks

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    M.C., Fernandes; S., Takai; D.S., Leite; J.P.A.N., Pinto; P.E., Brandão; V.A., Santarém; F.J.P., Listoni; A.V. Da, Silva; M.G., Ribeiro.

    Full Text Available The identification of pathogens of viral (Rotavirus, Coronavirus), parasitic (Toxocara spp.) and bacterial (Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp., Rhodococcus equi) origin shed in feces, and the virulence profile of R. equi and E. coli isolates were investigated in 200 samples of sand obtained from 40 p [...] arks, located in central region of state of Sao Paulo, Brazil, using different diagnostic methods. From 200 samples analyzed, 23 (11.5%) strains of R. equi were isolated. None of the R. equi isolates showed a virulent (vapA gene) or intermediately virulent (vapB gene) profiles. Sixty-three (31.5%) strains of E. coli were identified. The following genes encoding virulence factors were identified in E. coli: eae, bfp, saa, iucD, papGI, sfa and hly. Phylogenetic classification showed that 63 E. coli isolates belonged to groups B1 (52.4%), A (25.4%) and B2 (22.2%). No E. coli serotype O157:H7 was identified. Eggs of Toxocara sp. were found in three parks and genetic material of bovine Coronavirus was identified in one sample of one park. No Salmonella spp. and Rotavirus isolates were identified in the samples of sand. The presence of R. equi, Toxocara sp, bovine Coronavirus and virulent E. coli isolates in the environment of parks indicates that the sanitary conditions of the sand should be improved in order to reduce the risks of fecal transmission of pathogens of zoonotic potential to humans in these places.

  16. Atypical endometrial cells and atypical glandular cells favor endometrial origin in Papanicolaou cervicovaginal tests: Correlation with histologic follow-up and abnormal clinical presentations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Longwen Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The 2001 Bethesda system recommends further classifying atypical glandular cells (AGCs as either endocervical or endometrial origin. Numerous studies have investigated the clinical significance of AGC. In this study, we investigated the incidence of clinically significant lesions among women with liquid-based Papanicolaou cervicovaginal (Pap interpretations of atypical endometrial cells (AEMs or AGC favor endometrial origin (AGC-EM. More importantly, we correlated patients of AEM or AGC-EM with their clinical presentations to determine if AEM/AGC-EM combined with abnormal vaginal bleeding is associated with a higher incidence of significant endometrial pathology. All liquid-based Pap tests with an interpretation of AEM and AGC-EM from July, 2004 through June, 2009 were retrieved from the database. Women with an interpretation of atypical endocervical cells, AGC, favor endocervical origin or AGC, favor neoplastic were not included in the study. The most severe subsequent histologic diagnoses were recorded for each patient. During this 5-year period, we accessioned 332,470 Pap tests of which 169 (0.05% were interpreted as either AEM or AGC-EM. Of the 169 patients, 133 had histologic follow-up within the health care system. The patients ranged in age from 21 to 71 years old (mean 49.7. On follow-up histology, 27 (20.3% had neoplastic/preneoplastic uterine lesions. Among them, 20 patients were diagnosed with adenocarcinoma (18 endometrial, 1 endocervical, and 1 metastatic colorectal, 3 with atypical endometrial hyperplasia, and 4 with endometrial hyperplasia without atypia. All patients with significant endometrial pathology, except one, were over 40 years old, and 22 of 25 patients reported abnormal vaginal bleeding at the time of endometrial biopsy or curettage. This study represents a large series of women with liquid-based Pap test interpretations of AEM and AGC-EM with clinical follow-up. Significant preneoplastic or neoplastic endometrial lesions were identified in 20.3% of patients. Patients with Pap test interpretations of AEM or AGC-EM and the clinical presentation of abnormal vaginal bleeding should be followed closely.

  17. Method for obtaining solid micro -or nanoparticles

    OpenAIRE

    Ventosa Rull, Nora; Veciana Miró, Jaume; Cano Sarabia, Mary; Sala Vergés, Santiago

    2008-01-01

    [EN] The invention provides a novel method for obtaining solid micro -or nanoparticIes with a homogeneous structure. A method is provided for obtaining solid micro -or nanoparticIes with a homogeneous structure having a particIe size of less than 10 /lm where the processed solid compound has the natural, crystalline, amorphous, polymorphic and other features associated with the starting compound. In accordance with the invention a method which also makes it possible to obtain solid m...

  18. DEVELOPMENT OF TECHNOLOGY FOR OBTAINING MODIFIED LECITHIN ?????????? ?????????? ????????? ???????????????? ?????????

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belina N. N.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The necessity of developing the technology for production of modified lecithin has been presented in this article. Paramethes of obtaining lecithin with a high content of functional groups of the phospholipids has been shown. The basic directions of use of the obtained modified lecithin has been discussed

  19. Obtaining of polycrystalline silicon for semiconductor industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the project is to create pilot equipment and optimize the process of obtaining polycrystalline silicon on semi-industrial level. In the past several decades, the historical experience in the developing countries has shown that one of the most promising ways to improve the economy,of a country is to establish semiconductor industry. First of all, the results can help increase defense, national security and create industrial production. The silane method, which has been traditionally' used for obtaining technical and polycrystalline silicon, is to obtain and then to pyrolyzed mono-and poly silanes. Although the traditional methods of obtaining silicon hydrides have specific advantages, such as utilizing by-products, they also have clear shortcomings, i.e. either low output of the ultimate product ( through hydrolysis of Mg2Si) or high contents of by-products in it or high contents of dissolving vapors (through decomposing Mg2Si in non-water solutions)

  20. Treatment of biomass to obtain ethanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunson, Jr., James B. (Newark, DE); Elander, Richard T. (Evergreen, CO); Tucker, III, Melvin P. (Lakewood, CO); Hennessey, Susan Marie (Avondale, PA)

    2011-08-16

    Ethanol was produced using biocatalysts that are able to ferment sugars derived from treated biomass. Sugars were obtained by pretreating biomass under conditions of high solids and low ammonia concentration, followed by saccharification.

  1. Optimal Iron Oxides for Obtaining Hexaferrites

    OpenAIRE

    Dufour, J; Latorre, R; Negro, C.; López-Mateos, F.; Alcalá, E.; A Formoso

    1997-01-01

    Presently, the ferrites industry consumes large amount of iron oxides obtained by spray roasting of steel pickling liquors. The aim of this paper is to propose the synthesis of optimal iron oxides by oxyprecipitation of steel pickling liquors in order to obtain Ba-hexaferrite with high magnetic properties using the ceramic process. As a raw material, it was used sulphuric liquors with iron concentration of 43 g/l. The studied variables for the oxyprecipitation step were temperature, pH, stirr...

  2. HPV Testing Among Providers

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-10-15

    Dr. Walter Kinney, a gynecologic oncologist with The Permanente Medical Group in Sacramento, California, talks about Pap and human papillomavirus (HPV) cotesting in women aged 30 and over.  Created: 10/15/2009 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP), Division of Cancer Prevention and Control (DCPC).   Date Released: 6/9/2010.

  3. Obtain of uranium concentrates from fertil liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This research tried to encounter the form to remove uranium from the rock in the best way, for that it was used different process like leaching, extraction, concentration and precipitation. To leach the mineral was chosen basic leaching, using a mixture of carbonate-sodium bicarbonate, this method is more adequated for the basic nature of the mineral. In extraction was used specific uranium ionic interchanges, so was chosen a tertiary amine like Alamina 336. The concentration phase is intimately binding with the extraction by ionic interchange, for the capability of resine's extraction to obtain concentrated liquids. When the liquids were obtained with high concentration of uranium in the same time were purified and then were precipitated, for that we employed a precipitant agent like: Sodium hydroxide, Amonium hydroxide, Magnesium hydroxide, Hydrogen peroxide and phosphates. With all concentrates we obtain the YELLOW CAKE

  4. SCS118 Marques – New rice cultivar obtained through induced mutation

    OpenAIRE

    Moacir Antonio Schiocchet; Jose Alberto Noldin; Juliana Vieira Raimondi; Augusto Tulmann Neto; Rubens Marschalek; Ester Wickert; Gabriela Neves Martins; Eduardo Hickel; Ronaldir Knoblauch; Klaus Konrad Scheuermann; Domingos Savio Eberhardt; Alexander de Andrade

    2014-01-01

    The new rice cultivar, SCS118 Marques, was obtained through gamma irradiation of SCSBRS Tio Taka cultivar. SCS118 Marques presents modern architecture, lodging resistance, late maturity cycle, moderate resistance to blast, high yield potential, long grains and very high cooking quality. Industrial tests performed with SCS118 Marques showed that grains are suitable for parboiling and white rice, and it is recommended to all rice-producing regions of Santa Catarina

  5. SCS118 Marques – New rice cultivar obtained through induced mutation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moacir Antonio Schiocchet

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The new rice cultivar, SCS118 Marques, was obtained through gamma irradiation of SCSBRS Tio Taka cultivar. SCS118 Marques presents modern architecture, lodging resistance, late maturity cycle, moderate resistance to blast, high yield potential, long grains and very high cooking quality. Industrial tests performed with SCS118 Marques showed that grains are suitable for parboiling and white rice, and it is recommended to all rice-producing regions of Santa Catarina

  6. Thermal treatment of kaolin clay to obtain metakaolin

    OpenAIRE

    Ili? Biljana R.; Mitrovi? Aleksandra A.; Mili?i? Ljiljana R.

    2010-01-01

    The metakaolin was produced by thermal treatment (calcination) of the starting high-quality kaolin clay from Serbia. The optimal calcination parameters, for which nearly complete dehydroxylation of the material was achieved, are: temperature 650°C and heating time of 90 min. The conversion of the kaolinite to metakaolin was confirmed by XRD and IR analyses of the starting and thermally treated kaolin samples. The pozzolanic activity was determined by Chapelle test. The obtained value 0.65 g C...

  7. TEXTURAL CHARACTERISTICS OF AEROGELS OBTAINED FROM SONOGELS

    OpenAIRE

    De La Rosa-Fox, N.; Esquivias, L.; Zarzycki, J.

    1989-01-01

    Ultrasonic treatment of mixtures of TEOS + H2O enables gels to be obtained without the necessity of using alcohol as a common solvent. The influence of energy supplied by the ultrasounds and gelation temperature on the texture of the resulting aerogels were studied in order to determine the optimal conditions for sintering.

  8. 42 CFR 442.101 - Obtaining certification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...the requirements for obtaining notice of an ICF/MR's certification before a Medicaid...of certification from the Secretary for an ICF/MR located on an Indian reservation...the following provisions pertains to the ICF/MR: (1) An ICF/MR meets the...

  9. Comparación de cuatro métodos de restauración del ADN en muestras de plasma y láminas de citología cérvico-uterina como una herramienta para mejorar la calidad de la muestra / Comparison of four methods of DNA restoration in samples from plasma and pap smears as a tool for better the samples

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Caterin, Márquez; Dabeiba Adriana, García-Robayo; Marcos, Castillo; Ignacio, Briceño; Jairo, Amaya; Fabio Ancízar, Aristizábal-Gutiérrez.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: comparar cuatro métodos de restauración del ADN en plasma y láminas cérvico-uterinas como una herramienta para mejorar la calidad de la muestra. Métodos: a 20 muestras de plasma sanguíneo y 20 muestras de láminas citológicas, se les realizó aislamiento de ADN mediante kit comercial y feno [...] l-cloroformo. A todas las muestras se les realizó un tratamiento pre-PCR con cuatro diferentes tipos de actividad de ADN polimerasa: 1. Exonucleasa y endonucleasa 5'-3'. 2. Exonucleasa 5'-3'. 3. Klenow, y 4. Klenow más ligasa. Los diferentes métodos se evaluaron mediante PCR en tiempo real con el gen ALU. Resultados: todos los métodos de restauración mejoran la calidad del ADN en los dos tipos de muestras. El método 3 mostró mejores resultados en plasma y en lámina, incrementando la concentración del ADN de 0,0022 ng/µL a 0,6474 ng/µL en láminas de citología y de 0,0039 ng/µL a 0,435 ng/µL en plasma sanguíneo. Conclusiones: ADN de las muestras de plasma y lámina al ser tratadas con un proceso de restauración aumenta la calidad del ADN en comparación a las muestras no tratadas. Abstract in english Objetives: To compare four methods of restoration of DNA in plasma and PAP smears as a tool to improve the quality of the samples. Methods: 20 blood samples and 20 PAP smears samples, we performed DNA isolation by commercial kit and phenol-chloroform respectively. Then all samples underwent a pre-PC [...] R treatment with four different types of activity DNA polymerase: 1. Exonuclease and endonuclease 5'-3'. 2. Exonuclease 5'-3'. 3. Klenow, and 4. Klenow more ligase. Different restoration methods were evaluated quantitatively by real-time PCR with gene ALU. Results: All restoration methods improve the quality of DNA in both types of samples. However, the 3th method showed better results in both plasma and PAP smears, increasing the concentration of DNA from 0.0022 ng/mL to 0.6474 ng/mL in PAP smears and 0.0039 ng/mL to 0.435 ng/mL in blood plasma. Conclusions: DNA from plasma samples and PAP smears to be treated with a restoration process increases the quality of DNA compared to untreated samples.

  10. Testing tests on AGN microvariability

    CERN Document Server

    de Diego, Jose A

    2010-01-01

    Literature on optical and infrared microvariability in Active Galactic Nuclei (AGNs) reflects a diversity of statistical tests and strategies to detect tiny variations in the lightcurves of these sources. Comparison between the results obtained using different methodologies is difficult, and the pros and cons of each statistical method are often badly understood or even ignored. Even worse, not properly tested methodologies are becoming more and more common, and biased results may be misleading to realize the origin of the AGN microvariability. This paper intends to point future research on AGN microvariability to the use of powerful and well tested statistical methodologies, providing a reference for choosing the best strategy to obtain unbiased results. Lightcurves monitoring have been simulated for quasars, reference and comparison stars. Changes for the quasar lightcurves include both Gaussian fluctuations and linear variations. Simulated lightcurves have been analyzed using chi-squaretests, F tests for v...

  11. Obtaining superfine ethanol in a Cuban distillery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yailet Albernas Carvajal

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes obtaining superfine ethanol in a Cuban distillery from molasses as base raw material. The operational characteristics of the main stages for obtaining superfine alcohol have been described, emphasising alcohol fermentation due to its complexity in achieving process continuity; a Gantt chart led to determining a 31-hour process time and 5-hour cycle time. The influence of fermentation yield on process profitability was determined through mass and energy balances, demonstrating that a 4ºGL degree of alcohol was feasible. The main water-consuming elements were also determined (98% in molasses dilution as well as steam consumption (91% during distillation. A preliminary analysis was made of the opportunities provided by material and energy integration, mainly for distillation, contributing towards a positive environmental impact.

  12. Superconductive ceramics obtained with sol gel method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several sol gel routes have been considered, studied and developed to produce large quantities of granulates which can be processed to obtain ceramics having good superconducting characteristics. In the considered process a mixture of commercial nitrates is atomized, at room temperature, in a solution 1:1 of Primene JMT and Benzene and a pale blue gel of the starting elements is suddently formed. The granulates obtained are free flowing, very reactive and well suited for pressing. For their intrinsic characteristics they could be very good precursors for the production of large quantities of superconductive ceramics in different forms. The precipitated gel is dried, calcinated, pressed in the form of cylindrical pellets which are sintered up to 960 degrees C. No griding or different thermal treatments are needed. The sintered material has low electric resistence, shows a clear Meissner effect and has a transition temperature of between 91 and 95 K

  13. Porous ceramics obtained from strontium zirconate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An attempt is made to obtain a two-layer refractory material of strontium zirconate consisting of a high density sintered layer and a porous one. Initial components for the synthesis are strontium carbonate, zirconium dioxide and baddeleyite powder. The synthesis is carried out in the temperature range of 1400-1700 deg C. The material of high density layers is produced by polystyrene additions burning-out. X-ray diffraction analysis and microstructural studies show that the ceramic obtained is single-phase, with uniform fine-grained structure in high density layers. In porous layers spherical (1-2 mm) and channel-type (5? in diameters pores with sharp surface roughness are observed. The data on thermal conductivity and high temperature creep testify that the strontium zirconate ceramics is of high quality)

  14. Obtaining the borders of urban areas

    CERN Document Server

    Comin, Cesar Henrique; Costa, Luciano da Fontoura

    2015-01-01

    The access to an ever increasing amount of information in the modern world gave rise to the development of many quantitative indicators about urban regions in the globe. Therefore, there is a growing need for a precise definition of how to delimit urban regions, so as to allow proper respective characterization and modeling. Here we present a straightforward methodology to automatically detect urban region borders. The method is based on the density of street crossings around a single seed point associated to the urban area of interest. We exemplify the potential of the methodology by characterizing the geometry and topology of 21 urban regions obtained from 8 distinct countries. The geometry is studied by employing the lacunarity measurement, which is associated to the regularity of holes contained in a pattern. The topology is analyzed by associating the betweenness centrality of the streets with their respective class, such as motorway or residential, obtained from a database.

  15. Intelligent drug delivery systems obtained by radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martellini, Flavia; Higa, Olga Z.; Takacs, Erzsebet; Safranj, Agneza; Yoshida, Masaru; Katakai, Ryoichi; Carenza, Mario

    1998-06-01

    Radiation-induced polymerization of acryloyl-L-proline methyl ester, an ?-aminoacid-containing monomer, in the presence of a crosslinking agent and a hydrophilic monomer gave rise to polymer hydrogels whose water content at equilibrium was found to decrease as the swelling temperature increased. Some hydrogel samples were obtained with entrapped acetaminophen, an analgesic and antipyretic drug. It was ascertained that the release of the drug was controlled by both the hydrophilicity of the polymer matrices and the environmental temperature.

  16. Intelligent drug delivery systems obtained by radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martellini, Flavia; Higa, Olga Z.; Takacs, Erzsebet; Safranj, Agneza; Yoshida, Masaru; Katakai, Ryoichi; Carenza, Mario

    1998-06-01

    Radiation-induced polymerization of acryloyl-L-proline methyl ester, an {alpha}-aminoacid-containing monomer, in the presence of a crosslinking agent and a hydrophilic monomer gave rise to polymer hydrogels whose water content at equilibrium was found to decrease as the swelling temperature increased. Some hydrogel samples were obtained with entrapped acetaminophen, an analgesic and antipyretic drug. It was ascertained that the release of the drug was controlled by both the hydrophilicity of the polymer matrices and the environmental temperature.

  17. Intelligent drug delivery systems obtained by radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation-induced polymerization of acryloyl-L-proline methyl ester, an ?-aminoacid-containing monomer, in the presence of a crosslinking agent and a hydrophilic monomer gave rise to polymer hydrogels whose water content at equilibrium was found to decrease as the swelling temperature increased. Some hydrogel samples were obtained with entrapped acetaminophen, an analgesic and antipyretic drug. It was ascertained that the release of the drug was controlled by both the hydrophilicity of the polymer matrices and the environmental temperature

  18. Visualization of Datasets Obtained from Parallel Simulation

    OpenAIRE

    Sletta,Gunnar

    2002-01-01

    The thesis conducts a study in how datasets obtained from parallel simulation can represented and filtered in a visualization system. The primary result of this thesis is the implementation of a visualization system, named PVis, that is able to load and display parallel datasets. The visualization system is composed of a data loader, a user interface and filter modules. The main feature that separates PVis from other visualization tools is its ability to load a parallel dataset and treat th...

  19. Obtaining high purity silica from rice hulls

    OpenAIRE

    José da Silva Júnior; Carlo R. da Cunha; Flávio L. S. de Carvalho; Ubirajara P. Rodrigues Filho; Oliveira, Paulo R.; Marcos A. Segatto Silva

    2010-01-01

    Many routes for extracting silica from rice hulls are based on direct calcining. These methods, though, often produce silica contaminated with inorganic impurities. This work presents the study of a strategy for obtaining silica from rice hulls with a purity level adequate for applications in electronics. The technique is based on two leaching steps, using respectively aqua regia and Piranha solutions, which extract the organic matrix and inorganic impurities. The material was characterized b...

  20. Process for obtaining ammonium uranyl tri carbonate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The procedure adopted for obtaining Ammonium Uranyl Carbonate (AUC) from uranium hexafluoride (U F6) in a aqueous solutions of ammonium hydrogen carbonate is described in this work. The precipitation is made in temperature and pH controlled. This process consists of three steps: evaporation of U F6, AUC precipitation and filtration of the AUC slurry. An attempt is made of correlate the parameters involved in the precipitation process of AUC with its and U O2 characteristics. (author)

  1. Lifetime obtained by ion beam assisted deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chakaroun, M. [XLIM-MINACOM-UMR 6172, Faculte des Sciences et Techniques, 123 av. Albert Thomas, 87060 Limoges cedex (France); Antony, R. [XLIM-MINACOM-UMR 6172, Faculte des Sciences et Techniques, 123 av. Albert Thomas, 87060 Limoges cedex (France)], E-mail: remi.antony@unilim.fr; Taillepierre, P.; Moliton, A. [XLIM-MINACOM-UMR 6172, Faculte des Sciences et Techniques, 123 av. Albert Thomas, 87060 Limoges cedex (France)

    2007-09-15

    We have fabricated green organic light-emitting diodes based on tris-(8-hydroxyquinoline)aluminium (Alq3) thin films. In order to favor the charge carriers transport from the anode, we have deposited a N,N'-diphenyl-N,N'-bis (3-methylphenyl)-1,1'-diphenyl-4,4'-diamine (TPD) layer (hole transport layer) on a ITO anode. Cathode is obtained with a calcium layer covered with a silver layer. This silver layer is used to protect the other layers against oxygen during the OLED use. All the depositions are performed under vacuum and the devices are not exposed to air during their realisation. In order to improve the silver layer characteristics, we have realized this layer with the ion beam assisted deposition process. The aim of this process is to densify the layer and then reduce the permeation of H{sub 2}O and O{sub 2}. We have used argon ions to assist the silver deposition. All the OLEDs optoelectronic characterizations (I = f(V), L = f(V)) are performed in the ambient air. We compare the results obtained with the assisted layer with those obtained with a classical cathode realized by thermal unassisted evaporation. We have realized lifetime measurements in the ambient air and we discuss about the assisted layer influence on the OLEDs performances.

  2. Lifetime obtained by ion beam assisted deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have fabricated green organic light-emitting diodes based on tris-(8-hydroxyquinoline)aluminium (Alq3) thin films. In order to favor the charge carriers transport from the anode, we have deposited a N,N'-diphenyl-N,N'-bis (3-methylphenyl)-1,1'-diphenyl-4,4'-diamine (TPD) layer (hole transport layer) on a ITO anode. Cathode is obtained with a calcium layer covered with a silver layer. This silver layer is used to protect the other layers against oxygen during the OLED use. All the depositions are performed under vacuum and the devices are not exposed to air during their realisation. In order to improve the silver layer characteristics, we have realized this layer with the ion beam assisted deposition process. The aim of this process is to densify the layer and then reduce the permeation of H2O and O2. We have used argon ions to assist the silver deposition. All the OLEDs optoelectronic characterizations (I = f(V), L = f(V)) are performed in the ambient air. We compare the results obtained with the assisted layer with those obtained with a classical cathode realized by thermal unassisted evaporation. We have realized lifetime measurements in the ambient air and we discuss about the assisted layer influence on the OLEDs performances

  3. A system for obtaining an optical spectrum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ndoni, Sokol Technical University of Denmark,

    The present invention relates to a system for obtaining an optical spectrum 648 of analytes in a fluid sample, wherein a porous filter 602a, 602b is arranged so that the fluid sample may be placed onto a first region of the porous filter, and a SERS-active material 610a, 610b having a SERS-active surface is placed at least partially within the pores of the porous filter within a second region of the porous filter. The first region and the second region of the porous filter are spatially separated and connected by through-going pores so that only sufficiently small analytes are able to reach the second region. Thereby, the porous filter enables that the fluid sample is filtered so that only sufficiently small entities in the fluid sample reach the second region where they may be probed so that an optical spectrum related to the analytes in the filtered sample may be obtained. The optical system also comprises a light source 634, a light detector 642, and the optical analysis system is arranged for obtaining the optical spectrum 648 of the analytes adjacent to the SERS-active material 610a, 610b exclusively from the second region of the porous filter 602a, 602b.

  4. Obtaining Parotid Saliva Specimens After Major Surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Good, Marion; Wotman, Stephen; Anderson, Gene Cranston; Ahn, Sukhee; Cong, Xiaomei

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and test a standard method of collecting saliva from postoperative patients. Saliva was collected from patients following major abdominal surgery from both parotid glands, in intraoral cups and measured in milliliters. Collection time was measured with a stopwatch and flow rate was calculated by dividing the amount in milliliters by the minutes. Trained research nurses stimulated saliva production with lemon juice and collected saliva at four time poin...

  5. Obtaining high purity silica from rice hulls

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    José da, Silva Júnior; Carlo R. da, Cunha; Flávio L. S. de, Carvalho; Ubirajara P., Rodrigues Filho; Paulo R., Oliveira; Marcos A. Segatto, Silva.

    Full Text Available Many routes for extracting silica from rice hulls are based on direct calcining. These methods, though, often produce silica contaminated with inorganic impurities. This work presents the study of a strategy for obtaining silica from rice hulls with a purity level adequate for applications in electr [...] onics. The technique is based on two leaching steps, using respectively aqua regia and Piranha solutions, which extract the organic matrix and inorganic impurities. The material was characterized by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), powder x-ray diffraction (XRD), x-ray fluorescence (XRF), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), particle size analysis by laser diffraction (LPSA) and thermal analysis.

  6. Reliability of "Google" for obtaining medical information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihir Kothari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Internet is used by many patients to obtain relevant medical information. We assessed the impact of "Google" search on the knowledge of the parents whose ward suffered from squint. In 21 consecutive patients, the "Google" search improved the mean score of the correct answers from 47% to 62%. We found that "Google" search was useful and reliable source of information for the patients with regards to the disease etiopathogenesis and the problems caused by the disease. The internet-based information, however, was incomplete and not reliable with regards to the disease treatment.

  7. Nanocrystalline magnetic materials obtained by flash annealing

    OpenAIRE

    Murakami R.K.; Villas-Boas V.

    1999-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to produce enhanced-remanence nanocrystalline magnetic material by crystallizing amorphous or partially amorphous Pr4.5Fe77B18.5 alloys by the flash annealing process, also known as the dc-Joule heating process, and to determine the optimal conditions for obtaining good magnetic coupling between the magnetic phases present in this material. Ribbons of Pr4.5Fe77B18.5 were produced by melt spinning and then annealed for 10-30 s at temperatures 500 - 640 °C by pas...

  8. Measurements, error analyses, and calculations of water and steam individual mass flow rates, velocities, and related flow parameters obtained from single-phase and two-phase prototype tests of the PKL instrumented spool pieces for the US NRC-RSR 3-D program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The operation of the emergency core cooling system and its related steam-binding problems in pressurized water reactors are the subject of a cooperative study by the United States, Germany, and Japan. Lawrence Livermore Laboratory and EG and G, Inc., San Ramon Operations, are responsible for the design, hardware, and software of the 80.8-mm and 113-mm spool piece measurement systems for the German Primarkreislauf (PKL) Test Facility at Kraftwerk Union in Erlangen, West Germany. Four PKL spool pieces each containing a flow turbine, drag screen, three-beam densitometer, and pressure and temperature probes were constructed and tested to measure single-phase and two-phase steam and water flow parameters. Individual phase velocities, mass flow rates, and densities were calculated from the analytical relationships presented. These calculated and measured parameters were compared to those parameters determined from the test facility instrumentation at Wyle Laboratories. Error analyses were performed, and individual test results were presented for both horizontal and vertical flows. The various flow regimes tested included annular mist, slug, froth, stratified wavy, and homogeneous flow of water or superheated steam

  9. Tailoring approach for obtaining molecular orbitals of large systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Anuja P Rahalkar; Shridhar R Gadre

    2012-01-01

    Molecular orbitals (MO’s) within Hartree-Fock (HF) theory are of vital importance as they provide preliminary information of bonding and features such as electron localization and chemical reactivity. The contemporary literature treats the Kohn-Sham orbitals within density functional theory (DFT) equivalently to the MO's obtained within HF framework. The high scaling order of ab initio methods is the main hurdle in obtaining the MO's for large molecular systems. With this view, an attempt is made in the present work to employ molecular tailoring approach (MTA) for obtaining the complete set of MO's including occupied and virtual orbitals, for large molecules at HF and B3LYP levels of theory. The energies of highest occupied and lowest unoccupied molecular orbitals, and hence the band gaps, are accurately estimated by MTA for most of the test cases benchmarked in this study, which include -conjugated molecules. Typically, the root mean square errors of valence MO's are in range of 0.001 to 0.010 a.u. for all the test cases examined. MTA shows a time advantage factor of 2 to 3 over the corresponding actual calculation, for many of the systems reported.

  10. On Predictions Obtained from Seismic Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritzwoller, Michael H.; Shapiro, Nikolai M.

    2001-11-01

    Seismic models of the earth's interior are simply values of different seismic wave velocities inferred from measurements on seismic waves obtained at the earth's surface. In and of themselves, seismic models provide compelling, often beautiful, images of one facet of the earth's interior, but reveal little information about the physics that drives processes in the earth and has controlled its evolution. Physical insight and understanding come only when seismic models are combined with other information that allows the prediction of variables of dynamical interest, such as internal temperature and composition. We discuss the general ingredients needed to predict internal dynamical variables as well as surface observables such as heat flow, topography, and gravity. The prediction of surface observables allows the observation of these quantities to be applied as constraints on the seismic model. We close with selected examples of predictions obtained from one of our recent global models of seismic shear velocities in the crust and uppermost mantle with particular emphasis on temperature, composition, heat flow, and topography.

  11. Acoustic barriers obtained from industrial wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Valles, M; Avila, G; Martinez, S; Terradas, R; Nogués, J M

    2008-07-01

    Acoustic pollution is an environmental problem that is becoming increasingly more important in our society. Likewise, the accumulation of generated waste and the need for waste management are also becoming more and more pressing. In this study we describe a new material--called PROUSO--obtained from industrial wastes. PROUSO has a variety of commercial and engineering, as well as building, applications. The main raw materials used for this environmentally friendly material come from slag from the aluminium recycling process, dust from the marble industry, foundry sands, and recycled expanded polystyrene from recycled packaging. Some natural materials, such as plastic clays, are also used. To obtain PROUSO we used a conventional ceramic process, forming new mineral phases and incorporating polluted elements into the structure. Its physical properties make PROUSO an excellent acoustic and thermal insulation material. It absorbs 95% of the sound in the frequency band of the 500 Hz. Its compressive strength makes it ideal for use in ceramic wall building. PMID:18514765

  12. Koan Ogata's obtainment of Dutch scientific books.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murata, T

    1999-01-01

    Koan Ogata (1810-1863), a medical doctor in Osaka, is renowned for his contribution to the spread of vaccination and for his private school Teki-juku, a Rangaku school where education of Western learning was done by means of the Dutch language. In many letters collected in "Ogata Koan no Tegami" (1980-1996), he asked help for obtaining various Dutch scientific books to his former students, Shuhei Mitsukuri and Ryotei Takeya during several years around 1859: Mitsukuri was a staff member of the Foreign Affairs and intermittently Bansho Shirabesho (Institute for Western Learning) of the Tokugawa Shogunate in Edo, while Takeya was a medical doctor of the Fukuoka Clan. Moreover, Ogata wrote to Mitsukuri in 1858 that he had asked Yukichi Fukuzawa in Edo to buy a Dutch wordbook for him. On the other hand, Genki Kusaka, a student at the Teki-juku, noted in a letter to his parents in 1854 that Ogata had bought Dutch books from Tsuji, official Dutch interpreter of Nagasaki, when the Tsuji stopped by in Osaka on the way to Edo in the February of the year. This paper outlines the above letters to show how Koan Ogata tried to obtain Dutch books from Edo and Nagasaki; their titles and areas are discussed in view of the history of Western learning, and identification is made on the two books that have been left unclarified. PMID:11623952

  13. Experimental methodology for obtaining sound absorption coefficients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A. Macía M

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: the authors propose a new methodology for estimating sound absorption coefficients using genetic algorithms. Methodology: sound waves are generated and conducted along a rectangular silencer. The waves are then attenuated by the absorbing material covering the silencer’s walls. The attenuated sound pressure level is used in a genetic algorithm-based search to find the parameters of the proposed attenuation expressions that include geometric factors, the wavelength and the absorption coefficient. Results: a variety of adjusted mathematical models were found that make it possible to estimate the absorption coefficients based on the characteristics of a rectangular silencer used for measuring the attenuation of the noise that passes through it. Conclusions: this methodology makes it possible to obtain the absorption coefficients of new materials in a cheap and simple manner. Although these coefficients might be slightly different from those obtained through other methodologies, they provide solutions within the engineering accuracy ranges that are used for designing noise control systems.

  14. Sisal cellulose acetates obtained from heterogeneous reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, cellulose obtained from sisal, which is a source of rapid growth, was used. Cellulose acetates were produced in heterogeneous medium, using acetic anhydride as esterifying agent and iodine as catalyst, to check if the procedure described in the literature for commercial cellulose also is adequate to sisal cellulose. The results indicated that iodine is an excellent catalyst to obtain sisal cellulose acetates, but the reaction is so fast as described in the literature when, instead of sisal, lower average molar weight cellulose (microcrystalline is used. The crystallinity index (Ic of sisal cellulose acetates diminished compared to sisal cellulose, but there was no direct correlation between their degree of substitution (DS and Ic. Probably acetyl groups were introduced more homogeneously along the short chains of microcrystalline cellulose, when compared to sisal cellulose, and then for microcrystalline cellulose acetates the Ic decreases as DS increases. Using the linear correlation that was found between degree of substitution (DS and time reaction is possible to control the DS of sisal cellulose acetates, considering a large interval of degrees of substitution (0.3–2.8.

  15. Comparison of Vespula germanica venoms obtained from different sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, F; Blanca, M; Miranda, A; Carmona, M J; Garcia, J; Fernandez, J; Torres, M J; Rondon, M C; Juarez, C

    1994-08-01

    This study was carried out to compare the allergenic potency of Vespula germanica (VG) venoms extracted by different methods and commercially available venoms from Vespula species currently used for in vivo and in vitro studies including immunotherapy. Pure VG venom was used as the reference material. Protein content and enzymatic and allergenic properties of all venoms studied were determined by dye stain reagent, hyaluronidase and phospholipase A1B enzyme activities, and radioallergosorbent test inhibition studies, respectively. Radioallergosorbent test discs sensitized with commercial and pure VG venom were compared using specific IgE antibodies from subjects allergic to VG venom. The data obtained indicate that there were important differences in the allergenic potency between the Vespula species venoms employed for in vivo and/or in vitro assays, VG venom obtained by sac dissection, and pure VG venom. These results indicate that venoms from Vespula species used for in vitro and in vivo tests have a lower concentration of allergens and contain nonvenom proteins. These data should be taken into account when these vespid venoms are used for diagnostic purposes and also when evaluating immunotherapy studies. PMID:8038617

  16. The possible effects on socio-economic inequalities of introducing HPV-testing as primary test in cervical cancer screening programs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PaoloGiorgi Rossi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background HPV-test is more effective than Pap test in preventing cervical cancer. HPV-based screening will imply longer intervals and a triage test for HPV positive women. It will also permit the use of self-sampling devices. These innovations may affect population coverage, participation, and compliance to protocols, and likely in a different way for less educated, poorer, and disadvantaged women. Aim To describe the impact on inequalities, actual or presumed, of the introduction of HPV-based screening. Methods The putative HPV-based screening algorithm has been analysed to identify critical points for inequalities. A systematic review of the literature has been conducted searching PubMed on HPV screening coverage, participation, and compliance. Results were summarised in a narrative synthesis. Results Knowledge about HPV and cervical cancer was lower in women with low Socio-economic status and in disadvantaged groups. A correct communication can reduce differences. Longer intervals will make it easier to achieve high-population coverage, but higher cost of the test in private providers could reduce the use of opportunistic screening by disadvantaged women. There are some evidences that inviting for HPV test instead of Pap increases participation, but there are no data on social differences. Self-sampling devices are effective in increasing participation and coverage. Some studies showed that the acceptability of self-sampling is higher in more educated women, but there is also an effect on hard-to-reach women. Communication of HPV positivity may increase anxiety and impact on sexual behaviours, the effect is stronger in low educated and disadvantaged women. Many studies found indirect evidence that unvaccinated women are or will be more probably under-screened. Conclusions The introduction of HPV test may increase population coverage, but non-compliance to protocols and interaction with opportunistic screening can increase existing inequalities.

  17. Obtaining tetraploid plants of ruzigrass (Brachiaria ruziziensis)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ana Luiza de Oliveira, Timbó; Patrícia Nirlane da Costa, Souza; Roselaine Cristina, Pereira; Juliane Dornellas, Nunes; José Eduardo Brasil Pereira, Pinto; Fausto de, Souza Sobrinho; Lisete Chamma, Davide.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present work was to induce chromosome doubling in genotypes of Brachiaria ruziziensis with potential for production of good-quality biomass and tolerance/resistance to stress caused by aluminum and spittlebugs. Germinated seeds of B. ruziziensis were immersed in 0.1% colchicine [...] solution for 2 or 3 hours. Ploidy level was determined by flow cytometry and confirmed by chromosome count. Fertility of the tetraploid plants was assessed through evaluation of pollen viability by staining. There was no statistical difference with regard to seedling survival and number of duplicate seedlings between the treatments. Survival rate was 8%, of which 11.45% were tetraploid genotypes. The mean viability of pollen grains from the evaluated tetraploid plants ranged from 51.75 to 55.50%. So, the tetraploids plants obtained from genotypes of a bred population of ruzigrass produce fertile pollen, in percentages that render crosses viable in genetic breeding programs.

  18. The method of obtaining of decorative varnish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The method of obtaining of decorative varnish allowing to remove inhibition action of air oxygen and to improve the varnish hardness is described. It is includes the impregnation of texture paper with mixture of PE-284 type polyether lacquer on the basis of unsaturated oligoethylenglycolfumarath resin and cation type salt, putting it on wooden or asbestos cement slabs and further hardening by pulsed beams of accelerated electrons on moving belt. The radiation dose for one pulse is 1,10-2 - 9,10-3 MGy, the number of pulses is 180 - 250, the duration of pulses is 2.3 ms, their frequency is 50 KHz. Chloride, bromide, benzylbromide or iodide of N, N-dialkylaminoethyl (benzil) (met)acrylate are used as cation type salt. (author)

  19. Polypropylene obtained through zeolite supported catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Queli C. Bastos

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Propylene polymerizations were carried out with f2C(Flu(CpZrCl2 and SiMe2(Ind2ZrCl2 catalysts supported on silica, zeolite sodic mordenite (NaM and acid mordenite (HM. The polymerizations were performed at different temperatures and varying aluminium/zirconium molar ratios ([Al]/[Zr]. The effect of these reaction parameters on the catalyst activity was investigated using a proposed statistical experimental planning. In the case of f2C(Flu(CpZrCl2, SiO2 and NaM were used as support and the catalyst performance evaluated using toluene and pentane as polymerization solvent. The molecular weight, molecular weight distribution, melting point and crystallinity of the polymers were examined. The results indicate very high activities for the syndiospecific heterogeneous system. Also, the polymers obtained had superior Mw and stereoregularity.

  20. Polypropylene obtained through zeolite supported catalysts

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Queli C., Bastos; Maria de Fátima V., Marques.

    Full Text Available Propylene polymerizations were carried out with f2C(Flu)(Cp)ZrCl2 and SiMe2(Ind)2ZrCl2 catalysts supported on silica, zeolite sodic mordenite (NaM) and acid mordenite (HM). The polymerizations were performed at different temperatures and varying aluminium/zirconium molar ratios ([Al]/[Zr]). The effe [...] ct of these reaction parameters on the catalyst activity was investigated using a proposed statistical experimental planning. In the case of f2C(Flu)(Cp)ZrCl2, SiO2 and NaM were used as support and the catalyst performance evaluated using toluene and pentane as polymerization solvent. The molecular weight, molecular weight distribution, melting point and crystallinity of the polymers were examined. The results indicate very high activities for the syndiospecific heterogeneous system. Also, the polymers obtained had superior Mw and stereoregularity.

  1. Technologies for obtaining large grain sintered pellets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A way to increase fuel burn-up is to use a large grains fuel pellets structure. The paper presents a literature review related to the technologies and the methods for large grains sintered pellets manufacturing. A flowsheet for large grains sintered pellets obtaining by Nb2O5 dopant addition in UO2 sinterable powder, pressing and sintering in H2 atmosphere is showed. In the diagrams are presented the dependency of the main sintered pellets characteristics (pore radius distribution, pores volume, density, grains size) as function of the Nb2O5 dopants concentration, UO2 sinterable powder nature and sintering temperature. Other sintered pellets characteristics (electrical conductivity, Seebeck coefficient, high temperature molar heat capacity and thermomechanical properties) are commented. The beneficial effects resulted from theoretical and practical projects are presented. (author)

  2. Obtaining Reliable Feedback for Sanctioning Reputation Mechanisms

    CERN Document Server

    Faltings, B; 10.1613/jair.2243

    2011-01-01

    Reputation mechanisms offer an effective alternative to verification authorities for building trust in electronic markets with moral hazard. Future clients guide their business decisions by considering the feedback from past transactions; if truthfully exposed, cheating behavior is sanctioned and thus becomes irrational. It therefore becomes important to ensure that rational clients have the right incentives to report honestly. As an alternative to side-payment schemes that explicitly reward truthful reports, we show that honesty can emerge as a rational behavior when clients have a repeated presence in the market. To this end we describe a mechanism that supports an equilibrium where truthful feedback is obtained. Then we characterize the set of pareto-optimal equilibria of the mechanism, and derive an upper bound on the percentage of false reports that can be recorded by the mechanism. An important role in the existence of this bound is played by the fact that rational clients can establish a reputation for...

  3. Ferroelectric perovskite nanopowders obtained by mechanochemical synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabela Szafraniak-Wiza

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Simple perovskite nanopowders were fabricated by mechanochemical synthesis. High-energy milling process of respective oxides, leading to production of ferroelectric perovskites, was carefully investigated and characterized by X-ray diffraction, electron microscopy and X-ray excited photoelectron spectroscopy. It has been found that: (i the powder consists of loosely packed grains with a broad distribution of sizes between a few nm and 45 nm, (ii the grains possess core/shell structure, (iii the grain core of sizes larger than about 20 nm exhibits well developed crystalline structure, (iv the grains are coated by structurally disordered (amorphous shell. Intermediate phases have been found in the process of PbTiO3 mechanosynthesis only. The obtained nanopowders were used for preparation of dense ceramics.

  4. Speaker Identification From Youtube Obtained Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitesh Kumar Chaudhary

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available An efficient, and intuitive algorithm is presented for the identification of speakers from a long dataset (like YouTube long discussion, Cocktail party recorded audio or video.The goal of automatic speaker identification is to identify the number of different speakers and prepare a model for that speaker by extraction, characterization and speaker-specific information contained in the speech signal. It has many diverse application specially in the field of Surveillance , Immigrations at Airport , cyber security , transcription in multi-source of similar sound source, where it is difficult to assign transcription arbitrary. The most commonly speech parameterization used in speaker verification, K-mean, cepstral analysis, is detailed. Gaussian mixture modeling, which is the speaker modeling technique is then explained. Gaussian mixture models (GMM, perhaps the most robust machine learning algorithm has been introduced to examine and judge carefully speaker identification in text independent. The application or employment of Gaussian mixture models for monitoring & Analysing speaker identity is encouraged by the familiarity, awareness, or understanding gained through experience that Gaussian spectrum depict the characteristics of speaker's spectral conformational pattern and remarkable ability of GMM to construct capricious densities after that we illustrate 'Expectation maximization' an iterative algorithm which takes some arbitrary value in initial estimation and carry on the iterative process until the convergence of value is observed We have tried to obtained 85 ~ 95% of accuracy using speaker modeling of vector quantization and Gaussian Mixture model ,so by doing various number of experiments we are able to obtain 79 ~ 82% of identification rate using Vector quantization and 85 ~ 92.6% of identification rate using GMM modeling by Expectation maximization parameter estimation depending on variation of parameter.

  5. Speaker Identification From Youtube Obtained Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitesh Kumar Chaudhary

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available An efficient, and intuitive algorithm is presented for the identification of speakers from a long dataset (like YouTube long discussion, Cocktail party recorded audio or video.The goal of automatic speaker identification is to identify the number of different speakers and prepare a model for that speaker by extraction, characterization and speaker-specific information contained in the speech signal. It has many diverse application specially in the field of Surveillance , Immigrations at Airport , cyber security , transcription in multi-source of similar sound source, where it is difficult to assign transcription arbitrary. The most commonly speech parameterization used in speaker verification, K-mean, cepstral analysis, is detailed. Gaussian mixture modeling, which is the speaker modeling technique is then explained. Gaussian mixture models (GMM, perhaps the most robust machine learning algorithm has been introduced to examine and judge carefully speaker identification in text independent. The application or employment of Gaussian mixture models for monitoring & Analysing speaker identity is encouraged by the familiarity, awareness, or understanding gained through experience that Gaussian spectrum depict the characteristics of speaker's spectral conformational pattern and remarkable ability of GMM to construct capricious densities after that we illustrate 'Expectation maximization' an iterative algorithm which takes some arbitrary value in initial estimation and carry on the iterative process until the convergence of value is observed We have tried to obtained 85 ~ 95% of accuracy using speaker modeling of vector quantization and Gaussian Mixture model ,so by doing various number of experiments we are able to obtain 79 ~ 82% of identification rate using Vector quantization and 85 ~ 92.6% of identification rate using GMM modeling by Expectation maximization parameter estimation depending on variation of parameter.

  6. Cytoplasm T-maize tissue culture to obtain methomyl resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The calli of two cytoplasm T-maize hybrids were cultured in vitro with methomyl in the medium in order to obtain resistance. A mutagenic pretreatment was performed in one of the hybrids by injecting ethylmethane sulphonate (EMS) into the ear cob before fetilization. The atrophic tissue method was utilized to obtain totipotent callus. After treatment, coloured pericarp grains were observed in the regenerated plants. Different esterase electrophoretic patterns also appeared in one of them. In the methomyl resistance test, some nearly resistant (R-) and some less susceptible (S-) plants were detected within the same descendance (possibly due to mitochondrial variability). The interaction between mutagenic treatment with EMS and in vitro culture may be a suitable method for inducing changes of methomyl susceptibility in cms-T maize plants. (author)

  7. Obtaining Stiffness Exponents from Bond-diluted Lattice Spin Glasses

    CERN Document Server

    Böttcher, S

    2005-01-01

    Recently, a method has been proposed to obtain accurate predictions for low-temperature properties of lattice spin glasses that is practical even above the upper critical dimension, $d_c=6$. This method is based on the observation that bond-dilution enables the numerical treatment of larger lattices, and that the subsequent combination of such data at various bond densities into a finite-size scaling Ansatz produces more robust scaling behavior. In the present study we test the potential of such a procedure, in particular, to obtain the stiffness exponent for the hierachical Migdal-Kadanoff lattice. Critical exponents for this model are known with great accuracy and any simulations can be executed to very large lattice sizes at almost any bond density, effecting a insightful comparison that highlights the advantages -- as well as the weaknesses -- of this method. These insights are applied to the Edwards-Anderson model in $d=3$ with Gaussian bonds.

  8. Desempenho de enfermeiras na coleta de material cervico uterino para exame de Papanicolaou Desempeño de enfermeras en la recolección de material cérvico uterino para examen de Papanicolaou Performance of nurses in gathering material for Pap smear test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Costa de Oliveira

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Verificar conhecimento e prática de enfermeiras na coleta de material cérvico-uterino, identificar disponibilidade de materiais para realização da coleta e conferir adequabilidade da lâmina. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal, de campo, realizado de agosto a outubro de 2006, com 21 enfermeiras. Conhecimento foi investigado por questionário; técnica de coleta e materiais foram pesquisados por observação; adequabilidade das lâminas foi verificada nos laudos laboratoriais. RESULTADOS: Dezessete enfermeiras se auto-avaliaram seguras para realizar o exame; duas investigaram esvaziamento da bexiga; quatro explicaram o procedimento; nenhuma indagou uso de duchas, abstinência sexual e sangramento intermenstrual; duas não usaram espátula corretamente e duas consideraram desnecessária a coleta da endocérvice; duas coletas levaram tempo excessivo para fixação. Espéculos e pinças Cherron foram insuficientes; 63(100% das lâminas estavam adequadas. CONCLUSÃO: Há déficit de conhecimento e de técnica, insuficiência de materiais, e apesar das falhas observadas na coleta, 100% dos laudos conferiram adequabilidade às lâminas.OBJETIVOS: Verificar conocimiento y práctica de enfermeras en colecta de material del cuello uterino, identificar disponibilidad de materiales para realización de coleta y averiguar adecuación de lámina. METODOS: Estudio transversal, de campo, realizado de agosto a octubre de 2006, con 21 enfermeras. Conocimiento fue investigado por cuestionario; técnica de colecta y materiales fueron investigados por observación; adecuación de láminas fue verificada en laudos laboratorillos. RESULTADOS: Diecisiete enfermeras se evaluaron seguridad en la examinación; dos preguntaron por el vacío de vejiga; cuatro explicaron el procedimiento; ninguno preguntó sobre usar ducha, abstinencia sexual y sangría intermenstrual; dos no utilizaron espátula correctamente y dos habían considerado innecesario colección del endocervice; dos colecciones llevó tiempo excesivo para fijación. Espéculos y pinzas Cherron fueron escasas; 63 (100% láminas fueron satisfactorias. CONCLUSION: Ha déficit del conocimiento y técnica, escasez de materiales, y aunque de las imperfecciones observadas en colección, 100% de las láminas tuvieran adecuación conferida.OBJECTIVES: Verify nurses' knowledge and practice to material uterine cervical, to identify availability of material of collection and to verify suitability of the smears. METHODS: Transversal study, at service, was carried from August to October 2006, with 21 nurses. Knowledge was investigated through questionnaire; collection technique and material were researched through observation; suitability of the smears was verified in the lab reports. RESULTS: Seventeen nurses evaluated themselves security to carry through the examination; two had asked about emptiness of bladder and four had explained procedure; none inquired using a shower, sexual abstinence and bleed intermenstrual; two had left to use of spatula correctly and two had considered unnecessary endocervix collection; two collections the time for fixation was excessive. Speculums and Cherron clamps had been insufficient; 63 (100% blades were adjusted. CONCLUSION: It has been detected deficit of knowledge and technique, insufficiency of materials, and although the imperfections observed in the collection, 100% of the findings had conferred adequateness to the blades.

  9. Desempenho de enfermeiras na coleta de material cervico uterino para exame de Papanicolaou / Performance of nurses in gathering material for Pap smear test / Desempeño de enfermeras en la recolección de material cérvico uterino para examen de Papanicolaou

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Nancy Costa de, Oliveira; Escolástica Rejane Ferreira, Moura; Maria Albertina Rocha, Diógenes.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Verificar conhecimento e prática de enfermeiras na coleta de material cérvico-uterino, identificar disponibilidade de materiais para realização da coleta e conferir adequabilidade da lâmina. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal, de campo, realizado de agosto a outubro de 2006, com 21 enfermeiras. [...] Conhecimento foi investigado por questionário; técnica de coleta e materiais foram pesquisados por observação; adequabilidade das lâminas foi verificada nos laudos laboratoriais. RESULTADOS: Dezessete enfermeiras se auto-avaliaram seguras para realizar o exame; duas investigaram esvaziamento da bexiga; quatro explicaram o procedimento; nenhuma indagou uso de duchas, abstinência sexual e sangramento intermenstrual; duas não usaram espátula corretamente e duas consideraram desnecessária a coleta da endocérvice; duas coletas levaram tempo excessivo para fixação. Espéculos e pinças Cherron foram insuficientes; 63(100%) das lâminas estavam adequadas. CONCLUSÃO: Há déficit de conhecimento e de técnica, insuficiência de materiais, e apesar das falhas observadas na coleta, 100% dos laudos conferiram adequabilidade às lâminas. Abstract in spanish OBJETIVOS: Verificar conocimiento y práctica de enfermeras en colecta de material del cuello uterino, identificar disponibilidad de materiales para realización de coleta y averiguar adecuación de lámina. METODOS: Estudio transversal, de campo, realizado de agosto a octubre de 2006, con 21 enfermeras [...] . Conocimiento fue investigado por cuestionario; técnica de colecta y materiales fueron investigados por observación; adecuación de láminas fue verificada en laudos laboratorillos. RESULTADOS: Diecisiete enfermeras se evaluaron seguridad en la examinación; dos preguntaron por el vacío de vejiga; cuatro explicaron el procedimiento; ninguno preguntó sobre usar ducha, abstinencia sexual y sangría intermenstrual; dos no utilizaron espátula correctamente y dos habían considerado innecesario colección del endocervice; dos colecciones llevó tiempo excesivo para fijación. Espéculos y pinzas Cherron fueron escasas; 63 (100%) láminas fueron satisfactorias. CONCLUSION: Ha déficit del conocimiento y técnica, escasez de materiales, y aunque de las imperfecciones observadas en colección, 100% de las láminas tuvieran adecuación conferida. Abstract in english OBJECTIVES: Verify nurses' knowledge and practice to material uterine cervical, to identify availability of material of collection and to verify suitability of the smears. METHODS: Transversal study, at service, was carried from August to October 2006, with 21 nurses. Knowledge was investigated thro [...] ugh questionnaire; collection technique and material were researched through observation; suitability of the smears was verified in the lab reports. RESULTS: Seventeen nurses evaluated themselves security to carry through the examination; two had asked about emptiness of bladder and four had explained procedure; none inquired using a shower, sexual abstinence and bleed intermenstrual; two had left to use of spatula correctly and two had considered unnecessary endocervix collection; two collections the time for fixation was excessive. Speculums and Cherron clamps had been insufficient; 63 (100%) blades were adjusted. CONCLUSION: It has been detected deficit of knowledge and technique, insufficiency of materials, and although the imperfections observed in the collection, 100% of the findings had conferred adequateness to the blades.

  10. Obtaining superhydrophobicity using commercial razor blades

    CERN Document Server

    Yamamoto, Ken; Ogata, Satoshi

    2015-01-01

    Because the superhydrophobic characteristic appears by forming a composite surface consisting of solid and air underneath the droplets, a large number of rough surfaces that can trap air have been fabricated. Recently, the air trapping on materials whose equilibrium contact angles are less than 90 degrees was achieved by fabricating proper structures that lead energetic stability at the condition. Whereas these methods were proposed under the assumption of the static and equilibrium conditions, we take a dynamic and non-equilibrium approach in this study through droplet deposition and droplet impact experiments. By employing test surfaces that consist of commercially available stainless steel razor blades, we show the pinning effect brings the apparent water contact angle of approximately 160 degrees on a "hydrophilic" substrate. We call this state the "non-equilibrium Cassie state" and give theoretical explanations. Furthermore, the dynamic characteristics of the droplet impact on these surfaces are discusse...

  11. Functional properties of spice extracts obtained via supercritical fluid extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal, Patrícia F; Braga, Mara E M; Sato, Daisy N; Carvalho, João E; Marques, Marcia O M; Meireles, M Angela A

    2003-04-23

    In the present study the antioxidant, anticancer, and antimycobacterial activities of extracts from ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe), rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.), and turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) were evaluated. The extracts were obtained using supercritical CO(2) with and without ethanol and/or isopropyl alcohol as cosolvent. The extracts' antioxidant power was assessed using the reaction between beta-carotene and linolenic acid, the antimycobacterial activity against M. tuberculosis was measured by the MABA test, and their anticancer action was tested against nine human cancer ancestries: lung, breast, breast resistant, melanoma, colon, prostate, leukemia, and kidney. The rosemary extracts exhibited the strongest antioxidant and the lowest antimycobacterial activities. Turmeric extracts showed the greatest antimycobacterial activity. Ginger and turmeric extracts showed selective anticancer activities. PMID:12696930

  12. Biodegradable Polyelectrolyte Obtained by Radiation Polymerization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poly electrolytes are water-soluble polymers carrying ionic charge along the polymer chain. Depending upon the charge, these polymers are anionic or cationic. The inherent solid - liquid separating efficiency makes these poly electrolytes a unique class of polymers which find extensive application in potable water, industrial raw and process water, municipal sewage treatment, mineral processing and metallurgy, oil drilling and recovery, etc. Also, due to their ability to produce advanced induced coagulation, a considerable amount of bacteria and viruses are precipitated together with the suspended solids. Especially the acrylamide polymers are very efficacious for water treatment but acrylamide is a toxic monomer and therefore their use are governed by international standards that provide the residual acrylamide monomer content (RAMC) in them be less than 0.05%. Under these circumstances our attention was focused on the following research steps that are presented in this paper: 1) Preparation of a special class of poly electrolytes, named Pn, with very low RAMC values, based on electron beam (EB), microwave (MW) and EB + MW induced co-polymerization of aqueous solutions containing appropriate mixtures of acrylamide (AMD) and acrylic acid (AA) monomers (AMD - AA co-polymers). The Pn were obtained by radiation technology with very small RAMC (under 0.01%) as well as in a wide range of molecular weights and charge densities. Very low AMD monomer content of Pn is due to the major advantages of radiation induced polymerization in aqueous solution containing monomers. Due to water presence in the EB irradiated system, irradiated water radicals facilitate the polymerization process and increase rate and level of monomers conversion in co-polymers. Also, once again, by the presence of water, which absorbs MW energy very strongly, the MW polymerization reaction rate is much enhanced resulting in a reaction time about 50-100 times lowers than by conventional heating. Also, due to the rapid, volumetric and selective MW energy transfer, the molecular weight dispersion of the polymeric material is very low. 2) Development of more efficacious methods for Pn application to potable water (PW) and waste water (WW) treatment. The Pan obtained by EB and EB + MW induced polymerization give the best results for TSS (total suspended solid) and T (turbidity) indicators in the PW case while Pn types obtained by MW induced polymerization give always the best results for OM (organic matters) and TOC (total organic carbon) indicators in the WW case. Also, each quality indicator is associated with a certain amount and a certain type of Pn, which exhibits the maximum ability to its reduction. For a given Pn type there is a different amount for each quality indicator, which gives the best result. These aspects have suggested to mix several Pn types (the best for each quality indicator) and to use their mixture (Mn) for water treatment. The use of mixture (Mn) of several Pn types demonstrated the ability in the simultaneous reduction of several quality indicators for PW as well as for WW

  13. Salinity tolerant mutant obtained from protons radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A breeding program to obtain salinity tolerant rice varieties using in vitro mutagenesis was development at the National Institute of Agricultural Science. Seeds from Jucarito-104 (J-104) rice variety were irradiated with different doses of protons (10, 20, 30, 40, 60, 90, 110 and 210 Gy) at the Phasotron of DUVNA. The irradiated seeds were cultured in vitro for callus induction and plant regeneration. It was carried out the bulk harvest in M1V1 population and promising lines were selected from M2V1 to M5V1 generations. It was evaluated the morphological and molecular difference between the mutant and the donor J-104. It was possible to release the mutant GINES that showing difference with the donor J-104 in cycle, yielding, grain quality, salinity tolerance as well as disease tolerance. The AFLP analysis showed differences between the mutant and the donor J-104. The rice variety GINES is the first mutant release from in vitro mutagenesis using protons. (author)

  14. HOW TO OBTAIN BOOKS FOR YOUR GROUP

    CERN Multimedia

    Head Librarian

    2000-01-01

    The wide variety of scientific and technical activity engaged in by people working at CERN means that the Library cannot always provide a deep on-site coverage in areas which are outside the core subjects of particle physics and accelerators. As many of you have already experienced, one way of solving this is to borrow books from other libraries. Our Inter-Library Loan (ILL) service currently obtains about 1000 books on loan per year for readers at CERN. However, there may be books which groups need on a more permanent basis, in which case a loan from either our own collection or via ILL is not the appropriate solution. Instead, groups might prefer to purchase such books from their own budgets. To facilitate this, the CERN Library has set up a procedure with the SPL Division, by which you can submit your purchase request to us and be charged via a TID when you receive the book. In addition, via our database interface WebLib, we can provide you with a private virtual catalogue of your group's collection, which...

  15. Nanocrystalline magnetic materials obtained by flash annealing

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    R.K., Murakami; V., Villas-Boas.

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present work was to produce enhanced-remanence nanocrystalline magnetic material by crystallizing amorphous or partially amorphous Pr4.5Fe77B18.5 alloys by the flash annealing process, also known as the dc-Joule heating process, and to determine the optimal conditions for obtaining go [...] od magnetic coupling between the magnetic phases present in this material. Ribbons of Pr4.5Fe77B18.5 were produced by melt spinning and then annealed for 10-30 s at temperatures 500 - 640 °C by passing current through the sample to develop the enhanced-remanence nanocrystalline magnetic material. These materials were studied by X-ray diffraction, differential thermal analysis and magnetic measurements. Coercivity increases of up to 15% were systematically observed in relation to furnace-annealed material. Two different samples were carefully examined: (i) a sample annealed at 600 °C which showed the highest coercive field Hc and remanence ratio Mr/Ms and (ii) a sample annealed at 520 °C which showed phase separation in the second quadrant demagnetization curve. Our results are in agreement with other studies which show that flash annealing improves the magnetic properties of some amorphous ferromagnetic ribbons.

  16. Nanocrystalline magnetic materials obtained by flash annealing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.K. Murakami

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present work was to produce enhanced-remanence nanocrystalline magnetic material by crystallizing amorphous or partially amorphous Pr4.5Fe77B18.5 alloys by the flash annealing process, also known as the dc-Joule heating process, and to determine the optimal conditions for obtaining good magnetic coupling between the magnetic phases present in this material. Ribbons of Pr4.5Fe77B18.5 were produced by melt spinning and then annealed for 10-30 s at temperatures 500 - 640 °C by passing current through the sample to develop the enhanced-remanence nanocrystalline magnetic material. These materials were studied by X-ray diffraction, differential thermal analysis and magnetic measurements. Coercivity increases of up to 15% were systematically observed in relation to furnace-annealed material. Two different samples were carefully examined: (i a sample annealed at 600 °C which showed the highest coercive field Hc and remanence ratio Mr/Ms and (ii a sample annealed at 520 °C which showed phase separation in the second quadrant demagnetization curve. Our results are in agreement with other studies which show that flash annealing improves the magnetic properties of some amorphous ferromagnetic ribbons.

  17. Nano hydroxyapatite crystals obtained by colloidal solution

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    D, Meza; I.A., Figueroa; C, Flores-Morales; M.C., Piña-Barba.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se presenta un proceso de síntesis por solución coloidal para obtener polvos nanocristalinos de hidroxiapatita usando nitrato de calcio tetrahidratado [Ca(NO3)2-4H2O] y pentoxido de fosforo [P2O5]. Los polvos obtenidos fueron lavados y calcinados a diferentes temperaturas para ser ca [...] racterizados empleando difracción de rayos X (DRX), microscopía electrónica de barrido (MEB) y microscopía electrónica de trasmisión (MET). El tamaño de los polvos se obtuvo comparando los resultados obtenidos por MET con los calculados por DRX usando la fórmula de Scherrer. Abstract in english A process for synthesising nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite powders using calcium nitrate tetrahydrated [Ca(NO3)2-4H2O] and phosphorous pentoxide [P2O5] by colloidal solution, is presented and discussed. The powders were washed and calcinated at different temperatures and then characterised by X-ray d [...] iffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The powder size was compared with the results obtained from TEM and the calculated with the Scherrer's formula.

  18. Shielding design to obtain compact marine reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The marine reactors equipped in previously constructed nuclear ships are in need of the secondary shield which is installed outside the containment vessel. Most of the weight and volume of the reactor plants are occupied by this secondary shield. An advanced marine reactor called MRX (Marine Reactor X) has been designed to obtain a more compact and lightweight marine reactor with enhanced safety. The MRX is a new type of marine reactor which is an integral PWR (The steam generator is installed in the pressure vessel.) with adopting a water-filled containment vessel and a new shielding design method of no installation of the secondary shield. As a result, MRX is considerably lighter in weight and more compact in size as compared with the reactors equipped in previously constructed nuclear ships. For instance, the plant weight and volume of the containment vessel of MRX are about 50% and 70% of those of the Nuclear Ship MUTSU, in spite of the power of MRX is 2.8 times as large as the MUTSU's reactor. The shielding design calculation was made using the ANISN, DOT3.5, QAD-CGGP2 and ORIGEN codes. The computational accuracy was confirmed by experimental analyses. (author)

  19. New informations obtained by energy filtered RHEED

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reflection high-energy electron diffraction (RHEED) patterns, so far observed, are mixtures of those due to elastically and inelastically scattered electrons from the specimen surface. The background of the RHEED pattern, which consists of the signals attributed to inelastic electrons, sometimes disturbs the observation of detail diffraction features. In order to exclude these inelastic electrons, a retarding field analyzer was used as the energy filter. By using this energy filtered RHEED (EF-RHEED) apparatus, new RHEED patterns and rocking curves were obtained. In the EF-RHEED pattern of Si(001)2x1 surface, a line pattern due to the disordering of the c(4x2) surface structure was clearly extracted from the background. In the EF-RHEED pattern of Si(111)7x7 surface, some additional diffuse patterns were observed. Energy filtered rocking curves of diffraction spots are presented, which are different from conventional ones in their relative intensities. Especially, there is a serious difference when a diffraction spot goes through an intense Kikuchi line. Energy loss spectra of diffraction spots can be measured by this apparatus. It was found that the diffraction beams with very grazing take-off angle suffers a great probability of inelastic scattering from surface plasmon excitation. (author)

  20. Obtaining Communities with a Fitness Growth Process

    CERN Document Server

    Beiró, Mariano G; Grynberg, Sebastian P; Alvarez-Hamelin, J Ignacio

    2015-01-01

    The study of community structure has been a hot topic of research over the last years. But, while successfully applied in several areas, the concept lacks of a general and precise notion. Facts like the hierarchical structure and heterogeneity of complex networks make it difficult to unify the idea of community and its evaluation. The global functional known as modularity is probably the most used technique in this area. Nevertheless, its limits have been deeply studied. Local techniques as the ones by Lancichinetti et al. and Palla et al. arose as an answer to the resolution limit and degeneracies that modularity has. Here we start from the algorithm by Lancichinetti et al. and propose a unique growth process for a fitness function that, while being local, finds a community partition that covers the whole network, updating the scale parameter dynamically. We test the quality of our results by using a set of benchmarks of heterogeneous graphs. We discuss alternative measures for evaluating the community struc...

  1. Elastic modulus evaluation of Titania nanotubes obtained by anodic oxidation

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Luciane S., Santos; Nilson T. C., Oliveira; Carlos M., Lepienski; Cláudia E. B., Marino; Neide K, Kuromoto.

    Full Text Available The use of titania (TiO2) nanotubes is becoming one of the most attractive techniques as surface treatment for implants due its combination of morphology (that accelerates osteoblast adhesion and proliferation), bioactivity and possibility of being use as a drug vehicle. Anodic oxidation is one of [...] the cheapest and simplest approaches to obtain highly ordered nanotubes. Parameters such as applied potential, reaction time and fluoride containing in the electrolyte define the nanotubes morphology. However, the mechanical properties of the nanotubes layer do not have been completely elucidated and they play a crucial role in the implant long term stability. The objective of this research was to obtain TiO2 nanotubes using anodic oxidation and to determine their elastic modulus and hardness. The TiO2 nanotubes layer was obtained in a fluoride containing electrolyte for 1 hour, one group at 15 V and another one at 25 V. The TiO2 nanotubes morphology was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The elastic modulus and hardness were evaluated by nanoindentation experiments using a spherical tip. SEM images showed highly ordered nanotubes on all titanium surfaces and it was observed that the nanotubes diameters are directly related with the applied potential. Nanotubes diameters are 66 ± 9 nm and 131 ± 22 nm for nanotubes obtained at 15 V and 25 V, respectively. Nanoindentation test results showed a decrease in the elastic modulus comparing with titanium reference and these values approach to cortical bone elastic modulus. These results demonstrate that it was possible to obtain a homogeneous TiO2 nanotubes layer that has mechanical properties adequate to improve implant long-term stability.

  2. Obtaining cementitious material from municipal solid waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Macías, A.

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The primary purpose of the present study was to determine the viability of using incinerator ash and slag from municipal solid waste as a secondary source of cementitious materials. The combustion products used were taken from two types of Spanish MSW incinerators, one located at Valdemingómez, in Madrid, and the other in Melilla, with different incineration systems: one with fluidised bed combustion and other with mass burn waterwall. The effect of temperature (from 800 to 1,200 ºC on washed and unwashed incinerator residue was studied, in particular with regard to phase formation in washed products with a high NaCl and KCl content. The solid phases obtained were characterized by X-ray diffraction and BET-N2 specific surface procedures.El principal objetivo del trabajo ha sido determinar la viabilidad del uso de las cenizas y escorias procedentes de la incineración de residuos sólidos urbanos, como materia prima secundaria para la obtención de fases cementantes. Para ello se han empleado los residuos generados en dos tipos de incineradoras españolas de residuos sólidos urbanos: la incineradora de Valdemingómez y la incineradora de Melilla. Se ha estudiado la transformación de los residuos, sin tratamiento previo, en función de la temperatura de calentamiento (desde 800 ºC hasta 1.200 ºC, así como la influencia del lavado de los residuos con alto contenido en NaCl y KCl en la formación de fases obtenidas a las diferentes temperaturas de calcinación. Las fases obtenidas fueron caracterizadas por difracción de rayos X y área superficial por el método BET-N2.

  3. Characterization of rough interfaces obtained by boriding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study evaluates the morphology of borided interfaces by means of the fractal theory. The boride layers were formed in the AISI M2 steel by applying the paste boriding treatment at temperatures of 1253 and 1273 K and treatment times of 2 and 6 h, while a boron carbide paste thickness of 4 or 5 mm covered the samples surface in order to produce the boron diffusion. The morphology of interfaces formed between FeB and Fe2B layers and between Fe2B layer and steel substrate was analyzed by the rescaled-range (R/S), root-mean-square (RMS), and Fourier power spectrum (FPS) methods. Moreover, the multi-affine spectra of roughness exponent were obtained by calculating the q-order height-height correlation functions. We found that both interfaces are multi-affine, rather than self-affine. The multi-affine spectra of roughness exponents are found to be different for FeB/Fe2B and Fe2B/substrate interfaces, but independent on the treatment parameters (boron carbide paste thickness, temperature, and boriding time). Furthermore, we found that the multi-affine spectra of both interfaces behave as it is expected for 'universal multi-fractals' with the Levy index ? = 1, associated with the multiplicative cascades with a log-Cauchy distribution. Furthermore, our data suggest a great homogeneity of the boron diffusion field, characterized by universal fractal dimension Ddiff = 2.90 ± 0.01. These findings provide a novel insight into the nature of phase formation during the boriding treatment

  4. Characterization of rough interfaces obtained by boriding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos-Silva, I.; Balankin, A. S.; Sierra, A. H.; López-Perrusquia, N.; Escobar-Galindo, R.; Morales-Matamoros, D.

    2008-12-01

    This study evaluates the morphology of borided interfaces by means of the fractal theory. The boride layers were formed in the AISI M2 steel by applying the paste boriding treatment at temperatures of 1253 and 1273 K and treatment times of 2 and 6 h, while a boron carbide paste thickness of 4 or 5 mm covered the samples surface in order to produce the boron diffusion. The morphology of interfaces formed between FeB and Fe 2B layers and between Fe 2B layer and steel substrate was analyzed by the rescaled-range (R/S), root-mean-square (RMS), and Fourier power spectrum (FPS) methods. Moreover, the multi-affine spectra of roughness exponent were obtained by calculating the q-order height-height correlation functions. We found that both interfaces are multi-affine, rather than self-affine. The multi-affine spectra of roughness exponents are found to be different for FeB/Fe 2B and Fe 2B/substrate interfaces, but independent on the treatment parameters (boron carbide paste thickness, temperature, and boriding time). Furthermore, we found that the multi-affine spectra of both interfaces behave as it is expected for "universal multi-fractals" with the Lévy index ? = 1, associated with the multiplicative cascades with a log-Cauchy distribution. Furthermore, our data suggest a great homogeneity of the boron diffusion field, characterized by universal fractal dimension Ddiff = 2.90 ± 0.01. These findings provide a novel insight into the nature of phase formation during the boriding treatment.

  5. Characterization of rough interfaces obtained by boriding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campos-Silva, I. [Instituto Politecnico Nacional, SEPI-ESIME, U.P. Adolfo Lopez Mateos, Zacatenco, Mexico D.F. 07738 (Mexico)], E-mail: icampos@ipn.mx; Balankin, A.S. [Instituto Politecnico Nacional, SEPI-ESIME, U.P. Adolfo Lopez Mateos, Zacatenco, Mexico D.F. 07738 (Mexico); Sierra, A.H. [Instituto Politecnico Nacional, UPIICSA, Av. Te 950, Col Granjas, Mexico D.F. 08400 (Mexico); Lopez-Perrusquia, N. [Instituto Politecnico Nacional, SEPI-ESIME, U.P. Adolfo Lopez Mateos, Zacatenco, Mexico D.F. 07738 (Mexico); Escobar-Galindo, R. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid (CSIC), Cantoblanco, Madrid E-28049 (Spain); Morales-Matamoros, D. [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Eje Lazaro Cardenas Norte, Mexico D.F. 07738 (Mexico)

    2008-12-30

    This study evaluates the morphology of borided interfaces by means of the fractal theory. The boride layers were formed in the AISI M2 steel by applying the paste boriding treatment at temperatures of 1253 and 1273 K and treatment times of 2 and 6 h, while a boron carbide paste thickness of 4 or 5 mm covered the samples surface in order to produce the boron diffusion. The morphology of interfaces formed between FeB and Fe{sub 2}B layers and between Fe{sub 2}B layer and steel substrate was analyzed by the rescaled-range (R/S), root-mean-square (RMS), and Fourier power spectrum (FPS) methods. Moreover, the multi-affine spectra of roughness exponent were obtained by calculating the q-order height-height correlation functions. We found that both interfaces are multi-affine, rather than self-affine. The multi-affine spectra of roughness exponents are found to be different for FeB/Fe{sub 2}B and Fe{sub 2}B/substrate interfaces, but independent on the treatment parameters (boron carbide paste thickness, temperature, and boriding time). Furthermore, we found that the multi-affine spectra of both interfaces behave as it is expected for 'universal multi-fractals' with the Levy index {gamma} = 1, associated with the multiplicative cascades with a log-Cauchy distribution. Furthermore, our data suggest a great homogeneity of the boron diffusion field, characterized by universal fractal dimension D{sub diff} = 2.90 {+-} 0.01. These findings provide a novel insight into the nature of phase formation during the boriding treatment.

  6. Hydrophilic Silicone Resins Obtained by Radiation Grafting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    N-vinylpyrrolidone was grafted radiochemically on a silicone resin by pre-irradiation in the presence of oxygen. Under these conditions, peroxide groups capable of initiating radical copolymerization are formed. The trapped radicals do not seem to make any contribution. An RTV (Room Temperature Vulcanization) type silicone resin was used, i. e. a poly(dimethylsiloxane) crosslinked by vinyl-silane bonds. The unsaturated product was transparent. The silicones containing phenyl groups as well as saturated resins were also studied. Irradiation with 60Co gamma rays was performed in the 10-kCi irradiator of the Radiation Applications Group (GAR) at Saclay. Brief pre-irradiation tests with an electron accelerator were also performed. The amount of polyvinylpyrrolidone(PVP) grafted depends on the pre-irradiation dose and dose-rate as well as on the temperature and duration of the grafting proper. These different parameters were analysed. The grafting efficiency of PVP can be as much as 60%. The grafted copolymers are more or less opaque and coloured sections show that grafting remains peripheral. The transparency can be restored by immersion in water. The swelling in water is such that the ratio of absorbed water to grafted PVP varies between 0.8 and 1.5. When the grafting efficiency is higher than 50%, it is observed that the grafted PVP redissolves after swelling. The redissolving is due to the breaking of the grafted chains. For grafting rates below 30%, the grafted PVP silicones have notably high thermal stability. Examination of some properties of the grafted PVP silicones shows the additive nature of the properties of the grafted copolymers. Reference is made to the possible applications of these products, especially in biology and medicine. (author)

  7. Allergenic extracts from Metarhizium canisopliae: obtainment and characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbieri, R T; Croce, J; Gandra, R F; Gagete, E; Paula, C R; Gambale, W

    2005-01-01

    Metarhizium anisopliae is used as a biopesticide for insects that damage agricultural plantations like sugar cane and forage plants. In a previous study the sensitization to this fungus of asthmatic patients coming from sugar cane areas was showed. The aims of this work were: to compare crude extracts obtained with Tris-HCl and Coca liquid from several growth phases of M. anisopliae concerning the total content of proteins and their electrophoretic analysis profile; to evaluate in vivo allergic sensitization in Balb/c mice and allergic patients from a sugar cane area, and to characterize the allergenic fractions in the sera of patients positive for the prick test by means of Western-blotting. The extract obtained with Coca liquid on the 16th day was the one that presented the greatest number of proteic fractions, including all those present in the other extracts. Twelve fractions were verified in this extract with approximate molecular weights from 94 to 14 kDa. The allergenicity of the extract obtained on the 16th day was proven by the production of IgE antibodies in Balb/c mice, with titres of 200. Prick tests carried out with the extract of the 16th day in 79 atopic individuals (from sugar cane area), 35 atopic individuals (from urban area) and 11 non- atopic individuals showed respective positivity of 29%, 9% and 0%. The allergenic characterization in vitro was performed by means of Western blotting, and the fractions that reacted with the positive individuals' sera were those of approximate molecular weights of 67 kDa (95%); 20 kDa (55%); 94 kDa (36%); 34 and 36 kDa (23%); 43 and 48 kDa (14%); 16 kDa (9%) and 54kDa (5%). It was concluded that the crude allergenic extract, obtained with Coca liquid from the 16th day growth of Metarhizium anisopliae, contains allergenic fractions and can be used in diagnostic screening tests. PMID:16047714

  8. Component Repair Times Obtained from MSPI Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eide, Steven A. [Curtiss-Wright/Scietech, Ketchum, ID (United States); Cadwallader, Lee [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-05-01

    Information concerning times to repair or restore equipment to service given a failure is valuable to probabilistic risk assessments (PRAs). Examples of such uses in modern PRAs include estimation of the probability of failing to restore a failed component within a specified time period (typically tied to recovering a mitigating system before core damage occurs at nuclear power plants) and the determination of mission times for support system initiating event (SSIE) fault tree models. Information on equipment repair or restoration times applicable to PRA modeling is limited and dated for U.S. commercial nuclear power plants. However, the Mitigating Systems Performance Index (MSPI) program covering all U.S. commercial nuclear power plants provides up-to-date information on restoration times for a limited set of component types. This paper describes the MSPI program data available and analyzes the data to obtain median and mean component restoration times as well as non-restoration cumulative probability curves. The MSPI program provides guidance for monitoring both planned and unplanned outages of trains of selected mitigating systems deemed important to safety. For systems included within the MSPI program, plants monitor both train UA and component unreliability (UR) against baseline values. If the combined system UA and UR increases sufficiently above established baseline results (converted to an estimated change in core damage frequency or CDF), a “white” (or worse) indicator is generated for that system. That in turn results in increased oversight by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and can impact a plant’s insurance rating. Therefore, there is pressure to return MSPI program components to service as soon as possible after a failure occurs. Three sets of unplanned outages might be used to determine the component repair durations desired in this article: all unplanned outages for the train type that includes the component of interest, only unplanned outages associated with failures of the component of interest, and only unplanned outages associated with PRA failures of the component of interest. The paper will describe how component repair times can be generated from each set and which approach is most applicable. Repair time information will be summarized for MSPI pumps and diesel generators using data over 2003 – 2007. Also, trend information over 2003 – 2012 will be presented to indicate whether the 2003 – 2007 repair time information is still considered applicable. For certain types of pumps, mean repair times are significantly higher than the typically assumed 24 h duration.

  9. Component Repair Times Obtained from MSPI Data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Information concerning times to repair or restore equipment to service given a failure is valuable to probabilistic risk assessments (PRAs). Examples of such uses in modern PRAs include estimation of the probability of failing to restore a failed component within a specified time period (typically tied to recovering a mitigating system before core damage occurs at nuclear power plants) and the determination of mission times for support system initiating event (SSIE) fault tree models. Information on equipment repair or restoration times applicable to PRA modeling is limited and dated for U.S. commercial nuclear power plants. However, the Mitigating Systems Performance Index (MSPI) program covering all U.S. commercial nuclear power plants provides up-to-date information on restoration times for a limited set of component types. This paper describes the MSPI program data available and analyzes the data to obtain median and mean component restoration times as well as non-restoration cumulative probability curves. The MSPI program provides guidance for monitoring both planned and unplanned outages of trains of selected mitigating systems deemed important to safety. For systems included within the MSPI program, plants monitor both train UA and component unreliability (UR) against baseline values. If the combined system UA and UR increases sufficiently above established baseline results (converted to an estimated change in core damage frequency or CDF), a ''white'' (or worse) indicator is generated for that system. That in turn results in increased oversight by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and can impact a plant's insurance rating. Therefore, there is pressure to return MSPI program components to service as soon as possible after a failure occurs. Three sets of unplanned outages might be used to determine the component repair durations desired in this article: all unplanned outages for the train type that includes the component of interest, only unplanned outages associated with failures of the component of interest, and only unplanned outages associated with PRA failures of the component of interest. The paper will describe how component repair times can be generated from each set and which approach is most applicable. Repair time information will be summarized for MSPI pumps and diesel generators using data over 2003 - 2007. Also, trend information over 2003 - 2012 will be presented to indicate whether the 2003 - 2007 repair time information is still considered applicable. For certain types of pumps, mean repair times are significantly higher than the typically assumed 24 h duration.

  10. Overview of galactic results obtained by MAGIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zanin, Roberta

    2013-06-15

    MAGIC is a system of two atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes which explores the very-high-energy sky, from some tens of GeV up to tens of TeV. Located in the Canary island of La Palma, MAGIC has the lowest energy threshold among the instruments of its kind, well suited to study the still poorly explored energy band below 100 GeV. Although the space-borne gamma-ray telescope Fermi/LAT is sensitive up to 300 GeV, gamma-ray rates drop fast with increasing energy, so ?-ray collection areas larger than 10{sup 4}m{sup 2}, as those provided by grounds-based instruments, are crucial above a few GeV. The combination of MAGIC and Fermi/LAT observations have provided the first astrophysical spectra sampled in the inverse Compton peak region, resulting in a complete coverage from MeV up to TeV energies, as well as the discovery of a pulsed emission in the very-high-energy band. This paper focuses on the latest results on Galactic sources obtained by MAGIC which are highlighted by the detection of the pulsed gamma-ray emission from the Crab pulsar up to 400 GeV. In addition, we will present the morphological study on the W51 complex which allowed to pinpoint the location of the majority of the emission around the interaction point between the supernova remnant W51C and the star forming region W51B, but also to find a possible contribution from the associated pulsar wind nebula. Other important scientific achievements involve the Crab Nebula with an unprecedented spectrum covering three decades in energy starting from 50 GeV and a morphological study of the unidentified source HESS J1857+026 which supports the pulsar wind nebula scenario. Finally we will report on the searches of very-high-energy signals from gamma-ray binaries, mainly LS I 303+ and HESS J0632+057.

  11. Synthesis and characterization of carbon fibers obtained through plasma techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study of carbon, particularly the nano technology is a recent field, the one which has important implications in the science of new materials. It investigation is of great interest for industries producers of ceramic, metallurgy, electronic, energy storage, biomedicine, among others. The diverse application fields are a reason at national as international level, so that many works are focused in the production of nano fibers of carbon. The Thermal plasma applications laboratory (LAPT) of the National Institute of Nuclear Research (ININ), it is carrying out works about carbon nano technology. The present work has as purpose to carry out the synthesis and characterization of the carbon nano fibers which are obtained by electric arch of alternating current (CA) to high frequencies and by a plasma gun of non transferred arch, where are used hydrocarbons like benzene, methane, acetylene like carbon source and ferrocene, nickel, yttrium and cerium oxide like catalysts. For both techniques its were thought about a relationship among hydrocarbon-catalyst that it favored to the nano fibers production. The obtained product of each experiment outlined it was analyzed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD), analysis with those were obtained pictures and diffraction graphs, which were observed to arrive to one conclusion on the operation conditions, same analysis with those were characterized the tests carried out according to the nano structures formation of carbon. (Author)

  12. Factores asociados a la práctica de la citología de cuello uterino, en mujeres desplazadas y población receptora en un asentamiento en Antioquia, Colombia, 2011 / Factors associated with pap smear among displaced women and host population in a settlement in Antioquia, Colombia, 2011

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Sara M., Ramos J; Isabel C., Garcés P.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: caracterizar los factores socioeconómicos, demográficos y de aseguramiento en salud, asociados a la práctica de la citología de cuello uterino, en mujeres en situación de desplazamiento y población receptora en el asentamiento Altos de Oriente, Bello, Colombia en el año 2011. METODOLOGIA: [...] se realizó análisis secundario de datos del estudio transversal ''caracterización histórica y sociodemográfica del asentamiento Altos de Oriente''. En esta encuesta se indagó acerca de la fecha de la última citología de cuello uterino, aseguramiento en salud, y variables socioeconómicas y demográficas. Se realizó un análisis descriptivo y se construyeron modelos de regresión logística. RESULTADOS: las mujeres del asentamiento tienen bajo nivel educativo, bajo nivel de ingresos y en su mayoría son cabeza de hogar. Los factores que se asociaron a no tener citologías recientes fueron: tener entre 41 y 49 años, no utilizar métodos de planificación familiar, no trabajar y haber cursado hasta la primaria o no tener ningún nivel educativo. CONCLUSION: los esfuerzos para aumentar cobertura de citología cérvico-uterina en este grupo de población desplazada y receptora, deberían enfocarse en mujeres entre los 41 y 49 años de edad, amas de casa y con bajo nivel educativo. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: to identify socioeconomic, demographic and health insurance factors , associated with Pap smear among displaced and host population in the settlement ''Altos de Oriente'', Antioquia, Colombia in 2011. METHODOLOGY: we conducted secondary data analysis of the cross-sectional study ''Histori [...] cal and socio-demographic description of the settlement Altos de Oriente''. The survey looked at date of last Pap smear, health insurance, and socioeconomic and demographic variables. We performed descriptive analysis and fitted logistic regression models. RESULTS: women of the settlement have low education, low income, and are mostly single mothers. Factors associated with not having a recent Pap were: being between 41 and 49 years of age, not using family planning methods, not having a job, and having only elementary school education or not education. CONCLUSION: efforts to increase coverage of Pap smear in this group of displaced and host population, should focus on women between 41 and 49 years old, housewives and poorly educated.

  13. Diagnostic value of prostatic acid phosphatase as determined by radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serum concentrations of prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP) were determined with 4 different radioimmunoassays and with the standard enzymatic method (p-nitrophenylphosphate) in 35 patients with prostatic carcinoma. Staging of localized tumors was based on histopathological evaluation after radial prostatectomy and pelvic lymphnode dissection (pTsub(1-3), pN0). In tumor lesions Tsub(1-2) N0 M0 elevated PAP-serum concentrations were found by RIA-determination in only one patient. Increased PAP serum levels were observed in 43-78% of carcinomas stage T3 N0 M0 and in 54-83% in stage Tsub(2-4) Nsub(x) M1 tumors, depending on the test kit used for the PAP determination. Concentrations for PAP obtained with the 4 different RIA-kits used, varied significantly and thus are not comparable. No false positive results were observed in sera of 9 patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia. Elevated PAP serum levels were found in a significantly higher frequency when determined by radioimmunoassay than by the enzymatic method. The results clearly indicate, that PAP is of no value for early recognition of carcinoma of the prostate even when measured by radioimmunoassay. However, the RIA-method seems to be of clinical importance in estimating the course of advanced local and metastasizing carcinoma of the prostate. (orig.)

  14. Introducing PAP: a plasma apprentice program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although current capabilities of symbolic computation and artificial intelligence are not adequate to do all the types of thinking a physicist does in solving physics problems, much of what the human theorist does can be effectively imitated by a computer. This paper describes an early stage of implementation of an apprentice program for aiding plasma theorists in developing plasma physics theory, by performing some of those tasks which the theorist normally must do, but which are now amenable to machine imitation. The apprentice has a ''knowledge base'' containing its understanding of plasma theory, which can be accessed by the human user for pedagogic purposes, as well as by the apprentice itself, and some ability to do the kinds of qualitative or heuristic reasoning necessary to the human theorist in solving problems. These facilities enable the apprentice itself to do plasma calculations, informing the user of the progress of the calculation, and prompting him when a decision is needed which the apprentice is not equipped to handle. Some extensions planned for the future are discussed

  15. Aplicación de Seis Sigma y los Métodos Taguchi para el Incremento de la Resistencia a la Prueba de Jalón de un Diodo Emisor de Luz / Implementing Six Sigma and Taguchi Methods to Obtain an Increased Resistance on a Pull Test of a Light Emitting Diode

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Yolanda A, Báez; Jorge, Limón; Diego A, Tlapa; Manuel A, Rodríguez.

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo trata sobre la aplicación de la metodología de seis sigma (DMAMC), así como los métodos Taguchi para resolver el problema de baja resistencia a la prueba de jalón de un diodo emisor de luz (LED) de una compañía electrónica del noroeste de México, el cual es utilizado en el ensamb [...] le de teléfonos celulares. Al término de este proyecto se logró una mejora significativa al aumentar la capacidad del proceso de 0.56 a 1.45 y un impacto en la reducción de los costos, tan solo por eliminación de desperdicio, del orden de 130 mil dólares estadounidenses anuales. Para lo anterior no se requirió de inversión adicional, únicamente fue necesario controlar el ajuste de cada uno de los factores importantes del proceso. Abstract in english This paper deals with the application of six sigma methodology (DMAIC) and Taguchi methods to solve the problem of low resistance of the pulling test of a light emitting diode (LED), which is used in the assembly of cellular telephones in a northwest Mexican electronic company. After finishing this [...] project a significant improvement was achieved that made possible to increase process capability from 0.56 to 1.45 and the impact in cost reduction only by the elimination of waste was of 130 thousand US dollars in savings per year. This achievement did not require additional investment, it was only necessary to control each of the most important factors in the process.

  16. Aplicación de Seis Sigma y los Métodos Taguchi para el Incremento de la Resistencia a la Prueba de Jalón de un Diodo Emisor de Luz Implementing Six Sigma and Taguchi Methods to Obtain an Increased Resistance on a Pull Test of a Light Emitting Diode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yolanda A Báez

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo trata sobre la aplicación de la metodología de seis sigma (DMAMC, así como los métodos Taguchi para resolver el problema de baja resistencia a la prueba de jalón de un diodo emisor de luz (LED de una compañía electrónica del noroeste de México, el cual es utilizado en el ensamble de teléfonos celulares. Al término de este proyecto se logró una mejora significativa al aumentar la capacidad del proceso de 0.56 a 1.45 y un impacto en la reducción de los costos, tan solo por eliminación de desperdicio, del orden de 130 mil dólares estadounidenses anuales. Para lo anterior no se requirió de inversión adicional, únicamente fue necesario controlar el ajuste de cada uno de los factores importantes del proceso.This paper deals with the application of six sigma methodology (DMAIC and Taguchi methods to solve the problem of low resistance of the pulling test of a light emitting diode (LED, which is used in the assembly of cellular telephones in a northwest Mexican electronic company. After finishing this project a significant improvement was achieved that made possible to increase process capability from 0.56 to 1.45 and the impact in cost reduction only by the elimination of waste was of 130 thousand US dollars in savings per year. This achievement did not require additional investment, it was only necessary to control each of the most important factors in the process.

  17. Flame temperature criteria tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the Lewis-Karlovitz flame temperature criteria had been based on data obtained from hydrogen flammability tests using hydrogen-air mixtures at room temperature and atmospheric pressure, a test program was conducted at Fenwal Incorporated to evaluate its applicability to a post-accident containment atmosphere at elevated temperature and pressure. Another objective of this test program was to obtain laminar burning velocities under post-accident containment atmospheric conditions. These velocities are needed for estimating the hydrogen burn time in containments. This paper presents the results obtained from this test program, which are then used to validate the Lewis-Karlovitz flame temperature criteria

  18. An antibacterial coating obtained through implantation of titanium ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Everyday life is exposed to the risks of contracting severe diseases due to the diffusion of severe pathogens. For this reason, efficient antimicrobial surfaces becomes a need of primary importance. In this work we report the first evidences of a new technique to synthesize an antibacterial coating on Ultra High Molecular Weight Polyethylene (UHMWPE)samples, based on a non-stoichiometric, visible light responsive, titanium oxide. The coating was obtained through laser ablation of a titanium target, then the resulting ions were accelerated and implanted on the samples. The samples where tested against a Staphylococcus aureus strain, in order to assay their antimicrobial efficacy. Results show that this treatment strongly discourages bacterial adhesion to the treated surfaces.

  19. Efecto del alcance del potencial en el comportamiento presión-temperatura en la transición isotrópico-nemático del 4-4'-bis(etiloxi) azoxibenceno (p-azoxifenetol, pap), 4-pentil-4'-cianobifenilo (5cb), p-metoxibenciliden-p-n-butilanilina (mbba) y del p-etoxibenciliden-p-n-butilanilina (ebba) / Effect of Potential Range in Pressure-Temperature Behavior in Isotropic-Nematic Transition of 4-4'-Bis(Ethyloxy) Azoxybenzene (P-Azoxyphenetole, Pap), 4-Pentyl-4'-Cyanobiphenyl (5cb), P-Methoxybenzydidene-P-N-Butylaniline (Mbba) and P-Ethoxybenzylidene-P-N-Butylaniline (Ebba)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    E, García-Sánchez; C.H., Castañeda-Ramírez; J.M., Cervantes-Viramontes.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo utilizamos la teoría de los funcionales de la densidad (modelo IPCM) para calcular el volumen molecular y k, así como la teoría de perturbaciones propuesta por García-Sánchez et al. (2002) para predecir el diagrama de fase y el comportamiento experimental presión-temperatura para la [...] transición isotrópico-nemático del 4-4'-bis(etiloxi)azoxibenceno (p-azoxifenetol, PAP), 4-pentil-4'-cianobifenilo (5CB), p-metoxibenciliden-p-n-butilanilina (MBBA) y del p-etoxibenciliden-p-n-butilanilina (EBBA) a 1 atm. Si se consideran en la predicción teórica valores cada vez más grandes del alcance del potencial de pozo cuadrado (? > k) se tendrán mejores predicciones del comportamiento experimental. Lo antes mencionado está de acuerdo con el planteamiento teórico de la teoría de perturbaciones a segundo orden donde se incluye la aproximación de largo alcance de Ponce y Renon. Abstract in english In this work we employed the Density Functional Theory (IPCM model) to calculate molecular volume and k, and the perturbation theory proposed by García-Sánchez et al. (2002) to predict phase diagram and experimental behavior pressure-temperature for isotropic-nematic transition of 4-4'-bis(ethyloxy) [...] azoxybenzene (p-azoxyphenetole, PAP), 4-pentyl-4'-cyanobiphenyl (5CB), p-methoxybenzydidene-p-n-butylaniline (MBBA) and p-ethoxybenzylidene-p-n-butylaniline (EBBA) at 1 atm. If during the theoretical prediction bigger potential values of potential range of square well (? > k) are considered in the theoretical model, it is possible to get better prediction of the experimental behavior. The above mentioned is according with the theoretical formulation of the Second Order Perturbation Theory since Ponce-Renon approximation is included.

  20. STUDY OF PEROVSKITES OBTAINED BY THE SOL-GEL METHOD

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    LILIAN, BOUYSSIÉRES; RENÉ, SCHIFFERLI; LORETO, URBINA; PAULO, ARAYA; JOSÉ MARIA, PALACIOS.

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Perovskites are very thermally stable mixed oxides, frequently used as oxidation catalysts in spite of their relatively low surface area. In order to increase the area the sol-gel method has been used, with malic acid as complexing agent and pH adjustment of the starting solution, to prepare the LaC [...] oO3 perovskite, used as a reference, and other perovskites in which the La cation has been partially replaced (20% molar) by Ca, Sr or Ba cations. Additionally, the cooling rate of the fresh catalysts, from the calcination temperature to room temperature, has been used as a parameter in the method of preparation. The catalysts were characterized by BET area, DRX, TG, DTA, and SEM-EDX. Catalytic activity was tested in a fixed bed flow reactor using the oxidation of CO with O2 reaction. The DRX studies confirmed the presence of a single phase with perovskite structure in the catalysts calcined at 550 C, and the additional studies confirmed that very uniform catalysts with great thermal stability were obtained. Substitution of La by group II cations and the method of preparation make it possible to obtain perovskites with large surface area and excellent catalytic activity for CO oxidation, reaching maximum conversion values, close to 100%, at temperatures of about 200 C. Changes in post-calcination cooling rate did not produce significant changes in the surface area or in the catalytic activity of the catalysts, except when Ba-substituted catalysts were used

  1. Digital holographic interferometry as a tool to obtain shapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uribe López, Ubaldo; Hernández-Montes, María. del Socorro; Muñoz-Solís, Silvino

    2015-08-01

    This work describes a new method to obtain shapes on surfaces based on digital holographic interferometry (DHI). Research has been reported with different methods, such as fringe projection. DHI, being a full-field technique, decreases the number of images to capture and the processing time, besides having a high resolution. Our proposed method consists in obtaining the shape of the object and a reference plane using an out-of-plane interferometer. The phase difference of the recorded holograms is achieved by means of the Fourier transform method. This resulting phase has a tilt produced by the angle of the object beam relative to the optical axis, which is removed by subtracting the phase difference from the reference plane. The method was tested in two cylinders, one with dimensions of 17.5x23.4mm reconstructed with a height sensitivity of 4.1mm, and another with two levels: one half with dimensions of 16.08x12.75mm, and the other half of 19.07x12.75mm; the result was a successfully reconstructed shape, with a height sensitivity of 2.7mm.

  2. Positional Quality Assessment of Orthophotos Obtained from Sensors Onboard Multi-Rotor UAV Platforms

    OpenAIRE

    Mesas-Carrascosa, Francisco Javier; Rumbao, Inmaculada Clavero; Berrocal, Juan Alberto Barrera; Porras, Alfonso García-Ferrer

    2014-01-01

    In this study we explored the positional quality of orthophotos obtained by an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). A multi-rotor UAV was used to obtain images using a vertically mounted digital camera. The flight was processed taking into account the photogrammetry workflow: perform the aerial triangulation, generate a digital surface model, orthorectify individual images and finally obtain a mosaic image or final orthophoto. The UAV orthophotos were assessed with various spatial quality tests use...

  3. Comparison of the Cobas 4800 HPV Test and the Seeplex HPV4A ACE with the Hybrid Capture 2 Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun Young Ki, Hee Eun Kim, Yeong-Jin Choi, Jong-Sup Park, Chang Seok Kang, Ahwon Lee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: It is well-known that persistent cervical infections with high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV are related to the development of high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and invasive cervical cancer and that infection with HPV 16 and HPV 18 accounts for approximately 70% of all cases of invasive cervical cancer.Methods: We performed 3 HPV molecular tests?the Cobas 4800 HPV test, the Seeplex HPV4A ACE, and the hybrid capture 2 (HC2 test?in 146 cervical swab samples to compare between these three tests.Results: There was a concordance rate of 82.8% between the results of the Cobas 4800 HPV and the HC2 test and a concordance rate of 84.9% between the results of the Seeplex HPV4A ACE and the HC2 test. Between the Cobas 4800 HPV test and the Seeplex HPV4A ACE, there was a concordance rate of 89.6% in the detection of high-risk HPV between the results and a concordance rate of 98.7% in the detection of HPV 16 or 18. When an abnormal Pap test was defined as ?low grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL, the sensitivity of the Cobas 4800 HPV test, the Seeplex HPV4A ACE and the HC2 test were 71.1%, 80.0%, and 88.9%, respectively, while their specificities were 76.4%, 74.5%, and 67.9%, respectively.Conclusions: The results of this study suggest that the Cobas 4800 HPV test and the Seeplex HPV4A ACE may be as effective as the HC2 test in detecting HR HPV and that the concordance between the results of the Cobas 4800 HPV test and the Seeplex HDV4A ACE may be higher in the detection of HPV 16 and HPV18 than concerning high-risk HPV.

  4. Titanium bioactivity surfaces obtained by chemical/electrochemical treatments

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Bruno Leandro, Pereira; Paola, Tummler; Cláudia E. B., Marino; Paulo César, Soares; Neide K., Kuromoto.

    Full Text Available There are various surface treatments used to modify titanium surfaces to render it bioactive. In this study commercially pure titanium surfaces (cp Ti), grade 2 were modified by acid etching (AE) and anodic oxidation (OA) in order to evaluate the bioactivity in vitro of these surfaces using the simu [...] lated body fluid (SBF). The AE was realized using a mixture of acids and AO using 1 mol.L-1 sulfuric acid. The anodic films were obtained under potentiostatic mode, during 60s using as anode a bar of titanium. All the surfaces that means cp Ti, AE and AO were analyzed concerning to morphology, rugosity, structural changes before in vitro bioactivity tests. It was observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) that all surfaces presented different morphologies: those with AE showed a surface with peaks and rounded valleys, with Ra = (564±80) nm, the oxidized surfaces with sulfuric acid showed a morphology with small pores uniformly distributed over the surface and Ra = (177±0,02) nm. X-rays diffraction results showed the presence of titanium hydride on the samples with AE and the anatase and rutile phases on the anodic films after heat treatment at 600°C/1h. Bioactivity tests in vitro using SBF at 37°C showed that small aggregates containing Ca and P were observed on surfaces with AE after 30 days soaked in SBF and the surfaces oxidized were fully coated with an apatite layer, identified by SEM.

  5. Obtaining membranes for alternative treatment hydrogels of cutaneous leishmaniasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polymeric Hydrogels formed by crosslinked polymeric chains were obtained by ionizing radiation process according to Rosiak technique. In the last 40 years the use of hydrogels has been investigated for various applications as curatives. In this work hydrogel membranes were synthesized with poly (N-2-pyrrolidone) (PVP), poly (vinyl alcohol) (PVA), chitosan and laponita clay for use as a vehicle for controlled glucantime release on the surface of skin tissues injured by leishmaniasis. Leishmaniasis is a disease caused by a protozoan parasite of the genus Leishmania transmitted by the bite of phlebotomies sandfly. The traditional treatment of patients infected by these parasites is done with pentavalent antimony in injectable form. However, these antimonates are highly toxic and cause side effects in these patients. In addition, patients with heart and kidney disease can not use this treatment. In treatment with drug delivery hydrogel membrane applied on the surface of leishmaniasis injured tissues the drug is released directly to the wound in a controlled manner, reducing the side effects. Membranes prepared in this study were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TG), swelling, gel fraction, infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The characterizations of cytotoxicity and drug release were made 'in vitro' and 'in vivo' with functional test according to ethical protocol of the Division of Infectious and Parasitic Diseases at the Hospital of Clinics, Sao Paulo University-School of Medicine, University. The 'in vivo' test of these membranes proved to be effective in controlled release of drugs directly into leishmaniasis damaged tissues. Results of 'in vivo' tests using PVP/PVAl / clay 1,5% and glucantime membrane showed remarkable contribution to wound reduction and cure in clinical therapy. (author)

  6. Positional quality assessment of orthophotos obtained from sensors onboard multi-rotor UAV platforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesas-Carrascosa, Francisco Javier; Rumbao, Inmaculada Clavero; Berrocal, Juan Alberto Barrera; Porras, Alfonso García-Ferrer

    2014-01-01

    In this study we explored the positional quality of orthophotos obtained by an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). A multi-rotor UAV was used to obtain images using a vertically mounted digital camera. The flight was processed taking into account the photogrammetry workflow: perform the aerial triangulation, generate a digital surface model, orthorectify individual images and finally obtain a mosaic image or final orthophoto. The UAV orthophotos were assessed with various spatial quality tests used by national mapping agencies (NMAs). Results showed that the orthophotos satisfactorily passed the spatial quality tests and are therefore a useful tool for NMAs in their production flowchart. PMID:25587877

  7. Track/train dynamics test procedure transfer function test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigil, R. A.

    1975-01-01

    A transfer function vibration test was made on an 80 ton open hopper freight car in an effort to obtain validation data on the car's nonlinear elastic model. Test configuration, handling, test facilities, test operations, and data acquisition/reduction activities necessary to meet the conditions of test requirements are given.

  8. Preparation for the HEC 1999 Test Beam (photos obtained from TRIUMF)

    CERN Multimedia

    1999-01-01

    Photo1 - Three mated modules after rotation are ready to go in the cryostat. Photo2 - The mated modules on the rotator (at 45 degrees). Photo3 - The HEC-2 modules with all the outer connecting bars in place. Photo4 - The HEC-2 modules with two connecting bars still missing. Photo5 - the happy assembly team with three mated HEC - 1 modules. Photo6 - the inner tie-bars assembled on the HEC2 modules.

  9. Numerical analysis of signals obtained for ultrasonic testing of thin austenitic steel welded joints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This method is based on the analysis of an image representative of a signal dynamics moving under the influence of an external physical parameter. The results presented here correspond to a signal processing utilizing two criteria of presumption of defect: instability of alternance phase and compared evolution of adjoining alternances

  10. Pap smear prevalence and that of pre-malignant and malignant cervical lesions amongst women living in the Carmen initiative demonstration area, Bucaramanga, Colombia Prevalencia de uso de citología vaginal y de lesiones premalignas y malignas del cérvix entre las mujeres del área demostrativa Carmen, Bucaramanga, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Janeth Uribe-Pérez

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Establishing the prevalence of premalignant and malignant cervical lesions amongst women living in the CARMEN initiative demonstration area, Bucaramanga, Colombia. Methodology: A cross-sectional study of 8,015 randomly selected women. Patients having abnormal cytology results received individualised diagnosis/treatment (colposcopy, biopsy, or conisation. Histopathological findings were correlated with demographical data and their sexual and reproductive history. Results: 8,071 women answered the survey but only 2,698 had up-to-date Pap smears (34.9%; 95%CI 17.2%-29.8%; 1,660 accepted updating their smears. 2.2% (95%CI 1.8%-2.6% had Pap smears positive for cervical lesions, this being higher in those living with more mature women. Pre-malignant and malignant cervical lesion prevalence was 1.1% (95%CI 0.8%-1.4%. Women with pre-malignant or malignant cervical lesions were younger, had begun their sexual intercourse earlier and had had more sexual partners than healthy women. Conclusions: Pre-malignant and malignant cervical lesion prevalence is higher than in other parts of the world. Pap smear coverage is very low. Early detection of cervical cancer must be intensified.Objetivo: Establecer la prevalencia de lesiones premalignas y malignas entre las mujeres que viven en el área demostrativa de la iniciativa CARMEN de Bucaramanga, Colombia. Metodología: Estudio trasversal de 8.015 mujeres seleccionadas al azar. Las pacientes con citología anormal fueron estudiadas y tratadas de manera individualizada según un protocolo que incluía colposcopia, biopsia o conización. Se hizo correlación histopatológica con las variables sociodemográficas y la historia sexual y reproductiva Resultados: 8.071 mujeres contestaron la encuesta, pero solo 2.698 tenía una citología reciente (34,9%; IC 95% 17,2%-29,8%; 1.660 actualizaron su citología. 2,2% de estas fueron positivas, siendo más alta entre las mujeres que viven con otras mujeres adultas. La prevalencia de lesiones premalignas y malignas del cuello uterino fue 1,1% (IC 95% 0,8%-1,4%. Las mujeres con lesiones cervicales premalignas o malignas eran más jóvenes, habían iniciado relaciones sexuales más temprano y habían tenido más compañeros sexuales que las mujeres sanas. Conclusiones: La prevalencia de lesiones cervicales premalignas y malignas es superior a la que se informa en otras partes del mundo, mientras que la cobertura de citología cérvicovaginal es muy baja. Es necesario intensificar las actividades que buscan la detección temprana de cáncer cervical.

  11. Prolyl Aminopeptidase from Streptomyces thermoluteus subsp. fuscus Strain NBRC14270 and Synthesis of Proline-Containing Peptides by Its S144C Variant? †

    OpenAIRE

    Yamamoto, Yukihiro; Usuki, Hirokazu; Iwabuchi, Masaki; Hatanaka, Tadashi

    2010-01-01

    We specifically examined an exopeptidase, prolyl aminopeptidase (PAP), as a target for synthesis of proline-containing peptides. A PAP from Streptomyces thermoluteus subsp. fuscus NBRC14270 (PAP14270) was obtained using sequence-based screening. From PAP14270, 144Ser was replaced by Cys (scPAP14270) to give aminolysis activity. In contrast to wild-type PAP14270, scPAP14270 produced a polymer of proline benzyl ester and cyclo[Pro-Pro]. The product mass was confirmed using liquid chromatography...

  12. Accuracy of stone casts obtained by different impression materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Cláudia Lapria Faria

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Several impression materials are available in the Brazilian marketplace to be used in oral rehabilitation. The aim of this study was to compare the accuracy of different impression materials used for fixed partial dentures following the manufacturers' instructions. A master model representing a partially edentulous mandibular right hemi-arch segment whose teeth were prepared to receive full crowns was used. Custom trays were prepared with auto-polymerizing acrylic resin and impressions were performed with a dental surveyor, standardizing the path of insertion and removal of the tray. Alginate and elastomeric materials were used and stone casts were obtained after the impressions. For the silicones, impression techniques were also compared. To determine the impression materials' accuracy, digital photographs of the master model and of the stone casts were taken and the discrepancies between them were measured. The data were subjected to analysis of variance and Duncan's complementary test. Polyether and addition silicone following the single-phase technique were statistically different from alginate, condensation silicone and addition silicone following the double-mix technique (p .05 to alginate and addition silicone following the double-mix technique, but different from polysulfide. The results led to the conclusion that different impression materials and techniques influenced the stone casts' accuracy in a way that polyether, polysulfide and addition silicone following the single-phase technique were more accurate than the other materials.

  13. [Significance of intraoperatively obtained peritoneal cytology in malignant ovarian tumors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göppinger, A; Hilgarth, M; Pfleiderer, A; Hillemanns, H G

    1986-11-01

    The evaluation of 259 peritoneal cytologic specimens obtained intraoperatively in cases of malignant ovarian tumor revealed positive findings in 62.5%; findings were doubtful in 2.3% and unusable in 2.7%. In the cases with clinically apparent peritoneal carcinomatosis, (n = 175), cytologic tests were positive in 75%. Taking tumor histology into account the high proportion of positive findings among the non-classifiable tumors (11 out of 13) was striking. For this reason, in a second investigation, 144 peritoneal cytologic specimens taken exclusively from cases of serous carcinomas were studied with regard to their degree of differentiation, the time of removal, and tumor spread. The peritoneal cytology was positive in 33% of the cases without peritoneal carcinomatosis at the first operation and in 36% of the cases with only histologically detectable tumor remnants at the time of the second-look operation. With one exception, peritoneal cytology was also negative in 26 second-look cases without clinically or histologically detected tumors. The incidence of positive peritoneal cytology findings was significantly higher in serous tumors with low-grade differentiation. PMID:3803875

  14. Disperse reinforced concrete used in obtaining prefabricated elements for roads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan MEZEI

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Concrete is the most used material in construction. By improving the performance of materials and of technologies, concretes with outstanding performances were also developed, in the past two decades. Concrete with dispersed reinforcement represents a new generation of reinforced concrete that combines a good behavior of concrete compressive strength with an increased tensile strength of steel fibers. Using this material, monolithic and prefabricated concrete elements with high mechanical strengths and high durability can be obtained. Technological processes for preparation of concrete with dispersed reinforcement are similar to the conventional methods and do not involve using additional equipment for dosing the dispersed reinforcement. The study aimed the development of road plates made with optimized disperse- reinforced concrete. The first tests were done on plates from the gutter roadway, having a classic reinforcement, using different percentages of fibre reinforcement in the concrete composition, leading to the development of a new optimized economical solution. The results prove the enhanced characteristics of the disperse-reinforced concrete versus conventional concrete, and hence of the developed concrete plates.

  15. Effect of Potential Range in Pressure-Temperature Behavior in Isotropic-Nematic Transition of 4-4´-Bis(EthyloxyAzoxybenzene (P-Azoxyphenetole, Pap, 4-Pentyl-4´-Cyanobiphenyl (5cb, P-Methoxybenzydidene-P-N-Butylaniline (Mbba and P–Ethoxybenzylidene–P–N-Butylaniline (Ebba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García-Sánchez E.

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In this work we employed the Density Functional Theory (IPCM model to calculate molecular volume and k, and the perturbation theory proposed by García-Sánchez et al. (2002 to predict phase diagram and experimental behavior pressure-temperature for isotropic-nematic transition of 4-4´-bis(ethyloxyazoxybenzene (p-azoxyphenetole, PAP, 4-pentyl-4´-cyanobiphenyl (5CB, p-methoxybenzydidene-p-n-butylaniline (MBBA and p–ethoxybenzylidene–p–n-butylaniline (EBBA at 1 atm. If during the theoretical prediction bigger potential values of potential range of square well (l > k are considered in the theoretical model, it is possible to get better prediction of the experimental behavior. The above mentioned is according with the theoretical formulation of the Second Order Perturbation Theory since Ponce-Renon approximation is included.

  16. Pinworm test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oxyuriasis test; Enterobiasis test; Tape test ... diagnose this infection is to do a tape test. The best time to do this is in ... to determine if there are eggs. The tape test may need to be done on 3 separate ...

  17. Obtainment, machining and wear of metal matrix composites processed by powder metallurgy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this investigation was the obtainment of metal matrix composites (MMC) by the route of powder metallurgy, and the valuation of these materials with relation to their machining and wear characteristics. Firstly, were obtained pure commercial aluminium matrix composites materials, with 5, 10 and 15% volumetric fraction of silicon carbide particles. Was also obtained a material without reinforcement particles in order to verify by comparison, the influence of addition of reinforcement particles. The obtained materials were characterized physics (hydrostatic density), mechanics (hardness and tensile tests) and microstructurally (optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy). The results showed a homogeneous distribution of reinforcement particles in the composite, and improvement in the mechanical properties, mainly tensile strength (UTS) in comparison to the unreinforced material. After, tests were made to verify the materials behavior during machining and to check the performance of several tool materials (cemented carbide, ceramics and polycrystalline diamond). In these tests, values of the cutting force were measured by instrumented tool-holders. Phenomena such as tool wear, built-up edge formation and mechanism of chip formation were also observed and evaluated. The results from the cemented carbide tool tests, were utilised for the machinability index determination of each material. These results were applied to the Taylor equation and the equation constants for each material and test conditions were determined. The results showed that the inclusion of silicon carbide particles made extremely difficult the machining of the composites, and only with diamond tool, satisfactory results were obtained. At last, wear tests were performed to verify the influence of the reinforcement particles in the characteristics of wear resistance of the materials. The results obtained were utilized in the wear coefficient determination for each material. The results showed an improvement in wear resistance, with the increase in volume fraction of reinforcement particles. (author)

  18. 20 CFR 327.15 - Reasonable efforts to obtain work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 false Reasonable efforts to obtain work. 327.15 Section 327.15 Employees...RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT AVAILABLE FOR WORK § 327.15 Reasonable efforts to obtain work. (a) Requirement. A claimant may...

  19. 32 CFR Appendix F to Part 275 - Obtaining Emergency Access

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...OBTAINING INFORMATION FROM FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS: RIGHT TO FINANCIAL PRIVACY ACT OF 1978 Pt. 275, App. F Appendix F...obtained by [Agency or Department] under the Right to Financial Privacy Act of 1978 on [date] for the following...

  20. ELECTROCHEMICAL TECHNOLOGIES FOR OBTAINING MOULDS FOR SOLES OF SHOES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia LUCA

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents contributions in the designing of some electrochemical technologiesfor the manufacturing of the moulds used in the footwear soles obtaining. There are presented a fewmethods for the moulds obtaining, using electro-deposit processes. There are presented thetechnological phases of the obtaining process of the electrolytes and electrodes preparing and thetechnological stages of the moulds manufacturing.

  1. Coincident pressure and stress data obtained from PT-278-A and PT-301-I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawley, J.P.; Adams, O.E.; Jones, S.S.

    1960-05-26

    This document presents experimental data obtained during a series of tests which were completed at 105-D and DR Reactors in February and March, 1960. No analysis of the data is included in this document. The tests were: PT-301-I, II -- Reactor cold, full flow, BPA power failure; PT-278-A, III B -- 1170 MW, full flow, BPA power failure; and PT-278-A, II -- 1190 MW, full flow, poison push causing bulk surge and scram.

  2. The structure of Cu-Cd alloys obtained electrolytically on monocrystal copper cathodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tests were made on the structure of Cu-Cd alloys obtained on single crystal copper cathodes with surfaces parallel to the (111), (110) and (100) planes. X-ray phase identification indicated the presence of ?-phase in the form of a solid solution of cadmium in copper. In the low cathode potentials range alloy crystallite orientation is governed by twinning on the [111] planes of crystallites of epitaxial orientation relative to cathode surface. The surface morphology of alloys obtained up to potential -490 mV depends on cathode type. Above this potential value alloy surface morphology is determined by potential at which it is obtained. (author)

  3. Sparging tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is a need to evaluate the radiological source term to determine radiological consequences for postulated LMFBR core disruptive accidents (CDA's). The source term consists of radioactive materials released in form of gases, vapors, liquids or solids from sodium pools. It has been determined that releases of solid particles from contaminated boiling or bubbling pools of sodium are as important as releases of gaseous species. However, very little work has been conducted to study the phenomenon and the magnitude of the solid particle release rate. The objective of the sparging test is to perform experiments to obtain quantitative data as well as phenomenological details on solid particle release rates from bubbling sodium pools to support modeling developments

  4. PTT Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Thrombin Time ; Lupus Anticoagulant Testing ; ACT ; Coagulation Factors ; Platelet Count ; Heparin Anti-Xa ; von Willebrand Factor ; Antiphospholipid Antibodies At a Glance Test Sample The Test Common ...

  5. HPV DNA testing improves CIN2+ risk stratification and detection of CIN2+ in delayed triage of ASCUS and LSIL. A population-based follow-up study from Western Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Norway, Pap smears with atypical squamous cells of uncertain significance (ASCUS) and low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL) are triaged after 6 months. The aim of the study was to evaluate effects of implementing human papillomavirus (HPV) test (2005) in delayed triage of ASCUS and LSIL in a cohort of women from Western Norway. After a survey of 119,469 cervical Pap smears during 2005–2007, a total of 1055 women with an index ASCUS or LSIL were included in the study and followed up for 3–6 years with respect to progression into cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 or worse (CIN2+). Overall sensitivity for detection of CIN2+ with HPV testing and cytology was 96% and 72%, respectively. The sensitivity for detection of CIN2+ was not affected by age, but the specificity of the HPV test increased with age. Thus, for the age groups <34 years, 34–50 years, and >50 years, the specificity of a positive HPV test to detect CIN2+ was 47%, 71%, and 82%, respectively. Positive predictive values for CIN2+ in women with positive cytology, positive HPV test, negative cytology, negative HPV test, or negative HPV and cytology tests were 52%, 41%, 8%, 1.5%, and 0.4%, respectively. HPV testing resulted in a net 22% increased detection of CIN2+. Fifty-six percent of CIN2+ was detected at an earlier time point with HPV testing in triage. Implementation of HPV testing in delayed triage of ASCUS and LSIL improved the stratification of CIN2+ risk and increased CIN2+ detection and at an earlier time point than with triage by cytology alone

  6. Line Segment Intersection Testing

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Yong-Kang; Yong, Jun-Hai; Zheng, Guo-Qin

    2005-01-01

    Amethod for accurately determining whether two given line segments intersect is presented. This method uses the standard floating-point arithmetic that conforms to IEEE 754 standard. If three or four ending points of the two given line segments are on a same vertical or horizontal line, the intersection testing result is obtained directly. Otherwise, the ending points and their connections are mapped onto a 3 × 3 grid, and the intersection testing falls into one of the five testing classes. T...

  7. Reactor Simulator Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenfeld, Michael P.; Webster, Kenny L.; Pearson, Boise J.

    2013-01-01

    As part of the Nuclear Systems Office Fission Surface Power Technology Demonstration Unit (TDU) project, a reactor simulator test loop (RxSim) was design & built to perform integrated testing of the TDU components. In particular, the objectives of RxSim testing was to verify the operation of the core simulator, the instrumentation and control system, and the ground support gas and vacuum test equipment. In addition, it was decided to include a thermal test of a cold trap purification design and a pump performance test at pump voltages up to 150 V since the targeted mass flow rate of 1.75 kg/s was not obtained in the RxSim at the originally constrained voltage of 120 V. This paper summarizes RxSim testing. The gas and vacuum ground support test equipment performed effectively in NaK fill, loop pressurization, and NaK drain operations. The instrumentation and control system effectively controlled loop temperature and flow rates or pump voltage to targeted settings. The cold trap design was able to obtain the targeted cold temperature of 480 K. An outlet temperature of 636 K was obtained which was lower than the predicted 750 K but 156 K higher than the cold temperature indicating the design provided some heat regeneration. The annular linear induction pump (ALIP) tested was able to produce a maximum flow rate of 1.53 kg/s at 800 K when operated at 150 V and 53 Hz.

  8. [History of the development of screening tests for cervical cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Yelda A; Piña-Sánchez, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    Cervical cancer (CC) is one of the best known malignancies. Currently, it is accepted that the etiological factor is persistent infection with high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV). Even before the identification of its etiological factors, methods such as Pap cytology and colposcopy were developed as tools for early diagnosis on CC and its precursor lesions. At the time when such tests were being developed, they were not fully accepted by the scientific community of the time; however, as time went by, the dissemination of knowledge, and more extensive application, these tests were finally included within the international guidelines. The implementation of programs with adequate coverage and quality allowed a significant reduction in the incidence and mortality of CC. However this did not occur widely, and CC is still a public health problem in developing countries. From the epidemiological and molecular viewpoint, knowledge on HPVs laid the foundations for the development of new prevention strategies based on vaccination and molecular detection of the causal agent, currently accepted as strategies for primary and secondary prevention. It is expected that the implementation of these strategies will have a greater impact on the control on CC and other malignancies associated with HPV infection. PMID:26506482

  9. Coombs test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Direct antiglobulin test; Indirect antiglobulin test ... No special preparation is necessary for this test. ... There are two types of the Coombs test: Direct Indirect The ... that are stuck to the surface of red blood cells. Many diseases ...

  10. Gonorrhea Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... preferred methods of testing for gonorrhea currently are molecular tests, including the nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT). ... that they can receive treatment if infected. However, molecular tests should not be used to verify cases ...

  11. Parametric fitting of data obtained from detectors with finite resolution and limited acceptance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A goodness-of-fit test for fitting of a parametric model to data obtained from a detector with finite resolution and limited acceptance is proposed. The parameters of the model are found by minimization of a statistic that is used for comparing experimental data and simulated reconstructed data. Numerical examples are presented to illustrate and validate the fitting procedure.

  12. Factors Related to the Number of Fast Food Meals Obtained by College Meal Plan Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dingman, Deirdre A.; Schulz, Mark R.; Wyrick, David L.; Bibeau, Daniel L.; Gupta, Sat N.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: This study tested whether days on campus, financial access through a meal plan, and health consciousness were associated with number of meals that college students obtained from fast food restaurants. Participants and Methods: In April 2013, all students currently enrolled in a meal plan were invited to participate in an online survey…

  13. Antioxidant Capacity in Vanilla Extracts Obtained by Applying Focused Microwaves

    OpenAIRE

    María P. Cañizares-Macías; Adalith Rojas-López

    2013-01-01

    ORAC method and a continuous flow injection method based on Folin-Ciocalteau reaction (FI-FC) were used for determining the antioxidant activity in extracts obtained by using focused microwaves. Analysis of the antioxidant capacity (AC) of the main compounds of vanilla (vanillin, p-hydroxybenzaldehyde, p-hydroxybenzoic acid and vanillic acid) was also carried out. Vanilla extracts obtained by using focused microwaves had a higher AC (between 72% and 117%) than the obtained by conventional me...

  14. Impossibility of obtaining split links from split links via twistings

    OpenAIRE

    Ozawa, Makoto

    2001-01-01

    We show that if a split link is obtained from a split link $L$ in $S^3$ by $1/n$-Dehn surgery along a trivial knot $C$, then the link $L\\cup C$ is splittable. That is to say, it is impossible to obtain a split link from a split link via a non-trivial twisting. As its corollary, we completely determine when a trivial link is obtained from a trivial link via a twisting.

  15. Diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis from self-obtained vaginal swabs.

    OpenAIRE

    THORP, John M; David A. Savitz; Barbara Eucker; Robert A. Strauss

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the concordance between vaginal fluid Gram stains and pH obtained at speculum exam with similar stains and pH prepared from self-obtained vaginal swabs. METHODS: Using vaginal fluid Gram stain, 129 pregnant women were screened for bacterial vaginosis at 24 to 29 weeks' gestation. Two smears were collected from each woman during the same prenatal visit: the first was prepared from a self-obtained vaginal swab and the second from a physician-obtained speculum examination...

  16. Machining tools in AISI M2 high-speed steel obtained by spray forming process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the present work was the obtention of AISI M2 high-speed steel by spray forming technique and the material evaluation when used as machining tool. The obtained material was hot rolled at 50% and 72% reduction ratios, and from which it was manufactured inserts for machining tests. The performance of inserts made of the spray formed material was compared to inserts obtained from conventional and powder metallurgy (MP) processed materials. The spray formed material was chemical, physical, mechanical and microstructural characterised. For further characterisation, the materials were submitted to machining tests for performance evaluation under real work condition. The results of material characterisation highlight the potential of the spray forming technique, in the obtention of materials with good characteristics and properties. Under the current processing, hot rolling and heat treatments condition, the analysis of the results of the machining tests revealed a very similar behaviour among the tested materials. Proceeding a criterious analysis of the machining results tests, it was verified that the performance presented by the powder metallurgy material (MP) was slight superior, followed by conventional obtained material (MConv), which presented a insignificant advantage over the spray formed and hot rolled (72% reduction ratio) material. The worst result was encountered for the spray forming and hot rolled (50% reduction ratio) material that presented the highest wear values. (author)

  17. Application of Dosimetric Methods for Obtaining Diagnostic Reference Levels in Panoramic Dental Radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The goals of the present study were to verify the viability of using a kerma area product (PKA) meter and a pencil ionization chamber to evaluate the PKA and PKL (kerma length product) in a panoramic X ray unit as feasible methods to obtain dosimetric reference values for panoramic examinations. Two methods for obtaining PKA in panoramic devices have been tested in this study. The two methods evaluated found similar values, making it possible to include these tests in the quality control routine demanded by the regulations. Considering the results of this study, it is possible to conclude that both methods of measurement can be used simply and directly obtain diagnostic reference values for this practice. Using on dosimetric reference values in this type of examination is a better way to evaluate the exposition of patients. (author)

  18. Automatic quality classification of entire electrocardiographic recordings obtained with a novel patch type recorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saadi, Dorthe Bodholt; Hoppe, Karsten

    2014-01-01

    Recently, new patch type electrocardiogram (ECG) recorders have reached the market. These new devices possess a number of advantages compared to the traditional Holter recorders. This forms the basis of questions related to benefits and drawbacks of different ambulatory ECG recording techniques. One of the important questions is the ability to obtain high clinical quality of the recordings during the entire monitoring period. It is thus desirable to be able to obtain an automatic estimate of the global quality of entire ECG recordings. The purpose of this pilot study is therefore to design an algorithm for automatic classification of entire ECG recordings into the groups “noisy” and “clean” recordings. This novel algorithm is based on three features and a simple Bayes classifier. The algorithm was tested on 40 ECG recordings in a five-fold cross validation scheme and it obtained an average accuracy of 90% on the test data.

  19. Elastic Materials Obtained By Radiation-Chemical Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Elastomer materials (EM) based on butadiene-nitrile rubber are widely used in oil industry as hermetic and sealing details in various units: oilrig pumps, swivels etc. Such elastomer materials should work in difficult conditions: in sea water, clay suspensions, oil-bearing liquids, pyrocondensate, under mechanical and dynamical loadings and elevated temperatures. Stability of work of the equipment depends on durability of elastic polymers in many respects. It is known, that varying the vulcanization means, it is essentially possible to influence the exploitation characteristics of rubbers by creating various cross-linking structures responsible for other properties of ready material. Processes of vulcanization and elaboration of radiation-chemical technologies for production of aggressive-resistant EM for drilling equipment were always the focus of specialists' attention. Specific requirements to EM for oil industry show directions of search. Application and technological aspects of radiation-chemical vulcanization VNC-VPVC-30 at presence of polyfunctional low-molecular compounds were considered. Radiation vulcanization was performed in the central channel of 60 Co- source of ionizing gamma-radiation at the dose rate of 25 kGy/hour. The mix after combined radiation-thermal vulcanization and EM preliminary warmed-up in press at 155 oC for 8-10 minutes was gamma-irradiated in the air environment at the temperature of 250 oC in the doze range from 50 up to 300 kGy/h. Sol-gel analysis was carried out by the Flory-Renar method, the samples were extracted with hot acetone during 24 hours, then exsiccated up to a constant weight, then once again extracted with cold benzene for 30 hours. Changes of the rubber molecular structure at the vulcanization were studied on infrared spectra. Working ability of the sealing details was estimated at the test bench and by results of measurement of chemical relaxation of stress, accumulation of residual compressive deformation and physical mechanical characteristics. Basing on new vulcanization systems of multifunctional monomers at the radiochemical means of vulcanization, influence of the certain combination of different bond types on the optimal complex of properties was confirmed, also the ways of obtaining the desirable structures were shown. By irradiation and sol-gel analysis the part of polymer insoluble after structuring was studied. The efficiency of cross-section connections was determined in the radiation and thermal-radiation vocalizations. Applying physical and chemical methods of analysis, the molecular structure of radiation vocalizations with participation of multifunctional monomers was defined. It was established, that thermal-radiation products possess the best complex of properties. It was indicated, that elastomer materials obtained with the combined technique surpass sulfuric ones in the resistance to thermal ageing in air and in aggressive environments. EM manufactured on the elaborated technology, are used as sealing elements of machines and the units maintained in clay and petroliferous solutions, on condensate and sea water at elevated temperatures in difficult dynamic conditions. (authors)

  20. Reliability of fish size estimates obtained from multibeam imaging sonar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hightower, Joseph E.; Magowan, Kevin J.; Brown, Lori M.; Fox, Dewayne A.

    2013-01-01

    Multibeam imaging sonars have considerable potential for use in fisheries surveys because the video-like images are easy to interpret, and they contain information about fish size, shape, and swimming behavior, as well as characteristics of occupied habitats. We examined images obtained using a dual-frequency identification sonar (DIDSON) multibeam sonar for Atlantic sturgeon Acipenser oxyrinchus oxyrinchus, striped bass Morone saxatilis, white perch M. americana, and channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus of known size (20–141 cm) to determine the reliability of length estimates. For ranges up to 11 m, percent measurement error (sonar estimate – total length)/total length × 100 varied by species but was not related to the fish's range or aspect angle (orientation relative to the sonar beam). Least-square mean percent error was significantly different from 0.0 for Atlantic sturgeon (x? ?=? ?8.34, SE ?=? 2.39) and white perch (x? ?=?14.48, SE ?=? 3.99) but not striped bass (x? ?=? 3.71, SE ?=? 2.58) or channel catfish (x? ?=?3.97, SE ?=? 5.16). Underestimating lengths of Atlantic sturgeon may be due to difficulty in detecting the snout or the longer dorsal lobe of the heterocercal tail. White perch was the smallest species tested, and it had the largest percent measurement errors (both positive and negative) and the lowest percentage of images classified as good or acceptable. Automated length estimates for the four species using Echoview software varied with position in the view-field. Estimates tended to be low at more extreme azimuthal angles (fish's angle off-axis within the view-field), but mean and maximum estimates were highly correlated with total length. Software estimates also were biased by fish images partially outside the view-field and when acoustic crosstalk occurred (when a fish perpendicular to the sonar and at relatively close range is detected in the side lobes of adjacent beams). These sources of bias are apparent when files are processed manually and can be filtered out when producing automated software estimates. Multibeam sonar estimates of fish size should be useful for research and management if these potential sources of bias and imprecision are addressed.

  1. Properties of ultrasonic testing systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For a long time, ultrasonic testing of reactor components and plants whose safety had to meet high demands, lacked definitions of the required properties of the ultrasonic testing system. The standard draft DIN 25 450 states demands on the ultrasonic testing unit and the test heads and recommends measuring methods to determine their properties. With test units and test heads meeting the demands of the draft a better reproducibility of the test is obtained than before; the improved test statement results in an increased safety during production and operation of components and plants. (orig./HP)

  2. HIV Testing in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... HIV testing can often be obtained at no cost. Key Dates in the History of HIV Testing 9 1981: First AIDS case reported 1984: Human immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) identified 1985: First test for HIV licensed (ELISA) 1987: First Western Blot ...

  3. Treatment Option Overview (Uterine Sarcoma)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cervix, uterus, fallopian tubes , ovaries , and rectum . A speculum is inserted into the vagina and the doctor ... on the Pap test. Enlarge Pap test. A speculum is inserted into the vagina to widen it. ...

  4. Treatment Options by Stage (Uterine Sarcoma)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cervix, uterus, fallopian tubes , ovaries , and rectum . A speculum is inserted into the vagina and the doctor ... on the Pap test. Enlarge Pap test. A speculum is inserted into the vagina to widen it. ...

  5. Stages of Uterine Sarcoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cervix, uterus, fallopian tubes , ovaries , and rectum . A speculum is inserted into the vagina and the doctor ... on the Pap test. Enlarge Pap test. A speculum is inserted into the vagina to widen it. ...

  6. Copper diffusion on glass to obtain optical waveguides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Planar optical waveguides have been obtained by copper diffusion on glass substrates. External electric field was been employed to accelerate ion exchange process. Copper profiles in glass were obtained by SEM with X ray microprobe, and optical properties have been determinated by prism coupling technique. (Author)

  7. Obtaining the Electron Angular Momentum Coupling Spectroscopic Terms, jj

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orofino, Hugo; Faria, Roberto B.

    2010-01-01

    A systematic procedure is developed to obtain the electron angular momentum coupling (jj) spectroscopic terms, which is based on building microstates in which each individual electron is placed in a different m[subscript j] "orbital". This approach is similar to that used to obtain the spectroscopic terms under the Russell-Saunders (LS) coupling…

  8. A New Method for Obtaining Russell-Saunders Terms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ying; Liu, Yue; Liu, Bihui

    2011-01-01

    A new method for obtaining Russell-Saunders terms of atomic configurations is reported. This new method is significantly different from, while at the same time complementary to, previously published methods for obtaining atomic terms. This novel procedure is elicited by the method used to determine the splitting of S, P, D terms in weak ligand…

  9. Testing of abrasion materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method of abrasion testing according to ASTM C 704-76 a is presented for steel fibre concrete mortar, fusion-cast basalt and a surface coating material and results of practical interest are mentioned. Due to the high technical demands on these materials and their specific fields of application, the very first test already supplied interesting findings. From the user's point of view, the method is an interesting alternative to the common test methods, e.g. according to DIN 52 108 (wheel test according to Boehme). In English-speaking countries, testing according to ASTM is often mandatory in the refractory industry in order to assure constant quality of refractory materials after setting. The method is characterized by good comparability and high accuracy of measurement. Only the test piece is exchanged while the test conditions remain constant, so that accurate information on the material studied is obtained. (orig.)

  10. Snubber testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The demand for snubber testing has increased over the past few years leading to the design and development of several snubber test machines with unique capabilities. This paper presents some of the test techniques used during the performance of product development, qualification, and in-service inspection tests. General test results are discussed as a function of varying the test parameters. Machine configurations and test techniques are also presented. 2 refs

  11. A new process to obtain palladium as metal powders from salts: thermodynamic an kinetic study

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    M., Villicaña; M. G., Garnica-Romo; J. F., Pérez-Robles; J. A., Cortes.

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work, a new process to obtain palladium powders from their salts by using a cementation process (in aqueous solution) through an iron electrode and a catalyst agent was studied. The process gives results that in practice can also be applied to obtain bulk metal from secondary sources. Nano a [...] nd micrometric particles could be obtained from this new process. The physicochemical and morphological characteristics of these powders are heavily dependent on the method used for their production. For the Palladium test and PdCl2 solution 0.093 M, a minimum quantity of catalyst agent was added to accelerate the reaction. In the palladium powders only small round particles were obtained, which can be easily suspended in solution. For the reaction, there is no considerable temperature dependence. Thus, the process can be carried out at room temperature resulting in considerable energy saving.

  12. Construction and commissioning test report of the CEDM test facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The test facility for performance verification of the control element drive mechanism (CEDM) of next generation power plant was installed at the site of KAERI. The CEDM was featured a mechanism consisting of complicated mechanical parts and electromagnetic control system. Thus, a new CEDM design should go through performance verification tests prior to it's application in a reactor. The test facility can simulate the reactor operating conditions such as temperature, pressure and water quality and is equipped with a test chamber to accomodate a CEDM as installed in the power plant. This test facility can be used for the following tests; endurance test, coil cooling test, power measurement and reactivity rod drop test. The commissioning tests for the test facility were performed up to the CEDM test conditions of 320 C and 150 bar, and required water chemistry was obtained by operating the on-line water treatment system

  13. Prenatal Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Parents > Doctors & Hospitals > Medical Tests & Exams > FAQs: Prenatal Tests Print A A A Text Size What's in this ... Tests: Third Trimester Prenatal Tests: Second Trimester Prenatal Tests: First Trimester Having a Healthy Pregnancy Contact Us Print Additional resources Send to a friend Reprint guidelines ...

  14. Mathematical models for correction of images, obtained at radioisotope scan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The images, which obtained at radioisotope scintigraphy, contain distortions. Distortions appear as a result of absorption of radiation by patient's body's tissues. Two mathematical models for reducing of such distortions are proposed. Image obtained by only one gamma camera is used in the first mathematical model. Unfortunately, this model allows processing of the images only in case, when it can be assumed, that the investigated organ has a symmetric form. The images obtained by two gamma cameras are used in the second model. It gives possibility to assume that the investigated organ has non-symmetric form and to acquire more precise results. (authors)

  15. Nanostructured films of metal particles obtained by laser ablation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colloidal dispersions of silver and gold nanoparticles were obtained in pure water by ablation with nanosecond pulsed laser. Then, by filtration of the metal particles on alumina, we fabricated nanostructured films, whose surface morphology was examined by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and related to surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) after adsorption of adenine. - Highlights: • Ag and Au colloidal nanoparticles were obtained by laser ablation. • Nanostructured Ag and Au films were fabricated by filtration of metal nanoparticles. • Surface morphology of metal films was investigated by atomic force microscopy. • Surface-enhanced Raman spectra (SERS) of adenine on metal films were obtained. • SERS enhancements were related to the surface roughness of the metal films

  16. Nanostructured films of metal particles obtained by laser ablation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muniz-Miranda, M., E-mail: muniz@unifi.it [Dipartimento di Chimica “U. Schiff”, Università di Firenze, Via della Lastruccia 3, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Gellini, C. [Dipartimento di Chimica “U. Schiff”, Università di Firenze, Via della Lastruccia 3, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Giorgetti, E.; Margheri, G.; Marsili, P. [Istituto Sistemi Complessi (CNR), Via Madonna del Piano 10, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Lascialfari, L.; Becucci, L. [Dipartimento di Chimica “U. Schiff”, Università di Firenze, Via della Lastruccia 3, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Trigari, S. [Istituto Sistemi Complessi (CNR), Via Madonna del Piano 10, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Giammanco, F. [Dipartimento di Fisica “E. Fermi”, Università di Pisa, Largo Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy)

    2013-09-30

    Colloidal dispersions of silver and gold nanoparticles were obtained in pure water by ablation with nanosecond pulsed laser. Then, by filtration of the metal particles on alumina, we fabricated nanostructured films, whose surface morphology was examined by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and related to surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) after adsorption of adenine. - Highlights: • Ag and Au colloidal nanoparticles were obtained by laser ablation. • Nanostructured Ag and Au films were fabricated by filtration of metal nanoparticles. • Surface morphology of metal films was investigated by atomic force microscopy. • Surface-enhanced Raman spectra (SERS) of adenine on metal films were obtained. • SERS enhancements were related to the surface roughness of the metal films.

  17. Forming Tests for Laser Welded Blanks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger, Claus; Olsen, Flemming Ove; Rasmussen, Mads

    1998-01-01

    In this paper different means for testing the formability of new material combinations used as tailored blanks in the automotive industry are presented. The following forming techniques will be described and their benefits and drawbacks presented :Limiting Dome Height test (LDH)Limiting Drawing Ratio test (LDR)Tensile testBulge testMarziniak testPractical examples obtained for laser welded blanks are shown. In combination, tensile tests and the Bulge test can form the so-called Forming Limiting ...

  18. 40 CFR 270.100 - Who must obtain a RAP?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) EPA ADMINISTERED PERMIT PROGRAMS: THE HAZARDOUS WASTE PERMIT PROGRAM Remedial Action Plans (RAPs) Applying for A Rap § 270.100 Who must obtain a RAP? When a facility or remediation waste management site is...

  19. 24 CFR 81.45 - Obtaining and disseminating information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... THE SECRETARY OF HUD'S REGULATION OF THE FEDERAL NATIONAL MORTGAGE ASSOCIATION (FANNIE MAE) AND THE FEDERAL HOME LOAN MORTGAGE CORPORATION (FREDDIE MAC) Fair Housing § 81.45 Obtaining and disseminating information....

  20. Software to obtain polynomial coefficients from gage to calibration data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This manual describes the software developed for use with the HP9845 desktop computer to obtain various order polynomial coefficients used in conversion algorithms by the WIPP MODCOMP data acquisition computer from gage calibrations

  1. Process modifications of obtaining Tc-99m by solvent extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes a modification in the process to obtaining Tc-99m by the extraction method of solvent from Mo-99 produced by irradiation. Tc-99m is considered an ideal radionuclide for medical and biological applications

  2. High purity zirconium obtainment through the iodine compounds transport method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the experimental method and the equipment designed, constructed and actually applied for the high purity zirconium obtainment from a zirconium sponge of the nuclear type. The mechanism of purification is based on the impure metal attack with gaseous iodine (at 200 deg C) to obtain zirconium tetra iodine as main product which is then transformed into a pure zirconium base (at 1000-1300 deg C), precipitating the metallic zirconium and releasing the gaseous iodine. From the first experiences carried out, pure zirconium has been obtained from an initial filament of 0.5 mm of diameter as well as wires up to 2.5 mm of diameter. This work presents the results from the studies and analysis made to characterize the material obtained. Finally, the refining methods to which the zirconium produced may be submitted so as to optimize the final purity are discussed. (Author)

  3. Treatment of biomass to obtain a target chemical

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunson, Jr., James B. (Newark, DE); Tucker, III, Melvin P. (Lakewood, CO); Elander, Richard T. (Evergreen, CO); Hennessey, Susan Marie (Avondale, PA)

    2010-08-24

    Target chemicals were produced using biocatalysts that are able to ferment sugars derived from treated biomass. Sugars were obtained by pretreating biomass under conditions of high solids and low ammonia concentration, followed by saccharification.

  4. Laboratory Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Medical Procedures In Vitro Diagnostics Lab Tests Laboratory Tests Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options Linkedin Pin it Email Print This section provides information about lab tests your ...

  5. IQ testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    IQ (intelligence quotient) testing is a series of exams used to determine your general intelligence in relation ... Many IQ tests are used today. Whether they measure actual intelligence or simply certain abilities is controversial. IQ tests ...

  6. Osmolality Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Electrolytes , Glucose , Sodium , Emergency and Overdose Drug Testing , ADH At a Glance Test Sample The Test Common ... increased fluid intake, lack of appropriate amounts of ADH , or diabetes , with increased glucose levels leading to ...

  7. Fungal Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... as: KOH Prep; Fungal Smear; Mycology Tests; Fungal Molecular Tests Formal name: Potassium Hydroxide Preparation; Fungal Culture; ... evaluation of these results may take several weeks. Molecular tests may be performed to identify fungi grown ...

  8. First donation of human skin obtained from corpse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first donation of human skin coming from a cadaverous donor was obtained in the State of Mexico. The skin was obtained of a 34 year-old multi organic donor, the extraction of the same was carried out in an operating theatre by medical personnel, supported by personal of the Radio sterilized Tissue Bank (BTR) of the ININ. The skin was transported to the BTR for it processing. (Author)

  9. Quantum Algorithm for Obtaining the Energy Spectrum of Molecular Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Hefeng; Kais, Sabre; Aspuru-Guzik, Alan; Hoffmann, Mark R.

    2009-01-01

    Simulating a quantum system is more efficient on a quantum computer than on a classical computer. The time required for solving the Schr\\"odinger equation to obtain molecular energies has been demonstrated to scale polynomially with system size on a quantum computer, in contrast to the well-known result of exponential scaling on a classical computer. In this paper, we present a quantum algorithm to obtain the energy spectrum of molecular systems based on the multi-configurat...

  10. Acclimatization of Phalaenopsis and Cattleya obtained by micropropagation

    OpenAIRE

    Lucía Primitiva Díaz; Jorge Julio Namur; Sebastián Agustín Bollati; Osvaldo Ernesto Antonio Arce

    2010-01-01

    Título en español: Aclimatización de Phalaenopsis y Cattleya obtenidas por micropropagación ABSTRACT The quality of micropropagated plants relies on the acclimatization stage. This research intends to develop an efficient protocol to obtain the acclimatization of Phalaenopsis and Cattleya. Plants of Phalaenopsis obtained from protocorms were selected. They came from flowering stalks grown at modified Murashige and Skoog (MS) (1962) medium and classified by growth ranks and put into mo...

  11. Randomization tests

    CERN Document Server

    Edgington, Eugene

    2007-01-01

    Statistical Tests That Do Not Require Random Sampling Randomization Tests Numerical Examples Randomization Tests and Nonrandom Samples The Prevalence of Nonrandom Samples in Experiments The Irrelevance of Random Samples for the Typical Experiment Generalizing from Nonrandom Samples Intelligibility Respect for the Validity of Randomization Tests Versatility Practicality Precursors of Randomization Tests Other Applications of Permutation Tests Questions and Exercises Notes References Randomized Experiments Unique Benefits of Experiments Experimentation without Mani

  12. Thermoluminescence properties of zinc oxide obtained by solution combustion synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orante B, V. R.; Escobar O, F. M.; Cruz V, C. [Universidad de Sonora, Departamento de Investigacion en Polimeros y Materiales, Apdo. Postal 130, 83000 Hermosillo, Sonora (Mexico); Bernal, R., E-mail: victor.orante@polimeros.uson.mx [Universidad de Sonora, Departamento de Investigacion en Fisica, Apdo. Postal 5-088, 83190 Hermosillo, Sonora (Mexico)

    2014-08-15

    High-dose thermoluminescence dosimetry properties of novel zinc oxide obtained by solution combustion synthesis in a glycine-nitrate process, with a non-stoichiometric value of the elemental stoichiometric coefficient (?{sub c}) are presented in this work. Zn O powder samples obtained were annealed afterwards at 900 grades C during 2 h in air. Sintered particles of sizes between ? 0.5 and ? 2 ?m were obtained, according to scanning electron microscopy results. X-ray diffraction indicates the presence of the hexagonal phase of Zn O for the powder samples obtained, before and after thermal annealing, without any remaining nitrate peaks observed. Thermoluminescence glow curves of Zn O obtained after being exposed to beta radiation consists of two maxima; one located at ? 149 grades C and another at ? 308 grades C, being the latter the dosimetric component of the curve. Dosimetric characterization of non-stoichiometric zinc oxide provided experimental evidence like asymptotic behavior of the Tl signal fading for times greater than 16 h between irradiation and the corresponding Tl readout, as well as the linear behaviour of the dose response without saturation in the dose interval studied (from 12.5 up to 400 Gy). Such characteristics place Zn O phosphors obtained in this work as a promising material for high-dose radiation dosimetry applications (e.g., radiotherapy and food industry). (author)

  13. Use of a modified beam in obtaining creep data in uniaxial tension and compression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method of testing is presented which makes use of a special ''slotted'' beam to compare the tensile and compressive creep response of a metal at high temperature. The technique avoids most of the difficult alignment problems associated with conventional uniaxial testing in compression. Application of the method is made to 21/4 Cr-1 Mo steel, a primary reactor system metal. It is concluded that the elastic-creep behavior of this alloy is effectively the same in compression as in tension. Moreover, the ''slotted'' beam is judged a practicable tool for obtaining reliable creep data in tension and compression

  14. Biological investigations of Indian phaeophyceae: 17. Seasonal variation of antibacterial activity of total sterols obtained from frozen samples of Sargassum johnstonii Setchell et Gardner

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, P.P.S.

    From lipid fraction of frozen samples of Sargassum johnstonii unsaponifiable part was extracted with diethyl ether to isolate total sterols. The extracted sterols were obtained for a period of nine months and tested against test bacteria...

  15. Metal-ceramic composite coatings obtained by new thermal spray technologies: Cold Gas Spray (CGS) and its wear resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, composite coatings composed by an aluminum bronze metal matrix and a hard ceramic alumina phase obtained by cold spray technique were obtained in order to increase the tribological properties of the pure bronze coatings. The different processes that occur during the coating formation (hardening of the metal particles, fragmentation of the ceramic particles, shot peening on the metal substrate, etc) are described and their effects on the coating properties are studied. Wear tests consisting on Ball-on-Disk tests, abrasion Rubber Wheel tests and erosion tests as well as microhardness and adhesion tests are carried out and the results are correlated with the ceramic phase content of the coatings. It can be concluded that the hard ceramic phase increases the tribological properties with relation of the initial bronze coating. Finally, main wear mechanisms during the tribological tests are described. (Author) 21 refs.

  16. Patch test with preservatives

    OpenAIRE

    Kar Sumit; Srinivas C; Balachandran C; Shenoi S; Acharya Sandhya

    1992-01-01

    Of the 705 patients patch tested between March 88 to March 91, 317 were tested for sensitivity to preservatives with antigens obtained from Chemo technique AB, Sweden. Paraben was the commonest sensitizer (22.4%) followed by Groton B K (8.1%) and Triclosan (6.5%). We stress the need to consider these allergens as source of dermatitis and advocate complete labelling of topical preparations marketed.

  17. Eddy current testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Sung Jin; Lee, Hyang Beom; Kim, Young Hwan [Soongsil Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Young Kil [Kunsan Univ., Gunsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-02-15

    Eddy current testing has been widely used for non destructive testing of steam generator tubes. In order to retain reliability in ECT, the following subjects were carried out in this study: numerical modeling and analysis of defects by using BC and RPC probes in SG tube, preparation of absolute coil impedance plane diagram by FEM. Signal interpretation of the eddy current signals obtained from nuclear power plants.

  18. Patch test with preservatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kar Sumit

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available Of the 705 patients patch tested between March 88 to March 91, 317 were tested for sensitivity to preservatives with antigens obtained from Chemo technique AB, Sweden. Paraben was the commonest sensitizer (22.4% followed by Groton B K (8.1% and Triclosan (6.5%. We stress the need to consider these allergens as source of dermatitis and advocate complete labelling of topical preparations marketed.

  19. Corrosion and Wear Resistance of Carbon Films Obtained by Electrodeposition on Ferritic Stainless Steel

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Henrique Ribeiro Piaggio, Cardoso; Tiago, Falcade; Sandra Raquel, Kunst; Célia Fraga, Malfatti.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In improving the corrosion and hardness proprieties of ferritic stainless steel, the use of protective coatings becomes an interesting alternative. In this study, a carbon layer was deposited on AISI 430 by electrodeposition using N,N-dimethylformamide with the addition of an organic dopant as the e [...] lectrolyte. The AISI 430 stainless steel was pretreated by anodization aiming to optimize the film anchoring. The obtained films were characterized by atomic force microscopy, by scanning electron microscopy and by optical interferometry. The microstructural characterization of the films was obtained by Raman Spectroscopy. The corrosion resistance was evaluated by open circuit potential and by potentiodynamic polarization. The friction test and the scratch test were performed to evaluate the mechanical properties. The Raman spectroscopy showed the presence of an amorphous carbon film. The films improved the corrosion resistance of stainless steel. In addition, on the wear analysis the coating showed a good adhesion on the substrate.

  20. Image quality and dose in mammographic images obtained in Mexico City hospitals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The performance of three mammographic systems in large Mexican hospitals has been evaluated, as well as the image quality and associated dose. Quality control tests include examination of X-ray equipment, darkroom conditions, film processor, and viewboxes. Systems referred to as '1', '2', and '3' passed 50%, 75% and 75% of these tests, respectively. Quality image is assessed using five images obtained under similar nominal conditions in each X-ray equipment. System 1 generates no image of acceptable quality, while equipment 2 and 3 produce one and two, respectively. The mean glandular dose for the best images obtained in each service with an accreditation phantom has been measured, and the values are 1.4 mGy, 1.6 mGy, and 1.0 mGy, respectively. (author)

  1. INTERACTIVE GLOBAL NETWORK FOR WEATHER DATA OBTAINING, EXCHANGE AND DISSEMINATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ?.?. ????’?????

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available  The possibility to enhance the weather information provision of relevant customers is considered. It is based on the use of the complex global system for weather information obtaining, exchange and dissemination. The structural diagram of the system is proposed. The structural diagram is completed with addition connections that allow to pay strong attention on the most dangerous meteorological phenomena at the critical moment of flight. The proposed approach gives possibility to aircraft crew to select and use specified operative information and increase the probability for proper decision taking. The aircraft are used as the dynamic elements for data obtaining and exchange in the frame of the global system for weather information obtaining, exchange and dissemination.

  2. Nanocrystalline and ultrafine grain copper obtained by mechanical attrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo Rodríguez Baracaldo

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a method for the sample preparation and characterisation of bulk copper having grain size lower than 1 ?m (ultra-fine grain and lower than 100 nm grain size (nanocrystalline. Copper is initially manufactured by a milling/alloying me- chanical method thereby obtaining a powder having a nanocrystalline structure which is then consolidated through a process of warm compaction at high pressure. Microstructural characterisation of bulk copper samples showed the evolution of grain size during all stages involved in obtaining it. The results led to determining the necessary conditions for achieving a wide range of grain sizes. Mechanical characterisation indicated an increase in microhardness to values of around 3.40 GPa for unconsolida- ted nanocrystalline powder. Compressivee strength was increased by reducing the grain size, thereby obtaining an elastic limit of 650 MPa for consolidated copper having a ~ 62 nm grain size.

  3. Study of the nitrided layer obtained by different nitriding methods

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Elisangela Aparecida dos Santos de, Almeida; César Edil da, Costa; Júlio César Giubilei, Milan.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, plasma nitriding, gas nitriding and solid nitriding were performed in AISI H13, AISI P20 and N-8550 tool steels. The aim of the study was compare the acquired properties after the thermochemical treatments and evaluate the efficiency of the solid nitriding treatment. The samples were [...] analyzed using a microhardness tester and a scanning electron microscope. The typical nitriding layers were observed - white layer and diffusion layer. The phases Fe4N - ?´ and Fe2,3N - ? were identified using an X- Ray diffractometer. The microhardness values of the nitrided layers obtained by the solid nitriding treatment were compatible with the other values of microhardness obtained by plasma and gas nitriding. The thickness of the nitrided layer obtained by the solid nitriding treatment was irregular.

  4. Analysis of ADU structure obtained under different precipitation conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ADU is the nominal name for ammonium poly uranate. It is a very complex compound of polymeric structure, which may have, according to precipitation conditions, different chemical composition and crystallographic structure. ADU is used as uranium oxide precursor in the manufacture of fuel elements. In former papers it was proved that if ultrasound is applied during precipitation and digestion the characteristics of the final product (U3O8 UO2) improve. By studying ADU thermal decomposition obtained by ultrasonic application, it was intended to obtain its composition. Therefore, differential thermal gravimetric and differential thermal analyses were performed. Samples were taken from special points and analyzed by X-ray diffraction, infra-red spectroscopy and scanning. An experiment was also designed to identify the products released during heating. Results and conclusions obtained are presented in this work. (author)

  5. Irradiation effects test Series Scoping Test 1: test results report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report describes the results of the first scoping test in the Irradiation Effects Test Series conducted by the Thermal Fuels Behavior Program, which is part of the Water Reactor Research Program of EG and G Idaho, Inc. The research is sponsored by the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission. This test used an unirradiated, three-foot-long, PWR-type fuel rod. The objective of this test was to thoroughly evaluate the remote fabrication procedures to be used for irradiated rods in future tests, handling plans, and reactor operations. Additionally, selected fuel behavior data were obtained. The fuel rod was subjected to a series of preconditioning power cycles followed by a power increase which brought the fuel rod power to about 20.4 kW/ft peak linear heat rating at a coolant mass flux of 1.83 x 106 lb/hr-ft2. Film boiling occurred for a period of 4.8 minutes following flow reductions to 9.6 x 105 and 7.5 x 105 lb/hr-ft2. The test fuel rod failed following reactor shutdown as a result of heavy internal and external cladding oxidation and embrittlement which occurred during the film boiling operation

  6. GHM method for obtaining rationalsolutions of nonlinear differential equations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazquez-Leal, Hector; Sarmiento-Reyes, Arturo

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we propose the application of the general homotopy method (GHM) to obtain rational solutions of nonlinear differential equations. It delivers a high precision representation of the nonlinear differential equation using a few linear algebraic terms. In order to assess the benefits of this proposal, three nonlinear problems are solved and compared against other semi-analytic methods or numerical methods. The obtained results show that GHM is a powerful tool, capable to generate highly accurate rational solutions. AMS subject classification 34L30. PMID:26085972

  7. Photocatalysis application of zinc oxide fibers obtained by electrospinning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using the electrospinning technique, composite fibers of polyvinylbutyral and zinc nitrate were obtained. After a heat treatment at 600 deg C, nanostructured zinc oxide fibers were obtained. The fibers were characterized using X ray diffraction. The photocatalytic activity of the nanostructured fibers was determined using the photodegradation of a methyl orange solution. The increase in the heat treatment temperature decreases the photoactivity of the zinc oxide. The heat treatment, the phases and the surface area, affect the physical, chemical and photocatalytic activity of the zinc oxide. (author)

  8. Optimization of the process to obtain glycidyl azide polymer

    OpenAIRE

    Jairo Sciamareli; Jorge R. Da Costa; Marta Ferreira K.Takahashi; Koshun Iha; Agda Alvarenga V. Berdugo; Milton F. Diniz; Miriam H. Miyano; Carlos Ferreira

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the action and results achieved during the optimization of Glycidyl Azide Polymer (GAP) characterization and process. Under different conditions, three different kinds of catalysts, BF3, SnCl4.5H2O and SnCl4 were used to obtain polyepichlorohydrin and each sample was converted into GAP. All the samples were submitted for characterization analysis by FT-IR and determination of molecular mass and hydroxyl value. Finally, results were compared and the best method to obtain G...

  9. Optimization of the process to obtain glycidyl azide polymer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jairo Sciamareli

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the action and results achieved during the optimization of Glycidyl Azide Polymer (GAP characterization and process. Under different conditions, three different kinds of catalysts, BF3, SnCl4.5H2O and SnCl4 were used to obtain polyepichlorohydrin and each sample was converted into GAP. All the samples were submitted for characterization analysis by FT-IR and determination of molecular mass and hydroxyl value. Finally, results were compared and the best method to obtain GAP was determined.

  10. Clinical value of renal images obtained incidentally to bone scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Various studies were made on 400 renal (including 325 clinical cases) observed during whole-body bone scintigraphy using 99mTc-MDP. Asymmetrical renal images in bone scintigrams were obtained from 40% of the urologic patients and 7.5% of the nonurologic patients. Out of the asymmetrical images of the urologic patients, 50% provided nonvisualized kidneys and 35% showed unilateral renal high accumulation. It can be said from the above that renal images incidentally obtained during whole-body bone scintigraphy should not be overlooked

  11. Characterization of a rare earth oxide obtained from xenotime mineral

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports on the characterization of a rare earth oxide obtained by hydrometallurgy of the mineral xenotime, an yttrium phosphate containing other rare earths, and comparison with mixtures of rare earth oxides prepared in different ways. The results indicated that hydrometallurgy from xenotime yielded a solid solution of the rare earth oxides. However, when the pure rare earth oxides were simply mixed physically then heat-treated at 1000 deg. C, a similar solid solution was not obtained. On the other hand, when the mixtures were prepared using a co-precipitation process, subsequent heat treatment did produce oxide solid solutions similar to that produced by hydrometallurgy of xenotime

  12. Analysis of data clusters obtained by self-organizing methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gafiychuk, V. V.; Datsko, B. Yo.; Izmaylova, J.

    2004-10-01

    The self-organizing methods were used for the investigation of financial market. As an example we consider data time-series of Dow Jones index for the years 2002-2003 (R. Mantegna, cond-mat/9802256). In order to reveal new structures in stock market behavior of the companies drawing up Dow Jones index we apply self-organizing maps (SOM) and group method of data handling (GMDH) algorithms. Using SOM techniques we obtain SOM-maps that establish a new relationship in market structure. Analysis of the obtained clusters was made by GMDH.

  13. UO2 microspheres obtainment through the internal gelation methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    UO2 microspheres obtainment process through the internal gelation method which allows the spheres' obtainment of uniform size is detailed herein, varying the same among 0.3 and 1.7 mm of diameter. The sintered density reaches 10.78 g/cm3, permitting the fuels fabrication dispersed and vibro-compacted fuels. The trichloroethylene use implementation as gelation agent is described, thus reducing the number of stages in the microspheres fabrication. At the same time, the uranium sun composition has been modified so as to be compatible with the use solvent. (Author)

  14. Process for encapsulating active agents obtaining a gel

    OpenAIRE

    Yilmaz, G; Jongboom, R.O.J.

    2001-01-01

    The present invention relates to a process for encapsulating an active agent in a biopolymer in the form of a gel, comprising the steps of: a) forming a dispersion or solution of the biopolymer in water; and b) adding the active agent to the dispersion or solution obtained in step a); wherein the biopolymer is at least partially dissolved before and/or after addition of the active agent. The gels obtained with the present invention are particularly suitable for coating or impregnating packagi...

  15. Comparison of metaheuristics for obtaining fuzzy predicates: a curious case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taymi Ceruto-Cordovés

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a comparative study of three metaheuristics on the problem of obtaining fuzzy predicates with high truth value. According to the No Free Lunch Theorem (NFL cannot establish any general superiority of any metaheuristic over the others. This work demonstrates that even within the same type of problem can be difficult to establish the superiority of a metaheuristic. In this case, each metaheuristic is the best at least in one of the four variants of fuzzy operator employed and normal form of the obtained predicate. This curious case reveals the importance of the experimental comparison of metaheuristics, before assuming the superiority of one over the other.

  16. Software Testing

    OpenAIRE

    Sarbjeet Singh; Sukhvinder singh; Gurpreet Singh

    2010-01-01

    Software goes through a cycle of software development stages. A software is envisioned, created, evaluated, fixed and then put to use. To run any software consistently without any failure/bug/error, the most important step is to test the software. This paper points various types of software testing(manual and automation), various software testing techniques like black box, white box, gray box, sanity, functional testing etc. and software test life cycle models (V-model and W-model). This pape...

  17. Antimicrobial activity of Brazilian copaiba oils obtained from different species of the Copaifera genus

    OpenAIRE

    Adriana Oliveira dos Santos; Tânia Ueda-Nakamura; Benedito Prado Dias Filho; Valdir F Veiga Junior; Angelo C. Pinto; Celso Vataru Nakamura

    2008-01-01

    The antimicrobial activity of copaiba oils was tested against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, yeast, and dermatophytes. Oils obtained from Copaifera martii, Copaifera officinalis, and Copaifera reticulata (collected in the state of Acre) were active against Gram-positive species (Staphylococcus aureus, methicillin-resistant S. aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Bacillus subtilis, and Enterococcus faecalis) with minimum inhibitory concentrations ranging from 31.3-62.5 µg/ml. The oil...

  18. ANTIMUTAGENIC EFFECTS OF COMPOUNDS OBTAINED FROM ECLIPTA ALBA LINN AGAINST STRAINS OF SALMONELLA TYPHIMURIUM

    OpenAIRE

    Prabhu Nagarajan1*, Vigneshwari Ramakrishnan Sundaramoorthy1, Joseph Pushpa Innocent Danialas2

    2012-01-01

    In this experimental study, antimutagenic activity of compounds obtained from Eclipta alba Linn was screened by using Ames assay for detecting direct mutagenic activity and those requiring the metabolic activation. The crude compound extracted from Eclipta alba was considered as antimutagen and analyzed in this experiment. Two strains of Salmonella typhimurium, TA163 and TA96 were used to analyze the test. These two strains are confirmed as histidine requiring mutant strains. When the mutagen...

  19. Drifter technique: a new method to obtain metaphases in Hep-2 cell line cultures

    OpenAIRE

    Eleonidas Moura Lima; Jorge Dores Rissino; Adriana Costa Guimarães; David James Overal; André Salim Khayat; Patrícia Carvalho de Souza; Denise Maria Christofolini; Marília de Arruda Cardoso Smith; Rommel Rodríguez Burbano

    2005-01-01

    The Hep-2 cell line is derived from laryngeal carcinoma cells and is often utilized as a model in carcinogenesis and mutagenesis tests. To evaluate the proliferative potential of this line, we developed a cytogenetic methodology (drifter technique) to obtain metaphases from cells that loose cellular adhesion when they underwent mitosis in culture. By this procedure, 2000 cells were counted, resulting in a mitotic index (MI) of 22.2%. Although this MI was not statistically different from the o...

  20. Method of massive Ti-6 Al-4 V vacuum condensates obtaining and their superplastic properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plates of superplastic Ti-6 Al-4 V alloy with 500 mm diameter, 0,5 m thickness and 0,3 mkm grain size were obtained by high-speed vacuum condensation. Electron-microscopic alloy structure and its mechanical tests in large range of deformation speeds and temperatures were studied. The efficiency of the used method was demonstrated and considerations about superplasticity physical mechanisms are presented