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[The Pap test in menopause  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In a study covering 156 Pap-tests in menopause, the Authors observed a reduction in infectious phlogosis, in dysplasias and neoplasias. They suggested that even during menopause in the Pap-test showed be conducted to monitor the VIN and a physiological senescence of the female genitalia.

Giannone R; Bernorio R; Piacezzi C; Poli M

1993-03-01

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Pap Test Results (Abnormal) -- Cancer  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available English - Abnormal Pap Test Results - Cancer 1 min 35 sec To Listen to the Audio or Read/Print/Save the Handout, Click on a Picture Below To ... A Health Guide for Women” by the National Cancer Institute

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Access to Adequate Healthcare for Hmong Women: A Patient Navigation Program to Increase Pap Test Screening  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper describes the development and implementation of a Hmong Cervical Cancer Intervention Program utilizing a patient navigation model to raise cervical cancer awareness for Hmong women through educational workshops and to assist Hmong women in obtaining a Pap test. Out of 402 women who participated in a baseline survey, the Patient Navigation Program was able to enroll 109 participants who had not had a Pap test in the past 3 years and had never had a Pap test. Through utilization of outreach, an awareness campaign and patient navigation support, at least 38 percent of 109 participants obtained a Pap test. Overall, 21 workshops and 43 outreach activities were conducted by the Hmong Women’s Heritage Association, leading to 63 percent of those enrolled in the Patient Navigation Program who could be contacted to obtain a Pap test.

Penny Lo; Dao Moua Fang; May Ying Ly; Susan Stewart; Serge Lee; Moon S. Chen, Jr

2010-01-01

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Women's Knowledge and Attitudes Toward Anal Pap Testing.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: The objectives of this study were to determine women's knowledge of human papillomavirus (HPV) and anal cancer and knowledge and attitudes toward the anal Pap test. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A convenience sample of 370 women from the general population 21 years or older completed a 48-question preintervention survey; read an informational pamphlet about anal cancer, HPV, and anal Pap tests; and then completed a 21-question postintervention survey in Augusta, Atlanta, and Savannah, GA. The survey assessed their knowledge about anal cancer, HPV, and the anal Pap test and determined their attitudes toward the anal Pap test. Only preintervention results were considered in this article. Descriptive statistics were determined for all variables. RESULTS: Only 17.6% of women had previously heard of anal Pap tests, and the majority knew nothing (48.9%) or only a little (38.5%) about anal cancer. Yet, most women (78.6%) knew that anal Pap tests help to prevent anal cancer, and 86.2% knew that anal Pap tests are not only for people who have anal sex. Only a minority of women recognized known risk factors for anal cancer. Lack of knowledge about anal Pap tests (43.8%), pain or discomfort (41.3%), cost (24.0%), and embarrassment (21.2%) were the main reasons cited for not wanting an anal Pap test. CONCLUSIONS: Although most women had limited knowledge about anal cancer and anal Pap tests and few recognized known risk factors for anal cancer, women were receptive to screening. Further implementation of anal Pap testing for women may be improved by understanding women's limited knowledge and concerns.

Ferris D; Lambert R; Waller J; Dickens P; Kabaria R; Han CS; Steelman C; Fawole F

2013-06-01

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Effectiveness of nursing interventions to increase pap smear test screening.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of a three-stage nursing intervention to increase Turkish women's participation in Pap smear testing. Knowledge and beliefs about cervical cancer screening and barriers to Pap smears also were explored. In a quasi-experimental study in a target population of 2,500 women, 237 completed pre-test measures to inform the intervention, and an educational brochure was distributed to all 2,500. As a result, 510 women (20.4%) accepted free Pap smears. Of the remaining 1,990 women, 417 were randomly selected for telephone interviews, 302 participated, and 158 of these (52.3%) participated in free Pap smear testing. Of the 144 who did not have Pap smears after participating in telephone interviews, 54 were then interviewed face-to-face, and 20 (37.0%) decided to accept free Pap smears. A total of 668 women had accepted free Pap smears by the end of the intervention period.

Guvenc G; Akyuz A; Yenen MC

2013-04-01

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Cytomorphology of unusual primary tumors in the Pap test  

Science.gov (United States)

Rare entities in the Pap test, which include neoplastic and non-neoplastic conditions, pose challenges due to the infrequent occurrence of many of these entities in the daily practice of cytology. Furthermore, these conditions give rise to important diagnostic pitfalls to be aware of in the Pap test. For example, cases with adenoma malignum (AM) have been called benign. Recognition of these conditions can help correctly interpret Pap tests as abnormal and thereby ensure that patients get appropriately diagnosed. In this paper, we illustrate and discuss selected uncommon primary neoplastic lesions of the cervix and the vagina that may be seen in Pap test, with a focus on cytomorphology, differential diagnosis and the role of possible ancillary studies. These cases include high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion cells with small cell morphology; small cell carcinoma; large neuroendocrine carcinoma; glassy cell carcinoma; AM; malignant mixed Müllerian tumor; clear cell carcinoma and primary malignant melanoma. Recognition of these rare variants/neoplasms is important so that involved Pap tests are not diagnosed as benign and that patients with these conditions get additional follow-up.

Khalbuss, Walid E.; Pantanowitz, Liron; Monaco, Sara E.

2013-01-01

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Factors associated with pap testing among Hmong women.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This paper reports the baseline data on the proportion of Hmong women (n=402), ages 18-65, in Sacramento, California who reported that they had a Pap test for the early detection of cervical cancer. We assessed the association between sociodemographic characteristics and Pap test receipt using chi-squared and multiple logistic regression analyses. Only 74% had ever had a Pap test, with 61% tested in the previous three years, compared with 91% and 86%, respectively, of California women overall. Women were more likely to have had a recent Pap test if they were age 21-30 (OR=3.0 vs. age 51-65, 95% CI 1.4-6.7) or 31-40 (OR=3.0, 95% CI 1.4-6.4), and less likely if they were single (OR=0.4 vs. married/partnered, 95% CI 0.2-1.0) or born in the U.S. (OR=0.3 vs. <10 years in U.S., 95% CI 0.1-0.8).

Fang DM; Lee S; Stewart S; Ly MY; Chen MS Jr

2010-08-01

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Cytomorphology of unusual infectious entities in the Pap test.  

Science.gov (United States)

Rare entities in the Pap test, including neoplastic and non-neoplastic conditions, pose challenges due to their infrequent occurrence in the daily practice of cytology. Furthermore, these conditions give rise to important diagnostic pitfalls. Infections such as tuberculosis cervicitis may be erroneously diagnosed as carcinoma, whereas others, such as schistosomiasis, are associated with squamous cell carcinoma. These cases include granuloma inguinale (donovanosis), tuberculosis, coccidioidomycosis, schistosomiasis, taeniasis, and molluscum contagiosum diagnosed in Pap tests. Granuloma inguinale shows histiocytes that contain intracytoplasmic bacteria (Donovan bodies). Tuberculosis is characterized by necrotizing granulomatous inflammation with Langhans-multinucleated giant cells. Coccidioidomycosis may show large intact or ruptured fungal spherules associated with endospores. Schistosoma haematobium is diagnosed by finding characteristic ova with a terminal spine. Molluscum contagiosum is characterized by the appearance of squamous cells with molluscum bodies. This article reviews the cytomorphology of selected rare infections and focuses on their cytomorphology, differential diagnosis, and role of ancillary diagnostic studies. PMID:22919422

Khalbuss, Walid E; Michelow, Pam; Benedict, Cynthia; Monaco, Sara E; Pantanowitz, Liron

2012-06-29

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Cytomorphology of unusual infectious entities in the Pap test.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Rare entities in the Pap test, including neoplastic and non-neoplastic conditions, pose challenges due to their infrequent occurrence in the daily practice of cytology. Furthermore, these conditions give rise to important diagnostic pitfalls. Infections such as tuberculosis cervicitis may be erroneously diagnosed as carcinoma, whereas others, such as schistosomiasis, are associated with squamous cell carcinoma. These cases include granuloma inguinale (donovanosis), tuberculosis, coccidioidomycosis, schistosomiasis, taeniasis, and molluscum contagiosum diagnosed in Pap tests. Granuloma inguinale shows histiocytes that contain intracytoplasmic bacteria (Donovan bodies). Tuberculosis is characterized by necrotizing granulomatous inflammation with Langhans-multinucleated giant cells. Coccidioidomycosis may show large intact or ruptured fungal spherules associated with endospores. Schistosoma haematobium is diagnosed by finding characteristic ova with a terminal spine. Molluscum contagiosum is characterized by the appearance of squamous cells with molluscum bodies. This article reviews the cytomorphology of selected rare infections and focuses on their cytomorphology, differential diagnosis, and role of ancillary diagnostic studies.

Khalbuss WE; Michelow P; Benedict C; Monaco SE; Pantanowitz L

2012-01-01

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Pap Smear  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available Pap Smear Introduction Cancer of the cervix affects more than 10,000 women in the United States every year. Thanks to a procedure ... Pap smear test, many early stages of cervical cancer can be detected and treated. Your doctor has ...

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Pap Smear  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... procedure called a Pap smear test, many early stages of cervical cancer can be detected and treated. ... atypia could turn into cancer. In the early stages of cervical cancer, the cancer is limited to ...

12

Pap Smear  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... A Pap smear test is one of the best ways to detect cervical cancer in its early ... Talk to your healthcare provider about what is best for you. • Women ages 21 to 29 should ...

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[Frequency of Pap smear testing in young women with an obstetric history in Teresina, Piaui, Brazil].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the frequency of Pap smear testing in young women with at least one pregnancy in Teresina, capital of the state of Piauí, Brazil. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was undertaken from May to December 2008. A convenience sample of 464 young women was selected, and data were collected using a pre-tested questionnaire. Women giving birth in the first four months of 2006, in six hospitals in Teresina, were included. Inadequate Pap smear frequency was defined as an interval of more than 1 year between tests. RESULTS: Mean age was 20 years. The frequency of Pap smear testing was every 6 months in 180 women (39.0%) and yearly in 160 (34.5%). Fifteen women (3.2%) had never had a Pap smear test. Simple logistic regression showed an increase of 48.0% in the risk of inadequate Pap smear frequency (P = 0.049) in women who did not use any contraceptive method at their first sexual intercourse, and 49.0% (P = 0.044) in those who were not able to choose between a male or female gynecologist when seeking health care services. On multivariate logistic regression, having more than one pregnancy increased the risk of inadequate Pap smear frequency by 71.4% in comparison to having only one pregnancy (P = 0.011). CONCLUSIONS: The fact that many young women had Pap smear testing at intervals shorter than 1 year does not improve cervical cancer screening and may burden the health care system. Multiparity was a risk factor for inadequate Pap smear frequency, an aspect that must be taken into account when providing gynecological care to young women.

Barroso MF; Gomes KR; Andrade JX

2011-03-01

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Health technology assessment of computer-assisted pap test screening in Italy.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To assess the introduction of computer-assisted Pap test screening in cervical cancer screening. Various scenarios are considered: conventional and liquid-based cytology (LBC) slides, fully automatic instrumentation (Becton Dickinson FocalPoint™ Slide Profiler and Hologic ThinPrep® Imaging System), and semiautomatic scanner (Hologic Integrated Imager I-Squared). METHODS: A working group was formed that included researchers from the largest centers already using instrumentation. A questionnaire on laboratory management and on social/ethical issues and annual workload was proposed. Prices for the technology were obtained directly from the producers; costs were calculated from observed and literature data. The scope of the report and final draft were submitted to a consulting committee of stakeholders. RESULTS: The break-even point was found to be 49,000 cases/year, if conventional slides were used, while it was near the theoretical maximum capacity, 70,000 cases/year, with LBC slides. Efficiency increased with the volume of slides. Screening time decreased by two thirds for conventional slides and by less than half for LBC slides. Acceptance of the instrumentation by the users was good. CONCLUSIONS: Computer-assisted screening may increase productivity even if in most situations it will mean additional costs. Furthermore, primary screening with human papillomavirus tests will drastically reduce the need for Pap test reading.

Dalla Palma P; Moresco L; Giorgi Rossi P

2013-01-01

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Evaluation of the pap smear test status of Turkish women and related factors.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Background: The Pap smear has an important value in the early diagnosis of cervical cancer, a serious problem in womens health. This study aimed to determine the status of Turkish women regarding participation in Pap smear testing and affecting factors. Materials and Methods: This descriptive study was conducted on married women between 18-61 years of age selected from those who applied to the Obstetrics and Gynaecology Polyclinic of Ataturk University in Erzurum between June-August 2010 for any reason. Data were collected using a questionnaire determining socio-demographic features and analyzed by descriptive statistics (mean, Sd, range, frequency, percentage) and Chi-square test. A level of p<0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Sixty six of the 301 women (21.9%) indicated that they heard a Pap smear test and 16.6% of women had experienced a test. The number of women participating increased with age, duration of marriage, number of births, knowledge about the Pap smear and perception of risk for cervical cancer. Conclusions: The importance of the Pap smear test needs to be explained to Turkish women by health staff, to increase awareness and participation in regular screening.

Karabulutlu O

2013-01-01

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A Shandon PapSpin liquid-based gynecological test: A split-sample and direct-to-vial test with histology follow-up study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Studies for liquid-based Papanicolaou (Pap) tests reveal that liquid-based cytology (LBC) is a safe and effective alternative to the conventional Pap smear. Although there is research on ThinPrep and SurePath systems, information is lacking to evaluate the efficiency and effectiveness of systems based on cytocentrifugation. This study is designed to determine the sensitivity and specificity of the Shandon PapSpin (ThermoShandon, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA) liquid-based gynecological system. We used split-sample and direct-to-vial study design. Materials and Methods: 2,945 women referred to prophylactic check-up were enrolled in this study. Split sample design was used in 1,500 women and residual cervical cytology specimen from all these cases was placed in fluid for PapSpin preparation after performing conventional smear. The direct-to-vial study was carried out in another cohort of 1,445 women in whom the entire cervical material was investigated using only the PapSpin technique. Follow up histological diagnoses for 141 women were obtained from both study arms following 189 abnormal cytology cases. 80 LBC cases from the split sample group and 61 LBC cases in the direct-to-vial group were correlated with the histology results. The sensitivity and secificity of the conventional smear and PapSpin tests in both study arms were compared. Results: In the split sample group, conventional smears showed a higher proportion of ASC-US (atypical cells undetermined significance): 31 (2.1%) vs 10 (0.7%) in PapSpin (P = 0.001). A higher proportion of unsatisfactory samples was found in the conventional smear group: 25 (1.7%) vs 6 (0.4%) cases (P = 0.001). In the split sample group, the sensitivity of the conventional and PapSpin tests was 68.7% vs 78.1%, and the specificity 93.8% vs 91.8%, respectively. In the direct to vial group PapSpin sensitivity was 75.9% and specificity 96.5%. The differences in sensitivity and specificity were not significant. The positive predictive values for the conventional and PapSpin methods were not different in the split sample group: 88.0% vs 86.2% and 95.7% in the direct-to-vial group. Also, no differences were found for negative predictive value (82.1, 86.8% and 80.0% respectively). Conclusions: PapSpin showed good qualitative results in both study arms, even after the material splitting in the first study arm, and is a good alternative to the conventional Pap smear. Additionally, the PapSpin method offers several advantages such as the opportunity to prepare duplicate slides, option for HPV DNA testing and cell block preparations from residual material. Microscopic evaluation of thinner cell preparations is less time consuming than the conventional Pap smears.

Rimiene J; Petronyte J; Gudleviciene Z; Smailyte Giedre; Krasauskaite Ingrida; Laurinavicius A

2010-01-01

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La coloración fluorescente con naranja de acridina y el PAP: validación de ambas técnicas para la detección de Trichomonas vaginalis FLUORESCENT STAINING WITH ACRIDINE ORANGE AND PAP SMEAR: VALIDATION TESTS OF BOTH TECNIQUES FOR THE DETECTION OF Trichomonas vaginalis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Se efectuó la validación de la coloración de Papanicolaou, utilizada para citología vaginal, frente a la coloración fluorescente con naranja de acridina, a fin de evaluar el valor de un resultado negativo para Trichomonas vaginalis obtenido en un PAP. Se estudiaron 80 muestras de flujo vaginal de mujeres entre 18 y 45 años, pacientes de consultorios externos de Ginecología del Hospital Municipal de la ciudad de Bahía Blanca, Provincia de Buenos Aires (Argentina). Las muestras se colorearon paralelamente por la técnica de Papanicolaou y por la coloración fluorescente con naranja de acridina. Los resultados mostraron que el PAP presenta una sensibilidad del 54,5% para la detección de T. vaginalis, validación efectuada frente a la coloración fluorescente con naranja de acridina, para una prevalencia de enfermedad en el grupo de mujeres estudiadas del 13,75% y un nivel de confianza del 95%. Para ensayos "en paralelo" con ambas coloraciones, el valor global de la prueba fue del 93,8%, con un valor predictivo del resultado negativo del 93,2%. Concluimos que si bien T. vaginalis es detectada en el PAP, éste no presenta sensibilidad significativamente elevada como para ser considerada como única prueba, debiéndose complementar siempre con una coloración fluorescente con naranja de acridina, u otra prueba de similar valorThe present study examined the validity of PAP staining, as used for vaginal cytology, against fluorescent staining with acridine orange in order to determine the value of a negative result of Trichomonas vaginalis obtained by a PAP smear. We examined eighty vaginal-secretion samples from 18- to 45-year-old female patients of the Hospital Municipal of the city of Bahía Blanca, Province of Buenos Aires, Argentina. The samples were stained in parallel by the PAP smear technique and the fluorescent staining technique with acridine orange described by Fripp in 1975. The results of our validation tests demonstrated that, against fluorescent staining with acridine orange, the PAP smear has a 54.5% sensitivity for the detection of T. vaginalis for a 13.75% prevalence of disease among the females in the study with a 95% confidence level. In assays conducted "in parallel" for both stainings, the global value of the test was 93.8%, with a predictive negative value of 93.2%. We conclude that, although the PAP smear can detect T. vaginalis, its sensitivity is not high enough for the test to be used as the sole diagnostic means and the test must always be supplemented with fluorescent staining with acridine orange or another test of similar value. Otherwise, the diagnostic sensitivity would not be any higher than that of vaginal discharge exams in vitro.

SIXTO RAUL COSTAMAGNA; MARIA PRADO FIGUEROA; OSCAR SORIA; ALEJANDRO FUENTES; RICARDO FERREYRA

2000-01-01

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[The understanding of users of a Family Health Unit about the pap smear test].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In the attempt to prevent cervical cancer, various preventive measures have been instituted, notable among which is the pap smear test, which fulfills the function of early detection of cancer cells or their precursors. Therefore, the objective was to investigate the discourse on the knowledge, feelings and expectations of women regarding the pap smear test. This is an exploratory qualitative approach, conducted with ten users of a Integrated Family Health Unit in the city of João Pessoa in the State of Paraíba. Data collection was conducted through recorded interviews in April 2011. Eight core ideas were identified: prevention of disease; self-motivated search, search recommended by another person; sense of shame and embarrassment, sensation of pain, feeling of satisfaction; conversations during the examination and exchange of knowledge about women's health. Based on the reports, there are many difficulties to be overcome to ensure greater adherence of women to the pap smear test.

Andrade SS; da Silva FM; Sousa e Silva Mdo S; Oliveira SH; Leite KN; de Sousa MJ

2013-08-01

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[Urinary incontinence in women undergoing Pap smear test: socio-demographic and behavioral factors].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This cross-sectional study aimed to investigate the association between socio-demographic and behavioral factors and the presence of self-reported urinary incontinence in 784 women undergoing cervical cancer screening in Greater Florianópolis, Santa Catarina State, Brazil. Socio-demographic data, health status, physical activity, constipation, and body mass index were obtained, and the International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire-SF was used. Prevalence of urinary incontinence was 30.7% (16.5% reported leakage once a week or less and 23.8% losses in small volumes). Poisson univariate regression showed the following factors associated with urinary incontinence: lower education, lower income, non-white skin color, overweight, worse health status, constipation, and older age. After adjustment, according to a hierarchical model, schooling, ethnicity, health status, and age remained significantly associated. The high prevalence of urinary incontinence in women seeking Pap smear tests justifies preventive approaches in these areas of intervention.

Sacomori C; Negri NB; Cardoso FL

2013-06-01

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Reversal of associations between Spanish language use and mammography and pap smear testing.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Latina women are less likely to utilize cancer screening services than are non-Latina White women. The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between preferred language (English vs. Spanish) and receipt of mammography and Pap-smear testing among US Latinas and non-Latinas. Cross-sectional analysis of the 2008 and 2010 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) surveys. While Latinas responding to the BRFSS in English or in Spanish had unadjusted lower odds of receiving mammography testing, in multivariable analysis Latinas responding-in-Spanish had 2.20 times the odds (OR = 2.20, 95 % CI, 1.90-2.55) of reporting mammography compared to non-Latinas. Similarly, Latinas responding-in- Spanish had lower unadjusted odds of receiving Pap-smear testing. However, Latinas responding-in-Spanish had 2.37 times the odds (OR = 2.37 CI, 2.04-2.75) of reporting having received Pap smear testing compared to non-Latinas in multivariate analysis. The results of this paper further confirm the "reversed associations" among Latinas and mammography and Pap smear testing described in previous studies and suggest that in addition to insurance status, preferred language may be a key variable contributing to the reversal phenomenon observed among Latinas.

Suneja G; Diaz JA; Roberts M; Rakowski W

2013-04-01

 
 
 
 
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Correlation of cell surface fluorescence with conventional PAP analysis of cells of cytological interest obtained from cervical scrapes.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Archival PAP stained cervical smears were destained and treated with a fluorescent probe for a cell surface enzyme (GB). Cells which exhibited cell surface fluorescence were demonstrated to be cells of cytological interest in the analysis of cervical smears. These cells could be directly related to PAP and reclassified by subsequent restaining with PAP. Fluorescent cell surface technology was shown to be compatible with conventional PAP staining.

Steven FS; Desai M; Davis J; Stedman Y; McClure J; Eason P; Palcic B; Anderson G

1995-07-01

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Interventions that increase use of Pap tests among ethnic minority women: A meta-analysis  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective Although a variety of intervention methods have been used to promote Pap test screening among ethnic minority women in the US, the effectiveness of such interventions is unclear. We performed a meta-analysis to examine the overall effectiveness of these interventions in increasing Pap test use by ethnic minority women in the US. Methods A search of databases (MEDLINE, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, PsycINFO, and Science Citation Index-Expanded) and review articles for articles published between 1984 and April 2009 identified 18 randomized and nonrandomized controlled trials. The primary study outcome was the difference in the proportion of Pap tests between the treatment and comparison groups. Results The pooled mean weighted effect size (d) for the 18 studies was 0.158 (95% confidence interval [CI]=0.100, 0.215), indicating that the interventions were effective in improving Pap test use among ethnic minority women. Among the intervention types, access enhancement yielded the largest effect size (0.253 [95% CI=0.110, 0.397]), followed by community education (0.167 [95% CI=0.057, 0.278]) and individual counseling or letters (0.132 [95% CI=0.069, 0.195]). Combined intervention effects were significant for studies targeting Asian (0.177 [95% CI=0.098, 0.256]) and African American women (0.146 [95% CI=0.028, 0.265]), but not Hispanic women (0.116 [95% CI=?0.008, 0.240]). Conclusions Pap test use among ethnic minority women is most likely to increase when access-enhancing strategies are combined. Further research is needed to determine whether more tightly controlled trials of such interventions might reveal an improved rate of cervical cancer screening in Hispanic women as well.

Han, Hae-Ra; Kim, Jiyun; Lee, Jong-Eun; Hedlin, Haley K.; Song, Heejung; Song, Youngshin; Kim, Miyong T.

2013-01-01

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[Health technology assessment report: Computer-assisted Pap test for cervical cancer screening].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

UNLABELLED: HEALTH PROBLEM: Cervical cancer is a disease which is highly preventable by means of Pap test screening for the precancerous lesions, which can be easily treated. Furthermore, in the near future, control of the disease will be enhanced by the vaccination which prevents the infection of those human papillomavirus types that cause the vast majority of cervical cancers. The effectiveness of screening in drastically reducing cervical cancer incidence has been clearly demonstrated. The epidemiology of cervical cancer in industrialised countries is now determined mostly by the Pap test coverage of the female population and by the ability of health systems to assure appropriate follow up after an abnormal Pap test. TECHNOLOGY DESCRIPTION: Today there are two fully automated systems for computer-assisted Pap test: the BD FocalPoint and the Hologic Imager. Recently, the Hologic Integrated Imager, a semi-automated system, was launched. The two fully automated systems are composed of a central scanner, where the machine examines the cytologic slide, and of one or more review stations, where the cytologists analyze the slides previously centrally scanned. The softwares used by the two systems identify the fields of interest so that the cytologists can look only at those points, automatically pointed out by the review station. Furthermore, the FocalPoint system classifies the slides according to their level of risk of containing signs of relevant lesions. Those in the upper classes--about one fifth of the slides--are labelled as « further review », while those in the lower level of risk, i.e. slides that have such a low level of risk that they can be considered as negative with no human review, are labelled as « no further review ». The aim of computer-assisted Pap test is to reduce the time of slide examination and to increase productivity. Furthermore, the number of errors due to lack of attention may decrease. Both the systems can be applied to liquidbased cytology, while only the BD Focal Point can be used on conventional smears. BACKGROUND: Cytology screening has some critical points: there is a shortage of cytologists/cytotechnicians; the quality strongly depends on the experience and ability of the cytologist; there is a subjective component in the cytological diagnosis; in highly screened populations, the prevalence of lesions is very low and the activity of cytologists is very monotonous. On the other hand, a progressive shift to molecular screening using HPV-DNA test as primary screening test is very likely in the near future; cytology will be used as triage test, dramatically reducing the number of slides to process and increasing the prevalence of lesions in those Pap tests. OBJECTIVES: In this Report we assume that the diagnostic accuracy of computer-assisted Pap test is equal to the accuracy of manual Pap test and, consequently, that screening using computer-assisted Pap test has the same efficacy in reducing cervical cancer incidence and mortality. Under this assumption, the effectiveness/ benefit/utility is the same for the two screening modes, i.e. the economic analysis will be a cost minimization study. Furthermore, the screening process is identical for the two modalities in all the phases except for slide interpretation. The cost minimization analysis will be limited to the only phase differing between the two modes, i.e. the study will be a differential cost analysis between a labour-intensive strategy (traditional Pap test) and a technology-intensive strategy (the computer-assisted Pap test). Briefly, the objectives of this HTA Report are: to determine the break even point of computer-assisted Pap test systems, i.e. the volume of slides processed per year at which putting in place a computer-assisted Pap test system becomes economically convenient; to quantify the cost per Pap test in different scenarios according to screening centre activity volume, productivity of cytologist, type of cytology (conventional smear or liquid-based, fully automated or semi-automated computer-assisted); to analyse t

Della Palma P; Moresco L; Giorgi Rossi P

2012-09-01

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The diagnostic value of the ThinPrep pap test in endometrial carcinoma: a prospective study with histological follow-up.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Case-control studies have demonstrated that the ThinPrep Pap test may provide improved detection of endometrial carcinoma. The purpose of this study is to prospectively examine the diagnostic potential of the ThinPrep Pap test in the detection of endometrial carcinoma. ThinPrep Pap test slides were collected from high-risk patient groups. Pap-stained slides were reviewed and the cytological diagnosis was rendered independently by investigators. Each case was assigned to one of the four diagnostic categories: within normal limit (WNL); atypical glandular cells (AGC); atypical endometrial cells (AEC); or adenocarcinoma, probably endometrial origin. After cytological diagnosis was made, the histological follow-up diagnosis was obtained through the laboratory information system and the cyto-histological correlation was analyzed. Of 106 patients identified, 60 had histological follow-up. For all eight cases interpreted by cytology as positive, endometrial carcinoma was confirmed histologically. Among 25 patients with normal endometrial cells present, histological follow-up showed benign endometrium. Among 17 cases interpreted cytologically as AEC, 14 cases (82.4%) had benign histological follow-up and 3 cases (17.6%) had endometrial carcinoma. All 11 cases (100%) classified as AGC had benign histological follow-up. The sensitivity and specificity of detecting endometrial malignancy were 72.7% and 100%, respectively. The positive predictive value was 100%. In this prospective study, we demonstrated that the Thin Prep Pap test had a reasonably high sensitivity and/or specificity in detecting endometrial carcinoma.

Zhou J; Tomashefski JF Jr; Sawady J; Ferrer H; Khiyami A

2013-05-01

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Improving the Quality of Clinician Pap Smear Technique and Management, Client Pap Smear Education, and the Evaluation of Pap Smear Laboratory Testing: A Resource Guide for Title X Family Planning Projects.  

Science.gov (United States)

The guide examines Pap smear quality; describes the disease of cervical cancer; and addresses clinician technique in taking Pap smears, laboratory processing and evaluation of Pap smears, standards for evaluating laboratory performance, clinician manageme...

1989-01-01

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[Assessment of the use of Pap test in a sample of pregnant women  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Four hundred and ninety-nine women were interviewed who gave birth in the "L. Mangiagali" Obstetrics-Gynaecological Clinic between March and April 1989. 22% of these women had never had a Pap-test, 37% reported having had 1-2 cervical smears and 41% 3 or more. In the group of patients that contacted a private gynaecologist during pregnancy, the percentage of women who had never had a Pap-test was 18% versus 30% in the group of subjects followed in the public health service. Although pluriparas reported a greater number of Pap-test than primiparas, this difference was not statistically significant. Youth is significantly related to the probability of never having had a cervical smear. Social and economic factors were also clearly important. In particular, women with a low educational level represented the group with the highest risk for the lack of cervical screening. The role of the gynaecologist and preventive programmes aimed at the higher risk levels play an important role in terms of heightening awareness.

Dindelli M; Parazzini F; Rabaiotti E; Liati P; Ferrari A

1990-07-01

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Pap Smear  

Science.gov (United States)

Pap Smear Introduction Cancer of the cervix affects more than 10,000 women in the United States every year. ... be analyzed. Surface of Cervix During a Pap Smear First you will be asked to undress, at ...

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Pap Smear  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available Pap Smear Introduction Cancer of the cervix affects more than 10,000 women in the United States every year. ... be analyzed. Surface of Cervix During a Pap Smear First you will be asked to undress, at ...

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Modeling the impact of quadrivalent HPV vaccination on the incidence of Pap test abnormalities in the United States.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: We present data on Pap test results and HPV prevalence from the HPV Sentinel Surveillance project, a multiyear surveillance project enrolling women from a diverse set of 26 clinics throughout the US from 2003 to 2005. We use mathematical modeling to illustrate the potential timing and magnitude of decreases in Pap test abnormalities in sexually transmitted disease (STD), family planning, and primary care clinics in the US as a result of HPV vaccination. METHODS: The probability of an abnormal Pap result was based on three factors: (1) infection with HPV 16/18, or both; (2) infection with high-risk HPV types other than HPV 16/18; and (3) infection with HPV 6/11, or both. We estimated the relative reduction in the probability of an abnormal Pap result over the first 25 years of a female-only, quadrivalent HPV vaccination program, compared to a scenario of no HPV vaccination in which the probability of abnormal Pap results was assumed constant. RESULTS: The probability of an abnormal Pap result ranged from 7.0% for the lowest risk group (those without any high-risk HPV types and without HPV 6/11) to 45.2% for the highest risk group (those with HPV 16/18 and at least one other high-risk HPV type). Estimated reductions in abnormal Pap results among women in the 21- to 29-year age group were 0.8%, 10.2%, and 11.3% in years 5, 15, and 25 of the vaccine program respectively, in the lower vaccine coverage scenario, and 7.4%, 21.4%, and 22.2%, respectively, in the higher coverage scenario. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that HPV vaccination will have a discernable impact on the probability of Pap abnormalities, but the timing and magnitude of the reduction will depend substantially on vaccine coverage and the degree of cross-protection against high risk HPV types other than HPV 16/18.

Chesson HW; Flagg EW; Koutsky L; Hsu K; Unger ER; Shlay JC; Kerndt P; Ghanem KG; Zenilman JM; Hagensee M; Weinstock H; Datta SD

2013-06-01

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Use of a liquid-based, thin-layer Pap test in a community hospital. Impact on cytology performance and productivity.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the direct-to-vial efficacy of the SurePath Pap test (TriPath Imaging, Burlington, North Carolina, U.S.A.) in a community hospital laboratory and to assess its impact on productivity, as measured by Pap test turnaround times (TATs). STUDY DESIGN: A total of 8,771 SurePath Pap tests were compared to 5,055 conventional Pap smears collected and processed over the same 12-month period. SurePath histologic correlation rates were compared to historical correlation rates for conventional Pap smears. Pap test TATs for 3 months prior to implementing SurePath were compared to TATs for the last 3 months of the study, which included an approximate 70:30 ratio of SurePath to conventional Pap tests. Laboratory staffing was unchanged, and mean monthly accessions were relatively constant. RESULTS: SurePath showed statistically significant improvements in the detection of low grade (LSIL) (196%) and high grade (HSIL) (243%) squamous intraepithelial lesions (SILs) relative to conventional Pap smears. The atypical cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) rate remained nearly constant with SurePath, while the ASCUS/SIL ratio decreased by 68%. Unsatisfactory rates declined 81%. Histologic correlation rates with SurePath increased over those of conventional Pap smears. Pap test mean TATs improved 73% with SurePath. CONCLUSION: Sure-Path detected significantly more cases of LSIL and HSIL than conventional smears without compromising specificity. The ASCUS/SIL ratio and unsatisfactory rate declined dramatically. Pap test TATs also improved markedly with SurePath.

Sass MA

2004-01-01

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Mammography and Pap test screening among low-income foreign-born Hispanic women in the USA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Little is known about the factors influencing screening among low-income Hispanic women particularly among recent immigrants. A sample of 148 low-income, low-literate, foreign-born Hispanic women residing in the Washington DC metropolitan area participated in the study. The mean age of the sample was 46.2 (SD = 11.5), 84% reported annual household incomes<=$15,000. All women were Spanish speakers and had low acculturation levels. Ninety six percent had reported having a Pap smear, but 24% were not in compliance with recommended screening (Pap test within the last 3 years). Among women 40 and older, 62% had received a mammogram, but only 33% were compliant with age appropriate recommended mammography screening guidelines. Women in this study had more misconceptions about cancer than Hispanics in other studies. Multivariate logistic models for correlates of Pap test and mammography screening behavior indicate that factors such as fear of the screening test, embarrassment, and lack of knowledge influenced screening behavior. In conclusion, women in this study had lower rates of mammography screening than non-Hispanic women and lower rates of compliance with recommended Mammography and Pap test screening guidelines.

Fernandez Maria E.; Tortolero-Luna Guillermo; Gold Robert S.

1998-01-01

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Human papillomavirus testing with Pap triage for cervical cancer prevention in Canada: a cost-effectiveness analysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Recently published results from a large randomized trial (Canadian Cervical Cancer Screening Trial study group) suggest that human papillomavirus testing followed by Pap smear-based triage for human papillomavirus positive women may be an effective way to screen women for cervical cancer. We determined the potential cost-effectiveness of including human papillomavirus tests for cervical cancer screening for Canada and three provinces: Alberta, Newfoundland and Ontario. Methods We developed four Markov decision models using data from relevant Canadian and provincial studies and databases. The models were used to determine the number of false positive test results, cancers, lifetime costs and life-expectancy for 27 different screening strategies that varied by age to begin screening (18 or 25 years), screening interval (one, two, three, or five years) and whether the currently recommended strategy (screening every year from age 18 until 21 and then every three years afterwards with conventional Paps) was conducted prior to age 25. Strategies were compared using incremental cost-effectiveness ratios. Results Screening strategies beginning at age 18 were associated with a substantial increase in the number of false-positive test results but only small differences in the number of cancers compared to the same strategy conducted beginning at age 25. Strategies of human papillomavirus testing first, followed by triage with Pap smears were associated with lower costs and greater increases in life-expectancy than the currently recommended screening strategy in Canada. Conclusion A strategy of human papillomavirus testing beginning at age 25, with Pap triage for women with positive human papillomavirus results may be more effective at reducing cervical cancer at a lower cost than the current recommended strategy for screening in Canada.

Kulasingam Shalini L; Rajan Raghu; St Pierre Yvan; Atwood C Victoria; Myers Evan R; Franco Eduardo L

2009-01-01

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Impact of implementing a nationwide cervical cancer screening program on female population coverage by Pap-tests in Estonia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: The objective of the EUROCHIP project in Estonia was to describe the organized cervical cancer screening program started in 2006 (after pilot studies in 2003-2005), to compare its performance with opportunistic screening, and to define priorities for improvement of the program. METHODS: Population data was retrieved from Statistics Estonia, data about performed Pap-smear tests within the screening program from the Estonian Cancer Society and from clinics and labs participating in the program, data about Pap-smear tests outside the screening program from the Estonian Health Insurance Fund, and data about cancer incidence and mortality from the Estonian Cancer Registry database. RESULTS: During the first year after implementing the nationwide cervical cancer screening program in Estonia, the number of tests outside the organized program remained high. Within the organized program, the number of Pap-tests in different age groups increased with age except for the oldest age group while population coverage with Pap-tests outside the organized screening program decreased with age. The number of cervical cancer cases at early stages increased after implementation of organized screening. The time-frame does not permit to draw any definitive conclusions. CONCLUSIONS: Implementation of organized cervical cancer screening did not decrease the volume of opportunistic screening. The factors influencing attendance in the organized cervical cancer screening program in different age groups should be studied further. Moreover, a central cancer screening registry without restrictive data protection legislation would improve data collection and enable to evaluate performance of the program on a regular basis.

Veerus P; Arbyn M; Amati C; Paolo B

2010-07-01

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HPV DNA and Pap smear test results in cases with and without cervical pathology  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective: The aim of the study was to determine the HPV prevalance and its relation to Pap smear, colposcopy and colposcopy directed biopsy in our region of Eskisehir, Turkey.Material and Methods: A total of 615 women who applied to the outpatient clinic between December 2009 and December 2010 constituted our study population. All patients underwent pelvic examination and Pap smear sampling. Patients who had pathological cervical appearance or Pap smear results of ASCUS, AGUS, LSIL or HSIL were referred to colposcopy. Cervical samples for HPV DNA were taken from the patients before Pap smear sampling during the routine examination or before the colposcopic evaluation. Results: Twenty six of 615 patients (4%) were HPV positive. Of these 26 patients, 12 were positive for HPV type 16, 3 for type 18, 3 for type 51, 2 for type 6, 1 for type 52, 1 for type 33, 1 for type 16 and type 31, 1 for type 6 and 52, 1 for type 56 and 90, 1 for type 39 and 66. In 4 patients with cervical cancer, and in 3 of 4 CIN III cases both HPV DNA and Pap smear were positive. In the Pap smear examination of 615 patients, cytology revealed 35 ASCUS (5.6%) 4 AGUS (0.6%), 2 CIN I (0.3%) results who were negative for HPV DNA. These patients with abnormal cytology (n=41) underwent colposcopy directed biopsy, there were 3 CIN I and 1 CIN III and all the other cervical biopsy results of these patients were benign (inflammation, chronic cervicitis). Conclusion: HPV positivity in our hospital setting is low which is compatible with other studies in Turkey. In positive HPV cases there is a good correlation between HPV type and positive cervical biopsy results.

Sabit Sinan Özalp; Tercan Us; Emine Arslan; Tufan Öge; Nilgün Ka?ifo?lu

2012-01-01

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Comparison of knowledge and attitudes toward human papillomavirus, HPV vaccine, pap tests, and cervical cancer between US and Peruvian women.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to determine and compare the knowledge and attitudes toward human papillomavirus (HPV), HPV vaccine, Pap tests, and cervical cancer among US and Peruvian women. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A convenience sample of 275 US women in Augusta, GA, and 702 Peruvian women living in or near Cusco, Peru, completed 22- or 21-item questionnaires, respectively. These questionnaires determined their knowledge about HPV, the HPV vaccine, Pap tests, and cervical cancer. Simple logistic regression was used to determine the relationship between location and language on the correct responses. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals were calculated. RESULTS: US Spanish- (OR = 0.02), Quechua- (OR = 0.05), and Peru Spanish-speaking women (OR = 0.03) were significantly less likely to know that HPV causes cervical cancer compared with US non-Spanish-speaking women. US Spanish- (OR = 10.61, OR = 5.74), Quechua- (OR = 11.08, OR = 9.89), and Peru Spanish-speaking women (OR = 17.25, 14.43) were significantly more likely to be embarrassed and afraid, respectively, to get a Pap test compared with US non-Spanish-speaking women. US Spanish- (OR = 0.11), Quechua- (OR = 0.14), and Peru Spanish-speaking women (OR = 0.11) women were significantly less likely to know the HPV vaccine is safe and effective compared with US non-Spanish-speaking women. CONCLUSIONS: Education must be implemented to address serious misconceptions and worrisome attitudes toward Pap tests and the HPV vaccine to decrease the rate of cervical cancer in Peru and US Spanish-speaking women.

Han CS; Ferris DG; Waller J; Tharp P; Walter J; Allmond L

2012-04-01

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A molecular monopoly? HPV testing, the Pap smear and the molecularisation of cervical cancer screening in the USA.  

Science.gov (United States)

DNA-based molecular testing for human papillomavirus has emerged as a novel approach to cervical cancer screening in the context of well-entrenched existing technology, the Pap smear. This article seeks to elucidate the process of molecularisation in the context of screening programmes. We illustrate how, although Pap has long been problematised and could be seen as a competing technological option, the existing networks and regime for Pap were important in supporting the entrenchment process for the artefacts, techniques and new diagnostics industry entrant, Digene, associated with the new test. The article provides insights into how the molecularisation of screening unfolds in a mainstream market. We reveal an incremental and accretive, rather than revolutionary, process led by new commercial interests in an era when diagnostic innovation is increasingly privatised. We show Digene's reliance on patents, an international scientific network and their position as an obligatory point of passage in the clinical research field with regard to the new technology's role, as well as on controversial new marketing practices. The article is based on a mixed method approach, drawing on a wide range of contemporary sources (including patents, statutory filings by companies, scientific literature and news sources) as well as interviews. PMID:22118240

Hogarth, Stuart; Hopkins, Michael M; Rodriguez, Victor

2011-11-25

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A molecular monopoly? HPV testing, the Pap smear and the molecularisation of cervical cancer screening in the USA.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

DNA-based molecular testing for human papillomavirus has emerged as a novel approach to cervical cancer screening in the context of well-entrenched existing technology, the Pap smear. This article seeks to elucidate the process of molecularisation in the context of screening programmes. We illustrate how, although Pap has long been problematised and could be seen as a competing technological option, the existing networks and regime for Pap were important in supporting the entrenchment process for the artefacts, techniques and new diagnostics industry entrant, Digene, associated with the new test. The article provides insights into how the molecularisation of screening unfolds in a mainstream market. We reveal an incremental and accretive, rather than revolutionary, process led by new commercial interests in an era when diagnostic innovation is increasingly privatised. We show Digene's reliance on patents, an international scientific network and their position as an obligatory point of passage in the clinical research field with regard to the new technology's role, as well as on controversial new marketing practices. The article is based on a mixed method approach, drawing on a wide range of contemporary sources (including patents, statutory filings by companies, scientific literature and news sources) as well as interviews.

Hogarth S; Hopkins MM; Rodriguez V

2012-02-01

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Recency of Pap testing and future testing plans among women aged 18-64: analysis of the 2007 Health Information National Trends Survey.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Cervical cancer incidence has declined as a result of Papanicolaou (Pap) test use. Current guidelines recommend increasing screening intervals for women of average risk. The objective of this study is to examine current screening intervals, factors associated with recency of Pap testing, and future testing plans. METHODS: We analyzed data from 2915 female respondents, aged 18-64, using the 2007 Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS), a biennial national survey of access and use of cancer information in the United States. We divided time since last Pap test into ?1 year (n=1960), >1 to ?3 years (n=512), >3 years/never had Pap test (n=443). We performed univariate analyses and multivariate logistic regression, using proportional odds model with cumulative logit link. RESULTS: Sixty-five percent of women had their most recent Pap test within 1 year. Most expected to be screened again within 1 year (81%). This expectation was highest among women who were tested within the previous year (90.9%). Having had a test within 1 year was positively associated with age groups 31-45 vs. 46-64 years; with being non-Hispanic black vs. non-Hispanic white; with being a college graduate vs. having less education; with being married, divorced, or separated vs. widowed; with having at least one visit to a healthcare provider in the past year; and with being aware of the human papillomavirus (HPV). CONCLUSIONS: Most women currently are tested and anticipate future testing at annual intervals. To implement guidelines, increased communication and systematic or policy changes may be needed to reduce overtesting.

Ashok M; Berkowitz Z; Hawkins NA; Tangka F; Saraiya M

2012-07-01

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The frequency of having pap-smear tests among women between 15-64 years old and the evaluation of the level of their knowledge.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To determine the frequency of Pap smear testing among women and to evaluate their level of knowledge about the test and other relevant factors. METHODS: The study comprised women who presented to the Gynaecology and Obstetrics Polyclinic of Sakarya Training and Research Hospital, Turkey, between April 1 and 30, 2012. The questionnaire was developed in line with the objectives of the study. They were filled by the participants who were supervised during the process. Women who had had at least one Pap smear test in life were considered to have taken a Pap smear test'", and those who had heard of the test were accepted as women who "knew of the Pap smear test". Data was analysed using SPSS 15.0. Chi-square test was used for analyses, and statistical significance was set at p<0.05. RESULTS: The age of 601 subjects ranged between 15 and 64 years, with a mean of 31.09+/-10.49 years. Of the total, 115 (19.1%) had taken a Pap smear test before and 293 (48.8%) knew of the test.The proportion of the women who had had a Pap smear test was higher among those who were over 30 years of age (n=73; 63.47%), had post-high school educational degrees (n=68; 59.13%), had moderate familial income status (n=74; 64.34%), were married (n=109; 94.78%), had first sexual experience after 25 years of age(n=42; 36.52%), and were not using a contraceptive method (n=97; 84.34%) (p<0.05 for each). Besides, more women with previous knowledge of the test had taken the test (p<0.05). CONCLUSION: The subjects did not have sufficient information on Pap smear and the frequency of having a test was low. Raising awareness would prove beneficial.

Sevil S; Kevser O; Aleattin U; Ozlem D

2013-07-01

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The HPV test has similar sensitivity but more overdiagnosis than the Pap test--a randomised health services study on cervical cancer screening in Finland.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We compared test sensitivity (in terms of prevented cancers) and overdiagnosis (in terms of non-progressive pre-invasive lesions) between the human papillomavirus test (HPV test, Hybrid Capture 2) and the traditional Pap test in routine screening for cervical cancer. The design was a randomised (1:1) health services study in Finland with intake between 2003 and 2007. We estimated sensitivity by the incidence method within one screening round. Overdiagnosis was based on the rate of cervical intraepithelial Grade 3 (CIN3) lesions diagnosed at screen and during the following interval. Out of 203,788 randomised women 132,298 attended (65% in both study arms) and 600,753 person-years accumulated among attenders up to the end of 2010. In all attenders, 34 invasive cervical cancers and 288 CIN3 lesions were diagnosed at screen or during the following interval. The interval cancer incidence was 2.5/10(5) person-years (sensitivity 0.87) and 1.4 (sensitivity 0.93) in the HPV arm and Pap test arm, respectively. The rate of CIN3 lesions was 57.1 and 38.8, respectively. In conclusion, sensitivity of HPV testing was similar to that of Pap testing but caused more overdiagnosis. Therefore, implementation of HPV testing needs to be reconsidered especially in countries with well organised programmes.

Malila N; Leinonen M; Kotaniemi-Talonen L; Laurila P; Tarkkanen J; Hakama M

2013-05-01

 
 
 
 
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Five-year risks of CIN 3+ and cervical cancer among women who test Pap-negative but are HPV-positive.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: Current US guidelines for cotesting recommend that the large numbers of women who test Pap-negative, but human papillomavirus (HPV)-positive, return in 1 year, and those who remain HPV-positive or have low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL) or worse Pap results be referred for colposcopy. However, the performance of these guidelines in routine clinical practice has not been evaluated. METHODS: We estimated cumulative 5-year risks of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 or worse (CIN 3+) among 32,374 women aged 30 to 64 years with HPV-positive/Pap-negative cotest results at Kaiser Permanente Northern California during 2003 to 2010. RESULTS: The 5-year CIN 3+ risk after an HPV-positive/Pap-negative cotest result, which was found in 3.6% of women, was 4.5% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 4.2%-4.8%). The 5-year cancer risk was 0.34% (95% CI = 0.26%-0.45%), and half of the cases were adenocarcinoma. Overall, 48% of the women remained HPV-positive on return (median = 418 days after baseline), a percentage that varied little over ages 30 to 64 years. At the return after a baseline HPV-positive/Pap-negative result, almost every repeat cotest result predicted greater subsequent 5-year CIN 3+ risk than the same cotest result had at baseline (HPV-positive/LSIL, 9.2% vs 6.1%, p = .01; HPV-positive/atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance [ASC-US], 7.9% vs 6.8%, p = .2; HPV-positive/Pap-negative, 7.4% vs 4.5%, p < .0001; HPV-negative/LSIL,1.7% vs 2.0%, p = .8; HPV-negative/ASC-US, 2.9% vs 0.43%, p = .0005; HPV-negative/Pap-negative, 0.93% vs 0.08%, p < .0001). CONCLUSIONS: Using the principle of "equal management of equal risks," women testing HPV-positive/Pap-negative had a subsequent CIN 3+ risk consistent with risk thresholds for a 1-year return. However, on returning in approximately 1 year, about one-half of women will be referred for colposcopy because of continued HPV positivity or Pap abnormality. Clinicians should keep in mind that cotest results at the return after a baseline HPV-positive/Pap-negative finding are riskier than the same baseline cotest results in the general population, supporting intensified clinical management at return testing.

Katki HA; Schiffman M; Castle PE; Fetterman B; Poitras NE; Lorey T; Cheung LC; Raine-Bennett T; Gage JC; Kinney WK

2013-04-01

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Five-year risks of CIN 3+ and cervical cancer among women with HPV testing of ASC-US Pap results.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: New screening guidelines recommend that human papillomavirus (HPV)-negative/atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US) results be considered as equivalent to HPV-negative/Pap-negative results, leading to rescreening in 5 years. However, despite ample data, the routine clinical performance of HPV testing of women with ASC-US has not been adequately documented. METHODS: We estimated 5-year risks of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) 3+ and of cancer among 2 groups of women between 2003 and 2010 at Kaiser Permanente Northern California: 27,050 aged 30 to 64 years who underwent HPV and Pap cotesting and had an ASC-US Pap result and 12,209 aged 25 to 29 years who underwent HPV triage of ASC-US. RESULTS: Five-year risks of CIN 3+ and of cancer among women aged 30 to 64 years testing HPV-negative/ASC-US and among 923,152 women testing Pap-negative alone were similar although statistically distinguishable (CIN 3+, 0.43% vs 0.26%, p = .001; cancer, 0.050% vs 0.025%, p = .1). The increased risk of cancer after HPV-negative/ASC-US versus Pap-negative alone was confined to women aged 60 to 64 years (0.26% vs 0.035%, p = .3). Five-year risks of CIN 3+ and cancer among women with HPV-negative/ASC-US results were substantially higher than those among women testing HPV-negative/Pap-negative (CIN 3+, 0.43% vs 0.08%, p < .0001; cancer, 0.050% vs 0.011%, p = .003). For women aged 30 to 64 years testing HPV-positive/ASC-US, 5-year risks of CIN 3+ and cancer were slightly higher than those among 9,374 women with low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL) (CIN 3+, 6.8% vs 5.2%, p = .0007; cancer, 0.41% vs 0.16%, p = .04). Similar patterns were seen for women aged 25 to 29 years. CONCLUSIONS: Women with HPV-negative/ASC-US had a similar risk as women testing Pap-negative alone but had a higher risk than women testing HPV-negative/Pap-negative. Based upon the principle of "equal management of equal risks," our findings support the equal management of women with HPV-negative/ASC-US and those with Pap-negative alone, except for exiting women from screening because cancer risks at ages 60 to 64 years may be higher for women testing HPV-negative/ASC-US. Our findings also support managing HPV-positive/ASC-US and LSIL similarly.

Katki HA; Schiffman M; Castle PE; Fetterman B; Poitras NE; Lorey T; Cheung LC; Raine-Bennett T; Gage JC; Kinney WK

2013-04-01

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Quantitative methylation-specific PCR for the detection of aberrant DNA methylation in liquid-based Pap tests.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Aberrant promoter methylation of selective tumor suppressor genes has been detected in squamous intraepithelial lesions (SIL) and invasive cervical cancer. Identification of methylation profiles of genes that can distinguish high-grade SIL (HSIL) from low-grade SIL (LSIL), and cytologically negative for intraepithelial lesion or malignancy (NILM) residual liquid-based Papanicolaou (Pap) tests may be potentially useful as an ancillary test for cervical cancer screening. METHODS: Using real-time quantitative methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) (QMSP), the authors analyzed the frequency and relative level of promoter methylation for DAPK1, IGSF4, SPARC, and TFPI2 in biopsy-confirmed HSIL and LSIL, and NILM residual liquid-based Pap tests. The percentage of methylation (%M) for each gene was calculated using the reference gene, ACTB. The cumulative methylation score for each sample, defined as the sum of %M of all 4 genes, was used to analyze the genes in combination. RESULTS: For each gene analyzed the frequency and relative level of methylation were increased in HSIL compared with combined NILM/LSIL samples. The cumulative methylation scores were significantly higher in HSIL samples (P < .0001). Area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC) demonstrated that methylation of each gene could distinguish HSIL from NILM/LSIL samples (AUC range, 0.6-0.67; P < or = .0028). The combination of 4 genes showed improved test performance (AUC = 0.76; P < .0001). There was no significant difference in cumulative methylation in HSIL cases with histologic outcomes of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 (CIN2) versus CIN3. There was no association between the methylation of any gene and the presence of human papillomavirus. CONCLUSIONS: The methylation profile of multiple genes in combination can better distinguish HSIL from combined NILM/LSIL samples. Although aberrant DNA methylation has the potential to function as a molecular biomarker of HSIL in liquid-based Pap tests, additional genes that are selectively methylated in HSIL are needed to improve the clinical performance.

Kahn SL; Ronnett BM; Gravitt PE; Gustafson KS

2008-02-01

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Automated detection of dual p16/Ki67 nuclear immunoreactivity in liquid-based Pap tests for improved cervical cancer risk stratification.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The Papanicolau (Pap) test is a routine cytological procedure for early detection of dysplastic lesions in cervical epithelium. A reliable screening method is crucial for triage of women at risk; however manual screening and interpretation are associated with relatively low sensitivity and substantial interobserver diagnostic variability. P16 and Ki67 biomarkers have been recently proposed as adjunctive tools in the diagnosis of high-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV) associated dysplasias to supplement the morphological characteristics of cells by additional colorimetric features. In this study, an automated technique for the evaluation of dual p16/Ki67 immunoreactivity in cervical cell nuclei is introduced. Smears stained with p16 and Ki67 antibodies were digitized, and analyzed by algorithms we developed. Gradient-based radial symmetry operator and adaptive processing of symmetry image were employed to obtain the nuclear mask. This step was followed by the extraction of features including pixel data and immunoreactivity signature from each nucleus. The features were analyzed by two support vector machine classifiers to assign a nucleus into one of four types of immunoreactivity: p16 positive (p16(+)/Ki67(-)), Ki67 positive (p16(-)/Ki67(+)), dual p16/Ki67 positive (p16(+)/Ki67(+)) and negative (p16(-)/Ki67(-)), respectively. Results obtained by our method correlated well with readings by two cytopathologists (n = 18,068 cells); p16(+)/Ki67(+) nuclei were classified with respective precisions of 77.1% and 82.6%. Specificity in identification of p16(-)/Ki67(-) nuclei was better than 99.5%, and the sensitivity in detection of all immunopositive nuclei was 86.3 and 89.4%, respectively. We found that the quantitative characterization of immunoreactivity provided by the additional highlighting of classified nuclei can positively impact the efficacy and screening outcome of the Pap test.

Gertych A; Joseph AO; Walts AE; Bose S

2012-05-01

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Pap smear (image)  

Science.gov (United States)

During a Pap smear, cells from the outside and the canal of the cervix are retrieved by gently scraping the outside of the cervix. The Pap smear is performed to detect cancerous or precancerous conditions ...

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How a Routine Pap Smear Ends Up Costing $1,000  

Science.gov (United States)

... page, please enable JavaScript. How a Routine Pap Smear Ends Up Costing $1,000 Family physician investigated ... they wouldn't normally consider a simple Pap smear. Pap smears are routine tests that doctors use ...

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Congress: 50 years of the Papanicolaou test. Istituto Superiore di Sanita`. Rome, March 30, 1995; Convegno: 50 anni di Pap test. Istituto Superiore di Sanita`. Roma, 30 marzo 1995  

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The Conference was organized to celebrate the 50th anniversary of the cervical smear test, commonly referred to as the `Pap test` after its creator, George Nicholas Papanicolaou. The reports present the development of the test, its worldwide application, and its performance as the screening test for the detection of cervical cancer. Pap smear screening for precursors of carcinoma of the cervix has led to dramatic decrease in the incidence and deaths from this cancer. The test represents one of the greatest achievements in preventive medicine.

Branca, Margherita; Cedri, Sabina; Migliore, Giovanna [Istituto Superiore di Sanita`, Rome (Italy). Lab. di Epidemiologia e Biostatistica

1997-12-01

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papA gene of avian pathogenic Escherichia coli.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

P fimbrial adhesins may be associated with the virulence of avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC). However, most APECs are unable to express P fimbriae even when they are grown under conditions that favor P fimbrial expression. This failure can be explained by the complete absence of the pap operon or the presence of an incomplete pap operon in Pap-negative APEC strains. In the present study, we analyzed the pap operon, specifically the papA gene that encodes the major fimbrial shaft, to better understand the pap gene cluster at the genetic level. First, by PCR, we examined a collection of 500 APEC strains for the presence of 11 genes comprising the pap operon. Except for papA, all the other genes of the operon were present in 38% to 41.2% of APEC, whereas the papA was present only in 10.4% of the APEC tested. Using multiplex PCR to probe for allelic variants of papA, we sought to determine if the low prevalence of papA among APEC was related to genetic heterogeneity of the gene itself. It was determined that the papA of APEC always belongs to the F11 allelic variant. Finally, we sequenced the 'papA region' from two papA-negative strains, both of which contain all the other genes of the pap operon. Interestingly, both strains had an 11,104-bp contig interruptingpapA at the 281-bp position. This contig harbored a streptomycin resistance gene and a classic Tn10 transposon containing the genes that confer tetracycline resistance. However, we noted that the papA gene of every papA-negative APEC strain was not interrupted by an 11,104-bp contig. It is likely that transposons bearing antibiotic resistance genes have inserted within pap gene cluster of some APEC strains, and such genetic events may have been selected for by antibiotic use.

Kariyawasam S; Nolan LK

2011-12-01

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Effectiveness of VIA, Pap, and HPV DNA testing in a cervical cancer screening program in a peri-urban community in Andhra Pradesh, India.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: While many studies have compared the efficacy of Pap cytology, visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA) and human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA assays for the detection cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and cancer, few have evaluated the program effectiveness. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A population-based sample of 5603 women from Medchal Mandal in Andhra Pradesh, India were invited to participate in a study comparing Pap cytology, VIA, and HPV DNA screening for the detection of CIN3+. Participation in primary screening and all subsequent follow-up visits was rigorously tracked. A 20% random sample of all women screened, in addition to all women with a positive screening test result underwent colposcopy with directed biopsy for final diagnosis. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values were adjusted for verification bias. HPV testing had a higher sensitivity (100%) and specificity (90.6%) compared to Pap cytology (sensitivity ?=? 78.2%; specificity?=?86.0%) and VIA (sensitivity?=?31.6%; specificity?=?87.5%). Since 58% of the sample refused involvement and another 28% refused colposcopy or biopsy, we estimated that potentially 87.6% of the total underlying cases of CIN3 and cancer may have been missed due to program failures. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that despite our use of available resources, infrastructure, and guidelines for cervical cancer screening implementation in resource limited areas, community participation and non-compliance remain the major obstacles to successful reduction in cervical cancer mortality in this Indian population. HPV DNA testing was both more sensitive and specific than Pap cytology and VIA. The use of a less invasive and more user-friendly primary screening strategy (such as self-collected swabs for HPV DNA testing) may be required to achieve the coverage necessary for effective reduction in cervical cancer mortality.

Gravitt PE; Paul P; Katki HA; Vendantham H; Ramakrishna G; Sudula M; Kalpana B; Ronnett BM; Vijayaraghavan K; Shah KV

2010-01-01

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Evaluating the efficacy of lay health advisors for increasing risk-appropriate Pap test screening: a randomized controlled trial among Ohio Appalachian women.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Cervical cancer is a significant health disparity among women in Ohio Appalachia. The goal of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a lay health advisor (LHA) intervention for improving Papanicolaou (Pap) testing rates, to reduce cervical cancer, among women in need of screening. METHODS: Women from 14 Ohio Appalachian clinics in need of a Pap test were randomized to receive either usual care or an LHA intervention over a 10-month period. The intervention consisted of two in-person visits with an LHA, two phone calls, and four postcards. Both self-report and medical record review (MRR) data (primary outcome) were analyzed. RESULTS: Of the 286 women, 145 and 141 were randomized to intervention and usual care arms, respectively. According to MRR, more women in the LHA arm had a Pap test by the end of the study compared with those randomized to usual care (51.1% vs. 42.0%; OR = 1.44, 95% CI: 0.89-2.33; P = 0.135). Results of self-report were more pronounced (71.3% vs. 54.2%; OR = 2.10, 95% CI: 1.22-3.61; P = 0.008). CONCLUSIONS: An LHA intervention showed some improvement in the receipt of Pap tests among Ohio Appalachian women in need of screening. Although biases inherent in using self-reports of screening are well known, this study also identified biases in using MRR data in clinics located in underserved areas. IMPACT: LHA interventions show promise for improving screening behaviors among nonadherent women from underserved populations.

Paskett ED; McLaughlin JM; Lehman AM; Katz ML; Tatum CM; Oliveri JM

2011-05-01

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[Pap test used for detection of cellular changes associated with human papillomavirus].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Human papilloma virus can infect any mucous of the body and can cause cancer of the uterine cervix. This suggests recommending the Papanicolaou smear combined with a test for detection of human papillomavirus with a frequency interval of 3 years, since it grants greater information and fidelity to the result. The detection studies should begin at the age of 21 years and should stop at 65 years age. Until recently specific treatments did not exist to treat human papilloma virus, but recently some drugs that have demonstrated good effectiveness in curing the infection of human papilloma virus. One example is glycirrhicinic acid, which has demonstrated fewer adverse effects, as well as the possibility that its systemic employment allows treatment of lesions that are difficult to approach. The medical recommendations should be in constant revision, since a clinical trial can modify the interpretation of what is necessary to individualize each patient's treatment.

Hernández-Valencia M; Carrillo-Pacheco A; Hernández-Quijano T; Zárate A

2013-07-01

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The unsatisfactory ThinPrep® Pap Test™: analysis of technical aspects, most common causes, and recommendations for improvement.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

ThinPrep® preparation is a widely-used method for processing gynecologic specimens due to the many advantages of the technique. However, the presence of blood, inflammation, and lubricant, among other factors, can significantly interfere with specimen adequacy. The aim of this study was to identify and overcome the most common reasons for unsatisfactory ThinPrep® Pap Test™ results in our laboratory. From October 2010 to January 2011, we reprocessed cases categorized as "unsatisfactory for evaluation" to determine whether reprocessing these specimens would impact the unsatisfactory rate. Reasons for unsatisfactory results were classified as: technical reasons, scant cellularity, and complete obscuring factors. Two hundred fifty-three cases were initially classified as unsatisfactory. Of these, 226 cases were reprocessed. Ninety cases became satisfactory after reprocessing with an overall improvement of 40%. The most common reasons for unsatisfactory results were the presence of lubricant (96 cases), presence of blood (64 cases), and technical problems (33 cases). Cases affected by blood or technical issues showed a significant improvement after reprocessing (56.2% and 90.9%, respectively). However, unsatisfactory cases owed to the presence of lubricant showed a relatively low percentage of improvement (16.6%). The main reasons for unsatisfactory results, the presence of blood and lubricant, can be avoided in many cases if sampling is not performed during bleeding and if the use of lubricants is limited during sample collection. Our study showed that reprocessing of selected cases can improve the overall unsatisfactory rate and can potentially reduce the risk of missing significant lesions.

Rosa M; Pragasam P; Saremian J; Aoalin A; Graf W; Mohammadi A

2013-07-01

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Compreensão de usuárias de uma Unidade de Saúde da Família sobre o exame Papanicolaou/ The understanding of users of a Family Health Unit about the pap smear test  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Na tentativa de prevenir o câncer de colo uterino, foram instituídas várias ações de prevenção, dentre as quais, o Exame Papanicolaou que cumpre com a função de detecção precoce de células cancerosas ou de seus precursores. Portanto, objetivou-se investigar o discurso sobre a compreensão, os sentimentos e as expectativas de mulheres em relação ao Exame Papanicolaou. Trata-se de um estudo do tipo exploratório com abordagem qualitativa, realizado junto a dez (more) usuárias de uma Unidade Integrada de Saúde da Família, no município de João Pessoa (PB). A coleta de dados se deu em abril de 2011, através de entrevista gravada. Foram identificadas oito ideias centrais: prevenção de doenças; busca por conta própria; busca por estímulo de outra pessoa; sentimento de vergonha e constrangimento; sensação de dor; sentimento de satisfação; conversas durante o exame e troca de conhecimentos acerca da saúde da mulher. Frente aos relatos, muitas são as dificuldades a serem vencidas para proporcionar melhor adesão das mulheres ao exame Papanicolaou. Abstract in english In the attempt to prevent cervical cancer, various preventive measures have been instituted, notable among which is the pap smear test, which fulfills the function of early detection of cancer cells or their precursors. Therefore, the objective was to investigate the discourse on the knowledge, feelings and expectations of women regarding the pap smear test. This is an exploratory qualitative approach, conducted with ten users of a Integrated Family Health Unit in the cit (more) y of João Pessoa in the State of Paraíba. Data collection was conducted through recorded interviews in April 2011. Eight core ideas were identified: prevention of disease; self-motivated search, search recommended by another person; sense of shame and embarrassment, sensation of pain, feeling of satisfaction; conversations during the examination and exchange of knowledge about women's health. Based on the reports, there are many difficulties to be overcome to ensure greater adherence of women to the pap smear test.

Andrade, Smalyanna Sgren da Costa; Silva, Fernanda Maria Chianca da; Silva, Maria do Socorro Sousa e; Oliveira, Simone Helena dos Santos; Leite, Kamila Nethielly Souza; Sousa, Merifane Januário de

2013-08-01

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Cobertura e motivos para a realização ou não do teste de Papanicolaou no Município de São Paulo Cervical cancer screening in the Municipality of São Paulo: coverage and factors involved in submitting to the Pap test  

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Full Text Available Investigou-se a prevalência da realização do teste de Papanicolaou alguma vez na vida e nos últimos três anos entre mulheres de 15 a 49 anos, o recebimento do resultado do último teste realizado e os motivos relatados para a realização ou não do exame. Um inquérito domiciliar foi realizado no Município de São Paulo em 2000, com uma amostra representativa de 1.172 mulheres selecionadas aleatoriamente em seus domicílios. Das mulheres que já tinham iniciado a vida sexual (n = 1.050), 86,1% (932) realizaram o teste alguma vez na vida e 77,3 % (839) nos últimos três anos. Das que já realizaram o teste, 806 (87,0%) receberam o resultado do último exame. Os principais motivos para a realização do último teste foram: demanda espontânea (55,5%), recomendação médica (25%) e presença de queixas ginecológicas (18,2%). As principais razões para a não realização do exame foram: ausência de problemas ginecológicos, vergonha ou medo e dificuldades de acesso. A despeito do relativo aumento na cobertura do teste de Papanicolaou e de mais da metade das mulheres demandarem espontaneamente pelo exame, sua realização foi menor entre aquelas com as piores condições sócio-econômicas e, portanto, de maior risco para o câncer cervical.This study estimated Pap smear coverage (at least one test in the lifetime and one in the last three years) among women aged 15 to 49 years old. The study also discusses whether the women received the results of their last test, as well as self-reported reasons for and against submitting to the test. A population-based survey was conducted in the city of São Paulo in 2000 with a randomly selected representative sample of 1,172 women. Among the women who were already sexually active (n = 1,050), 86.1% reported having had at least one Pap smear during their lifetime, and 77.3% had undergone the test in the previous 3 years. Among those who reported having had at least one Pap smear, 87.0% had received the result of the last test. The main reasons reported for having had the last test were: spontaneous demand (55.5%), medical referral (25%), and gynecological complaints (18.2%). The main reasons for never having had a Pap test were: no gynecological problems, embarrassment or fear, and difficulties in accessing health services. Despite high coverage of the Pap test and the fact that the majority of the women had self-reported a spontaneous demand, use of the Pap test was less prevalent among women with the lowest socioeconomic level (and consequently at greater risk of cervical cancer).

Adriana de Araujo Pinho; Ivan França Junior; Lilia Blima Schraiber; Ana Flávia P. L. D'Oliveira

2003-01-01

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Cobertura do exame citopatológico na cidade de Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil Pap test coverage in the city of Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available No Brasil, a avaliação da efetividade de programas de prevenção e ações de saúde pública ainda são incipientes. Dessa forma, realizou-se um estudo transversal de base populacional envolvendo a saúde da população adulta residente na zona urbana da cidade de Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil, com o objetivo de verificar a evolução nos níveis de cobertura do exame citopatológico. Investigaram-se fatores associados com a não realização do procedimento. Considerou-se exame citopatológico atualizado aquele realizado nos últimos três anos. A amostra foi constituída por 1.122 mulheres entre 20 e 69 anos, sendo que 72,2% apresentavam exame citopatológico atualizado, 16,6% atrasado e 11,2% nunca o haviam realizado. A não realização do procedimento esteve associada com baixa inserção social e idade avançada. A regressão logística destacou o efeito independente de classe social, baixa renda familiar, idade, cor da pele, estado civil e ausência de consultas médicas no último ano. Contudo, desapareceu o efeito detectado em mulheres com doenças crônicas. Comparando-se os resultados do estudo realizado em 1992 com o atual, observa-se que a cobertura do exame aumentou de 65,0% para 72,2% (1992 para 1999/2000), entretanto, não atingiu os níveis efetivos para evitar câncer de colo uterino.In Brazil, the effectiveness of preventive public heath programs and actions is rarely evaluated. A cross-sectional study was thus performed in a population-based sample focused on several health characteristics of adults living in Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The study aimed to measure temporal trends in coverage of Pap smear testing in the city. The authors studied the factors associated with failure of women to submit to a Pap smear. An updated Pap smear was defined as one performed in the previous 3 years. The sample consisted of 1,122 women ages 20 to 69 years, 72.2% of whom had an updated Pap smear, 16.6% of whom were behind schedule for testing, and 11.2% of whom had never had a Pap smear. Risk factors for never having a test were low socioeconomic status and old age. Logistic regression showed an independent effect of social class, low family income, age, skin color, marital status, and no medical appointment in the previous year. However, the effect of chronic diseases disappeared in logistic regression. The authors compare the results of the study conducted in 1992 with the present. Pap smear coverage increased from 65.0% to 72.2% (1992 to 1999/2000) in the city, yet such figures had still not ensured the effectiveness of the program for uterine cervical cancer prevention.

Juvenal Soares Dias-da-Costa; Maria Teresa Anselmo Olinto; Denise Petrucci Gigante; Ana Maria Baptista Menezes; Silvia Macedo; Andresa Thier de Borba; Gledis Lisiane Silveira da Motta; Sandra Costa Fuchs

2003-01-01

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The Significance of Augmented High-Grade Squamous Intraepithelial Lesion Detection on Pap Test Examination: Partial Results from the RODEO Study Team.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Objective: This study sought to ascertain the significance of augmented high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) detection by Pap test using both conventional smear and liquid-based cytology (LBC) in a high-risk population. Study Design: We conducted a direct-to-vial study to compare the diagnostic performance of Pap smear versus LBC in a high-risk population of women referred for colposcopy at a gynecologic ambulatory clinic at the Barretos Cancer Hospital in Brazil during 2011. Results: The detection of both low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSILs) and HSILs was significantly greater (p = 0.04 and p = 0.033, respectively) in the LBC arm [84 LSIL cases (5.7%) and 148 HSIL cases (10.1%)] than in the conventional smear arm [66 LSIL cases (4.1%) and 126 HSIL cases (7.9%)]; however, no differences were found for invasive squamous carcinoma or adenocarcinoma (p = 0.678). Of 3,071 women who were examined cytologically (1,604 conventional preparations and 1,467 LBC) and colposcopically, biopsies were available for 279 conventional preparations (17.6%) and 325 LBC preparations (22.2%). No significant differences were found between the methods with respect to diagnostic performance. Conclusion: LBC was significantly superior to conventional smears for the detection of LSILs and HSILs, but these results did not influence biopsy confirmation. Both methods showed similar performances with high positive predictive values but very low sensitivities. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

Scapulatempo C; Fregnani JH; Campacci N; Possati-Resende JC; Longatto-Filho A

2013-01-01

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The Significance of Augmented High-Grade Squamous Intraepithelial Lesion Detection on Pap Test Examination: Partial Results from the RODEO Study Team.  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective: This study sought to ascertain the significance of augmented high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) detection by Pap test using both conventional smear and liquid-based cytology (LBC) in a high-risk population. Study Design: We conducted a direct-to-vial study to compare the diagnostic performance of Pap smear versus LBC in a high-risk population of women referred for colposcopy at a gynecologic ambulatory clinic at the Barretos Cancer Hospital in Brazil during 2011. Results: The detection of both low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSILs) and HSILs was significantly greater (p = 0.04 and p = 0.033, respectively) in the LBC arm [84 LSIL cases (5.7%) and 148 HSIL cases (10.1%)] than in the conventional smear arm [66 LSIL cases (4.1%) and 126 HSIL cases (7.9%)]; however, no differences were found for invasive squamous carcinoma or adenocarcinoma (p = 0.678). Of 3,071 women who were examined cytologically (1,604 conventional preparations and 1,467 LBC) and colposcopically, biopsies were available for 279 conventional preparations (17.6%) and 325 LBC preparations (22.2%). No significant differences were found between the methods with respect to diagnostic performance. Conclusion: LBC was significantly superior to conventional smears for the detection of LSILs and HSILs, but these results did not influence biopsy confirmation. Both methods showed similar performances with high positive predictive values but very low sensitivities. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel. PMID:24135251

Scapulatempo, Cristovam; Fregnani, José Humberto T G; Campacci, Natália; Possati-Resende, Júlio Cesar; Longatto-Filho, Adhemar

2013-09-07

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Cobertura de la Citología de Cuello Uterino y Factores Relacionados en Colombia, 2005 Pap test coverage and related factors in Colombia, 2005  

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Full Text Available Objetivo Describir la cobertura de la citología en los últimos tres años y los principales factores relacionados, en la población de mujeres colombianas entre 25 y 69 años de edad. Materiales y métodos Se analizó la información de la Encuesta Nacional de Demografía y Salud 2005. Se calculó la variable "práctica de la citología en los últimos tres años". La descripción de la cobertura y factores asociados se hizo a través de porcentajes simples y se realizó un análisis multivariado utilizando un modelo de regresión logística incondicional. Resultados La cobertura de citología reciente en mujeres entre 25 y 69 años de edad para Colombia fue de 76,5 %. Las condiciones asociadas con la ausencia de toma reciente fueron ausencia de afiliación, afiliación al régimen subsidiado, no haber tenido hijos vivos ni una consulta de salud en el último año; las condiciones asociadas con la toma reciente fueron el nivel de riqueza, tener entre 35 y 44 años, tener un nivel educativo universitario o superior y estar en embarazo. Conclusión Los resultados indican la necesidad de esfuerzos por mejorar las coberturas en la población más pobre, no afiliada y afiliada al régimen subsidiado; la alta mortalidad a pesar de la buena cobertura general sugiere la necesidad de esfuerzos en la oportunidad del diagnóstico definitivo y el manejo de lesiones.Objective Describing the use of the Papanicolau (Pap) test and the main factors related to using screening amongst Colombian women aged 25 to 69 years. Methods Information was taken from the 2005 National Health and Demography Survey. The variable "pap test during the last three years" was calculated; coverage and related factors were described using simple percentages and multivariate analysis using conditional logistic regression. Results Recent Pap test coverage in Colombian women aged 25 to 69 years was 76.5 %. Factors associated with the absence of recent exam included non-affiliation to the health system, affiliation to the susbsidiary regimen, having no live-born children and no recent medical consultation. Factors associated with recent coverage were income level, being aged 35 to 44, a higher educational level and being pregnant. Conclusions Results indicated the need for efforts at increasing coverage amongst the poorer population as well as amongst women from the subsidiary regimen and those having no affiliation. Persistence of high mortality in spite of acceptable coverage suggested the need for more efforts regarding definitive diagnosis and opportune treatment.

Marion Piñeros; Ricardo Cendales; Raúl Murillo; Carolina Wiesner; Sandra Tovar

2007-01-01

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American Society of Cytopathology workload recommendations for automated Pap test screening: developed by the productivity and quality assurance in the era of automated screening task force.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Based on current literature and the best available research to date, the current FDA workload limits for automated image-assisted screening, including the ThinPrep Imaging System and the FocalPoint GS, of 100 slides/day (imaged only slides counted as 0.5) are extremely high and may be associated with significant reduction in sensitivity. This task force has proposed six recommendations relating to cytotechnologist (CT) workload in automated image-guided Pap test screening, which have already been endorsed by major pathology professional societies. These evidence-based recommendations, however, pertain only to gynecologic specimens with image-assisted screening, as there is no current available data to justify modifying screening practices regarding non-gynecologic specimens. The proposed recommendations are as follow: 1) CT workday should not include more than 7 hours of Pap test screening in a 24-hr period, and an 8-hr shift day must include at least 2 paid mini-breaks of 15 minutes each and a 30-minute lunch break. 2) Future Studies examining CT workload should use actual hours of screening rather than lesser number of hours extrapolated to 8-hour days. 3) Average laboratory CT workload should NOT exceed 70 slides/day (slides counted per 2010 FDA bulletin). 4) Proportion of imaged slides that undergo full manual review should be at least either 15%, or twice (2×) the epithelial cell abnormality (ECA) rate, whichever is greater. 5) ECA-adjusted workload measure is a promising method for calculating and monitoring CT workload, but further studies of this method are necessary before full endorsement. 6) CT productivity and workload limits are just one aspect of a good quality assurance program in a cytology laboratory, so other quality indicators to assess CT performance are essential.

Elsheikh TM; Austin RM; Chhieng DF; Miller FS; Moriarty AT; Renshaw AA

2013-02-01

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Exame Papanicolaou: sentimentos relatados por profissionais de enfermagem ao se submeterem a esse exame Pap smear screening: sensations reported by nursing professionals when submitted to this test  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objetivou-se conhecer os sentimentos de auxiliares e técnicas de enfermagem ao se submeterem ao exame Papanicolaou. Trata-se de um estudo descritivo com abordagem qualitativa realizado nos meses de setembro a outubro de 2006, com 35 servidoras de uma instituição governamental referência em ginecologia na cidade de Fortaleza (CE). Os dados foram coletados através de entrevista semiestruturada, contendo uma questão norteadora gravada e analisada de acordo com referencial teórico metodológico da fenomenologia social. Os relatos foram agrupados em três temáticas: um exame que causa incômodo, medo e vergonha; um exame que gera ansiedade quanto aos resultados; e um exame que "me deixa calma e tranquila". Apesar de as entrevistadas pertencerem a uma instituição que cuida de mulheres na prevenção do câncer cérvico-uterino, elas não deixaram de emitir sentimentos negativos relacionados ao exame. Concluiu-se a importância de realizar projetos educativos, enfatizando a importância do empoderamento das usuárias a fim de minimizar essas questões.This work sought to record the impressions of nursing assistants and technicians after submitting to Pap smear screening. This is a descriptive study using a qualitative approach conducted in September and October of 2006 with 35 employees of a public institution, which is a benchmark in gynecology in Fortaleza in the State of Ceará (Brazil). The data was collected through semi-structured interviews containing a recorded leading question and analyzed according to the methodological-theoretical reference of social phenomenology. The testimonials were separated in three groups: an exam that causes discomfort, fear and shame; an exam that causes anxiety about the results; and an exam that "makes me calm and relaxed". Despite the interviewees being part of an institution that cares for the prevention of cervical-uterine cancer in women, negative feelings about the Pap smear test were nonetheless reported. The conclusion reached is that it is important to stage educational campaigns emphasizing the importance of empowerment of patients in order to minimize these aspects.

Roberta Jeane Bezerra Jorge; Maria Albertina Rocha Diógenes; Francisco Antonio da Cruz Mendonça; Luís Rafael Leite Sampaio; Roberto Jorge Júnior

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
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Cobertura do exame citopatológico do colo do útero na cidade de São Leopoldo, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil Coverage of Pap smear tests in the city of São Leopoldo, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil  

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Full Text Available Este estudo transversal teve por objetivos verificar a cobertura de realização do exame preventivo de câncer do colo do útero e os fatores associados na população de mulheres de 20 a 60 anos residentes na zona urbana de São Leopoldo, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil, durante o ano de 2003. A amostra foi por conglomerados. Foram analisados dois desfechos, a realização de exame preventivo do câncer do colo do útero nos últimos três anos e exame preventivo de Papanicolaou nunca realizado. Entre as 867 mulheres entrevistadas, 741 (85,5%; IC95%: 83,1-87,8) tinham realizado o exame citopatológico do colo uterino nos últimos três anos, 60 (6,9%; IC95%: 5,2-8,6) estavam com o procedimento atrasado e 66 (7,6%; IC95%: 5,8-9,4) nunca o haviam realizado. Na regressão de Poisson foi observada significância para as variáveis: classe econômica, idade, cor da pele, estado civil. Observou-se que apesar da cobertura elevada, os fatores de risco para o câncer de colo uterino não motivaram a realização do exame.This cross-sectional study aimed to verify the coverage of Pap smear tests and associated factors in a cluster sample of women 20 to 60 years of age in the city of São Leopoldo, Rio Grande Sul State, Brazil, in 2003. Two outcomes were analyzed: Pap smear in the previous three years and Pap smear never performed. Among 867 women, 741 (85.5%; 95%CI: 83.1-87.8) had a Pap smear in the previous three years, 60 (6.9%; 95%CI: 5.2-8.6) were late with the test, and 66 (7.6%; 95%CI: 5.8-9.4) had never done a Pap smear. Poisson regression showed significant association with: income, age, skin color, and marital status. Although coverage was high, risk factors for uterine cervical cancer were not associated with performing the test.

Deise Karine Muller; Juvenal Soares Dias-da-Costa; Anna Maria Hecker Luz; Maria Teresa Anselmo Olinto

2008-01-01

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Pap smear knowledge among young women following the introduction of the HPV vaccine.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

STUDY OBJECTIVE: Investigate sexually active young women's knowledge of the term Pap smear since development of the HPV vaccine. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study conducted January-May 2007. SETTING: University health services clinic at a university in southern United States. PARTICIPANTS: Sexually active women, age 18-24, presenting for a Pap smear or STD testing (N=145). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Pap smear knowledge was assessed by participants' written definition of the term Pap smear and by multiple choice responses indicating Pap smear as a test for cervical cancer/ HPV and not a pelvic exam, STD test, or pregnancy test. RESULTS: 9.7% provided accurate definitions; 12.4% checked appropriate Pap smear synonyms. 68.5% incorrectly responded that Pap smear was the same as "pelvic exam"; 42.5% indicated "STD test"; 11.7% indicated "pregnancy test." Indicators of HPV risk (age of sexual debut, previous abnormal Pap smear, previous STD diagnosis) were not associated with knowledge. Never using condoms, increasing age, and lower depression scores predicted accurate Pap smear definition rating (R2=0.08). Never using condoms, Caucasian race, and decreased lifetime number of sex partners predicted accurate identification of Pap smear synonyms (R2=0.15). RESULTS: Few participants understood the meaning of the term Pap smear; there does not appear to be improvement in women's knowledge after development of the HPV vaccine. Poor Pap smear knowledge may affect young women's understanding of their overall sexual health.

Head SK; Crosby RA; Moore GR

2009-08-01

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Frequência da colpocitologia oncótica em jovens com antecedentes obstétricos em Teresina, Piauí, Brasil Frequency of Pap smear testing in young women with an obstetric history in Teresina, Piauí, Brazil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar a frequência da colpocitologia oncótica em jovens com pelo menos uma gravidez completa em Teresina, capital do Estado do Piauí, Brasil. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal realizado de maio a dezembro de 2008. Foram coletados dados de 464 jovens, selecionadas por amostragem acidental, que finalizaram uma gravidez no primeiro quadrimestre de 2006 em seis maternidades da Cidade de Teresina. Investigou-se a frequência da coleta de colpocitologia oncótica. A frequência inadequada foi definida como coleta em intervalos maiores do que 1 ano. RESULTADOS: A média de idade das participantes foi de 20 anos. A frequência da colpocitologia foi semestral em 180 jovens (39,0%) e anual em 160 (34,5%). Quinze jovens (3,2%) nunca haviam feito a colpocitologia. A regressão logística simples mostrou que o não uso de contraceptivo na primeira relação sexual e não poder optar por atendimento ginecológico por homem ou mulher aumentou o risco em 48,0% (P = 0,049) e 49,0% (P = 0,044), respectivamente, para frequência inadequada de coleta do exame. A regressão logística múltipla mostrou que ter tido mais de uma gravidez elevou em 71,4% a chance de inadequação da frequência de coleta em comparação com ter somente uma gestação (P = 0,011). CONCLUSÕES: O fato de muitas jovens realizarem o exame de colpocitologia oncótica em intervalos menores do que 1 ano não melhora o rastreamento do câncer de colo uterino e pode onerar o serviço público de saúde. A multiparidade foi fator de risco para a frequência inadequada de coleta do exame, devendo esse aspecto ser considerado na assistência à saúde ginecológica de jovens.OBJECTIVE: To analyze the frequency of Pap smear testing in young women with at least one pregnancy in Teresina, capital of the state of Piauí, Brazil. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was undertaken from May to December 2008. A convenience sample of 464 young women was selected, and data were collected using a pre-tested questionnaire. Women giving birth in the first four months of 2006, in six hospitals in Teresina, were included. Inadequate Pap smear frequency was defined as an interval of more than 1 year between tests. RESULTS: Mean age was 20 years. The frequency of Pap smear testing was every 6 months in 180 women (39.0%) and yearly in 160 (34.5%). Fifteen women (3.2%) had never had a Pap smear test. Simple logistic regression showed an increase of 48.0% in the risk of inadequate Pap smear frequency (P = 0.049) in women who did not use any contraceptive method at their first sexual intercourse, and 49.0% (P = 0.044) in those who were not able to choose between a male or female gynecologist when seeking health care services. On multivariate logistic regression, having more than one pregnancy increased the risk of inadequate Pap smear frequency by 71.4% in comparison to having only one pregnancy (P = 0.011). CONCLUSIONS: The fact that many young women had Pap smear testing at intervals shorter than 1 year does not improve cervical cancer screening and may burden the health care system. Multiparity was a risk factor for inadequate Pap smear frequency, an aspect that must be taken into account when providing gynecological care to young women.

Michelina F. Barroso; Keila R. O. Gomes; Jesusmar Ximenes Andrade

2011-01-01

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Value stream mapping of the Pap test processing procedure: a lean approach to improve quality and efficiency.  

Science.gov (United States)

We developed a value stream map (VSM) of the Papanicolaou test procedure to identify opportunities to reduce waste and errors, created a new VSM, and implemented a new process emphasizing Lean tools. Preimplementation data revealed the following: (1) processing time (PT) for 1,140 samples averaged 54 hours; (2) 27 accessioning errors were detected on review of 357 random requisitions (7.6%); (3) 5 of the 20,060 tests had labeling errors that had gone undetected in the processing stage. Four were detected later during specimen processing but 1 reached the reporting stage. Postimplementation data were as follows: (1) PT for 1,355 samples averaged 31 hours; (2) 17 accessioning errors were detected on review of 385 random requisitions (4.4%); and (3) no labeling errors were undetected. Our results demonstrate that implementation of Lean methods, such as first-in first-out processes and minimizing batch size by staff actively participating in the improvement process, allows for higher quality, greater patient safety, and improved efficiency. PMID:23596108

Michael, Claire W; Naik, Kalyani; McVicker, Michael

2013-05-01

65

Value stream mapping of the Pap test processing procedure: a lean approach to improve quality and efficiency.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We developed a value stream map (VSM) of the Papanicolaou test procedure to identify opportunities to reduce waste and errors, created a new VSM, and implemented a new process emphasizing Lean tools. Preimplementation data revealed the following: (1) processing time (PT) for 1,140 samples averaged 54 hours; (2) 27 accessioning errors were detected on review of 357 random requisitions (7.6%); (3) 5 of the 20,060 tests had labeling errors that had gone undetected in the processing stage. Four were detected later during specimen processing but 1 reached the reporting stage. Postimplementation data were as follows: (1) PT for 1,355 samples averaged 31 hours; (2) 17 accessioning errors were detected on review of 385 random requisitions (4.4%); and (3) no labeling errors were undetected. Our results demonstrate that implementation of Lean methods, such as first-in first-out processes and minimizing batch size by staff actively participating in the improvement process, allows for higher quality, greater patient safety, and improved efficiency.

Michael CW; Naik K; McVicker M

2013-05-01

66

Evidence for increasing usage of low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion, cannot exclude high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL-H) pap test interpretations.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Pap test (PT) interpretations of low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL), cannot exclude high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL), or LSIL-H, are used in many laboratories; however monitoring its usage for quality assurance purposes is understudied. METHODS: PTs from 2005 to 2010 were collected, and yearly frequencies of LSIL, HSIL, LSIL-H, and atypical squamous cells, cannot exclude HSIL (ASC-H) as a function of total PTs and total squamous intraepithelial lesions (SILs) were calculated. Two-year risk of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 2 (CIN2) or worse (CIN2+) and CIN 3 or worse (CIN3+) was calculated. RESULTS: A total of 352,220 PTs were identified including 17,301 abnormal PTs. LSIL-H usage increased from 2005 to 2010 (from 0.28% of total PTs in 2005 to 0.61% in 2010, P?

Walavalkar V; Tommet D; Fischer AH; Liu Y; Papa DM; Owens CL

2013-08-01

67

Pap Test Results (Abnormal) -- LSIL  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... 2 min 20 sec To Listen to the Audio or Read/Print/Save the Handout, Click on ... Click the Mouse and Choose "Save link as...." Audio not available Mobile Video Handout Audio not available ...

68

Pap Test Results (Abnormal) -- Cancer  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... 1 min 35 sec To Listen to the Audio or Read/Print/Save the Handout, Click on ... Click the Mouse and Choose "Save link as...." Audio not available Mobile Video Handout Audio not available ...

69

Pap Test Results (Abnormal) -- LSIL  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... made possilge with federal funds from the National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health, Department of ... Pacific Northwest Region of the National Network of Libraries of Medicine Text adapted from “Understanding Cervical Changes: ...

70

Pap Test Results (Abnormal) -- Cancer  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... made possilge with federal funds from the National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health, Department of ... Pacific Northwest Region of the National Network of Libraries of Medicine Text adapted from “Understanding Cervical Changes: ...

71

Cobertura e fatores associados à não realização do exame preventivo de Papanicolaou em São Luís, Maranhão Coverage and factors associated with not performing Pap smear screening tests in São Luís, Maranhão, Brazil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Com o objetivo de estimar a cobertura, a periodicidade, e identificar fatores associados à não realização do exame preventivo de Papanicolau, 465 mulheres de 25 a 49 anos residentes no município de São Luís foram entrevistadas em 1998. Foi realizado inquérito domiciliar pelo método de amostragem por conglomerados em três estágios. Na análise estatística foram calculados intervalos de confiança de 95% corrigidos pelo desenho do estudo, e os "odds ratio" brutos e ajustados por regressão logística. A cobertura do Papanicolaou pelo menos uma vez na vida foi de 82,4% (Intervalo de Confiança 95%, 76,6 - 87,0%), praticamente atingindo a cobertura mínima necessária de 85% para causar impacto epidemiológico na incidência e mortalidade por câncer cérvico-uterino. O intervalo entre a realização dos exames foi curto, pois 65,8% das mulheres repetiram o exame com até um ano. Após o ajuste para fatores de confundimento foram associados à não realização do Papanicolaou: não ter companheiro, ter cinco a oito anos de escolaridade, não ter realizado consulta médica nos três últimos meses e morar em domicílio cujo chefe de família tem ocupação manual não especializada. Ter tido de dois a quatro parceiros sexuais nos três últimos meses foi associado a menor risco de não realização do preventivo. Em capital do Nordeste, a cobertura do exame preventivo de Papanicolaou foi semelhante à relatada em outros estudos nacionais. Entretanto, algumas mulheres realizaram citologias desnecessárias a intervalos curtos, implicando em desperdício de recursos e dificultando o acesso aos grupos mais vulneráveis que apresentaram maiores riscos de não testagem.In 1998, 465 women from 25 to 49 years of age, inhabitants of the municipality of São Luís, Maranhão, Brazil were interviewed to estimate Pap smear coverage, interval between tests and to identify factors associated with not performing Pap smears. A three-stage household cluster survey was performed; 95% confidence intervals corrected by design effect, and crude and adjusted odds ratio estimates were calculated by logistic regression. Pap smear coverage at least once in a lifetime was 82.4% (95% CI 76.6% - 87.0%) and nearly reached the minimum value of the 85% needed to impact the incidence and mortality of cervical cancer. The interval between tests was low, given that 65.8% of women repeated the test within one year. After adjustment for confounding factors, the risks of not having performed a Pap smear test at least once in a lifetime were higher for women who did not live with a companion, who had five to eight years of schooling, who had not been to a medical appointment in the past three months and who lived in households whose head of family was engaged in a manual and non-qualified occupation. Women who had two to four sexual partners in the past three months were at a lower risk of not having a cervical smear. In this Northeastern state capital, Pap smear coverage was similar to other national studies. However, some women were unnecessarily tested at short intervals, wasting resources and contributing to reduce the access of more vulnerable groups who presented higher risks for not having had a Pap smear test.

Márcia Maria Hiluy Nicolau de Oliveira; Antônio Augusto Moura da Silva; Luciane Maria Oliveira Brito; Liberata Campos Coimbra

2006-01-01

72

Cobertura e fatores associados à não realização do exame preventivo de Papanicolaou em São Luís, Maranhão/ Coverage and factors associated with not performing Pap smear screening tests in São Luís, Maranhão, Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Com o objetivo de estimar a cobertura, a periodicidade, e identificar fatores associados à não realização do exame preventivo de Papanicolau, 465 mulheres de 25 a 49 anos residentes no município de São Luís foram entrevistadas em 1998. Foi realizado inquérito domiciliar pelo método de amostragem por conglomerados em três estágios. Na análise estatística foram calculados intervalos de confiança de 95% corrigidos pelo desenho do estudo, e os "odds ratio" bruto (more) s e ajustados por regressão logística. A cobertura do Papanicolaou pelo menos uma vez na vida foi de 82,4% (Intervalo de Confiança 95%, 76,6 - 87,0%), praticamente atingindo a cobertura mínima necessária de 85% para causar impacto epidemiológico na incidência e mortalidade por câncer cérvico-uterino. O intervalo entre a realização dos exames foi curto, pois 65,8% das mulheres repetiram o exame com até um ano. Após o ajuste para fatores de confundimento foram associados à não realização do Papanicolaou: não ter companheiro, ter cinco a oito anos de escolaridade, não ter realizado consulta médica nos três últimos meses e morar em domicílio cujo chefe de família tem ocupação manual não especializada. Ter tido de dois a quatro parceiros sexuais nos três últimos meses foi associado a menor risco de não realização do preventivo. Em capital do Nordeste, a cobertura do exame preventivo de Papanicolaou foi semelhante à relatada em outros estudos nacionais. Entretanto, algumas mulheres realizaram citologias desnecessárias a intervalos curtos, implicando em desperdício de recursos e dificultando o acesso aos grupos mais vulneráveis que apresentaram maiores riscos de não testagem. Abstract in english In 1998, 465 women from 25 to 49 years of age, inhabitants of the municipality of São Luís, Maranhão, Brazil were interviewed to estimate Pap smear coverage, interval between tests and to identify factors associated with not performing Pap smears. A three-stage household cluster survey was performed; 95% confidence intervals corrected by design effect, and crude and adjusted odds ratio estimates were calculated by logistic regression. Pap smear coverage at least once i (more) n a lifetime was 82.4% (95% CI 76.6% - 87.0%) and nearly reached the minimum value of the 85% needed to impact the incidence and mortality of cervical cancer. The interval between tests was low, given that 65.8% of women repeated the test within one year. After adjustment for confounding factors, the risks of not having performed a Pap smear test at least once in a lifetime were higher for women who did not live with a companion, who had five to eight years of schooling, who had not been to a medical appointment in the past three months and who lived in households whose head of family was engaged in a manual and non-qualified occupation. Women who had two to four sexual partners in the past three months were at a lower risk of not having a cervical smear. In this Northeastern state capital, Pap smear coverage was similar to other national studies. However, some women were unnecessarily tested at short intervals, wasting resources and contributing to reduce the access of more vulnerable groups who presented higher risks for not having had a Pap smear test.

Oliveira, Márcia Maria Hiluy Nicolau de; Silva, Antônio Augusto Moura da; Brito, Luciane Maria Oliveira; Coimbra, Liberata Campos

2006-09-01

73

Separate effects test stand for obtaining hydrotransport data  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Based on earlier hydrotransport research by English and Russian researchers, a special test stand has been designed and constructed to obtain data to determine hydraulic drag, pipe wear, and comminution of particles. These data are intended for design and separate-effects operating information. This information will be used to supplement data developed by the Hydrotransport Research Facility located at the Pittsburgh Mining Operations, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. This report describes the equipment as designed, explains how the hydraulic drag is calculated using test-stand data, and presents some preliminary tests results using water. Tests using water are continuing to further substantiate the system and later, tests will be started using slurries.

Allen, C.H.

1980-08-01

74

Pap-smear Classification Using Efficient Second Order Neural Network Training Algorithms  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In this paper we make use of two highly efficient second order neural network training algorithms, namely the LMAM (Levenberg-Marquardt with Adaptive Momentum) and OLMAM (Optimized Levenberg-Marquardt with Adaptive Momentum), for the construction of an efficient pap-smear test classifier. The algorithms are methodologically similar, and are based on iterations of the form employed in the Levenberg-Marquardt (LM) method for non-linear least squares problems with the inclusion of an additional adaptive momentum term arising from the formulation of the training task as a constrained optimization problem. The classification results obtained from the application of the algorithms on a standard benchmark pap-smear data set reveal the power of the two methods to obtain excellent solutions in difficult classification problems whereas other standard computational intelligence techniques achieve inferior performances.

Ampazis, Nikolaos; Dounias, George

2004-01-01

75

Pap Smear: Still Necessary after Hysterectomy?  

Science.gov (United States)

Pap smear Basics In-Depth Multimedia Expert Answers Resources Reprints A single copy of this article may be reprinted for personal, noncommercial use only. Pap smear: Still needed after hysterectomy? By Mayo Clinic staff ...

76

Test Beam Results Obtained with the Q4 Prototype  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A prototype of the CMS Barrel Muon Detector incorporating all the features of the final chambers was built at CIEMAT using the mass production assembly procedures and tools. The performance of this prototype was studied in a muon test beam at CERN and the results obtained are presented here. (Author)

Aguilar-Benitez, M.; Alberdi, J.; Cerrada, M.; Colino, N.; Daniel, M.; Fouz, M. c.; Marin, J.; Mocholi, J.; Oller, J. C.; Puerta, J.; Romero, L.; Salicio, J. M.

2000-07-01

77

Pap screening goals and perceptions of pain among black, Latina, and Arab women: steps toward breaking down psychological barriers.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Understanding women's psychological barriers to getting Papanicolaou (Pap) screening has potential to impact cancer disparities. This study examined pain perceptions of Pap testing among black, Latina, and Arab women and goal setting to receive Pap tests. Data on 420 women, in a longitudinal study, were analyzed using Chi-square tests of differences and generalized linear mixed models. At baseline, 30.3 % of black and 35.5 % of Latina women perceived Pap tests to be very painful compared to 24.2 % of Arab women. Perceptions of pain influenced goal settings, such as scheduling a first ever Pap test (odds ratio=0.58, 95 % confidence interval 0.14-0.94). Immediately following the intervention, women's perception that Pap tests are very painful significantly declined (P value <0.001) with Arab and black women registering the greatest improvements (20.3 and 17.3 % reduction, respectively, compared to 8.4 % for Latina). Having the perception that the Pap test is very painful significantly reduces the likelihood of black, Latina, and Arab women setting the goal to schedule their first ever Pap test. Latina women are the least likely to improve their perception that the Pap test is very painful, though national statistics show they have the highest rates of morbidity and mortality from cervical cancer. These findings are instructive for designing tailored interventions to break down psychological barriers to Pap screening among underserved women.

Gauss JW; Mabiso A; Williams KP

2013-06-01

78

Cobertura e adequação do exame citopatológico de colo uterino em estados das regiões Sul e Nordeste do Brasil Pap test coverage and adequacy in the South and Northeast of Brazil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O câncer de colo do útero é o segundo mais comum em mulheres no Brasil e no mundo e pode ser evitado através da detecção precoce de lesões precursoras. O exame citopatológico de colo uterino ainda é o mais efetivo e eficiente para realizar este rastreamento. O objetivo do estudo foi investigar a cobertura e a adequação do exame citopatológico e fatores associados. Foi realizado um estudo transversal com 3.939 mulheres que tiveram filho nos últimos dois anos anteriores à pesquisa, distribuídas em 41 municípios brasileiros. A cobertura do exame na vida foi de 75,3% (IC95%: 74,0-76,7) e a adequação foi de 70,7% (IC95%: 69,3-72,1). A adequação associou-se positivamente com idade maior de 25 anos, maior escolaridade, fazer pré-natal na última gestação e consultar para exame ginecológico no último ano. Foi menos frequente entre mulheres do estrato socioeconômico mais baixo e primíparas. Portanto, faz-se necessário fortalecer as ações preventivas para os subgrupos de mulheres mais vulneráveis, assim como potencializar as situações de utilização dos serviços de saúde.Cervical cancer is the second most common cancer among women both in Brazil and elsewhere in the world and can be averted through early detection of precursor lesions. Pap smear is still the most effective and efficient screening test. This study focused on the coverage and adequacy of Pap test and associated factors. The authors adopted a cross-sectional design with a sample of 3,939 women who had given birth in the two previous years in 41 municipalities (counties) of Brazil. Lifetime Pap test coverage was 75.3% (95%CI: 74.0-76.7), and prevalence of adequacy was 70.7% (95%CI: 69.3-72.1). Adequacy was positively associated with age over 25 years, schooling, prenatal care in the last pregnancy, and gynecological visit in the previous year, and was less frequent among primiparous women and those with lower socioeconomic status. It is thus necessary to strengthen preventive measures in vulnerable subgroups and maximize situations for use of health services.

Michele da Silva Correa; Denise Silva da Silveira; Fernando Vinholes Siqueira; Luiz Augusto Facchini; Roberto Xavier Piccini; Elaine Thumé; Elaine Tomasi

2012-01-01

79

HPV self-sampling or the Pap-smear: A randomized study among cervical screening nonattenders from lower socioeconomic groups in France.  

Science.gov (United States)

Today in France, low attendance to cervical screening by Papanicolaou cytology (Pap-smear) is a major contributor to the 3,000 new cervical cancer cases and 1,000 deaths that occur from this disease every year. Nonattenders are mostly from lower socioeconomic groups and testing of self-obtained samples for high-risk Human Papilloma virus (HPV) types has been proposed as a method to increase screening participation in these groups. In 2011, we conducted a randomized study of women aged 35-69 from very low-income populations around Marseille who had not responded to an initial invitation for a free Pap-smear. After randomization, one group received a second invitation for a free Pap-smear and the other group was offered a free self-sampling kit for HPV testing. Participation rates were significantly different between the two groups with only 2.0% of women attending for a Pap-smear while 18.3% of women returned a self-sample for HPV testing (p ? 0.001). The detection rate of high-grade lesions (?CIN2) was 0.2‰ in the Pap-smear group and 1.25‰ in the self-sampling group (p = 0.01). Offering self-sampling increased participation rates while the use of HPV testing increased the detection of cervical lesions (?CIN2) in comparison to the group of women receiving a second invitation for a Pap-smear. However, low compliance to follow-up in the self-sampling group reduces the effectiveness of this screening approach in nonattenders women and must be carefully managed. PMID:23712523

Sancho-Garnier, H; Tamalet, C; Halfon, P; Leandri, F X; Retraite, L Le; Djoufelkit, K; Heid, P; Davies, P; Piana, L

2013-07-23

80

HPV self-sampling or the pap-smear: A randomized study among cervical screening non-attenders from lower socio-economic groups in France.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Today in France, low attendance to cervical screening by Papanicolaou cytology (Pap-smear) is a major contributor to the 3000 new cervical cancer cases and 1000 deaths that occur from this disease every year. Non-attenders are mostly from lower socio-economic groups and testing of self-obtained samples for high-risk HPV types has been proposed as a method to increase screening participation in these groups. In 2011, we conducted a randomized study of women aged 35 to 69 from very low-income populations around Marseille who had not responded to an initial invitation for a free Pap-smear. After randomization, one group received a second invitation for a free Pap-smear and the other group was offered a free self-sampling kit for HPV testing. Participation rates were significantly different between the two groups with only 2.0% of women attending for a Pap-smear while 18.3% of women returned a self-sample for HPV testing (p=<0.001). The detection rate of high grade lesions (?CIN2) was 0.2‰ in the Pap-smear group and 1.25‰ in the self-sampling group (p=0.01). Offering self-sampling increased participation rates while the use of HPV testing increased the detection of cervical lesions (?CIN2) in comparison to the group of women receiving a second invitation for a Pap-smear. However, low compliance to follow-up in the self-sampling group reduces the effectiveness of this screening approach in non-attenders women and must be carefully managed. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Sancho-Garnier H; Tamalet C; Halfon P; Leandri F; Le Retraite L; Djoufelkit K; Heid P; Davies P; Piana L

2013-05-01

 
 
 
 
81

Influence of acetic acid on a pap smear of dysplastic lesion.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Cervical cancer prevention is performed by taking Pap smears. The correct execution of the smear is crucial as an inadequate smear might result in underdiagnosis. The second means of cervical cancer prevention is visual inspection of the cervix uteri with acetic acid, while often both methods are combined. We investigated whether the application of acetic acid compromises the Pap smear. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 100 patients with dysplasia were prospectively included; Pap smears were obtained before and after the application of acetic acid. RESULTS: We observed an alteration of the result of the Pap smear after acetic acid application in 41%. However, these alterations did not result in a dysplastic case being classed as a normal smear or vice versa. CONCLUSION: The application of acetic acid to the transformation zone of the cervix uteri may enhance changes of the Pap smear in dysplasia, however, the changes affect subgroups of dysplasia and thus do not change therapeutic management.

Hoellen F; Bohlmann MK; Brade J; Rody A; Diedrich K; Husstedt WD; Hornemann A

2013-03-01

82

Confusion about Pap smears: lack of knowledge among high-risk women.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: The impact of the Papanicolaou (Pap) smear on the prevention of cervical cancer is one of the greatest public health success stories. However, it is not clear if women understand the purpose of the Pap smear despite recent advancements and national attention over cervical cancer prevention. The purpose of this study was to examine Pap smear knowledge among three high-risk populations at different points in time. METHODS: Women from three separate human papillomavirus (HPV) psychosocial studies completed surveys assessing Pap smear knowledge: (1) HPV-positive women (prevaccine population in 2005-2006, n=154, mean age 23.5), (2) college women (postvaccine population in 2008, n=276, mean age 18.9), and (3) minority college women (postvaccine population in 2011, n=711, mean age 23.3). Frequencies and logistic regression were employed to examine associations between demographic factors and accurate knowledge of Pap smear testing within each study. RESULTS: Approximately one quarter of participants across all three samples did not know that the Pap smear is a test for cervical cancer. Participants also incorrectly believed that the Pap smear tests for HPV (82%-91%), vaginal infections (76%-92%), yeast infections (65%-86%), gonorrhea (55%-81%), herpes (53%-80%), HIV/AIDS (22%-59%), and pregnancy (17%-38%). Among all three studies, older age was the only factor significant with higher Pap knowledge. Higher HPV knowledge scores were significantly associated with higher Pap knowledge in studies 2 and 3 only. CONCLUSIONS: Knowledge about the purpose of the Pap smear remains low. Findings underscore the significant need for clear and consistent messages among high-risk women regarding the prevention of cervical cancer and other reproductive health conditions.

Daley E; Perrin K; Vamos C; Hernandez N; Anstey E; Baker E; Kolar S; Ebbert J

2013-01-01

83

Apparatus suitable for obtaining blood samples in a diagnostic test  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Method and apparatus for obtaining a sample of blood from a patient for subsequent diagnostic tests, e.g., glucose monitoring. In one aspect of the invention, the method comprises the steps of: (a) forming an unobstructed opening in the area of the skin from which the sample of blood is to be extracted; and (b) extracting the sample of blood from the unobstructed opening in the skin, with the aid of a vacuum and a stretching of the skin. In another aspect of the invention, an apparatus for carrying out the method described previously is provided. The apparatus comprises: (a) a device for forming an unobstructed opening in an area of skin from which said sample is to be extracted, preferably a lancing assembly; and (b) a vacuum pump. Preferably, the apparatus also includes a housing. In a further aspect of the invention, a pneumatic lancing assembly is provided. The pneumatic lancing assembly uses differential gas pressure to thrust a lancer into skin tissue. In another aspect of this invention, an article is provided for an article capable of both collecting blood and detecting an analyte in that blood. The article, which contains an appropriate detection element for determining the amount of analyte in the blood, can be used in conjunction with a meter that measures the signal generated by the detection element of the article.

Cunningham David D.; Henning Timothy P.; Shain Eric B.; Young Douglas F.; Lowery Michael G.; Schapira Thomas G.; Graham Hugh W.; Muetterties Andrew J.; Chambers Geoffrey R.; Hughes Graham J.; Watkin Jared L.; Prokop Gary F.; Goldfarb Joshua P.

84

Nailfold videocapillaroscopy in primary antiphospholipid syndrome (PAPS).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate microcirculatory changes (functional and morphological) in primary antiphospholipid syndrome (PAPS) patients. METHODS: Thirty-one patients were examined using nailfold videocapillaroscopy (18 PAPS patients and 13 healthy subjects). The patients were subdivided into two subgroups, with lupus anticoagulant (n = 8) and with anticardiolipin (n = 10) antibodies. Capillary morphology was determined; diameters ( micro m) and functional capillary density (FCD, number capillaries/mm2) were measured in control conditions. Blood flow velocity (CBFV, mm/s) was also evaluated at rest and after release of 60 s arterial occlusion. RESULTS: The percentage of subjects with at least one morphological alteration in the observed capillaries was 77.8% for patients and 21.3% for healthy subjects. Capillary diameters ( microm) [afferent (AD), apical (APD) and efferent (ED)] were significantly smaller (mean +/- s.d.: AD-PAPS, 7.4 +/- 2.1; control, 9.1 +/- 2.6, P = 0.063; APD-PAPS, 11.6 +/- 2.3; control, 14.4 +/- 3.8, P = 0.015; ED-PAPS, 8.4 +/- 2.0; control, 10.9 +/- 3.2, P = 0.011) in PAPS patients compared with controls. FCD (PAPS, 8.5 +/- 3.2; control, 8.3 +/- 2.9, P +/- 0.862), mean resting CBFV (PAPS, 0.73 +/- 0.31; control, 0.88 +/- 0.41, P = 0.278), mean peak CBFV after occlusion (PAPS, 1.07 +/- 0.52; control, 1.59 +/- 0.91, P = 0.063) and mean time (s) to reach it (PAPS, 5.2 +/- 1.7; control, 4.6 +/- 1.8, P = 0.101) were not statistically different between the two groups. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that nailfold capillary morphology is altered in patients with PAPS, but these changes could not be correlated to impairment of functional parameters.

Vaz JL; Dancour MA; Bottino DA; Bouskela E

2004-08-01

85

Association of Pap Smear Abnormalities with Autoimmune Disorders  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Recently, it is hypothesized that there might be an association between immunological disorders and cervical premalignant and malignant abnormalities. Related studies have been generally focused on some particular autoimmune disease, specially the Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE). This study aimed at comparing the rate of Pap smear abnormalities in female patients with autoimmune diseases and normal counterparts. In a case-control setting, 118 female patients with various autoimmune diseases (the case group) and 118 healthy female counterparts (the control group) were recruited in Tabriz Imam Reza Teaching Centre in a 24 months period of time. The two groups were matched for demographics and known risk factors of cervical malignancy. Frequencies of abnormal Pap smear testing were compared between the two groups. The autoimmune disorders were SLE (74 patients), rheumatoid arthritis or RA (32 patients), systemic sclerosis or SS (7 patients) and ankylosing spondylitis or AS (5 patients) in the case group. Frequency of abnormal Pap smear testing was significantly higher in the case group comparing with that in the controls (7.6% vs. 1.7%; p = 0.03). Frequency of abnormal Pap smear testing was higher in the patients with SLE (8.1%) and RA (9.3%) comparing with that in the controls; However, these differences were marginally nonsignificant (p = 0.06 and p = 0.07, respectively). Frequency of cases with abnormal Pap smear testing was not statistically different between the autoimmune disorders (p = 0.99). Based on these findings and in conclusion, there might be an association between the autoimmune disorders and occurrence of premalignant or malignant lesions in cervix. Further studies with larger samples sizes are recommended.

Heidarali Esmaeili; Kazem Ghahremanzadeh

2011-01-01

86

Exame citopatológico de colo uterino em mulheres com idade entre 20 e 59 anos em Pelotas, RS: prevalência, foco e fatores associados à sua não realização Pap smears of 20 - 59 year-old women in Pelotas, Southern Brazil: prevalence, approach and factors associated with not undergoing the test  

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Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar a prevalência e o foco de realização do exame citopatológico do colo uterino e também fatores associados à sua não realização em mulheres com idade entre 20 e 59 anos residentes na cidade de Pelotas, RS. MÉTODOS: Entre outubro e dezembro de 2003 foi realizado um estudo transversal de base populacional. Através de amostragem por conglomerados foram sorteados 144 setores censitários em múltiplos estágios. Foram investigadas variáveis sociodemográficas e a realização de exame citopatológico do colo uterino. RESULTADOS: Dentre as 1404 mulheres que constituem a população-alvo dos programas de prevenção do câncer do colo uterino, 83,0% realizaram o exame citopatológico do colo uterino nos três anos antecedentes a este estudo. Mostraram-se significativamente associadas (POBJECTIVE: This study aims to determine the prevalence of and approach of Pap smear tests, as well as associated factors in women living in Pelotas, RS, Southern Brazil, within the 20 - 59 age range, who did not undergo a Pap smear. METHODS: A cross-sectional population-based study was carried out from October to December 2003. 144 census tracts were sampled through a multiple-stage clustered method. Socio-demographic variables were investigated, as well as women's Pap smear tests. RESULTS: Among the 1,404 women who were the target population included in the early detection program of uterine cervix cancer, 83% had had Pap smears in the three years before the study. Variables statistically associated (p<0.05) with women not undergoing the test in the previous three years were: ages ranging from 20-29 to 50-59 years compared with 40-49 year-old women, lower schooling level, lower social level, mixed and black skin color, not having seen a gynecologist in the previous 12 months. CONCLUSIONS: Although this study presents a high coverage of women undergoing Pap smears, women that present higher risk factors for this type of cancer had fewer tests.

Arnildo A. Hackenhaar; Juraci A. Cesar; Marlos R. Domingues

2006-01-01

87

Modified PAP method to detect heteroresistance to vancomycin among methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates at a tertiary care hospital  

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Full Text Available This study was an attempt at developing, establishing, validating and comparing the modified PAP method for detection of hetero-vancomycin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (h-VRSA) with the routine antimicrobial susceptibility testing (using the BSAC standardized disc diffusion method), minimum inhibitory concentrations of vancomycin using standard E-test methodology and the Hiramatsu?s screening method. A total of 50 methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus obtained from various clinical specimens, along with the Mu 3 and Mu 50 strains as controls, were studied. No VRSA isolates were obtained. However, four of the test strains were positive by the Hiramatsu?s screening method, of which only one isolate could be confirmed by the modified PAP analysis method. This isolate was a coloniser from the drain fluid of a liver transplant recipient. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and the overall efficiency of the Hiramatsu?s screening method with the modified PAP analysis as the gold standard were found to be 100, 93.8, 25 and 94%, respectively. It is very essential for clinical laboratories to screen for h-VRSA, given the increasing use of glycopeptide antibiotics in therapy and the potential for failed therapy in patients infected with these strains.

Iyer R; Hittinahalli V

2008-01-01

88

Analytical method for obtaining calibration dependences while testing gear wear  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] On the basis of the analysis of geometry of activation of device gears and teeth geometry an analytical method for obtaining calibration dependences being necessary for the teeth wear assesment using the method of surface activation. The calibration dependences obtained take into account the curve of involute surface of teeth in contrast to initial calibration curves for plane surfaces

1980-01-01

89

Uncertainty of data obtained in SRF cavity vertical test  

CERN Multimedia

Vertical test is a commonly used experimental method to qualify Superconducting Radio Frequency (SRF) cavities. Taking the experiences at Jefferson Lab (JLab) in US for example, over thousand of vertical tests have been performed on over 500 different cavities up to now [1]. Most of the tests at JLab followed the method as described in [1], but all the uncertainties of the calculated quality factors as well as the gradients were in-accurate due to the wrong algorithm used. In this paper, a first-principle method was applied to analyze the uncertainty of the data, and the results were compared with those in [1] under typical experiment conditions.

He, Feisi

2013-01-01

90

Comparison of visual inspection of cervix and pap smear for cervical cancer screening  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Objective: To evaluate the performance of visual inspection of cervix (VIA) after application of 3% acetic acid in cervical cancer screening in comparison with PAP smear. Results: Out of 540 subjects, 356 were negative with both screening techniques. One hundred and fifty-six subjects were positive with VIA (28.9%) while PAP smear was positive in seventy-eight subjects (14.4%). The sensitivity of VIA was 93.9% and of PAP smear was 46.9%. Corresponding specificities were 30.4% and 69.5%. There was no significant difference between the positive predictive value (PPV) of both test (p

2003-01-01

91

Diagnostic Value of Protein Ki67 (MIB-1) in Atypical Pap Smears of Postmenopausal Women.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Background: Atrophic epithelium of cervix sampled from postmenopausal women may mimic high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia in Papanicolaou-stained (Pap) smears. Ki-67 (MIB-1) protein presents on proliferating cells, and percentage of cells with positive nuclei provides a reliable tool for rapid evaluation of the growth fraction. The aim of this study was to determine the diagnostic value of protein Ki67 staining in atypical pap smears of postmenopausal women. Methods: In a case-control setting, pap smears of 75 women with an atypical pap smear (case group) and 75 with normal pap smears (controls) were obtained before and after estrogen treatment. Afterward, samples were exposed to the monoclonal antibody Ki-67 (MIB-1) and the immunohistochemically demonstrated Ki-67+ cells were compared. Results: Mean ages of cases and controls were 60.4±4.5 and 59.9±4.3 years respectively (P=0.50). There was one (2.7%) positive Ki-67 specimen in the case group, without any positive Ki-67 specimen in the control group (P=0.50). Conclusions: Measurement of proliferative activity index in Pap smears restrained with MIB1 is a simple, reliable, and cost-effective method for excluding negatives. This would imply that it might allow a substantial reduction of diagnostic estrogen courses and subsequent Pap smears in postmenopausal women with atypical findings.

Fakhrjou A; Dastranj-Tabrizi A; Ghojazadeh M; Ghorashi S; Velayati A; Piri R; Vahedi A; Sayyah-Melli M; Smaeili HA; Bonakdari A; Halimi M; Naghavi-Behzad M

2013-01-01

92

Cervical Cancer Rates After the Transition From Annual Pap to 3-Year HPV and Pap.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: Kaiser Permanente Northern California (KPNC) introduced 3-year Pap and human papillomavirus DNA cotesting for cervical cancer screening in women 30 years or older in 2003 to 2004. Patient and provider willingness to extend screening intervals and the impact on annual cervical cancer incidence after interval extension are evaluated. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Age-adjusted cervical cancer rates and screening intervals were calculated from KPNC Regional Laboratory databases and Northern California Cancer Registry from 2000 to 2009. RESULTS: The median screening interval between negative cotests was 36 months compared to the 16 months after a negative Pap test alone before the implementation of cotesting. The age-adjusted invasive cancer rate was 6.5 per 100,000 women in 2000 and 6.3 in 2009; there was no difference in the rates of cervical cancer in women 30 years or older from 2000 to 2009 (ptrend = .7). CONCLUSIONS: Patients and providers were compliant with the extension of screening intervals with cotesting. Cervical cancer rates remained constant during the 10-year study period despite extending screening intervals after a negative cotest.

Dinkelspiel H; Fetterman B; Poitras N; Kinney W; Cox JT; Lorey T; Castle PE

2013-09-01

93

Pap smear screening results for Turkish pregnant women.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: Cervix cancer is one of the most common gynecological cancer types that cause cancer deaths among women. This study was planned based on a descriptive method in order to evaluate the results of PAP smear screening during pregnancy for prevention of cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The research involved 110 pregnant women registered at the Obstetrics and Gynecology Polyclinic of Bagcilar Training and Research Hospital and 86 non-pregnant women of the same ages as a control group. As criteria for acceptance were conditions such as not being in coitus within the last 48 hours, not using vaginal ovule, and not performing vaginal lavage. A survey consisting of 33 questions was conducted and the results were processed using Bethesda. RESULTS: The average ages were 27.1±4.70 for the pregnant women and 28.8±4.24 for the control group. 60.7% of cases had previously heard of a PAP smear test, 49% were aware of why PAP smear tests were conducted, 26.4% of pregnant participants and 27.3% of non-pregnant participants had previously undergone a smear test. In this study, smear results of all cases were 95.4% sufficient. 18.2% of pregnant cases had an infection, 54.5% had reactive cellular change, and 0.9% had atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US). 16.3% of non-pregnant cases had an infection, 58.1% had reactive cellular change, 3.5% had atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US), and 1.2% had low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LGSIL). CONCLUSION: PAP smear test is a good opportunity to identify pre-invasive lesions in early phases of pregnancy.

Dinc A

2012-01-01

94

Awareness and uptake of the Pap smear among market women in Lagos, Nigeria  

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Full Text Available Our study evaluates the effect of an educational programme on awareness and uptake of the cervical cancer screening test (Pap smear) by women in a model market in Lagos Nigeria. This was a quasi-experimental study using a multistage sampling technique. A total of 350 women were divided into two groups. A baseline survey on awareness of the Pap test and screening practices was carried out using pre-tested, interviewer administered, structured questionnaires. Participants in the intervention group received sessions of community based health information on cervical cancer screening tests while participants in the control group received health information on hypertension. Subsequently, participants in both groups were reassessed to evaluate the effect of the educational programme on the Pap test and cervical screening uptake. Data were analysed with the Epi-info version 6.04. Awareness about the Pap test was low at baseline; only 6.9% and 12.0% of participants in the intervention and control groups, respectively, had heard of Pap smears. Furthermore, less than 10% had correct information on the use of the Pap test. Post-intervention, there was a significant and proportional increase in the knowledge of the Pap test in the intervention group (p<0.05). However, uptake of the test was quite low in the intervention and control groups both pre- and post-intervention and there was no significant change in uptake. We concluded that essential schemes are required to enhance access to screening, as knowledge alone is insufficient to promote acceptance and use of cervical cytological screening tests.

Kikelomo O. Wright; Babalola Faseru; Yetunde A. Kuyinu; Francis A. Faduyile

2011-01-01

95

[Factors associated with lack of Pap smear screening in a group of postmenopausal Brazilian women].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study aimed to analyze risk factors for lack of Pap smear screening among menopausal women. This population-based study evaluated 456 women 45-69 years of age (mean 58.7; SD 5.7), with age at menopause 48.0 years (SD 5.0) living in the urban area of Maringá, Paraná State, Brazil. Most reported having 7 years of schooling or less, were married or living with a partner, had paid work, were sedentary, and were not on hormone replacement therapy. Coverage of Pap smear screening was 84.5%. After adjustment by multivariate analysis, the 45-69-year age bracket, paid work, no visit to the gynecologist in the previous year, and no mammogram in the two previous years were statistically associated with lack of Pap smear screening. Efforts to improve cervical cancer screening should focus on women's knowledge and reduce the factors that hinder women from performing Pap smear tests.

Brischiliari SC; Dell'Agnolo CM; Gil LM; Romeiro TC; Gravena AA; Carvalho MD; Pelloso SM

2012-10-01

96

Comparison Between Pap Smear and Via As Screening For Cervical Lesions  

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Full Text Available Introduction: An important reason for higher cervical cancer incidence in developing countries is lack of effectivescreening programs like pap smear, aimed at detecting precancerous conditions before they progress to invasivecancer. The potential difficulties in implementing cervical cytology based screening in low-resource settings haveprompted the investigation of accuracy of alternative low technology tests such as Visual inspection with acetic acidapplication [VIA], Visual inspection with acetic acid application with magnification [VIAM], visual inspection onLugol’s Iodine application [VILI] in early detection of cervical neoplasia .In our study we compared pap smear withVIA to study the accurarcy of VIA as it is simpler and easier technique to be used as screening in low resourcesettings. Aim: This is a hospital based descriptive, prospective study to evaluate validity of pap smear and VIAtechniques as screening tests in identifying cervical lesions. Materials And Methods: After general and systemicexamination as a routine,visual local pelvic examination including visualisation of cervix and vagina per speculumand the findings are documented in the proforma .Then VIA and pap smear are done in that order, if any of thesetests are positive then cervical biopsy will be taken and further advise to the subject is given. Results: A total of 313women were involved in the study. The sensitivity of pap smear is 54.5% specificity is 98.9% while that of VIA95.4% and 97.9%respectively. We found that VIA accuracy was comparatively more than that of pap smear.Conclusion: In low resource settings, usefulness of VIA is more than that of pap smear. We suggest to perform VIAin all the women inspite of having pap smear facility to improve detection rate of cervical lesions and provide betterpatient councelling and treatment.

Harshini V 1, Amritha Bhandary 2, Suchithra Thunga 3

2013-01-01

97

Pap Test Results (Abnormal) -- HSIL or AIS  

Medline Plus

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98

Pap Test Results (Abnormal) -- ASC-US  

Medline Plus

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99

Pap Test Results (Abnormal) -- HSIL or AIS  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... made possilge with federal funds from the National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health, Department of ... Pacific Northwest Region of the National Network of Libraries of Medicine Text adapted from “Understanding Cervical Changes: ...

100

Pap Test Results (Abnormal) -- ASC-US  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... made possilge with federal funds from the National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health, Department of ... Pacific Northwest Region of the National Network of Libraries of Medicine Text adapted from “Understanding Cervical Changes: ...

 
 
 
 
101

Comparison of Pap smear, visual inspection with acetic acid, and digital cervicography as cervical screening strategies.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: To compare the sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values (PPV and NPV), and accuracy of Pap smear, visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA) and digital cervicography (DC). METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study on 100 women in the age group of 20-60 years, sequentially using the Pap test, the VIA, and the DC for screening. All women underwent colposcopic biopsy as the gold standard in comparing the methods. RESULTS: Of the total of 100 women with the mean age 36.0 years, 17 cases were recognized positive for abnormal cervical cell by gold standard. The sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV, and accuracy of the Pap test, the VIA, and the DC were 23.5, 100, 100, 86.5, and 87%; 62.5, 98.8, 90.9, 93.2, and 92.9%; and 46.7, 97.6, 77.8, 91, and 89.8%, respectively, for cervical neoplasia. CONCLUSIONS: The Pap test had low sensitivity but high specificity, whereas VIA had a high sensitivity in addition to being easy and low-cost. Adjuvant methods of screening such as VIA can be a valuable alternative to the Pap test for cervical cancer screening in low-resource settings.

Khodakarami N; Farzaneh F; Aslani F; Alizadeh K

2011-11-01

102

XMLComparison of Molecular (PCR) and Pap Smear Methods in Diagnosis of Human Papiloma Virus (HPV) in Women with Genital Warts  

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Full Text Available Background and Objective: Much research has shown that Human Papiloma Virus (HPV) plays an important role in cervix cancer and it is the cause of 99% of cervix cancer worldwide. Lots of research has been done to find a proper method for HPV diagnosis and screening in patients with genital warts. This study aimed at comparing PCR method with Pap smear test in HPV screening. Material and Methods: Considering the presence of DNA of HPV, 45 vaginal and cervix swap samples of women with genital warts were tested by means of specific PCR and Pap smear from September 2010 to April 2011. Results: Out of 45 vaginal and cervix swap samples of women suffering genital warts, 37 samples (82.2%) are positive. Of 45 Pap smear samples, 13 (29%) are neoplasia and 32 (71%) normal. Conclusion: The difference between the results of PCR and Pap smear is due to low specification and sensitivity of Pap smear. Thus it is recommended using diagnostic PCR method in addition to Pap smear in order to promote the quality of screening in individuals with genital warts. Keywords: Human Papiloma Virus (HPV); Genital Warts; Molecular (PCR); Pap Smear

Bashi zadeh Fakhar, H. (MSc); Faraji, R. (PhD); Ghane, M. (PhD); Jafarpour, M. (PhD); Ashoorizadeh, B. (MD)

2013-01-01

103

Associations of demographic variables and the Health Belief Model constructs with Pap smear screening among urban women in Botswana  

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Full Text Available Ditsapelo M McFarland College of Nursing and Public Health, Adelphi University, Garden City, NY, USA Purpose: Papanicolaou (Pap) smear services are available in most urban areas in Botswana. Yet most women in such areas do not screen regularly for cancer of the cervix. The purpose of this article is to present findings on the associations of demographic variables and Health Belief Model constructs with Pap smear screening among urban women in Botswana. Sample and methods: The study included a convenience sample of 353 asymptomatic women aged 30 years and older who were living in Gaborone, Botswana. Data were collected using a demographic questionnaire and items of the Health Belief Model. Data analysis included descriptive statistics for demographic variables and bivariate and ordinal (logit) regression to determine the associations of demographic variables. Results: Having health insurance and having a regular health care provider were significant predictors of whether or not women had a Pap smear. Women with health insurance were more likely to have had a Pap smear test than women without health insurance (91% vs 36%). Similarly, women who had a regular health care provider were more likely to have had a Pap smear test than women without a regular health care provider (94% vs 42%). Major barriers to screening included what was described as "laziness" for women who had ever had a Pap smear (57%) and limited information about Pap smear screening for women who had never had a Pap smear (44%). Conclusion: There is a need for more information about the importance of the Pap smear test and for increased access to screening services in Botswana. Keywords: cervical, screening, barriers, access, beliefs

McFarl; DM

2013-01-01

104

Pap-smear Benchmark Data For Pattern Classification  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This case study provides data and a baseline for comparing classification methods. The data consists of 917 images of Pap-smear cells, classified carefully by cyto-technicians and doctors. Each cell is described by 20 numerical features, and the cells fall into 7 classes. A basic data analysis includes scatter plots and linear classification results, in order to provide domain knowledge and lower bounds on the acceptable performance of future classifiers. Students and researchers can access the database on the Internet, and use it to test and compare their own classification methods.

Jantzen, Jan; Norup, Jonas

2005-01-01

105

Preoperative serum PSA and PAP levels and survival in curative prostatic cancer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Aim: It has been established that PSA and PAP are useful tumor markers in diagnosis and therapy follow-up of prostatic cancer. In this work we retrospectively evaluated whether there exists a relationship between preoperative PSA and PAP values and survival of patients following the transurethral resection of prostate. Material and Methods: It has been done a mainly simultaneous radioimmunoassay of PSA and PAP in 52 and 49 patients with carcinoma of prostate, respectively. Survival curves were computed by Kaplan-Meier method. Difference between 2 groups of patients were estimated by log rank test. Results: The values of PSA and PAP ranged 0,3-325,2 ng/ml (median 52,3) and 0,1-204,0 ng/ml (median 6,1), respectively. The mean survival time was 33,9±4,2 months (median 26,4±2,6). Based on optimal decision level in differentiation BPH and prostatic cancer, the patients were divided into 2 groups: PSA36,0ng/ml, PAP4,5ng/ml. No significant difference between survival curves was found concerning of PSA and PAP levels. However, in age groups70 years (age ratio 1,03) the mean survival was 45,05±6,23 (median 29,60±2,26) and 22,09±2,98(median 22,80±3,21 months, respectively. The difference is significant (p=0,002). The geometric mean values of PSA in 70 years group are 45,1 ng/ml and 24,1 ng/ml, respectively. The difference is significant (p70 years group are 7,8 ng/ml and 6,7 ng/ml, respectively. No significant difference. Conclusion: It couldn't be proved that preoperative PSA and PAP levels are prognostic indicators. Examination of age ranges reveals significant survival difference between age groups 70 years indicating age effect on survival.

2002-10-02

106

Vulnerability Analysis of PAP for RFID Tags  

CERN Document Server

In this paper, we analyze the security of an RFID authentication protocol proposed by Liu and Bailey [1], called Privacy and Authentication Protocol (PAP), and show its vulnerabilities and faulty assumptions. PAP is a privacy and authentication protocol designed for passive tags. The authors claim that the protocol, being resistant to commonly assumed attacks, requires little computation and provides privacy protection and authentication. Nevertheless, we propose two traceability attacks and an impersonation attack, in which the revealing of secret information (i.e., secret key and static identifier) shared between the tag and the reader is unnecessary. Moreover, we review all basic assumptions on which the design of the protocol resides, and show how many of them are incorrect and are contrary to the common assumptions in RFID systems.

Naser, Mu'awya; Rafie, Mohammd; van der Lubbe, Jan

2010-01-01

107

Cobertura do teste de Papanicolaou e fatores associados à não-realização: um olhar sobre o Programa de Prevenção do Câncer do Colo do Útero em Pernambuco, Brasil Pap smear coverage and factors associated with non-participation in cervical cancer screening: an analysis of the Cervical Cancer Prevention Program in Pernambuco State, Brazil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Buscou-se avaliar a cobertura do teste Papanicolaou no Estado de Pernambuco, Brasil, nos três anos anteriores à pesquisa, entre mulheres de 18-69 anos, e identificar fatores associados à sua não-realização. Trata-se de um estudo transversal, de base populacional, utilizando-se dados de inquérito realizado no período 2005-2006 com 640 indivíduos, selecionados por amostragem por conglomerados em três estágios de seleção. Foram analisadas informações sobre 258 mulheres. A cobertura do Papanicolaou entre mulheres de 18-69 anos foi de 58,7% e de 25-59 anos de 66,2%. Viver sem companheiro, não ter dado à luz e não ter realizado consulta médica no último ano mostraram associação com a não-realização do teste. Na análise multivariada, o baixo grau de escolaridade mostrou também efeito significativo. A cobertura do Papani-colaou em Pernambuco foi satisfatória, porém insuficiente para impactar no perfil epidemiológico do câncer do colo uterino. É preciso fortalecer e qualificar as ações de promoção da saúde, visando reduzir as desigualdades e estimular o protagonismo das mulheres nas ações de prevenção do câncer do colo uterino.This research aimed to assess coverage of Pap smear screening in the State of Pernambuco, Brazil, during the three years prior to the study, among women 18 to 69 years of age, and to identify factors associated with women's lack of participation in screening. This was a cross-sectional, population-based study, using data from a survey in 2005-2006 with 640 women, selected by three-stage cluster sampling. Information on 258 women was analyzed. Pap smear coverage was 58.7% for women 18 to 69 years of age and 66.2% for those 25 to 59. Single marital status, no history of childbirth, and not having consulted a physician in the previous year were associated with lack of Pap smear screening. In the multivariate analysis, low schooling also showed a significant effect. Pap smear coverage in Pernambuco was satisfactory, but insufficient to impact the epidemiological profile of cervical cancer. It is necessary to strengthen and upgrade health promotion activities in order to reduce the inequalities and encourage women's active participation in cervical cancer prevention.

Kamila Matos de Albuquerque; Paulo Germano Frias; Carla Lourenço Tavares de Andrade; Estela M. L. Aquino; Greice Menezes; Célia Landmann Szwarcwald

2009-01-01

108

Cobertura do teste de Papanicolaou e fatores associados à não-realização: um olhar sobre o Programa de Prevenção do Câncer do Colo do Útero em Pernambuco, Brasil/ Pap smear coverage and factors associated with non-participation in cervical cancer screening: an analysis of the Cervical Cancer Prevention Program in Pernambuco State, Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Buscou-se avaliar a cobertura do teste Papanicolaou no Estado de Pernambuco, Brasil, nos três anos anteriores à pesquisa, entre mulheres de 18-69 anos, e identificar fatores associados à sua não-realização. Trata-se de um estudo transversal, de base populacional, utilizando-se dados de inquérito realizado no período 2005-2006 com 640 indivíduos, selecionados por amostragem por conglomerados em três estágios de seleção. Foram analisadas informações sobre 258 (more) mulheres. A cobertura do Papanicolaou entre mulheres de 18-69 anos foi de 58,7% e de 25-59 anos de 66,2%. Viver sem companheiro, não ter dado à luz e não ter realizado consulta médica no último ano mostraram associação com a não-realização do teste. Na análise multivariada, o baixo grau de escolaridade mostrou também efeito significativo. A cobertura do Papani-colaou em Pernambuco foi satisfatória, porém insuficiente para impactar no perfil epidemiológico do câncer do colo uterino. É preciso fortalecer e qualificar as ações de promoção da saúde, visando reduzir as desigualdades e estimular o protagonismo das mulheres nas ações de prevenção do câncer do colo uterino. Abstract in english This research aimed to assess coverage of Pap smear screening in the State of Pernambuco, Brazil, during the three years prior to the study, among women 18 to 69 years of age, and to identify factors associated with women's lack of participation in screening. This was a cross-sectional, population-based study, using data from a survey in 2005-2006 with 640 women, selected by three-stage cluster sampling. Information on 258 women was analyzed. Pap smear coverage was 58.7% (more) for women 18 to 69 years of age and 66.2% for those 25 to 59. Single marital status, no history of childbirth, and not having consulted a physician in the previous year were associated with lack of Pap smear screening. In the multivariate analysis, low schooling also showed a significant effect. Pap smear coverage in Pernambuco was satisfactory, but insufficient to impact the epidemiological profile of cervical cancer. It is necessary to strengthen and upgrade health promotion activities in order to reduce the inequalities and encourage women's active participation in cervical cancer prevention.

Albuquerque, Kamila Matos de; Frias, Paulo Germano; Andrade, Carla Lourenço Tavares de; Aquino, Estela M. L.; Menezes, Greice; Szwarcwald, Célia Landmann

2009-01-01

109

CIEMAT interlaboratories comparison of the results obtained in the proficiency test run by IAEA  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report contains the results obtained by two different laboratories from CIEMAT after participating in the Proficiency Test organised by IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency) in 1999. This test involves the analysis of fly ashes containing natural radionuclides and different amounts of added transuranics. The extraction techniques, counting methods and results obtained are detailed. This type of test are used for the labs to achieve their accreditation and check the reliability of the procedures routinely employed. (Author) 4 refs

2000-01-01

110

Pap smear screening in the primary health care setting: A study from Turkey  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Cervical cancer is one of the ten most frequent cancers in Turkey. It is well known that cervical cancer morbidity and mortality could be significantly reduced with an active cervical smear screening (Pap smear) program. Aims: The aims of this study were: 1) to evaluate the knowledge and attitudes of women about cervical smear testing; 2) to establish a cervical smear screening program and to evaluate the cervical cytological abnormalities that were found; 3) to determine the applicability, limitations and effectiveness of this screening in a primary health care unit. Patients and Methods: A total of 332 married women were included in our study. We collected data concerning socio-demographic and fertility characteristics, and knowledge about Pap smear testing was determined through printed questionnaires. A gynecological examination and Pap smear screening was performed on every woman in our study group. Results: Over ninety percent of our study group had never heard of and had not undergone Pap smear screening before. Of the 332 smears evaluated, 328 (98.8%) were accepted as normal, whereas epithelial cell anomalies were seen in 4 (1.2%), infection in 59 (17.7%), and reactive cell differences in 223 (67.2%) of the smears. Conclusions: The frequency of epithelial cell anomalies in our study group was less than the frequencies reported from Western countries. Knowledge regarding cervical cancer and Pap smear screening was very low. Pap smears can be easily taken and evaluated through a chain built between the primary health care unit and laboratory, and this kind of screening intervention is easily accepted by the population served.

Hande Celik Mehmetoglu; Ganime Sadikoglu; Alis Ozcakir; Nazan Bilgel

2010-01-01

111

Characteristics of 44 cervical cancers diagnosed following Pap-negative, high risk HPV-positive screening in routine clinical practice.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To characterize the cervical cancers diagnosed following a Pap-negative, high risk human papillomavirus (HPV)-positive (Pap-/HPV+) screen in routine clinical practice. METHODS: Using data from Kaiser Permanente Northern California, we investigated the cases of cervical cancer diagnosed between January, 2003 and January, 2009 following Pap-/HPV+ screen. Two cervical specimens were routinely collected for cervical cancer screening, one for conventional cytology and the other for high risk HPV testing using Hybrid Capture 2 (Qiagen). RESULTS: Forty-four women (median age at diagnosis=44years) were diagnosed with primary invasive cervical cancer with a recent history of one or more Pap-/HPV+ screens. Twenty-six women had one Pap-/HPV+ screen preceding the diagnosis of cancer, 15 had two, and three had three. There were 16 squamous cancers, one small cell cancer, 24 adenocarcinomas, 2 adenosquamous carcinomas, and one case with separate invasive squamous and adenocarcinoma. FIGO Stage was IA in 11 women, IB in 31 women and IIA in 2 women. Treatment included a pelvic node dissection in 30, 2 (6.7%) of whom had positive nodes. CONCLUSIONS: HPV testing contributes to early cervical cancer diagnosis detection in women with negative Pap tests. Most women in this cohort have early stage, node negative, treatable and potentially curable disease. Adenocarcinoma predominated as might be expected because cytology misses these cancers and their precursors. The majority of cancers were diagnosed following a single Pap-/HPV+ screen, suggesting that effective triage to colposcopy of women with a Pap-/HPV+ screen would be preferable to retesting in one year as currently recommended.

Kinney W; Fetterman B; Cox JT; Lorey T; Flanagan T; Castle PE

2011-05-01

112

Inequalities in Pap smear screening for cervical cancer in Brazil.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To examine the risk factors associated with never being screened for cervical cancer (CC) in Brazil. METHODS: Using the National Household Sample Survey 2008 (PNAD), we analyzed data from 102,108 Brazilian women ages 25-64 years. The patients were analyzed as having been or never having been screened with a Pap smear (Yes/No). Age-adjusted prevalence of never-screening was analyzed using a Chi-squared test. Crude and adjusted models using Poisson regression were performed. RESULTS: The prevalence of never-screened women for CC was 12.9%, 11.5% and 22.2% in Brazil in general, urban and rural areas, respectively. The Brazilian region with the highest prevalence of never-screening was the North (17.4%, 14.7% and 27.3% in general, urban and rural areas, respectively). The factors associated with a higher risk for never being screened were the following: poverty, younger age, lower educational level, non-white skin color, a greater number of children, no supplemental health insurance and not having visited a doctor in the past 12 months. CONCLUSION: Socioeconomic and demographic conditions lead to inequalities in access to Pap smear screening in Brazil. Public health policy addressing these risk groups is necessary.

Martínez-Mesa J; Werutsky G; Campani RB; Wehrmeister FC; Barrios CH

2013-07-01

113

Domain activities of PapC usher reveal the mechanism of action of an Escherichia coli molecular machine.  

Science.gov (United States)

P pili are prototypical chaperone-usher pathway-assembled pili used by Gram-negative bacteria to adhere to host tissues. The PapC usher contains five functional domains: a transmembrane ?-barrel, a ?-sandwich Plug, an N-terminal (periplasmic) domain (NTD), and two C-terminal (periplasmic) domains, CTD1 and CTD2. Here, we delineated usher domain interactions between themselves and with chaperone-subunit complexes and showed that overexpression of individual usher domains inhibits pilus assembly. Prior work revealed that the Plug domain occludes the pore of the transmembrane domain of a solitary usher, but the chaperone-adhesin-bound usher has its Plug displaced from the pore, adjacent to the NTD. We demonstrate an interaction between the NTD and Plug domains that suggests a biophysical basis for usher gating. Furthermore, we found that the NTD exhibits high-affinity binding to the chaperone-adhesin (PapDG) complex and low-affinity binding to the major tip subunit PapE (PapDE). We also demonstrate that CTD2 binds with lower affinity to all tested chaperone-subunit complexes except for the chaperone-terminator subunit (PapDH) and has a catalytic role in dissociating the NTD-PapDG complex, suggesting an interplay between recruitment to the NTD and transfer to CTD2 during pilus initiation. The Plug domain and the NTD-Plug complex bound all of the chaperone-subunit complexes tested including PapDH, suggesting that the Plug actively recruits chaperone-subunit complexes to the usher and is the sole recruiter of PapDH. Overall, our studies reveal the cooperative, active roles played by periplasmic domains of the usher to initiate, grow, and terminate a prototypical chaperone-usher pathway pilus. PMID:22645361

Volkan, Ender; Ford, Bradley A; Pinkner, Jerome S; Dodson, Karen W; Henderson, Nadine S; Thanassi, David G; Waksman, Gabriel; Hultgren, Scott J

2012-05-29

114

Case presentation: dental treatment with PAP for ALS patient.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of Palatal Augmentation Prosthesis (PAP) for an Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) patient. The patient's palatogram was taken during swallowing to assess her lingual function. A PAP was provided to assist her with feeding and swallowing functions. The patient's lingual pressure strength showed increases, and she was able to feed well using PAP. This devise was useful for assisting lingual dysfunctions due to various diseases.

Kikutani T; Tamura F; Nishiwaki K

2006-11-01

115

Case presentation: dental treatment with PAP for ALS patient.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of Palatal Augmentation Prosthesis (PAP) for an Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) patient. The patient's palatogram was taken during swallowing to assess her lingual function. A PAP was provided to assist her with feeding and swallowing functions. The patient's lingual pressure strength showed increases, and she was able to feed well using PAP. This devise was useful for assisting lingual dysfunctions due to various diseases. PMID:17650766

Kikutani, Takeshi; Tamura, Fumiyo; Nishiwaki, Keiko

2006-11-01

116

Human sperm chromosomes obtained from hamster eggs after sperm capacitation in TEST-yolk buffer  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Human sperm chromosomes were obtained after capacitation with TES-Tris (TEST) yolk buffer and fusion with Syrian hamster eggs. Semen samples could be stored at 4/sup 0/C for 3 days and remain functional in the assay system. The efficiency of TEST yolk buffer for obtaining karyotypes was as good as, or greater than, the efficiency of standard BWW medium containing human serum albumin. 16 references, 3 tables.

Brandriff, B.; Gordon, L.; Watchmaker, G.

1985-01-01

117

Experience obtained from construction and preliminary test of in-core structure test section (T-2)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The in-core structure test section (T2) in Helium Engineering Demonstration Loop (HENDEL) simulates a part of the core bottom structure with the same scale as that of a very high temperature reactor (VHTR) in JAERI. The main objectives of T2 are to verify the following items by testing under the same condition as that of the VHTR : (1) sealing performance through the side gaps between permanent reflector blocks, and inspection of an accuracy in fabrication, (2) insulation performance of the carbon blocks, (3) mixing characteristic of the hot plenum, (4) structural integrity of the core bottom structure. The design and construction of T2 were started in March 1983, and a preliminary test was carried out in June 1986. In the construction of T2, a fabricating technology of the graphite blocks and electric graphite pipe heater for raising up the temperature of the helium gas was developed as well as that of another metal structure. Especially, the technology of the graphite blocks is thought to be prime importance to achieve the outlet coolant temperature of 950 deg C. If the side gap between the reflector blocks around the core were wider than 0.2 mm, the outlet temperature would become lower than 950 deg C because of leaking cold coolant gas. The preliminary test revealed that the flow rate of leakage was about 30 % of the expected value, because the gap was about 1/5 of the design value of 0.2 mm. These data would be useful for licensing and design work of the VHTR. (author).

1983-03-00

118

The structure of the PapD-PapGII pilin complex reveals an open and flexible P5 pocket.  

Science.gov (United States)

P pili are hairlike polymeric structures that mediate binding of uropathogenic Escherichia coli to the surface of the kidney via the PapG adhesin at their tips. PapG is composed of two domains: a lectin domain at the tip of the pilus followed by a pilin domain that comprises the initial polymerizing subunit of the 1,000-plus-subunit heteropolymeric pilus fiber. Prior to assembly, periplasmic pilin domains bind to a chaperone, PapD. PapD mediates donor strand complementation, in which a beta strand of PapD temporarily completes the pilin domain's fold, preventing premature, nonproductive interactions with other pilin subunits and facilitating subunit folding. Chaperone-subunit complexes are delivered to the outer membrane usher where donor strand exchange (DSE) replaces PapD's donated beta strand with an amino-terminal extension on the next incoming pilin subunit. This occurs via a zip-in-zip-out mechanism that initiates at a relatively accessible hydrophobic space termed the P5 pocket on the terminally incorporated pilus subunit. Here, we solve the structure of PapD in complex with the pilin domain of isoform II of PapG (PapGIIp). Our data revealed that PapGIIp adopts an immunoglobulin fold with a missing seventh strand, complemented in parallel by the G1 PapD strand, typical of pilin subunits. Comparisons with other chaperone-pilin complexes indicated that the interactive surfaces are highly conserved. Interestingly, the PapGIIp P5 pocket was in an open conformation, which, as molecular dynamics simulations revealed, switches between an open and a closed conformation due to the flexibility of the surrounding loops. Our study reveals the structural details of the DSE mechanism. PMID:23002225

Ford, Bradley; Verger, Denis; Dodson, Karen; Volkan, Ender; Kostakioti, Maria; Elam, Jennifer; Pinkner, Jerome; Waksman, Gabriel; Hultgren, Scott

2012-09-21

119

Factors associated with Pap smear screening among French women visiting a general practitioner in the Rhone-Alpes region.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: To help prevent cervical cancer, three yearly opportunistic Pap smear screening is recommended in France for women aged 25-65 years. Pap smear screening coverage varies with age and socioeconomic level. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to identify factors associated with a low uptake of Pap smear screening among women with no limited access to healthcare. METHODS: We analyzed data from women aged 25-65 living in the Rhône-Alpes region who completed a self-administered questionnaire given to them by general practitioners between June and August 2008. The questionnaire covered knowledge about cervical cancer and its prevention as well as the women's history of Pap smear screening and other health-related behaviors. The relationship between low uptake of Pap smear screening - defined as not having had the test within the past 3 years - and a range of possible contributing factors was investigated using logistic regression. RESULTS: Of 1186 women with an intact uterus who completed the questionnaire, 89.1% said they had had a Pap smear within the past 3 years. On multivariate analysis, the 10.9% who had not were significantly more likely to live alone (1.76 [1.13-2.74]), to have no children (2.17 [1.31-3.62]), to have never used contraception (5.35 [2.98-9.62]), to have less knowledge about Pap smear screening (3.40 [1.55-7.49]), and to be unvaccinated against hepatitis B (0.55 [0.35-0.87]). CONCLUSION: Despite high overall compliance with Pap smear screening recommendations among women who consulted general practitioners, several factors were significantly associated with a low uptake of the service. Considering these factors may help to refine messages aimed at cervical cancer prevention.

Oussaid N; Lutringer-Magnin D; Barone G; Haesebaert J; Lasset C

2013-10-01

120

Evaluating inhibition of angiogenesis by GST-PAP fusion protein  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available "nBackground: Tumor cells need food and oxygen supply for growth and division. Therefore one of the most promising areas of cancer therapy focuses on using agents that inhibit tumor angiogenesis. Inhibition of angiogenesis prevents cell growth, division and metastasis. Previous studies showed that plasminogen related Protein-B has an anti-tumor activity in mice. This protein has a high level of homology with preactivation Peptide (PAP) of human plasminogen. According to this high homology, antiangiogeneic activity of PAP was investigated in an in vitro angiogenesis model. "nMethods: PAP encoding region of human plasminogen gene was isolated by Polymerase Chain Reaction and ?cloned in pGEX-2T vector. This plasmid was expressed in Escherichia coli as a fusion protein (GST-PAP). ?GST-PAP was expressed as inclusion body and purified by affinity chromatography on GSH-sepharose ?resin after refolding. antiangiogenic effects of purified protein were surveyed with Matrigel assay?.?? ? "nResults: The GST-PAP was expressed and purified and its accuracy was confirmed by SDS-PAGE analysis ?and immunoblotting. Microscopic studies showed that GST-PAP inhibited angiogenesis in Matrigel system ?which is shown by shrinking the length of capillary like structures and a decrease in the number of tubule. ?While applying concentarations of 25?g/ml of GST-PAP and concentrations above that, antiangiogenic ?activity of GST-PAP was significant comparing to the controls. ? "nConclusion: Finding shows that GST-PAP can inhibit network formation in Matrigel system. This findings ?support the theory that PAP is a potent angiogenesis inhibitor.?

Gharaati MR; Mirshahi M; Sadeghi-Zadeh M

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
121

Motivos que levam mulheres a não retornarem para receber o resultado de exame Papanicolau Motivos que llevan a las mujeres a no regresar para recibir el resultado del examen de Papanicolau Motives which lead women not to return to receive the results of their pap smear test  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O papanicolau é um eficiente método de prevenção do câncer de colo uterino. Para a efetividade desta prevenção, é imprescindível que a mulher receba o resultado do exame e conclua o tratamento. O presente estudo tem o objetivo de identificar motivos que levam mulheres a não retornarem para o recebimento do resultado do papanicolau. Trata-se de uma pesquisa descritiva, com abordagem qualitativa, realizada em uma unidade de saúde em Fortaleza. Os sujeitos do estudo foram 21 mulheres que colheram seus exames de papanicolau e não retornaram para buscar o resultado. O instrumento de coleta de dados foi constituído por entrevista semi-estruturada, realizada por telefone, nos meses de setembro a novembro de 2004. Os resultados evidenciaram motivos relacionados à mulher, ao profissional que realiza o atendimento e ao serviço.El Papanicolau es un eficiente método de prevención de cáncer cervical, bastante utilizado por las mujeres. Para la efectividad de esta prevención, es imprescindible que la paciente reciba el resultado del examen y concluya el tratamiento. El presente estudio tiene como objetivo identificar los motivos que llevan a las mujeres a no volver para recibir el resultado del Papanicolau. Se trata de una investigación descriptiva con aproximación cualitativa, realizada en una unidad de Salud Pública en Fortaleza. Los sujetos de estudio fueron 21 mujeres, cujas muestras fueron colectadas para Papanicolau y que no retornaron para buscar el resultado. El instrumento de recopilación de datos fue una entrevista semi-estructurada, realizada por teléfono entre los meses de septiembre y noviembre del 2004. Los resultados evidenciaron motivos relacionados a la paciente, al profesional que realiza la atención y al servicio.The Pap smear test is an efficient method of uterine cervical cancer prevention. For this prevention method to be effective, it is essential that the patient receives her results and satisfactorily concludes the treatment. This study aims to identify the motives which lead women not to return to receive the results of their Pap smear test. This is a descriptive research with a qualitative approach, carried out at a health centre in the city of Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil. The study subjects are 21 women who underwent the Pap smear test and did not return to collect their results. The tool for data collection was a semi-structured telephone interview, held between September and November 2004. The results pointed to motives related to the patient, to the health professional delivering care and to the service offered.

Suzana de Azevedo Greenwood; Maria de Fátima Antero Sousa Machado; Neide Maria Vieira Sampaio

2006-01-01

122

[Correlation between the NIH test and the seroneutralizing antibodies obtained after vaccination in the dog  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This work reports on two distinct studies on the analysis of correlation of results of potency tests of rabies vaccine intended for dogs. In a first study, the analysis compares the results of the conventional NIH test in mice with seroneutralizing antibodies obtained after 21 days of vaccination in dogs. Arithmetical analysis (109 NIH results, 466 antibody titres) did not reveal significant linear correlation between the results. In a second study, the analysis compares the results of the conventional NIH test and of the NIH test without booster in mice with seroneutralizing antibodies obtained after 21 days of vaccination in dogs. Arithmetical analysis (27 conventional NIH results (without booster), 118 antibody titres) did not reveal any significant linear correlation between the results.

Chappuis G; Tixier G

1982-01-01

123

Evaluation of a worksite cervical screening initiative to increase pap smear uptake in malaysia: a cluster randomized controlled trial.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Background. Despite the significant burden of cervical cancer, Malaysia like many middle-income countries relies on opportunistic cervical screening as opposed to a more organized population-based program. The aim of this study was to ascertain the effectiveness of a worksite screening initiative upon Papanicolaou smear test (Pap test) uptake among educated working women in Malaysia. Methods. 403 female teachers who never or infrequently attended for a Pap test from 40 public secondary schools in Kuala Lumpur were recruited into a cluster randomized trial conducted between January and November 2010. The intervention group participated in a worksite cervical screening initiative whilst the control group received usual care from the existing cervical screening program. Multivariate logistic regression was performed to determine the impact of the intervention program on Pap smear uptake after 24 weeks of followup. Results. The proportion of women attending for a Pap test was significantly higher in the intervention than in the control group (18.1% versus 10.1%, P value < 0.05) with the worksite screening initiative doubling the Pap smear uptake, adjusted odds ratio 2.44 (95% CI: 1.29-4.62). Conclusion. Worksite health promotion interventions can effectively increase cervical smear uptake rates among eligible workers in middle-income countries. Policy makers and health care providers in these countries should include such interventions in strategies for reducing cervical cancer burden. This trial is registered with IRCT201103186088N1.

Abdullah F; O'Rorke M; Murray L; Su TT

2013-01-01

124

Effect of test procedure on shear strength obtained using the Newcastle dilatometer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A new dilatometer for in-situ soil testing has been developed which uses a rigid piston to load the soil. The new dilatometer 'called the Newcastle Dilatometer (NDMT)' uses a Hall effect transducer and a magnet system to measure the penetration of the piston during loading of the soil. The pressure required to penetrate the piston is recorded using a pressure transducer. The two transducers together can produce applied pressure-displacement curves for obtaining soil parameters which can be more reliable than those obtained based on just one or two contact pressures values as in the Marchetti dilatometer. Since the NDMT allows more control during in-situ testing, the same was carried out employing two test procedures, 'the stress increment controlled' and 'the constant rate of stress' at a site consisting of firm to stiff clay. This paper presents a comparison of the data obtained from the two test procedures and the effect the test procedure has on the various soil properties, in general and the shear strength, in particular. (author)

2005-01-01

125

Mammography and Pap test screening among low-income foreign-born Hispanic women in the USA Mamografia e teste Papanicolau em mulheres latinas de baixa renda nos Estados Unidos  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Little is known about the factors influencing screening among low-income Hispanic women particularly among recent immigrants. A sample of 148 low-income, low-literate, foreign-born Hispanic women residing in the Washington DC metropolitan area participated in the study. The mean age of the sample was 46.2 (SD = 11.5), 84% reported annual household incomesEste estudo determinou os fatores que influenciam a conduta de mulheres latinas de baixa renda nos EUA, em face do monitoramento pela mamografia (MM) e por meio do teste de Papanicolau (TP), em uma amostra de 148 mulheres latinas, residentes na região metropolitana de Washington DC. A idade média na amostra foi de 46,2 anos (desvio padrão 11,5), e 84% relatavam renda familiar anual menor que quinze mil dólares. Todas as mulheres falavam espanhol e apresentavam níveis reduzidos de aculturação; 96% destas informavam ter realizado TP, mas 24% não relatavam adesão às normas recomendadas de rastreamento. Entre aquelas com quarenta anos ou mais, 62% haviam realizado MM, mas somente 33% de acordo com as normas de rotina. A freqüência de conceitos equivocados sobre o câncer neste grupo de mulheres foi maior que a observada para mulheres latinas em outros estudos. Modelos logísticos multivariados para variáveis correlacionadas à conduta no rastreamento pelo TP e MM indicam que fatores como o medo do teste, vergonha e desconhecimento tiveram influência. Concluiu-se que as mulheres nesse estudo apresentaram menor freqüência de rastreamento por MM que mulheres não latinas, além de apresentarem também níveis mais reduzidos de adesão às normas de rastreamento por TP e MM.

Maria E. Fernandez; Guillermo Tortolero-Luna; Robert S. Gold

1998-01-01

126

PARP1 represses PAP and inhibits polyadenylation during heat shock.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The 3' ends of most eukaryotic mRNAs are produced by an endonucleolytic cleavage followed by synthesis of a poly(A) tail. Poly(A) polymerase (PAP), the enzyme that catalyzes the formation of the tail, is subject to tight regulation involving several posttranslational modifications. Here we show that the enzyme poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1) modifies PAP and regulates its activity both in vitro and in vivo. PARP1 binds to and modifies PAP by poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation (PARylation) in vitro, which inhibits PAP activity. In vivo we show that PAP is PARylated during heat shock, leading to inhibition of polyadenylation in a PARP1-dependent manner. The observed inhibition reflects reduced RNA binding affinity of PARylated PAP in vitro and decreased PAP association with non-heat shock protein-encoding genes in vivo. Our results provide direct evidence that PARylation can control processing of mRNA precursors, and also identify PARP1 as a regulator of polyadenylation during thermal stress.

Di Giammartino DC; Shi Y; Manley JL

2013-01-01

127

Impact test data obtained by analysis of high speed camera films  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper deals with a high speed film elaboration procedure concerning 9m International Atomic Energy Agency free drop tests of a spent nuclear fuel cask. Drop tests of reduced-scale cask models, performed at the Dipartimento di Construzioni Meccaniche e Nucleari of Pisa, are described. The high speed films recorded during the impact test enabled the authors to obtain the motion law of the cask models. A numerical method implemented in order to perform the first and second differentiation of the displacement-time recorded data is shown. The experimental displacement-time discrete data are approximated with a Langrange interpolation polynomial, and the obtained curve is smoothed with a Butterworth digital low pass filter with M poles, in order to reduce the spurious oscillations caused by different kinds of errors which might be unacceptably amplified in the differentiation processes. Good agreement is obtained between the accelerations derived by the film data analysis and the experimentally-measured ones. The reported technique may be a valuable tool for the analysis of transient dynamic phenomena. (author).

1990-01-01

128

Analysis of results obtained from field tracing test under natural rain condition  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As one of the tests arranged by the cooperative research between CIRP and JAERI, field tracing tests using 3H, 60Co, 85Sr and 134Cs were conducted in pits at the CIRP's field test site located on a loess tableland under natural rain condition. Precipitation amount and evaporation rate were measured to study complicated spatial-temporal behavior of soil water movement under that condition. The evaporation rate was obtained through an analysis on the measured data by a combined method of heat balance and eddy correlation. Numerical model, that is based on piston flow assumption of soil water movement, was developed and applied to determine the behavior of the soil water movement in the pits. Using the determined water movement, 3H migration was evaluated by numerical simulation. Change of 3H distribution as a function of elapsed time as well explained by careful evaluation of the soil water movement that carried out before the analysis. (5 figs.)

1993-01-01

129

Adjuvant effect of water-soluble polysaccharide (PAP) from the mycelium of Polyporus albicans on the immune responses to ovalbumin in mice.  

Science.gov (United States)

In our previous work, a new water-soluble polysaccharide (PAP) from the mycelium of Polyporus albicans was identified for the first time. Preliminary tests in vitro showed PAP have potent stimulating effects on murine lymphocyte proliferation induced by mitogen. So in this study, the immunomodulatory effect and the adjuvant potential of PAP on the cellular and humoral immune response of ICR mice against ovalbumin were investigated. In vivo toxicity assays of PAP showed not to be lethal for mice in doses ranging from 0.5 to 4 mg. ICR mice were immunized subcutaneously with OVA 0.1 mg alone or with OVA 0.1 mg dissolved in saline containing alum (0.2 mg) or PAP (0.5, 1 and 2 mg) on days 1 and 15. Two weeks later (day 28), concanavalin A (Con A)-, lipopolysaccharide (LPS)- and OVA-stimulated splenocyte proliferation and OVA-specific serum antibodies were measured. PAP (0.5, 1 and 2 mg) other than alum significantly enhanced the Con A-, LPS- or OVA-induced splenocyte proliferation in the OVA-immunized mice (P<0.05 or <0.01). The OVA-specific IgG, IgG1 and IgG2b antibody levels in serum were also significantly enhanced by PAP (0.5, 1 and 2 mg) compared with OVA control group (P<0.05 or <0.01). Moreover, alum (0.2 mg) only induces IgG and IgG1 antibody responses to OVA in mice. In conclusion, the results suggest that PAP could be a safe efficacious adjuvant capable of boosting cellular and humoral immunity without unacceptable toxicity. Thus adjuvants based on PAP have enormous potential for use in vaccines against both pathogens and cancer. PMID:18555566

Sun, Yongxu; Liu, Jicheng

2008-04-28

130

Is a liquid-based cytology more sensitive than a conventional Pap smear?  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: The comparative sensitivity of liquid-based cytology (LBC) test and conventional Papanicolaou (Pap) smears is controversial. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This study analyses the distribution of cytology, histology, colposcopy and large loop excision of the transformation zone among women screened in Iceland with LBC at the Cancer Detection Clinic in Reykjavik and with a conventional Pap smear outside the Detection Clinic in 2007-2011. The study material included 42 654 LBC tests from 20 439 women and 103 909 Pap smears from 61 574 women. The period 2000-2004 is used to correct for potential bias as a result of unequal distribution of the studied parameters between the study sites before the introduction of LBC. RESULTS: The observed results indicated that women screened with an LBC sample had significantly decreased detection rates of inadequate smears, increased detection of low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL)/atypical cytology and referrals to colposcopy, and an increased detection rate of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 or worse (CIN2+) irrespective of age. LBC increased significantly the detection rates of high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion or worse (HSIL+) cytology and CIN3+ histology only in women under 40 years of age. Taking into consideration the unequal prevalence of the studied parameters between the study sites in 2000-2004 indicated, however, that LBC only affected the rate of inadequate and low-grade cytology tests under the age of 40?years. Positive predictive values for CIN2+ were not significantly different between the tests. CONCLUSIONS: The study results support the view that LBC is no more sensitive than Pap smears for the detection of HSIL+ and CIN2+ irrespective of age. LBC decreased the rate of inadequate smears, but increased the rate of low-grade cytology under the age of 40 years and decreased the total rate of abnormal smears over the age of 40 years.

Sigurdsson K

2013-08-01

131

Bicycle ergometer test to obtain adequate skin temperature when measuring nerve conduction velocity.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To achieve optimal diagnostic accuracy, measurements of nerve conduction velocity require standardised tissue temperatures. To warm an extremity to a desired temperature that remains constant during the measurement may be difficult, especially in subjects with low finger temperatures. The aim of this study was to investigate if a submaximal bicycle ergometer test before the examination would be a useful method of obtaining high and stable finger temperatures during nerve conduction studies in the hand. METHODS: 114 women aged 25-65 (median 44) performed a bicycle ergometer test on an electrically braked bicycle ergometer (Siemens-Elema) before they underwent a nerve conduction test. RESULTS: Before cycling, the mean finger temperature was 28.1 degrees C (range 20.5-35.4 degrees C) and 15 min after the test 35.1 degrees C (range 30.3-36.9 degrees C). The levels remained almost constant throughout the nerve conduction examination, which had a duration of approximately 25 min. CONCLUSIONS: A bicycle ergometer test proved to be a simple and effective method of raising hand temperature.

Sandén H; Edblom M; Hagberg M; Wallin BG

2005-01-01

132

Knowledge and awareness of cervical cancer and screening among Malaysian women who have never had a Pap smear: a qualitative study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

INTRODUCTION: Cervical cancer is one of the commonest cancers in women worldwide. Despite the existence of effective screening using Pap smear, the uptake of screening is poor. A qualitative study was undertaken using face-to-face in-depth interviews to investigate knowledge, attitudes and beliefs on cervical cancer screening of Malaysian women. METHODS: In-depth interviews were conducted with 20 Malaysian women aged 21-56 years and who have never had a Pap smear test, with the aim to explore their knowledge and awareness of cervical cancer and its screening. RESULTS: A lack of knowledge on cervical cancer and the Pap smear test was found among the respondents. Many women did not have a clear understanding of the meaning of an abnormal cervical smear and the need for the early detection of cervical cancer. Many believe the purpose of the Pap smear test is to detect existing cervical cancer, leading to the belief that Pap smear screening is not required because the respondents had no symptoms. Despite considerable awareness of a link between cervical cancer and sexual activity, as well as the role of a sexually-transmitted infection, none of the respondents had heard of the human papillomavirus. CONCLUSION: The findings highlight the importance of emphasising accurate information about cervical cancer and the purpose of Pap smear screening when designing interventions aimed at improving cervical cancer screening for Malaysian women.

Wong LP; Wong YL; Low WY; Khoo EM; Shuib R

2009-01-01

133

Cervix Cancer Diagnosis from Pap Smear Images Using Structure Based Segmentation and Shape Analysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available his work presents an approach for analysis of P AP s mear images of cervical region based on cell nuclei distribution and shape and size analysis. PAP smear test is an efficient and easy procedure to detect any abnor mality in cervical cells. But human observation is not always satisfying and it is a tedious task to manually analyze a large number of PAP smear images. The purpose of this study is to automate the screening process and to provide specific statistical data which will be helpful for detecting abnormalities in cervical region. The proposed approach is implemented in MATLAB®, a high level, interactive environment for data visualization/analysis/computation. The MATLAB® Image Processing Toolbox was used to segment the digital images and calculate various statistical data. By comparing cell nuclei distribution and taking into account the shape and size features MATLAB® can be programmed to distinguish normal cervical cell to questionable ones.

Lipi B. Mahanta; Dilip Ch. Nath; Chandan Kr. Nath

2012-01-01

134

Perception and Experience of Primary Care Physicians on Pap Smear Screening for Women with Intellectual Disabilities: A Preliminary Finding  

Science.gov (United States)

|This study aims to establish evidence-based data to explore the perceptions and experience of primary care physicians in the Pap smear screening provision for women with intellectual disabilities (ID), and to analyze the associated factors in the delivery of screening services to women with ID in Taiwan. Data obtained by a cross-sectional survey…

Lin, Jin-Ding; Sung, Chang-Lin; Lin, Lan-Ping; Liu, Ta-Wen; Lin, Pei-Ying; Chen, Li-Mei; Chu, Cordia M.; Wu, Jia-Ling

2010-01-01

135

Perception and Experience of Primary Care Physicians on Pap Smear Screening for Women with Intellectual Disabilities: A Preliminary Finding  

Science.gov (United States)

This study aims to establish evidence-based data to explore the perceptions and experience of primary care physicians in the Pap smear screening provision for women with intellectual disabilities (ID), and to analyze the associated factors in the delivery of screening services to women with ID in Taiwan. Data obtained by a cross-sectional survey…

Lin, Jin-Ding; Sung, Chang-Lin; Lin, Lan-Ping; Liu, Ta-Wen; Lin, Pei-Ying; Chen, Li-Mei; Chu, Cordia M.; Wu, Jia-Ling

2010-01-01

136

Test plan: Air intake shaft performance test -- Addendum for obtaining cores in the Culebra for radionuclide retardation studies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Core samples are needed for obtaining data on radionuclide retardation. The cores will be used to first determine local basic properties of Culebra rock such as permeability, structural integrity, fracture spacing, and fracture size. These quantities will then be used to design a laboratory experimental program to determine radionuclide retardation in a column flow apparatus using the cores obtained in this project. This addendum covers only the coring activities necessary to retrieve Culebra cores. The laboratory work will be documented in a separate test plan. It is anticipated that Culebra rock samples will be highly fractured, with a fracture spacing on the order of 2 to 3 inches To obtain representative core samples that are intact, horizontal cores about 6 inches in diameter and several feet long will be needed. These cores will provide a good indication of Culebra rock fracturing and provide several samples needed to conduct column flow experiments. If the rock is so fractured that only rubble is obtained, then the rubble will be used in the column experiments. In addition, as a byproduct of the coring operation, natural groundwater collected from the holes will be used to develop a synthetic brine for the laboratory experiments

1991-01-01

137

Incontinência urinária em mulheres que buscam exame preventivo de câncer de colo uterino: fatores sociodemográficos e comportamentais Incontinencia urinaria en mujeres que solicitan un examen preventivo de cáncer de cuello uterino: factores socio-demográficos y de comportamiento Urinary incontinence in women undergoing Pap smear test: socio-demographic and behavioral factors  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Este estudo transversal objetivou investigar a associação entre, de um lado, fatores sociodemográficos e comportamentais e, de outro, a presença de incontinência urinária referida em 784 mulheres que buscam exame preventivo de câncer de colo uterino na Grande Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brasil. Foram obtidos dados sociodemográficos, estado de saúde, atividade física, constipação e índice de massa corporal, sendo utilizado o International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire-SF. A prevalência de incontinência urinária foi de 30,7% (16,5% perdiam urina uma vez por semana ou menos e 23,8% em pequena quantidade). Na regressão de Poisson bruta, estiveram associados à incontinência urinária os seguintes fatores: baixa escolaridade, renda por pessoa da família até um salário mínimo, etnia não caucasiana, excesso de peso corporal, pior autoavaliação do estado de saúde, constipação e idade. Após ajuste, seguindo modelo hierarquizado, permaneceram associados: escolaridade, etnia, estado de saúde e idade. A alta prevalência de incontinência urinária em mulheres que buscam exame de rastreamento do câncer de colo uterino justifica abordagens preventivas nesses espaços de atuação.Este estudio transversal tuvo como objetivo investigar la asociación entre factores socio-demográficos y de comportamiento con la presencia de incontinencia urinaria, informada por 784 mujeres que solicitaron un examen preventivo de cáncer de cuello uterino en el área metropolitana de Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brasil. Se obtuvieron datos socio-demográficos, estado de salud, actividad física, estreñimiento e índice de masa corporal, utilizándose el International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire-SF. La prevalencia de incontinencia urinaria fue de un 30,7% (16,5% perdían orina una vez por semana o menos y un 23,8% en pequeña cantidad). En la regresión de Poisson bruta se asoció a la incontinencia urinaria: la baja escolaridad; renta por persona de la familia de hasta un salario mínimo; etnia no caucásica; exceso de peso corporal; peor autoevaluación de estado de salud; estreñimiento y edad. Tras los ajustes, siguiendo un modelo jerarquizado, permanecieron asociados: escolaridad; etnia; estado de salud y edad. La alta prevalencia de incontinencia urinaria de mujeres que solicitaron un examen de indicios de cáncer de cuello uterino justifica aproximaciones preventivas en esos espacios.This cross-sectional study aimed to investigate the association between socio-demographic and behavioral factors and the presence of self-reported urinary incontinence in 784 women undergoing cervical cancer screening in Greater Florianópolis, Santa Catarina State, Brazil. Socio-demographic data, health status, physical activity, constipation, and body mass index were obtained, and the International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire-SF was used. Prevalence of urinary incontinence was 30.7% (16.5% reported leakage once a week or less and 23.8% losses in small volumes). Poisson univariate regression showed the following factors associated with urinary incontinence: lower education, lower income, non-white skin color, overweight, worse health status, constipation, and older age. After adjustment, according to a hierarchical model, schooling, ethnicity, health status, and age remained significantly associated. The high prevalence of urinary incontinence in women seeking Pap smear tests justifies preventive approaches in these areas of intervention.

Cinara Sacomori; Nubia Berenice Negri; Fernando Luiz Cardoso

2013-01-01

138

Tests with Inconel 600 to obtain quantitative stress-corrosion cracking data for evaluating service performance  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Inconel 600 tubes in pressurized water reactor (PWR) steam generators form a pressure boundary between radioactive primary water and secondary water which is converted to steam and used for generating electricity. Under operating conditions the performance of alloy 600 has been good, but with some occasional small leaks resulting from stress corrosion cracking (SCC), related to the presence of unusually high residual or operating stresses. The suspected high stresses can result from either the deformation of tubes during manufacture, or distortion during abnormal conditions such as denting. The present experimental program addresses two specific conditions, i.e., (1) where deformation occurs but is no longer active, such as when denting is stopped and (2) where plastic deformation of the metal continues, as would occur during denting. Laboratory media consist of pure water as well as solutions to simulate environments that would apply in service; tubing from actual production is used in carrying out these tests. The environments include both normal and off chemistries for primary and secondary water. The results reported here were obtained in several different tests. The main ones are (1) split tube reverse U-bends, (2) constant extension rate tests (CERT), and (3) constant load. The temperature range covered is 290 to 3650C

1982-10-15

139

Significant pathologic findings in 41 Atypical Glandular Cell pap smears  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between atypical glandular cell (AGC) on Pap smear and significant pathologic finding to tailor management protocols. Methods: Between 2002 and 2005, Among 26893 Pap smears 122 women with AGC Pap smears (prevalence=0.45%) were referred to our colposcopy clinic. Forty one women underwent colposcopy directed biopsy, endocervical curettage, endometrial sampling and cervical conization to determine the cytologic and histologic correlations of AGC on pap smears. Results: A total of 122 women with AGC Pap smear were found. Only 41 women accepted to participate in the study and followed the workup procedures. The mean age of the patients was 46.92 ±11.48 years (range, 23-80 years). Of these patients 13 patients (31.7%) were post menopause and 28 patients (68.2%) were in reproductive age. We found 13 (31.7%) significant pathologic findings including 4 (9.7%) high grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HG-SIL), 3(7.3%) low grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LG-SIL), 2(4.8%) Endometrial hyperplasia, 1(2.4%) Endometrial adenocarci-noma, 1(2.4%) adenocarcinoma of cervix, 1(2.4%) squamous cell carcinoma of cervix and 1(2.4%) papillary serous tumor of ovary. There was not any significant difference in the prevalence of significant pathologic findings and subtype of squamous or adenomatous lesions between pre and postmenopausal group. Conclusion: AGC on Pap smear was associated with a clinically significant diagnosis in approximately one third of our cases. The women with a diagnosis of AGC on cervicovaginal smear are needed to be evaluated at least with colposcopy, endocervical and endometrial curettage. Clinicians should be careful about the significance of AGC in pap smears.

Behtash N; Fakhrejahani F; Khafaf A; Ghayouri Azar E

2007-01-01

140

Modified PAP method to detect heteroresistance to vancomycin among methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates at a tertiary care hospital  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study was an attempt at developing, establishing, validating and comparing the modified PAP method for detection of hetero-vancomycin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (h-VRSA) with the routine antimicrobial susceptibility testing (using the BSAC standardized disc diffusion method), mini...

Iyer R; Hittinahalli V

 
 
 
 
141

Testing for HPV  

Science.gov (United States)

... for HPV, what does it mean? Testing for HPV What’s the difference between a Pap test and an HPV test? A Pap test is used to find ... 30 and older. Should you be tested for HPV? If you have no history of HIV or ...

142

Molecular testing of human papillomavirus in cervical specimens  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Objective was to improve the diagnosis of cervical neoplasia by early detection of human papillomavirus (HPV) in uterine cervix, by adding molecular testing of HPV using hybrid capture 2 (HC2) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) tests to Papanicoalou (Pap) test. One hundred women were enrolled in this study. The mean age (mean+-SD) was 41.97+- 8.76 years and range was 27-65 years. All women had undergone cervical cytological screening with cervical cytology, HPV DNA testing by HC2 and PCR, during the period from January to December 2006, at King Abdul-Aziz University Hospital (KAAUH) and King Fahd research Center, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. The results were obtained by HC2 for detection of HPV were 5(5%) high-risk HPV, one low-risk HPV (1%) and 94(94%) negative cases. The PCR detected only 4(4%) cases. Using the HC2 test as a reference, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive, negative predictive values and accuracy of base line Pap were 50, 85, 17.7, 96.4 and 83%; of final Pap smear were 100, 96.8, 66.7, 100, and 97% and for PCR were 66.7, 100, 100, 97.9 and 98%. The Pap test was repeated within a year for patients with abnormal Pap test with positive HPV DNA. Combined screening by cytology and HPV testing using both HC2 and PCR sensitively detects women with existing disease. The absence of HPV DNA provides reassurance that patients are unlikely to develop cancer for several years. We suggest using Pap with HC2 and PCR in screening programs to ensure that women with the double negative result at baseline might safely be screened at longer intervals. (author)

2007-01-01

143

Benchmarking CIN 3+ risk as the basis for incorporating HPV and Pap cotesting into cervical screening and management guidelines.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: In 2012, the US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) and a consensus of 25 organizations endorsed concurrent cytology and human papillomavirus (HPV) testing ("cotesting") for cervical cancer screening. Past screening and management guidelines were implicitly based on risks defined by Pap-alone, without consideration of HPV test results. To promote management that is consistent with accepted practice, new guidelines incorporating cotesting should aim to achieve equal management of women at equal risk of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 and cancer (CIN 3+). METHODS: We estimated cumulative 5-year risks of CIN 3+ for 965,360 women aged 30 to 64 years undergoing cotesting at Kaiser Permanente Northern California over 2003 to 2010. We calculated the implicit risk thresholds for Pap-alone and applied them for new management guidance on HPV and Pap cotesting, citing 2 examples: HPV-positive/atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US) and HPV-negative/Pap-negative. We call this guidance process "benchmarking." RESULTS: A low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion result, for which immediate colposcopy is prescribed, carries a 5-year CIN 3+ risk of 5.2%, suggesting that test results with similar risks should be managed with colposcopy. Similarly, ASC-US (2.6% risk) is managed with a 6- to 12-month follow-up visit and Pap-negative (0.26% risk) is managed with a 3-year follow-up visit. The 5-year CIN 3+ risk for women with HPV-positive/ASC-US was 6.8% (95% confidence interval = 6.2%-7.6%). This is greater than the 5.2% risk implicitly leading to referral to colposcopy, consistent with current management recommendations that HPV-positive/ASC-US should be referred for immediate colposcopy. The 5-year CIN 3+ risk for women with HPV-negative/Pap-negative was 0.08% (95% confidence interval = 0.07%-0.09%), far below the 0.26% implicitly required for a 3-year return and justifying a longer (e.g., 5-year) return. CONCLUSIONS: Using the principle of "equal management of equal risks," benchmarking to implicit risk thresholds based on Pap-alone can be used to achieve safe and consistent incorporation of cotesting.

Katki HA; Schiffman M; Castle PE; Fetterman B; Poitras NE; Lorey T; Cheung LC; Raine-Bennett T; Gage JC; Kinney WK

2013-04-01

144

Reaction Time Correlations with Intelligence Test Scores Obtained under either Timed or Untimed Conditions.  

Science.gov (United States)

To assess the effects of timed/untimed testing conditions on intelligence scores, high school students were assigned to an intelligence test under either conditions and subsequently to a battery of eight reaction time tests. Results showed that subjects scores were related to the speed with which they processed information. (JAZ)

Vernon, Philip A.; Kantor, Lida

1986-01-01

145

Missed Opportunities for Health Education on Pap Smears in Peru  

Science.gov (United States)

Despite cervical cancer being one of the leading causes of cancer-related deaths among women in Peru, cervical Pap smear coverage is low. This article uses findings from 185 direct clinician observations in four cities of Peru (representing the capital and each of the three main geographic regions of the country) to assess missed opportunities for…

Bayer, Angela M.; Nussbaum, Lauren; Cabrera, Lilia; Paz-Soldan, Valerie A.

2011-01-01

146

Purification of prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP) for structural and functional studies.  

Science.gov (United States)

High-scale purification methods are required for several protein studies such as crystallography, mass spectrometry, circular dichroism, and function. Here we describe a purification method for PAP based on anion exchange, L-(+)-tartrate affinity, and gel filtration chromatographies. Acid phosphatase activity and protein concentration were measured for each purification step, and to collect the fractions with the highest acid phosphatase activity the p-nitrophenyl phosphate method was used. The purified protein obtained by the procedure described here was used for the determination of the first reported three-dimensional structure of prostatic acid phosphatase. PMID:23860655

Herrala, Annakaisa M; Quintero, Ileana B; Vihko, Pirkko T

2013-01-01

147

Purification of prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP) for structural and functional studies.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

High-scale purification methods are required for several protein studies such as crystallography, mass spectrometry, circular dichroism, and function. Here we describe a purification method for PAP based on anion exchange, L-(+)-tartrate affinity, and gel filtration chromatographies. Acid phosphatase activity and protein concentration were measured for each purification step, and to collect the fractions with the highest acid phosphatase activity the p-nitrophenyl phosphate method was used. The purified protein obtained by the procedure described here was used for the determination of the first reported three-dimensional structure of prostatic acid phosphatase.

Herrala AM; Quintero IB; Vihko PT

2013-01-01

148

Genetic tests obtainable through pharmacies: the good, the bad, and the ugly.  

Science.gov (United States)

Genomic medicine seeks to exploit an individual's genomic information in the context of guiding the clinical decision-making process. In the post-genomic era, a range of novel molecular genetic testing methodologies have emerged, allowing the genetic testing industry to grow at a very rapid pace. As a consequence, a considerable number of different private diagnostic testing laboratories now provide a wide variety of genetic testing services, often employing a direct-to-consumer (DTC) business model to identify mutations underlying (or associated with) common Mendelian disorders, to individualize drug response, to attempt to determine an individual's risk of a multitude of complex (multifactorial) diseases, or even to determine a person's identity. Recently, we have noted a novel trend in the provision of private molecular genetic testing services, namely saliva and buccal swab collection kits (for deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) isolation) being offered for sale over the counter by pharmacies. This situation is somewhat different from the standard DTC genetic testing model, since pharmacists are healthcare professionals who are supposedly qualified to give appropriate advice to their clients. There are, however, a number of issues to be addressed in relation to the marketing of DNA collection kits for genetic testing through pharmacies, namely a requirement for regulatory clearance, the comparative lack of appropriate genetics education of the healthcare professionals involved, and most importantly, the lack of awareness on the part of both the patients and the general public with respect to the potential benefits or otherwise of the various types of genetic test offered, which may result in confusion as to which test could be beneficial in their own particular case. We believe that some form of genetic counseling should ideally be integrated into, and made inseparable from, the genetic testing process, while pharmacists should be obliged to receive some basic training about the genetic tests that they offer for sale. PMID:23835256

Patrinos, George P; Baker, Darrol J; Al-Mulla, Fahd; Vasiliou, Vasilis; Cooper, David N

2013-07-08

149

Five-year risk of recurrence after treatment of CIN 2, CIN 3, or AIS: performance of HPV and Pap cotesting in posttreatment management.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: After excisional treatment, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 or worse (CIN 2+) can recur. It is not clear how many negative posttreatment Pap or cotest results are needed to ensure adequate safety against CIN 2+ before returning to extended retesting intervals. METHODS: We observed 5-year risks of CIN 2+ for 3 follow-up management strategies after treatment (Pap-alone, human papillomavirus [HPV]-alone, and HPV/Pap cotesting) for 3,273 women aged 25 years and older who were treated for CIN 2, CIN 3, or adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS) between 2003 and 2010 at Kaiser Permanente Northern California. RESULTS: Five-year risks of recurrent CIN 2+ after treatment varied both by antecedent screening test result and the histology of the treated lesion. The risk ranged from 5% for CIN 2 preceded by HPV-positive/atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance or low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion to 16% for CIN 3/AIS preceded by atypical glandular cells (AGC)/atypical squamous cells cannot rule out high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (ASC-H)/high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion or worse (HSIL+) (p < .0001). However, after posttreatment negative tests, risks were lowered and similar regardless of antecedent screening test and histology of treated disease. The 5-year recurrent CIN 2+ risk after a negative posttreatment cotest (2.4%) was lower than that following a negative HPV test (3.7%, p = .3) or negative Pap result (4.2%, p = .1). Two negative posttreatment tests of each kind conferred slightly lower 5-year CIN 2+ risk than one (2 negative Pap tests vs. 1, 2.7% vs 4.2%, p = .2; 2 negative HPV tests vs. 1, 2.7% vs 3.7%, p = .7; 2 negative cotests vs. 1, 1.5% vs 2.4%, p = .8). The 5-year CIN 2+ risk after 2 negative cotests of 1.5% (95% confidence interval = 0.3%-7.2%) approached the 0.68% risk after a negative Pap test during routine screening. CONCLUSIONS: Women with antecedent AGC/ASC-H/HSIL+ Pap results or those treated for CIN 3/AIS had a substantial risk of developing CIN 2+ posttreatment. On the basis of the principle of "equal management of equal risks," after negative test results posttreatment, no subgroup of women achieved risk sufficiently low to return to 5-year routine screening. However, negative cotests after treatment provided more reassurance against recurrent CIN 2+ than either negative Pap tests or HPV tests alone.

Katki HA; Schiffman M; Castle PE; Fetterman B; Poitras NE; Lorey T; Cheung LC; Raine-Bennett T; Gage JC; Kinney WK

2013-04-01

150

Comparison between TTS diagrams obtained by Huey and modified Strauss Standard tests for AISI 304 Stainless Steel  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This work presents a comparison of Temperature-Time-Sensitization TTS diagrams obtained by Huey and modified Strauss standard, for detecting susceptibility to intergranular attack. The diagrams obtained are different and if a sample tested by modified Strauss is sensitized, then it will be sensitized in the Huey test. but the contrary is not always true. This difference is because a sensitized sample has to have a continuous band lacking in chromium along the grain boundary in order to be sensitized in the modified Strauss test. This condition is not necessary in the Huey test. (Author) 24 refs.

1996-01-01

151

Applying the Transtheoretical Model to evaluate the effect of a call-recall program in enhancing Pap smear practice: a cluster randomized trial.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of a call-recall approach in enhancing Pap smear practice by changes of motivation stage among non-compliant women. METHODS: A cluster randomized controlled trial with parallel and un-blinded design was conducted between January and November 2010 in 40 public secondary schools in Malaysia among 403 female teachers who never or infrequently attended for a Pap test. A cluster randomization was applied in assigning schools to both groups. An intervention group received an invitation and reminder (call-recall program) for a Pap test (20 schools with 201 participants), while the control group received usual care from the existing cervical screening program (20 schools with 202 participants). Multivariate logistic regression was performed to determine the effect of the intervention program on the action stage (Pap smear uptake) at 24 weeks. RESULTS: In both groups, pre-contemplation stage was found as the highest proportion of changes in stages. At 24 weeks, an intervention group showed two times more in the action stage than control group (adjusted odds ratio 2.44, 95% CI 1.29-4.62). CONCLUSION: The positive effect of a call-recall approach in motivating women to change the behavior of screening practice should be appreciated by policy makers and health care providers in developing countries as an intervention to enhance Pap smear uptake.

Abdullah F; Su TT

2013-01-01

152

Analysis of results obtained from field tracing test under artificial rainfall condition  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The field tracing test and the laboratory experiments by column and batch method had been performed, to evaluate migratory mobilities of 60Co, 85Sr and 134Cs in loess medium. The field test supplied dynamic information on the radionuclide migration, while the laboratory experiments made possible to select more accurate sorption model taking into deep consideration of interaction mechanisms between the loess and the radionuclides. The 85Sr migration was well described by the equilibrium sorption model using distribution coefficient. The 60Co and 134Cs migration could be explained by the hybrid non-equilibrium sorption model, assuming a reversible sorption, an irreversible fixation and a filtration. (7 figs., 1 tab.)

1993-01-01

153

Results obtained with a Drift Chamber Prototype in the CERN H2 test beam area  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The performance of a small size prototype of the CMS barrel muon chamber detector has been studied in a test beam. Results on chamber efficiency, drift velocity and single wire resolution,under different experimental conditions are presented. The effects of the magnetic field on the chamber behaviour are also discussed. (Author).

1997-01-01

154

In situ testing method for obtaining cyclic and dynamic soil properties  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper introduces a concept for an in situ geotechnical testing system for directly estimating in situ cyclic and dynamic soil properties. The use of the system and its theoretical feasibility are demonstrated. The testing system is intended to reduce uncertainty and potential for error in estimates of liquefaction resistance, degradation characteristics, the dynamic shear modulus, and its variation with shear strain. This will allow the benefits of the potentially powerful cyclic and dynamic soil-structure-equipment system analysis procedures, developed over the past two decades, to be realized to a greater degree. The result should be greater safety, economy, and reliability of soil-structure-equipment systems constructed to resist earthquakes, vibrations, wave loadings, and blasts. 13 refs., 11 figs.

Henke, R.; Henke, W.

1985-01-01

155

Google it: obtaining information about local STD/HIV testing services online.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Although the Internet is one of the most commonly accessed resources for health information, finding information on local sexual health services, such as sexually transmitted disease (STD) testing, can be challenging. Recognizing that most quests for online health information begin with search engines, the purpose of this exploratory study was to examine the extent to which online information about local STD/HIV testing services can be found using Google. METHODS: Queries on STD and HIV testing services were executed in Google for 6 geographically unique locations across the United States. The first 3 websites that resulted from each query were coded for the following characteristics: (1) relevancy to the search topic, (2) domain and purpose, (3) rank in Google results, and (4) content. RESULTS: Websites hosted at .com (57.3%), .org (25.7%), and .gov (10.5%) domains were retrieved most frequently. Roughly half of all websites (n = 376) provided information relevant to the query, and about three-quarters (77.0%) of all queries yielded at least 1 relevant website within the first 3 results. Searches for larger cities were more likely to yield relevant results compared with smaller cities (odds ratio [OR] = 10.0, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 5.6, 17.9). On comparison with .com domains, .gov (OR = 2.9, 95% CI = 1.4, 5.6) and .org domains (OR = 2.9, 95% CI = 1.7, 4.8) were more likely to provide information of the location to get tested. DISCUSSION: Ease of online access to information about sexual health services varies by search topic and locale. Sexual health service providers must optimize their website placement so as to reach a greater proportion of the sexually active population who use web search engines.

Habel MA; Hood J; Desai S; Kachur R; Buhi ER; Liddon N

2011-04-01

156

Pap Test Results (Abnormal) -- ASC-H or ACG  

Medline Plus

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157

Pap Test Results (Abnormal) -- ASC-H or ACG  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... made possilge with federal funds from the National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health, Department of ... Pacific Northwest Region of the National Network of Libraries of Medicine Text adapted from “Understanding Cervical Changes: ...

158

Human papillomavirus infection and the association with abnormal Pap findings in Yukon, Canada.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: Certain types of the human papillomavirus (HPV) are highly associated with cervical cancer or dysplasia, but its prevalence is largely unknown in northern Canada where there is significant aboriginal representation and unique barriers to accessing care. This study determined the prevalence of HPV infection and its association with cervical cancer precursor lesions in Yukon, Canada. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study of 1,542 women attending routine Pap smear screening in 14 communities in Yukon, from February 2009 to June 2010. Type-specific HPV infection was detected by an in-house Luminex assay. Cervical Pap cytology was evaluated by pathologists blinded to HPV test results. RESULTS: The overall HPV prevalence rate in Yukon women was higher than those reported in some Canadian provinces and other countries. Human papillomavirus infection prevalence rates were 24.5% for any type, 18.4% for high-risk types, 6.2% for HPV types 16 or 18, 6.7% for HPV ?-7 species, and 10.6% for HPV ?-9 species. Human papillomavirus infection was strongly associated with single marital status or having 2 or more sexual partners in the past year. Human papillomavirus infection (overall, high-risk types, HPV-16/18, ?-7, or ?-9 species) was strongly associated with Pap cytological abnormalities (adjusted odds ratios ranged from 8.4 to 44.2). CONCLUSIONS: As in other areas of northern Canada, HPV prevalence for high-risk types and ?-7 species is high among women in the Yukon. Sexual behavioral factors strongly influence HPV prevalence rates. The findings may have implications for HPV vaccination and health promotion programs in northern regions.

Jiang Y; Hanley B; Brassard P; Severini A; Lo J; O'Donovan S; Duncan L; Luo ZC; Tohme S; Mao Y; Morrison H

2013-07-01

159

Standard Test Method for Obtaining Char Density Profile of Ablative Materials by Machining and Weighing  

CERN Multimedia

1.1 This test method covers the determination of the char density profile of a charred ablator that can be used with the following limitations: 1.1.1 The local surface imperfections must be removed, and the char must be able to be machined off in a plane parallel to the char-virgin material interface before the density profiles can be determined. 1.1.2 The char must be strong enough to withstand the machining and handling techniques employed. 1.1.3 The material should have orderly density variations. The total thickness of the char and degradation zone must be larger than the machining thicknesses required. 1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard. 1.2.1 Exception—Certain inch-pound equivalent units are included in parentheses for information only. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establis...

American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

1996-01-01

160

Flavonoid production in transgenic hop (Humulus lupulus L.) altered by PAP1/MYB75 from Arabidopsis thaliana L.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Hop is an important source of secondary metabolites, such as flavonoids. Some of these are pharmacologically active. Nevertheless, the concentration of some classes as flavonoids in wild-type plants is rather low. To enhance the production in hop, it would be interesting to modify the regulation of genes in the flavonoid biosynthetic pathway. For this purpose, the regulatory factor PAP1/AtMYB75 from Arabidopsis thaliana L. was introduced into hop plants cv. Tettnanger by Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation. Twenty kanamycin-resistant transgenic plants were obtained. It was shown that PAP1/AtMYB75 was stably incorporated and expressed in the hop genome. In comparison to the wild-type plants, the color of female flowers and cones of transgenic plants was reddish to pink. Chemical analysis revealed higher levels of anthocyanins, rutin, isoquercitin, kaempferol-glucoside, kaempferol-glucoside-malonate, desmethylxanthohumol, xanthohumol, ?-acids and ?-acids in transgenic plants compared to wild-type plants.

Gatica-Arias A; Farag MA; Stanke M; Matoušek J; Wessjohann L; Weber G

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
161

OTTO-PAP: An alternative option to the PBMR fuelling philosophy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Once Through Then Out, Power Adjusted by Poison (OTTO-PAP) fuelling of a high temperature pebble-bed reactor offers a simple alternative to the MEDUL (Mehrfachdurchlauf = German for multi-pass) fuelling regime followed in pebble bed reactor designs to date. The prerequisite for a modular reactor unit of maximum power output, subject to observing passive safety characteristics is a sufficiently flat axial neutron flux profile. This is achieved by introducing B4C coated particles of pre-calculated size and packing density within the fuel spheres. In accordance with AVR operating practise the temperature profile is radially equalised by introducing a 2-zone core loading. Adding pure graphite spheres loosely into the centre column area of the core effectively reduced the maximum power in the middle. Increasing the reactor diameter is enabled by the introduction of noses. A 3-D geometric modeller developed in cylindrical co-ordinates enables a given flow description of the pebbles adjacent to the nose boundaries and in the vicinity of the shut down/control rods. After translation of the geometric data the neutronic behaviour of the reactor is followed in 3-D by the CITATION code. This study is aimed towards achieving an optimal core layout with a LEU (Low Enriched Uranium) fuel cycle. Physical properties of the OTTO-PAP, 150 MWt reference design is reported, while computations performed observe results obtained by the reference HTR-MODUL design. (author)

1997-01-01

162

Five-year risks of CIN 3+ and cervical cancer among women with HPV-positive and HPV-negative high-grade Pap results.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: High-grade Pap results (e.g., atypical glandular cells [AGC], atypical squamous cells cannot rule out HSIL [ASC-H], and high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion [HSIL]) predict high cancer risks, resulting in referral for colposcopy without HPV triage. However, new guidelines recommending cotesting for women 30 years and older imply that clinicians will often receive the HPV test result concurrently for high-grade Pap results. We examined whether HPV testing provides useful risk stratification in this context. METHODS: From a cohort of 965,360 women aged 30 to 64 years undergoing cotesting at Kaiser Permanente Northern California, we estimated 5-year risks for cervical cancer and CIN 3+ after AGC (2,074 women), ASC-H (1,647 women), and HSIL (2,019 women) according to HPV test results. RESULTS: HPV positivity of AGC Pap results was 25% and decreased with age (30 to 34 vs 60 to 64 years, 44% vs 17%, p < .0001), whereas HPV positivity of ASC-H and HSIL was much higher (71% and 94%) and decreased less with age. Even for these high-grade Pap results, 5-year CIN 3+ risks differed substantially between HPV-positive and HPV-negative women (AGC, 33% vs 0.93%, p < .0001; ASC-H, 25% vs 3.5%, p < .0001; HSIL, 49% vs 30%, p = .006). However, except for AGC, cervical cancer risks differed less between HPV-positive and HPV-negative women (AGC, 9.0% vs 0.37%, p < .0001; ASC-H, 2.5% vs 2.1%, p = .8; HSIL, 6.6% vs 6.8%, p = .7). CONCLUSIONS: The risks of CIN 3+ among women with HPV-negative high-grade Pap results were lower than those among women with HPV-positive high-grade Pap results, especially after AGC. However, by the principle of "equal management of equal risks," all HPV-negative high-grade Pap results had cancer risks high enough to warrant colposcopy, confirming that there is no current role for HPV triage of high-grade Pap results.

Katki HA; Schiffman M; Castle PE; Fetterman B; Poitras NE; Lorey T; Cheung LC; Raine-Bennett T; Gage JC; Kinney WK

2013-04-01

163

Abilities of APTIMA, AMPLICOR, and ProbeTec Assays To Detect Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae in PreservCyt ThinPrep Liquid-Based Pap Samples?  

Science.gov (United States)

Infections with Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae are often asymptomatic. Liquid-based Pap (L-Pap) screening may provide samples for testing by commercial assays. Women attending a health clinic or a street youth clinic had a PreservCyt ThinPrep sample and a cervical swab (CS) collected. The L-Pap sample was tested for cytopathology; then 1 ml was transferred to an L-Pap specimen transfer tube for testing by the Gen-Probe APTIMA assays (APTIMA Combo 2 [AC2], APTIMA C. trachomatis [ACT], and APTIMA N. gonorrhoeae [AGC]). The residual L-Pap sample was tested for C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae using Roche AMPLICOR (AMP) and Becton Dickinson ProbeTec (PT). The CS was tested by AC2. A patient was considered infected if two specimens were positive or if a single specimen was positive in two tests. The prevalence of infection was 10% (29/290) for C. trachomatis and 2.4% (7/290) for N. gonorrhoeae. Most of the positive patients had specimens that were reactive in all assays (20/29 for C. trachomatis; 6/7 for N. gonorrhoeae). Four patients had double infections. The sensitivities and specificities of the various tests for the specimens tested were as follows. For C. trachomatis on L-Pap, sensitivity and specificity were 100 and 98.1%, respectively, for ACT, 93.1 and 98.8% for AC2, 86.2 and 91.2% for AMP, and 72.4 and 92.7% for PT. For N. gonorrhoeae on L-Pap, sensitivity and specificity were 100% for both AGC and AC2, 85.7 and 100% for AMP, and 85.7 and 100% for PT. For AC2 with CSs, sensitivity and specificity were 93.1 and 98.5%, respectively, for C. trachomatis, and both were 100% for N. gonorrhoeae. There were significant differences in sensitivity and specificity (P < 0.001). The APTIMA assays were more sensitive and specific than AMP or PT for detecting women's C. trachomatis and/or N. gonorrhoeae infections by testing ThinPrep samples.

Chernesky, M.; Jang, D.; Portillo, E.; Chong, S.; Smieja, M.; Luinstra, K.; Petrich, A.; MacRitchie, C.; Ewert, R.; Hayhoe, B.; Sarabia, A.; Thompson, F.

2007-01-01

164

Abilities of APTIMA, AMPLICOR, and ProbeTec assays to detect Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae in PreservCyt ThinPrep Liquid-based Pap samples.  

Science.gov (United States)

Infections with Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae are often asymptomatic. Liquid-based Pap (L-Pap) screening may provide samples for testing by commercial assays. Women attending a health clinic or a street youth clinic had a PreservCyt ThinPrep sample and a cervical swab (CS) collected. The L-Pap sample was tested for cytopathology; then 1 ml was transferred to an L-Pap specimen transfer tube for testing by the Gen-Probe APTIMA assays (APTIMA Combo 2 [AC2], APTIMA C. trachomatis [ACT], and APTIMA N. gonorrhoeae [AGC]). The residual L-Pap sample was tested for C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae using Roche AMPLICOR (AMP) and Becton Dickinson ProbeTec (PT). The CS was tested by AC2. A patient was considered infected if two specimens were positive or if a single specimen was positive in two tests. The prevalence of infection was 10% (29/290) for C. trachomatis and 2.4% (7/290) for N. gonorrhoeae. Most of the positive patients had specimens that were reactive in all assays (20/29 for C. trachomatis; 6/7 for N. gonorrhoeae). Four patients had double infections. The sensitivities and specificities of the various tests for the specimens tested were as follows. For C. trachomatis on L-Pap, sensitivity and specificity were 100 and 98.1%, respectively, for ACT, 93.1 and 98.8% for AC2, 86.2 and 91.2% for AMP, and 72.4 and 92.7% for PT. For N. gonorrhoeae on L-Pap, sensitivity and specificity were 100% for both AGC and AC2, 85.7 and 100% for AMP, and 85.7 and 100% for PT. For AC2 with CSs, sensitivity and specificity were 93.1 and 98.5%, respectively, for C. trachomatis, and both were 100% for N. gonorrhoeae. There were significant differences in sensitivity and specificity (P < 0.001). The APTIMA assays were more sensitive and specific than AMP or PT for detecting women's C. trachomatis and/or N. gonorrhoeae infections by testing ThinPrep samples. PMID:17537943

Chernesky, M; Jang, D; Portillo, E; Chong, S; Smieja, M; Luinstra, K; Petrich, A; Macritchie, C; Ewert, R; Hayhoe, B; Sarabia, A; Thompson, F

2007-05-30

165

Five-year risks of CIN 2+ and CIN 3+ among women with HPV-positive and HPV-negative LSIL Pap results.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: Low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL) Pap results do not typically lead to human papillomavirus (HPV) testing. HPV triage is not cost-effective because most cases are HPV-positive. However, under new national guidelines recommending cotesting for women aged 30 to 64 years, clinicians will increasingly receive the HPV test result with LSIL Pap results. Some authors have suggested that HPV triage might be effective at older ages, when the percentage of HPV positivity among women with LSIL declines. METHODS: We estimated 5-year risks of CIN 2+ and CIN 3+ among 9,033 women aged 30 to 64 years who had both an HPV test and an LSIL Pap result. RESULTS: HPV positivity among women with LSIL decreased only slightly with age (30 to 34 vs 60 to 64 years, 88% vs 72%, p < .0001). The 5-year risks of CIN 2+ and CIN 3+ of women aged 30 to 64 years testing HPV-positive/LSIL were larger than those among women testing HPV-negative/LSIL (CIN 2+, 19% vs 5.1%, p < .0001; CIN 3+, 6.1% vs 2.0%, p<.0001). The 5-year risk of CIN 3+ in HPV-negative/LSIL women was similar to that for women with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US) Pap test result without knowledge of HPV test results (2.0% vs 2.6%, p = .4). CONCLUSIONS: HPV-negative/LSIL posed lower risk than other Pap results that guidelines currently recommend for referral to immediate colposcopy. By the principle of "equal management of equal risks," women with HPV-negative/LSIL might reasonably be managed similarly to those with ASC-US Pap results without knowledge of HPV testing, that is, retesting at 6 to 12 months, rather than immediate colposcopy. Although the HPV test result for LSIL Pap results provides actionable information to clinicians who screen with cotesting, the high HPV positivity of LSIL at even the oldest ages suggests the lack of cost-effectiveness of HPV triage of LSIL for clinicians who do not use routine cotesting.

Katki HA; Schiffman M; Castle PE; Fetterman B; Poitras NE; Lorey T; Cheung LC; Raine-Bennett T; Gage JC; Kinney WK

2013-04-01

166

Serum and urinary measurements of prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP) and prostatic specific antigen (PSA) in dogs Mensurações sérica e urinária de fosfatase ácida prostática e antígeno prostático específico em cães  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Serum and urinary prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP) and prostatic specific antigen (PSA) from 20 dogs were measured. PAP and PSA tests were carried out in authomatized equipment with commercial kits used for humans. Mean PAP serum value was 0.7U/l and urinary 0.1U/l. Mean serum and urinary PSA were 0.005ng/dl and 0.004ng/dl, respectively. In vivo determination of these two biomarkers in dogs is a new form of diagnosis in veterinary medicine and these values should be correlated with the morphological lesion of the prostate gland.Realizaram-se mensurações sérica e urinária de fosfatase ácida prostática (PAP) e antígeno prostático específico (PSA) de 20 cães. Os testes de PAP e PSA foram feitos em um equipamento automatizado, com o uso de kits comerciais para humanos. A média de PAP sérico foi de 0,7U/l e urinário 0,U/l. As médias do PSA sérico e urinário foram 0,005ng/dL e 0,004ng/dl, respectivamente. A determinação do dois biomarcadores in vivo é uma nova opção de diagnóstico na medicina veterinária e os valores obtidos devem ser correlacionados com a lesão morfológica da próstata.

R.L. Amorim; V.M.B.D. Moura; G.W. Di Santis; E.P. Bandarra; C. Padovani

2004-01-01

167

Identification of prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP) specific HLA-DR1-restricted T-cell epitopes.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP) is a prostate cancer tumor antigen and is an immunological target in several active immunotherapy clinical trials for the treatment of prostate cancer. We and others have demonstrated that PAP-specific T-cell responses can be elicited and augmented following antigen-specific immunization in both humans and animal models. We have previously reported that prostate cancer patients immunized with a DNA vaccine encoding PAP (pTVG-HP) developed both CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell responses. PAP-specific, CD4+ T-cell proliferative responses were generated in three out of four HLA-DRB1*0101 patients suggesting the possibility that DR1-restricted epitopes exist. METHODS: To identify PAP-specific HLA-DRB1*0101 restricted epitopes, we immunized HLA-A2.01/HLA-DRB1*0101 (A2/DR1) transgenic mice with the pTVG-HP DNA vaccine. To map DRB1*0101-restricted epitopes, splenocytes from immunized mice were screened against a library of overlapping 15-residue, PAP-derived peptides using an IFN? ELISPOT assay. RESULTS: We identified four HLA-DRB1*0101 epitopes for PAP in A2/DR1 mice (PAP(161-175) , PAP(181-195) , PAP(191-205) , and PAP (351-365) ). T cells specific for one epitope (PAP(181-195) ) were found to be augmented after immunization in a HLA-DRB1*0101+ prostate cancer patient. CONCLUSIONS: The identification of MHC class II epitopes may provide tools to directly monitor immune responses after vaccination and may be important for the design of future prostate cancer vaccines.

Johnson LE; McNeel DG

2012-05-01

168

Having a Pap smear, quality of life before and after cervical screening: a questionnaire study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To assess the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) impact of cervical cancer screening in women with normal test results. DESIGN: Questionnaire study. SETTING: Maastricht, the Netherlands. POPULATION: A cohort of 789 women were followed from screening invitation until after the receipt of screening results. A female age-matched reference group (n=567) was included. METHODS: Questionnaires were sent to the home address of the women before screening, after screening, and again with the screening results. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Generic HRQoL (SF-12, EQ-5D), generic anxiety (STAI-6), screen-specific anxiety (PCQ), and potential symptoms and feelings related to the smear-taking procedure. RESULTS: A total of 60% of screening participants completed questionnaire 1(n=924): 803 of these women granted permission to access their files; 789 of these 803 women had normal test results (Pap 1), and were included in the analyses. Generic HRQoL (SF-12, EQ-5D) and anxiety (STAI-6) scores were similar in the study and reference groups. Before screening, after screening, and also after the receipt of test results, screening participants reported less screen-specific anxiety (PCQ, P<0.001) than the reference group (n=567), with differences indicating clinical relevance. 19% of screening participants were bothered by feelings of shame, pain, inconvenience, or nervousness during smear taking, and 8 and 5% of women experienced lower abdominal pain, vaginal bleeding, discharge, or urinary problems for 2-3 and 4-7 days, respectively, following the Pap smear. Conclusion: The reduced levels of screen-specific anxiety in screening participants, possibly indicating reassurance, are worthwhile addressing in more depth. We conclude that although considerable numbers of women reported unpleasant effects, there were no adverse HRQoL consequences of cervical screening in women with normal test results.

Korfage IJ; van Ballegooijen M; Wauben B; Looman CW; Habbema JD; Essink-Bot ML

2012-07-01

169

Association of Oral Contraceptives and Abnormal Pap Smear  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available To assess the hypothesis that combined Oral Contraceptive (OCs) increase the risk of cervical neoplasia, we conducted a multicenter Case-Control study in Mashhad, the capital of Khorasan province. Seventy-eight women with moderate to severe dysplasia at Pap smear as case group and one hundred fifty nine women with normal Pap smear were selected as the control group for evaluation. The both case and control groups were matched by age, parity and socioeconomic status. All of the women in this study were single partner as husband and no smoker. 30 percent of cases and 64.8 percent of controls were used OCs. The duration of OCs use was the same in both. The odds ratio for OCs consumption was 0.2 with 95% confidence interval 0.11-0.4 in Logistic regression analysis. In contrast to some other studies, our findings showed an association between OCs and cervical dysplasia and there was a protective effect of OCs for cervical dysplasia.

Sayedmohsen Sayednozadi; Mohammadreza Hassany; Mohammad A. Ramezani

2005-01-01

170

DIAGNOSTIC VALUE OF COLPOSCOPY IN PATIENTS WITH ABNORMAL PAP SMEAR  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available   Introduction: In order to reduce invasive cervical cancer, it is necessary to follow presisly the patients with abnormal pap smear. Simply, repeating the cytologic assessment in patints with atypical pap smear will result in missing 26-83 percent of squamous intraepithelial lesions and most alarming 50 percent of invasive cancers. Considering the contraversy of different study reports about the diagnostic value of colposcopy in confirming the abnormal papsmear, this study was conducted to determine the sensitivity and specificity of colposcopy based on the results of biopsy in women referred to hospitals of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences (IUMS).Methods: In a prospective study, we selected randomly 210 women from 700 patints who reffered to the hospitals of IUMS. These women were examined and biopsied simultaneously. The data was collected by a structured interview according to the demographic characteristics and then was analyzed using EPI software. Results. From 210 subjects, only 125 were reported to have abnormal cervical cytologic. The sensitivity came out to be 97.29 percent and specificity was 43.20 percent.Discussion. In Iran, according to the sensitivity and specificity for colposcpic examination, it can be suggested that in final evaluation of abnormal papsmears, colposcopic assesment of the cervix can be considered as the next appropriate step.

T ALLAMEH

2001-01-01

171

The Pap smear revisited. Controversies and recent developments.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Despite the widespread acceptance of the Pap smear as an effective means to reduce morbidity and mortality due to cervical carcinoma, many experts now recommend less frequent screening for women with a negative cytologic history and factors carrying a low degree of risk. This view has been countered by those who feel that less frequent screening may result in a dangerous delay in diagnosis and treatment for some women. The trend toward a longer screening interval places a burden on the primary care physician, the pathologist, and cytotechnologists to minimize false-negative smears through optimum communication, technical preparation, and quality control. In addition to the changes in thinking regarding frequency of Pap smear screening, the concept of cervical carcinogenesis is undergoing striking modification. The human papillomavirus has been associated with many lesions that have classically been considered low-grade dysplasias. Termed flat condylomas, these lesions frequently regress spontaneously but may be associated with the full spectrum of preinvasive and invasive disease. Cervical condylomas require biopsy and appropriate treatment.

Zuna RE

1984-11-01

172

The relation between peak response magnitudes and agreement in diagnoses obtained from two different phallometric tests for pedophilia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Phallometric testing is widely considered the best psychophysiological procedure for assessing erotic preferences in men. Researchers have differed, however, on the necessity of setting some minimum criterion of penile response for ascertaining the interpretability of a phallometric test result. Proponents of a minimum criterion have generally based their view on the intuitive notion that "more is better" rather than any formal demonstration of this. The present study was conducted to investigate whether there is any empirical evidence for this intuitive notion, by examining the relation between magnitude of penile response and the agreement in diagnoses obtained in two test sessions using different laboratory stimuli. The results showed that examinees with inconsistent diagnoses responded less on both tests and that examinees with inconsistent diagnoses responded less on the second test after controlling for their response on the first test. Results also indicated that at response levels less than 1 cm(3), diagnostic consistency was no better than chance, supporting the establishment of a minimum response level criterion.

Lykins AD; Cantor JM; Kuban ME; Blak T; Dickey R; Klassen PE; Blanchard R

2010-03-01

173

Effect of Cervical Wiping with Sterile Cotton on the Quality of Pap-smear  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: There are conflicting reports about the effect of wiping cervix with cotton on Pap-smear results. Therefore, we aimed to do a research about this subject. Materials and Methods: 234 eligible women attended to have Pap-smear at an educational hospital in Rasht, Iran, from July to September 2011, were allocated by block randomization into two groups. In the intervention group, we cleaned cervix with a sterile cotton rotating 360 degrees and obtained samples using spatula for exocervix and cytobrush for endocervix. This method was performed without cleaning the cervix on the control group. Data collection, vulvovaginal examination, laboratory assay were done by investigators masked to the group allocation. Participants were also blind. The data were analyzed using logistic regression in SPSS-13.Results: Rate of sufficient endocervical cell of the slides in the intervention group was significantly higher than in the control group (70.3% vs. 57.8%, p=0.03). In the intervention group 42.4% of the slides were satisfactory and 57.6% had limited quality for interpretation. These figures in the control group were 37.1% and 62.9%, respectively. This difference was not statistically significant. Also, there was no significant difference between the groups on rate of slides with inadequacy of squamous cells and obscuring 75% or more of the slides with inflammatory exudate or blood (p>0.05).Conclusion: There were no significant differences between the groups on some quality indicators of the smears. However, frequency of smears with sufficient endocervical cells was higher in the group with cervical wipping. Therefore, it is recommended to clean cervix before obtaining the smears.

Mahin Kamalifard; Sakineh Mohammad-Alizadeh-Charandabi; Sedighe Rezaie-Chamani; S. Alireza Mesbah

2013-01-01

174

Genomic and proteomic analyses of the terminally redundant genome of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa phage PaP1: establishment of genus PaP1-like phages.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We isolated and characterized a new Pseudomonas aeruginosa myovirus named PaP1. The morphology of this phage was visualized by electron microscopy and its genome sequence and ends were determined. Finally, genomic and proteomic analyses were performed. PaP1 has an icosahedral head with an apex diameter of 68-70 nm and a contractile tail with a length of 138-140 nm. The PaP1 genome is a linear dsDNA molecule containing 91,715 base pairs (bp) with a G+C content of 49.36% and 12 tRNA genes. A strategy to identify the genome ends of PaP1 was designed. The genome has a 1190 bp terminal redundancy. PaP1 has 157 open reading frames (ORFs). Of these, 143 proteins are homologs of known proteins, but only 38 could be functionally identified. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry allowed identification of 12 ORFs as structural protein coding genes within the PaP1 genome. Comparative genomic analysis indicated that the Pseudomonas aeruginosa phage PaP1, JG004, PAK_P1 and vB_PaeM_C2-10_Ab1 share great similarity. Besides their similar biological characteristics, the phages contain 123 core genes and have very close phylogenetic relationships, which distinguish them from other known phage genera. We therefore propose that these four phages be classified as PaP1-like phages, a new phage genus of Myoviridae that infects Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

Lu S; Le S; Tan Y; Zhu J; Li M; Rao X; Zou L; Li S; Wang J; Jin X; Huang G; Zhang L; Zhao X; Hu F

2013-01-01

175

PapR peptide maturation: role of the NprB protease in Bacillus cereus 569 PlcR/PapR global gene regulation.  

Science.gov (United States)

The global transcriptional regulator PlcR controls gene expression in Bacillus cereus and Bacillus thuringiensis. Activity of PlcR is regulated by PapR, the product of an ORF located immediately downstream of plcR. To be active in B. cereus, PapR must be secreted and then processed to the mature peptide by an unknown protease. This peptide is transported by an oligopeptide permease into the cell, where it activates PlcR. In this study, we show that the neutral protease B (NprB) secreted by B. cereus 569 is required for extracellular PapR maturation. Purified recombinant NprB processed the synthetic PapR propeptide to produce a set of peptides derived from the C-terminal domain of PapR. Supplementation of growth media with synthetic PapR-derived C-terminal 5-, 7-, 8- and 27-amino acid (aa) peptides caused activation of intracellular PlcR in a PapR-deficient strain of B. cereus 569 while only the 5- and 7-aa peptides activated PlcR in a nprB mutant. The maximum activity was found for the 7-mer peptide. However, even the 7-mer peptide could not activate PlcR with a C-terminal truncation of as few as 6 aa. This indicates that interactions of the C-terminal regions of both PlcR and PapR are important in transcriptional activation of the B. cereus 569 PlcR regulon. PMID:19159431

Pomerantsev, Andrei P; Pomerantseva, Olga M; Camp, Andrew S; Mukkamala, Radhika; Goldman, Stanley; Leppla, Stephen H

2009-01-12

176

PapR peptide maturation: role of the NprB protease in Bacillus cereus 569 PlcR/PapR global gene regulation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The global transcriptional regulator PlcR controls gene expression in Bacillus cereus and Bacillus thuringiensis. Activity of PlcR is regulated by PapR, the product of an ORF located immediately downstream of plcR. To be active in B. cereus, PapR must be secreted and then processed to the mature peptide by an unknown protease. This peptide is transported by an oligopeptide permease into the cell, where it activates PlcR. In this study, we show that the neutral protease B (NprB) secreted by B. cereus 569 is required for extracellular PapR maturation. Purified recombinant NprB processed the synthetic PapR propeptide to produce a set of peptides derived from the C-terminal domain of PapR. Supplementation of growth media with synthetic PapR-derived C-terminal 5-, 7-, 8- and 27-amino acid (aa) peptides caused activation of intracellular PlcR in a PapR-deficient strain of B. cereus 569 while only the 5- and 7-aa peptides activated PlcR in a nprB mutant. The maximum activity was found for the 7-mer peptide. However, even the 7-mer peptide could not activate PlcR with a C-terminal truncation of as few as 6 aa. This indicates that interactions of the C-terminal regions of both PlcR and PapR are important in transcriptional activation of the B. cereus 569 PlcR regulon.

Pomerantsev AP; Pomerantseva OM; Camp AS; Mukkamala R; Goldman S; Leppla SH

2009-04-01

177

Factors associated with Pap smear taking in general practice: focusing public health initiatives.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study ascertained the relationships of patient, practitioner and consultation factors with: 1. taking a Pap smear or referral to a specialist in the consultation; and 2. an unsuccessful offer to take a Pap smear or making an appointment for a smear. In a cross-sectional study of 3478 women presenting to 230 randomly selected general practitioners in Brisbane and Toowoomba, information about most recent Pap smear, screening in the consultation, and independent variables were collected from patients and doctors. Relationships between three levels of outcome variable (no action, Pap smear taken or referral, appointment or refusal), and independent variables (practitioner variables, consultation variables, patient variables) were modelled using polytomous logistic regression. Presenting for a routine checkup and breast cancer screening were associated with all types of action. Younger age, longer consultations and consultations with a female practitioner were associated with Pap smear taking and referrals, and not appointments or refusals. Being due for a Pap smear, having blood pressure measured, consulting a younger general practitioner and one who ascribed to current guidelines on screening were associated with an appointment or a refusal, when compared with no action. Results identify different profiles of those who get a Pap smear and those who do not, the former indicating a more proactive patient group, while the latter suggest more active general practitioners who attempted opportunistic screening of passive patients, or women who do not specifically seek Pap smears. We have identified factors that have significance for developing public health programs focused on consumers and providers.

Heywood A; Firman D; Ring I

1996-06-01

178

Dissolution of cellulose in ionic liquids as a way to obtain test materials for metal-ion detection  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Cellulose films containing entrapped analytical reagents suitable for metal-ion detection are produced by joint dissolution of cellulose and the reagents in ionic liquids then precipitation with water. The conditions of preparation of these test materials have been optimized and their properties have been studied. The film obtained by use of the ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride and 1-(2-pyridylazo)-2-naphthol has been used for colorimetric determination of divalent zinc, manganese, and nickel with detection limits at the 10{sup -6} mol L{sup -1} level. (orig.)

Egorov, Vladimir M.; Smirnova, Svetlana V.; Formanovsky, Andrey A.; Pletnev, Igor V.; Zolotov, Yury A. [Lomonosov Moscow State University, Department of Chemistry, Moscow (Russian Federation)

2007-03-15

179

Dissolution of cellulose in ionic liquids as a way to obtain test materials for metal-ion detection.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cellulose films containing entrapped analytical reagents suitable for metal-ion detection are produced by joint dissolution of cellulose and the reagents in ionic liquids then precipitation with water. The conditions of preparation of these test materials have been optimized and their properties have been studied. The film obtained by use of the ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride and 1-(2-pyridylazo)-2-naphthol has been used for colorimetric determination of divalent zinc, manganese, and nickel with detection limits at the 10(-6) mol L-1 level. PMID:17242885

Egorov, Vladimir M; Smirnova, Svetlana V; Formanovsky, Andrey A; Pletnev, Igor V; Zolotov, Yury A

2007-01-23

180

Bone scintigraphy, plasma ALP, TAP and PAP in patients with prostatic cancer  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study assessed the ability of bone scintigraphy, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), total acid phosphatase (TAP), and prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP) to diagnose bone metastasis in a series of 62 patients with histologically proven prostatic cancer. Abnormal uptake was seen on the bone scan in 49 patients (79 %). A final diagnosis of bone metastasis was made in 40 patients (65 %). The sensitivity and specificity were 100 % and 59 %, respectively, for bone scintigraphy; 50 % and 96 % for ALP; 65 % and 82 % for TAP; and 73 % and 77 % for PAP. For 40 patients with bone metastasis, all of the ALP, TAP, and PAP were positive in 17 patients (43 %) and negative in 8 patients (20 %). Higher levels of ALP, TAP, and PAP tended to be associated with more extensive bone metastasis. Although serological examination showed lower sensitivity than bone scintigraphy in the diagnosis of bone metastasis, PAP may be most frequently used as a screening procedure of bone metastasis. (Namekawa, K.).

Imamura, Akihiko; Hoshi, Hiroaki; Jinnouchi, Seishi; Samejima, Masahiko; Watanabe, Katsushi

1988-02-01

 
 
 
 
181

Molecular cloning, genomic organization, and chromosomal localization of the human pancreatitis-associated protein (PAP) gene  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Pancreatitis-associated protein (PAP) is a secretory pancreatic protein present in small amounts in normal pancreas and overexpressed during the acute phase of pancreatitis. In this paper, the authors describe the cloning, characterization, and chromosomal mapping of the human PAP gene. The gene spans 2748 bp and contains six exons interrupted by five introns. The gene has a typical promoter containing the sequences TATAAA and CCAAT 28 and 52 bp upstream of the cap site, respectively. They found striking similarities in genomic organization as well as in the promoter sequences between the human and rat PAP genes. The human PAP gene was mapped to chromosome 2p12 using rodent-human hybrid cells and in situ chromosomal hybridization. This localization coincides with that of the reg/lithostathine gene, which encodes a pancreatic secretory protein structurally related to PAP, suggesting that both genes derived from the same ancestral gene by duplication. 35 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

Dusetti, N.J.; Frigerio, J.M.; Dagorn, J.C.; Iovanna, J.L. (U.315 Inserm, Marseille (France)); Fox, M.F.; Swallow, D.M. (Galton Lab., London (United Kingdom))

1994-01-01

182

[Cervical cancer screening by Pap smear: experience of the National Research Center in Reproductive Health. ONFP].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We have analysed the result of 17,173 pap smears screened in the national research center in reproductive health of Ariana from 1 may 1993 to 30 april 1997. Among these pap smears, 613 colposcopy and 380 biopsy have been performed. The results show that: 1.9% of pap smears present cytological anomalies with 0.79% of low Squamous Intraepithelial lesions and 0.66% high Squamous Intraepithelial lesions. The incidence of CIN III is 1.8% and 0.9% for invasive cancer. The age interval 35-44 years is at high risk of CIN III and invasive cancer of the cervix. evaluation of our diagnostic approach shows that: positive predictive value of pap smears with low SLI is 43.2% positive predictive value of pap smears with high SLI is 37.3%.

Ben Aissa R; Bennour R; Ben Hamida A; Kammoun N; Mansour H; Mhamdi A; Landoulsi S; Cherif N; Gueddana N

2002-04-01

183

Bone scintigraphy, plasma ALP, TAP and PAP in patients with prostatic cancer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study assessed the ability of bone scintigraphy, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), total acid phosphatase (TAP), and prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP) to diagnose bone metastasis in a series of 62 patients with histologically proven prostatic cancer. Abnormal uptake was seen on the bone scan in 49 patients (79 %). A final diagnosis of bone metastasis was made in 40 patients (65 %). The sensitivity and specificity were 100 % and 59 %, respectively, for bone scintigraphy; 50 % and 96 % for ALP; 65 % and 82 % for TAP; and 73 % and 77 % for PAP. For 40 patients with bone metastasis, all of the ALP, TAP, and PAP were positive in 17 patients (43 %) and negative in 8 patients (20 %). Higher levels of ALP, TAP, and PAP tended to be associated with more extensive bone metastasis. Although serological examination showed lower sensitivity than bone scintigraphy in the diagnosis of bone metastasis, PAP may be most frequently used as a screening procedure of bone metastasis. (Namekawa, K.)

1988-01-01

184

HY5 regulates anthocyanin biosynthesis by inducing the transcriptional activation of the MYB75/PAP1 transcription factor in Arabidopsis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Several positive transcription factors regulate Arabidopsis anthocyanin biosynthesis. HY5, a component of light-signaling pathways, and PAP1, an R2R3-MYB transcription factor, share common regulatory targets on anthocyanin biosynthesis genes. The epistatic interactions between the two transcription factors are currently unknown. To address this problem, we analyzed crosses between hy5 and pap1 mutants (hy5pap1) or pap1D overexpressors (hy5pap1D), performed chromatin immunoprecipitation-qPCR, and determined the PAP1 promoter region through deletion analysis. The results show that HY5 regulates PAP1 expression via direct binding to G- and ACE-boxes in the promoter region, which suggests bifurcate regulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis by HY5 via transcriptional activation of PAP1.

Shin DH; Choi M; Kim K; Bang G; Cho M; Choi SB; Choi G; Park YI

2013-05-01

185

Selective indication for positive airway pressure (PAP) in sleep-related breathing disorders with obstruction Differenzierte Anwendung von positivem Atemwegsdruck (positive airway pressure, PAP) bei schlafbezogenen Atmungsstörungen mit Obstruktion der oberen Atemwege  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Positive airway pressure (PAP) is the therapy of choice for most sleep-related breathing disorders (SRBD). A variety of PAP devices using positive airway pressure (CPAP, BiPAP, APAP, ASV) must be carefully considered before application. This overview aims to provide criteria for choosing the optimal...

Stasche, N

186

Focused rescreening of NILM Pap slides from women ? 30 years of age with positive high risk HPV DNA: an enhanced quality control measure.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

CLIA 88 regulations specify that at least 10% of negative for intraepithelial lesion or malignancy (NILM) Paps be rescreened as a means of quality control (QC). With the incorporation of HPV DNA testing into American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology guidelines for women ? 30 years of age, a population of NILM patients with positive HPV results exists. Slides from this cohort were rescreened to judge the value of focused QC. Three hundred and eighty-six consecutive, NILM, HCII+, Paps (SurePath and ThinPrep, September 2009 to December 2009) from women aged ? 30 were retrieved from the CellNetix files. These slides were rescreened by cytotechnologists. Slides rescreened as atypical squamous cells (ASC) or higher by cytotechnologists were viewed by cytopathologists (CDS/RJT) who assigned a final interpretation. Of the 386 rescreened cases, 50 (12.9%) were placed in categories of ASC or higher, and 11 (2.9%) were interpreted as LSIL or above. By comparison, routine QC (including random, FocalPoint enriched, and historically high risk cases) was performed on a total of 20,580 Paps (21% of 99,501 annual cases). Concomitant routine QC revealed that 2.1% (427/20,580) were upgraded to ASC or higher and 0.3% (52/20,580) were upgraded to LSIL or higher. Focused rescreening of NILM cases with positive HPV DNA resulted in the detection of approximately ten times more SIL cases than did routine QC Pap slide review at CellNetix. Focused rescreening of this patient set may enhance QC in cytopathology laboratories performing liquid-based Paps. An inherent potential bias in study design is recognized, as results of DNA testing were by definition known at the time of rescreen.

Sturgis CD; Schaaf MR; Tickman RJ

2013-05-01

187

Web based Farmers Bulletin for agricultural development using PAP Approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the present era entire world is focusing on agricultural development because of increased population and decreased agricultural production. Reason for decrease in production of agricultural products differs from place to place. The main aim here is to support the farmers in their decision making on which mechanism to choose best for a better productivity at their arms reach. The proposed system focused to increase the profit of the farmer by increasing the efficiency of agricultural input and reducing the cost and risk of production. This can be achieved by providing timely advice to the farmer like, dynamic weather forecasting and use of knowledge engineering to extract best suitable Agricultural information from various source. The PAP (Preprocess Associate and Predict) architecture is used for performing knowledge extraction and prediction process. This technique can handle all type of information.

N.Manikandan; M.Sakthiganesh; P.J.Kumar; M.SenthilKumar

2012-01-01

188

Cervical pap screening cytological abnormalities among HIV-infected adolescents in the LEGACY cohort.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence of cervical Pap screening (CPAP-S), identify factors associated with CPAP-S, and explore risk factors for abnormal cervical cytology in female adolescents with perinatally and behaviorally acquired HIV infection. DESIGN: Cross-sectional. SETTING: LEGACY is a national observational cohort chart review study of 1478 HIV-infected persons (tests were abnormal (2% high-grade). In multivariable analysis, perinatal HIV infection and black race were associated with decreased likelihood of CPAP-S (adjusted prevalence ratio [APR] 0.66, 95% CI 0.45-0.96 and APR 0.74, 95% CI 0.56-0.96, respectively). Presence of any sexually transmitted infection (STI) was independently associated with increased likelihood of CPAP-S (APR 1.56, 95% CI 1.21, 2.02). CD4+ T-lymphocyte count <200 cells/mL and previous STI diagnosis were independently associated with increased likelihood of abnormal cervical cytology (APR 2.19, 95% CI 1.26-3.78 and APR 1.94, 95% CI 1.29-2.92, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Among sexually active HIV-infected adolescent females, prevalence of CPAP-S was low and cytology was abnormal in more than half of Pap smears. Perinatally HIV-infected, sexually active females were less likely to undergo CPAP-S than their behaviorally HIV-infected counterparts. Interventions targeted at HIV-infected adolescents and care providers are needed to improve CPAP-S in HIV-infected young women, especially those with perinatally acquired HIV infection.

Setse R; Siberry GK; Moss WJ; Gravitt P; Wheeling T; Bohannon B; Dominguez K

2012-02-01

189

Tests with Inconel 600 to obtain quantitative stress-corrosion cracking data for evaluating service performance. [PWR  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Inconel 600 tubes in pressurized water reactor (PWR) steam generators form a pressure boundary between radioactive primary water and secondary water which is converted to steam and used for generating electricity. Under operating conditions the performance of alloy 600 has been good, but with some occasional small leaks resulting from stress corrosion cracking (SCC), related to the presence of unusually high residual or operating stresses. The suspected high stresses can result from either the deformation of tubes during manufacture, or distortion during abnormal conditions such as denting. The present experimental program addresses two specific conditions, i.e., (1) where deformation occurs but is no longer active, such as when denting is stopped and (2) where plastic deformation of the metal continues, as would occur during denting. Laboratory media consist of pure water as well as solutions to simulate environments that would apply in service; tubing from actual production is used in carrying out these tests. The environments include both normal and off chemistries for primary and secondary water. The results reported here were obtained in several different tests. The main ones are (1) split tube reverse U-bends, (2) constant extension rate tests (CERT), and (3) constant load. The temperature range covered is 290 to 365/sup 0/C.

Bandy, R.; van Rooyen, D.

1982-09-01

190

[EzPAP® therapy of postoperative hypoxemia in the recovery room : experiences with the new compact system of end-expiratory positive airway pressure].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Postoperative hypoxemia is a common complication in the anesthesia recovery room (ARR), which is predominantly based on the development of atelectasis, excessive intraoperative fluid shift and insufficient ventilation. The goal of this prospective observational study was to compare the effect of standard oxygen administration via a face mask with oxygen administration using the EzPAP® system, a device which additionally provides a positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP). METHODS: This study included 210 patients with postoperative hypoxemia (S(p)O(2)?< 93%) subdivided into the control group (105 patients) and the EzPAP group (105 patients). Postoperative residual paralysis was excluded using relaxometry and a train of four (TOF) ratio of 0.9 was assumed to ensure sufficient recovery of respiratory function from neuromuscular blockade. Patients who received a reversal of neuromuscular blockade were excluded. In cases of hypoxemia (S(p)O(2)?< 93%) control patients were treated with oxygen (6 l/min) using a face mask, whereas the EzPAP group received oxygen using the EzPAP® system. In order to adjust the PEEP in the EzPAP group, the O(2) flow was verified and measured by a manometer. After 1 h of oxygen therapy, the oxygen supply was stopped. In cases of reoccurring hypoxemia (S(p)O(2)?< 93%, persistence > 5 min), the oxygen therapy was restarted in both groups via a facemask. Both groups were compared using repeat measurement analysis of variance (ANOVA), the unpaired t-test, the Mann-Whitney U-test, Fisher's exact test and the ?(2)-test. The correlation of O(2) flow and PEEP was evaluated by regression analysis and p < 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. Apart from this a subgroup analysis was performed depending on body-mass index (BMI), American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) classification, intraoperative airway management, the use of neuromuscular blocking agents and co-existing disorders, e.g. chronic obstructive lung disease (COLD), obesity and chronic heart failure. RESULTS: All patients were equally distributed between both groups with respect to demographic data, ASA classification, BMI, co-existing disorders and surgical procedures. The S(p)O(2) values did not differ between the EzPAP patients and the control group, except for 0.5 min after initiation of oxygen therapy: EzPAP group 96 ± 3.7% (mean ± standard deviation) versus the control group 93.8 ± 4.4% (p < 0.001). However, restarting oxygen therapy was less common in the EzPAP group (EzPAP group 25 versus control group 41, p = 0.03), as well as the occurrence of postoperative complications (EzPAP group 13 versus control group 25, p = 0.02), e.g. nosocomial pneumonia (0 versus 4) and wound infections (2 versus 3). Furthermore, patients with obesity and pulmonary disorders, such as COLD had a benefit from oxygen administration using the EzPAP device and showed higher postoperative than preoperative S(p)O(2) values. In contrast, the subgroup analysis of patients with heart failure did not reveal any differences between both groups and both groups did not differ in terms of time spent in the recovery room (EzPAP group 113 min versus control group 174.8 min, p = 0.2). CONCLUSIONS: In this observational study oxygen supply using the EzPAP® system appeared to be at least equally as effective in the therapy of postoperative hypoxemia compared to standard oxygen supply using a face mask. In patients with a high risk of postoperative hypoxemia, such as patients with obesity and/or pulmonary disorders, oxygen administration using the EzPAP® system possibly improves pulmonary oxygenation more effectively and is longer lasting compared to standard oxygen supply via a face mask. Hence, the EzPAP® system represents a well-tolerated, effective, cost-effective and easily operated tool to improve postoperative oxygenation. In order to investigate the possibilities of this promising tool more intensively, randomized clinical trials are warranted.

Rieg AD; Stoppe C; Rossaint R; Coburn M; Hein M; Schälte G

2012-10-01

191

Influence of Hormonal Contraceptive Use and Health Beliefs on Sexual Orientation Disparities in Papanicolaou Test Use.  

Science.gov (United States)

Objectives. Reproductive health screenings are a necessary part of quality health care. However, sexual minorities underutilize Papanicolaou (Pap) tests more than heterosexuals do, and the reasons are not known. Our objective was to examine if less hormonal contraceptive use or less positive health beliefs about Pap tests explain sexual orientation disparities in Pap test intention and utilization. Methods. We used multivariable regression with prospective data gathered from 3821 females aged 18 to 25 years in the Growing Up Today Study (GUTS). Results. Among lesbians, less hormonal contraceptive use explained 8.6% of the disparities in Pap test intention and 36.1% of the disparities in Pap test utilization. Less positive health beliefs associated with Pap testing explained 19.1% of the disparities in Pap test intention. Together, less hormonal contraceptive use and less positive health beliefs explained 29.3% of the disparities in Pap test intention and 42.2% of the disparities in Pap test utilization. Conclusions. Hormonal contraceptive use and health beliefs, to a lesser extent, help to explain sexual orientation disparities in intention and receipt of a Pap test, especially among lesbians. (Am J Public Health. Published online ahead of print June 13, 2013: e1-e7. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2012.301114). PMID:23763393

Charlton, Brittany M; Corliss, Heather L; Missmer, Stacey A; Frazier, A Lindsay; Rosario, Margaret; Kahn, Jessica A; Austin, S Bryn

2013-06-13

192

Influence of Hormonal Contraceptive Use and Health Beliefs on Sexual Orientation Disparities in Papanicolaou Test Use.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Objectives. Reproductive health screenings are a necessary part of quality health care. However, sexual minorities underutilize Papanicolaou (Pap) tests more than heterosexuals do, and the reasons are not known. Our objective was to examine if less hormonal contraceptive use or less positive health beliefs about Pap tests explain sexual orientation disparities in Pap test intention and utilization. Methods. We used multivariable regression with prospective data gathered from 3821 females aged 18 to 25 years in the Growing Up Today Study (GUTS). Results. Among lesbians, less hormonal contraceptive use explained 8.6% of the disparities in Pap test intention and 36.1% of the disparities in Pap test utilization. Less positive health beliefs associated with Pap testing explained 19.1% of the disparities in Pap test intention. Together, less hormonal contraceptive use and less positive health beliefs explained 29.3% of the disparities in Pap test intention and 42.2% of the disparities in Pap test utilization. Conclusions. Hormonal contraceptive use and health beliefs, to a lesser extent, help to explain sexual orientation disparities in intention and receipt of a Pap test, especially among lesbians. (Am J Public Health. Published online ahead of print June 13, 2013: e1-e7. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2012.301114).

Charlton BM; Corliss HL; Missmer SA; Frazier AL; Rosario M; Kahn JA; Austin SB

2013-06-01

193

Total sleep time obtained from actigraphy versus sleep logs in an academic sleep center and impact on further sleep testing  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available R Robert Auger,1,2 Ranji Varghese,1 Michael H Silber,1,3 Nancy L Slocumb1 1Center for Sleep Medicine, 2Department of Psychiatry and Psychology, 3Department of Neurology, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Rochester, MN, USA Background: While actigraphy has been deemed ideal for the longitudinal assessment of total sleep time (TST) by select groups, endorsement has not been universal and reimbursement is lacking, preventing its widespread use in clinical practice. This study compares longitudinal TST data obtained by actigraphy and logs preceding a clinical evaluation, and secondarily ascertains whether longitudinal TST impacts clinicians' decisions to proceed with further sleep testing. Methods: This was a retrospective, consecutive chart review spanning about 4 months in an academic sleep center. Eighty-four patients wore actigraphs in anticipation of clinical evaluations. Concomitant completion of sleep logs is routinely requested in this setting. Longitudinal TST data available in complete form was reviewed in a blinded fashion among a subset of these patients. A review of text from clinical notes of an expanded cohort with complete actigraphy data (regardless of the degree of completion of logs) enabled determination of the frequency and rationale for cancellation of prescheduled sleep testing. Results: Of 84 actigraphy recordings, 90% produced complete data, and 30% produced fully completed logs. Among the subset with both available in complete form, significant mean TST differences were observed on weekends (7.06 ± 2.18 hours versus 8.30 ± 1.93 hours, P = 0.009), but not on weekdays (7.38 ± 1.97 hours versus 7.72 ± 1.62 hours, P = 0.450) for actigraphy and logs, respectively. Further analyses revealed poor agreement between the two measures, with predominantly increased TST estimation with logs. Among those with complete actigraphy data (±logs), testing was cancelled in 11 (15%), eight of whom (73%) presented with hypersomnia and three of whom (27%) presented with insomnia. Determination of insufficient sleep time was cited as the primary reason for cancellation (64%). Conclusion: Actigraphy and sleep logs provided discrepant mean TST data on weekends only, and the latter predominantly estimated increased TST. Actigraphy was completed more reliably than logs. Longitudinal TST information influenced clinicians' decisions to proceed with further testing, particularly among patients presenting with hypersomnia. Keywords: sleep diaries, polysomnography, multiple sleep latency testing

Auger RR; Varghese R; Silber MH; Slocumb NL

2013-01-01

194

Prevalence of pediatric periodic leg movements of sleep after initiation of PAP therapy.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

INTRODUCTION: Positive-airway-pressure (PAP) is a treatment for obstructive-sleep-apnea (OSA). In adults, initiation of PAP-therapy may unmask periodic-limb movements-of-sleep (PLMS). We present a series of children in whom PLMS was aggravated or induced following initiation of PAP therapy. METHODS: Retrospective analysis was performed on children who had PAP-studies performed over a 3-year period. Children with OSA without significant PLMS on baseline studies and who then showed a periodic-limb-movement-index (PLMI) (>5/hr) during titration with PAP-therapy were identified. Charts were reviewed for demographics, OSA severity based on apnea hypopnea index (AHI), PLMI, PLM-arousal-index (PLMAI) and pressures titrated. RESULTS: Two hundred fourteen PAP-titration studies (151 on continuous positive airway pressure [CPAP] and 63 on bilevel positive airway pressure [BiPAP]) were done. Eleven (10 on CPAP, 1 on BiPAP) met study criteria. Eight patients were boys. The median age was 12 years (range 6 months-18 years). On baseline studies, median AHI was 5/hr (range 1.5-32/hr), median PLMI was 1/hr (range 0-4/hr) and median PLMAI 0.3/Hr (range 0-2/hr). On titration studies, pressures ranged from 4 to 14?cm of water, median AHI was 0.5/hr (range 0-1), median PLMI was 12/hr (range 5-55/hr) and median PLMAI 9/hr (range 0-25). PLMS were seen predominantly during N1, N2 sleep and on PAP of >7?cm of water. One patient had resolution of PLMS at 1-year follow-up. CONCLUSION: PLMS were seen in 5.1% of children after initiation of PAP. OSA may mask PLMS, which appears as breathing improves. Alternatively, PAP may unmask or induce PLMS. PLMS may potentially be a cause of treatment failure in children on recent-onset PAP therapy. Pediatr Pulmonol. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Pai V; Khatwa U; Ramgopal S; Singh K; Fitzgerald R; Kothare SV

2013-07-01

195

Making the Pap smear into the "right tool" for the job.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Despite being a rather recalcitrant tool, the "Pap smear" is today the major cancer screening technology in the world. This paper examines how and why hetrogeneous actors chose to advocate the Pap smear as a screen for cervical cancer in the late 1940's, and to tinker both in and far beyond the diagnostic laboratory for over 50 years to make the Pap smear "fit" as a screening and clinical technology. Tinkerings included gendering the division of labour, attempting to automate reading of smears, juggling costs, exploring alternative screening technologies, pushing for regulation of laboratories, and settling for locally-negotiated orders of clinical accuracy instead of global standardization, still elusive today.

Casper MJ; Clarke AE

1998-04-01

196

["Where there's a woman, there's a Pap smear": the meanings assigned to cervical cancer prevention among women in Salvador, Bahia State, Brazil].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study focuses on the meanings assigned to practices for cervical cancer prevention among women from low-income neighborhoods in Salvador, Bahia State, Brazil. This was a qualitative study based on content analysis of semi-structured interviews with 15 women 24 to 68 years of age. The results showed high appreciation of the Pap smear test, performed as part of routine gynecological examination (but without the patient necessarily having biomedical knowledge of its role). Besides accessibility and quality of health services, other factors influence the way the women assign meaning to cervical cancer prevention. Moral values associated with sexuality and gender influence risk perception, adoption of preventive practices, and interpretation of cervical cytology results. The ongoing practice of the Pap smear test is part of the construction of femininity, which is associated with maturity and personal responsibility for self care in a context of medicalization of the female body.

Rico AM; Iriart JA

2013-09-01

197

["Where there's a woman, there's a Pap smear": the meanings assigned to cervical cancer prevention among women in Salvador, Bahia State, Brazil].  

Science.gov (United States)

This study focuses on the meanings assigned to practices for cervical cancer prevention among women from low-income neighborhoods in Salvador, Bahia State, Brazil. This was a qualitative study based on content analysis of semi-structured interviews with 15 women 24 to 68 years of age. The results showed high appreciation of the Pap smear test, performed as part of routine gynecological examination (but without the patient necessarily having biomedical knowledge of its role). Besides accessibility and quality of health services, other factors influence the way the women assign meaning to cervical cancer prevention. Moral values associated with sexuality and gender influence risk perception, adoption of preventive practices, and interpretation of cervical cytology results. The ongoing practice of the Pap smear test is part of the construction of femininity, which is associated with maturity and personal responsibility for self care in a context of medicalization of the female body. PMID:24068222

Rico, Ana María; Iriart, Jorge Alberto Bernstein

2013-09-01

198

Analysis of data obtained in combined tests of an electromagnetic liquid argon calorimeter with a hadronic scintillating tile calorimeter  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The future ATLAS experiment at LHC-CERN will include in the central region a calorimeter system composed of two separate units, the Liquid Argon (LAr) electromagnetic calorimeter with hermetic accordion geometry and a scintillating tile hadronic calorimeter, using iron as absorber, in which the tile are placed perpendicular to the colliding beams. This system must be able to identify electrons, photons and jets and to reconstruct their energies and angles as well as to measure the missing transverse energy in the events. Three algorithm, employed to reconstruct the hadron energy, are described. A special interest was devoted to the study of energy deposition in various depth samples of the test calorimeter stack to obtain the longitudinal and transverse shower shapes. The longitudinal profiles in the electromagnetic and hadronic calorimeters for pions with different energies were compared with the Monte Carlo predictions. The GEANT simulations reproduces reasonably well the shape of the data in hadronic compartment, while a difference is observed in the electromagnetic part. We intend to study in more details the problems connected with the energy leakage which cause a degradation of the energy resolution as well as tails in the energy distributions

1997-01-01

199

Reliability of unaided naked-eye examination as a screening test for cervical lesions in a developing country setup.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to test the reliability of unaided naked-eye examination (UNEE) of the cervix as a sole cervical cancer screening test in a developing country setup compared with the standard cervical cytology. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 3,500 nonpregnant women aged between 25 and 55 years were included. An unlubricated bivalve speculum was inserted into the vagina under good light to visualize the cervix. A thorough UNEE of the cervix was done to detect any apparent lesions. Cervical smears were obtained using the long tip of an Ayre spatula. An additional endocervical sample was obtained by cytobrush. Women with abnormal Pap smears or visible cervical lesions by UNEE were scheduled for colposcopic examination. A biopsy specimen was obtained in every abnormal colposcopic examination. RESULTS: Of 3,500 cases, there were 9 (2.57%) preinvasive cervical lesions (cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 1-3) diagnosed with various diagnostic tools used in the study and confirmed by histopathologic examination. Of 3,500 cases, invasive cervical lesions were diagnosed in 6 (1.71%). The sensitivity of UNEE is much better than that of Pap smear (80% vs 60%) but less than that of colposcopy (86.7%). However, the specificity of UNEE (100%) is lower than that of Pap smear (91.16%) and better than that colposcopy (83.12%). The UNEE has a poor positive predictive value (3.75%) when compared with Pap smear (100%) and colposcopy (20%). The negative predictive values of the 3 tests were nearly comparable. CONCLUSIONS: Whenever access to Pap smear is limited, UNEE performed by general gynecologists and well-trained nurses is an acceptable alternative for detecting cervical premalignant or malignant lesions especially in low-resource settings.

Darwish AM; Abdulla SA; Zahran KM; Abdel-Fattah NA

2013-04-01

200

Selective indication for positive airway pressure (PAP) in sleep-related breathing disorders with obstruction  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Positive airway pressure (PAP) is the therapy of choice for most sleep-related breathing disorders (SRBD). A variety of PAP devices using positive airway pressure (CPAP, BiPAP, APAP, ASV) must be carefully considered before application. This overview aims to provide criteria for choosing the optimal PAP device according to severity and type of sleep-related breathing disorder. In addition, the range of therapeutic applications, constraints and side effects as well as alternative methods to PAP will be discussed. This review is based on an analysis of current literature and clinical experience. The data is presented from an ENT-sleep-laboratory perspective and is designed to help the ENT practitioner initiate treatment and provide support. Different titration methods, current devices and possible applications will be described. In addition to constant pressure devices (CPAP), most commonly used for symptomatic obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) without complicating conditions, BiPAP models will be introduced. These allow two different positive pressure settings and are thus especially suitable for patients with cardiopulmonary diseases or patients with pressure intolerance, increasing compliance in this subgroup considerably. Compliance can also be increased in patients during first night of therapy, patients with highly variable pressure demands or position-dependent OSA, by using self-regulating Auto-adjust PAP devices (Automatic positive airway pressure, APAP). Patients with Cheyne-Stokes breathing, a subtype of central sleep apnoea, benefit from adaptive servo-ventilation (ASV), which analyzes breathing patterns continually and adjusts the actual ventilation pressure accordingly. This not only reduces daytime sleepiness, but can also influence heart disease positively. Therapy with positive airway pressure is very effective in eliminating obstruction-related sleep diseases and symptoms. However, because therapy is generally applied for life, the optimal PAP device must be carefully selected, taking into account side effects that influence compliance.

Stasche, Norbert

2006-01-01

 
 
 
 
201

Light and the E3 ubiquitin ligase COP1/SPA control the protein stability of the MYB transcription factors PAP1 and PAP2 involved in anthocyanin accumulation in Arabidopsis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Anthocyanins are natural pigments that accumulate only in light-grown and not in dark-grown Arabidopsis plants. Repression of anthocyanin accumulation in darkness requires the CONSTITUTIVELY PHOTOMORPHOGENIC1/SUPPRESSOR OF PHYA-105 (COP1/SPA) ubiquitin ligase, as cop1 and spa mutants produce anthocyanins also in the dark. Here, we show that COP1 and SPA proteins interact with the myeloblastosis (MYB) transcription factors PRODUCTION OF ANTHOCYANIN PIGMENT1 (PAP)1 and PAP2, two members of a small protein family that is required for anthocyanin accumulation and for the expression of structural genes in the anthocyanin biosynthesis pathway. The increased anthocyanin levels in cop1 mutants requires the PAP1 gene family, indicating that COP1 functions upstream of the PAP1 gene family. PAP1 and PAP2 proteins are degraded in the dark and this degradation is dependent on the proteasome and on COP1. Hence, the light requirement for anthocyanin biosynthesis results, at least in part, from the light-mediated stabilization of PAP1 and PAP2. Consistent with this conclusion, moderate overexpression of PAP1 leads to an increase in anthocyanin levels only in the light and not in darkness. Here we show that SPA genes are also required for reducing PAP1 and PAP2 transcript levels in dark-grown seedlings. Taken together, these results indicate that the COP1/SPA complex affects PAP1 and PAP2 both transcriptionally and post-translationally. Thus, our findings have identified mechanisms via which the COP1/SPA complex controls anthocyanin levels in Arabidopsis that may be useful for applications in biotechnology directed towards increasing anthocyanin content in plants.

Maier A; Schrader A; Kokkelink L; Falke C; Welter B; Iniesto E; Rubio V; Uhrig JF; Hülskamp M; Hoecker U

2013-05-01

202

Colposcopic evaluation of cervix with persistent inflammatory Pap smear: A prospective analytical study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Inflammatory Pap smear is the most common report received by a gynecologist. The cervical screening algorithm for benign cellular changes on the Pap smear recommends treatment of infection if indicated and a repeat Pap smear in 4 to 6 months time. If the inflammatory changes still persist, subject the patient to colposcopy. However, in practice, this is not followed, especially in developing countries like ours where proper screening protocols are not available. Hence, a good number of patients in the premalignant stage are being missed. This study was undertaken to evaluate patients with persistent inflammatory Pap smears without atypia using colposcopy. Methods: A prospective analytical study of 150 gynecologial patients with persistent inflammatory Pap smear between 2006 and 2008 in an out-patient setting. All of them were subjected to colposcopy and biopsy from the abnormal areas. The incidence of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN)/invasive carcinoma was calculated by proportions/percentages. Results: The incidence of invasive carcinoma was in situ were present in 6.9% of the cases. Conclusions: Patients with persistent inflammatory Pap smears can harbour a high proportion of CIN and hence these patients will need further evaluation.

Dasari Papa; Rajathi S; Kumar Surendra

2010-01-01

203

Time-dependent effect of p-Aminophenol (PAP) toxicity in renal slices and development of oxidative stress  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

p-Aminophenol (PAP), a metabolite of acetaminophen, is nephrotoxic. This study investigated PAP-mediated changes as a function of time that occur prior to loss of membrane integrity. Experiments further evaluated the development of oxidative stress by PAP. Renal slices from male Fischer 344 (F344) rats (N = 4-6) were exposed to 0.1, 0.25, and 0.5 mM PAP for 15-120 min under oxygen and constant shaking at 37 oC. Pyruvate-stimulated gluconeogenesis, adenine nucleotide levels, and total glutathione (GSH) levels were diminished in a concentration- and time-dependent manner prior to detection of a rise in lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) leakage. Glutathione disulfide (GSSG) levels were increased by PAP suggesting the induction of oxidative stress. Western blot analysis confirmed a rise in 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE)-adducted proteins in tissues exposed to 0.1 and 0.25 mM PAP for 90 min. The appearance of 4-HNE-adducted proteins at the 0.1 mM concentration of PAP occurred prior to development of increased LDH leakage. Pretreatment with 1 mM glutathione (GSH) for 30 min only partially reduced PAP toxicity as LDH values were less severely depleted relative to tissues not pretreated with GSH. In contrast, pretreatment for 15 min with 2 mM ascorbic acid completely protected against PAP toxicity. Further studies showed that ascorbic acid pretreatment prevented PAP-mediated depletion of GSH. In summary, PAP rapidly depletes GSH and adenine nucleotides and inhibits gluconeogenesis prior to a rise in LDH leakage. PAP induces oxidative stress as indicated by an increase in GSSG and 4-HNE-adducted proteins. Ascorbic acid pretreatment prevents PAP toxicity by maintaining GSH status.

2005-11-15

204

Citologia oncológica, captura de híbridos II e inspeção visual no rastreamento de lesões cervicais/ Pap smear, hybrid capture II, and visual inspection in screening for uterine cervical lesions  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Avaliar as alterações na citologia oncológica, na captura híbrida II e na inspeção visual com ácido acético (IVA) a 5% em 684 mulheres atendidas em uma unidade de saúde, e avaliar o desempenho e a concordância entre os exames. Procurar descrever as características sócio-demográficas e reprodutivas (SDR) destas mulheres e sua associação com a presença de doença. As mulheres foram submetidas à coleta de citologia, captura e IVA, e as com exame positivo for (more) am submetidas à colposcopia com biopsia, se necessário. Foi calculado o desempenho dos testes e a associação dos fatores SDR com o diagnóstico histológico foi avaliada por intermédio do cálculo do odds ratio. Embora 198 mulheres apresentassem pelo menos um teste alterado, apenas 21 apresentaram lesão histológica. A sensibilidade dos testes foi semelhante enquanto as especificidades da IVA e da citologia foram maiores que a da captura híbrida II. Apenas a ausência de citologia esteve associada à presença de doença. O desempenho da citologia foi maior que o da IVA, que foi maior que o da captura. A ausência de citologia foi associada com doença histológica. Abstract in english The objective of this study was to evaluate alterations in Pap smear, hybrid capture II (HCII), and visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA) in 684 women treated at a primary health care unit. The performance and agreement of the exams were evaluated. The study also described social, demographic, and reproductive factors and their association with uterine cervical lesions. Women had specimens taken for Pap smear, HCII, and VIA. When at least one of the tests was positive, (more) colposcopy was performed and targeted biopsies were taken from any suspicious lesions. Performance of tests was evaluated. Women's distribution in relation to social, demographic, and reproductive factors and histological diagnosis was evaluated using the odds ratio. Among 198 women with at least one positive screening test, only 21 showed histological disease. Sensitivities of the tests were similar. VIA and Pap smear presented higher specificity than HCII. Only absence of a previous Pap smear was associated with the presence of histological disease. Pap smear performed better than VIA and HC II. Absence of previous cytology was associated with histological disease.

Gontijo, Renata Clementino; Derchain, Sophie Françoise Mauricette; Montemor, Eliana Borin Lopes; Sarian, Luis Otávio Zanatta; Serra, Márcia Milena Pivatto; Zeferino, Luiz Carlos; Syrjanen, Kari Juhani

2005-02-01

205

Citologia oncológica, captura de híbridos II e inspeção visual no rastreamento de lesões cervicais Pap smear, hybrid capture II, and visual inspection in screening for uterine cervical lesions  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Avaliar as alterações na citologia oncológica, na captura híbrida II e na inspeção visual com ácido acético (IVA) a 5% em 684 mulheres atendidas em uma unidade de saúde, e avaliar o desempenho e a concordância entre os exames. Procurar descrever as características sócio-demográficas e reprodutivas (SDR) destas mulheres e sua associação com a presença de doença. As mulheres foram submetidas à coleta de citologia, captura e IVA, e as com exame positivo foram submetidas à colposcopia com biopsia, se necessário. Foi calculado o desempenho dos testes e a associação dos fatores SDR com o diagnóstico histológico foi avaliada por intermédio do cálculo do odds ratio. Embora 198 mulheres apresentassem pelo menos um teste alterado, apenas 21 apresentaram lesão histológica. A sensibilidade dos testes foi semelhante enquanto as especificidades da IVA e da citologia foram maiores que a da captura híbrida II. Apenas a ausência de citologia esteve associada à presença de doença. O desempenho da citologia foi maior que o da IVA, que foi maior que o da captura. A ausência de citologia foi associada com doença histológica.The objective of this study was to evaluate alterations in Pap smear, hybrid capture II (HCII), and visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA) in 684 women treated at a primary health care unit. The performance and agreement of the exams were evaluated. The study also described social, demographic, and reproductive factors and their association with uterine cervical lesions. Women had specimens taken for Pap smear, HCII, and VIA. When at least one of the tests was positive, colposcopy was performed and targeted biopsies were taken from any suspicious lesions. Performance of tests was evaluated. Women's distribution in relation to social, demographic, and reproductive factors and histological diagnosis was evaluated using the odds ratio. Among 198 women with at least one positive screening test, only 21 showed histological disease. Sensitivities of the tests were similar. VIA and Pap smear presented higher specificity than HCII. Only absence of a previous Pap smear was associated with the presence of histological disease. Pap smear performed better than VIA and HC II. Absence of previous cytology was associated with histological disease.

Renata Clementino Gontijo; Sophie Françoise Mauricette Derchain; Eliana Borin Lopes Montemor; Luis Otávio Zanatta Sarian; Márcia Milena Pivatto Serra; Luiz Carlos Zeferino; Kari Juhani Syrjanen

2005-01-01

206

A Hybrid Computational Intelligence Approach Combining Genetic Programming And Heuristic Classification for Pap-Smear Diagnosis  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The paper suggests the combined use of different computational intelligence (CI) techniques in a hybrid scheme, as an effective approach to medical diagnosis. Getting to know the advantages and disadvantages of each computational intelligence technique in the recent years, the time has come for proposing successful combinations of CI tools and techniques for the improvement of decision making, Diagnosis and classification in complex domains of application. In the current approach genetic programming is embedded within a heuristic scheme for classification of medical records into different diagnoses. The final result is a short but robust rule based classification scheme, achieving high degree of classification accuracy (exceeding 90% of accuracy for most classes) in a meaningful and user-friendly representation form for the medical expert. The domain of application analyzed through the paper is the well-known Pap-Test problem, corresponding to a numerical database, which consists of 450 medical records, 25 diagnostic attributes and 5 different diagnostic classes. Experimental data are divided in two equal parts for the training and testing phase, and 8 mutually dependent rules for diagnosis are generated. Medical experts comment on the nature, the meaning and the usability of the acquired results.

Tsakonas, Athanasios; Dounias, Georgios

2001-01-01

207

Comparison of dissolution profiles obtained from nifedipine extended release once a day products using different dissolution test apparatuses.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In order to improve the predictability of dissolution testing new apparatuses have been proposed that mimic hydrodynamic and mechanical conditions in the gastrointestinal tract. In this study tested were four different nifedipine extended release (ER) formulations using the paddle apparatus and the reciprocating cylinder as pharmacopoeial test devices as well as two newly developed test apparatuses: the rotating beaker apparatus and the dissolution stress test apparatus. Investigated were Adalat OROS in strengths of 30 and 60 mg, and two hydrophilic matrix formulations: 60 mg nifedipine Coral and Nifedipin Sandoz 40 mg retard. The results demonstrate that the dissolution characteristic of the ER tablets is strongly dependent on the applied test conditions. The dosage form related food effects for Coral 60 mg tablets that were previously observed in human bioequivalence studies could be predicted with the two non-compendial dissolution test devices. The dissolution of Sandoz 40 mg tablets was very sensitive to all applied test conditions. The stable drug delivery characteristics of Adalat OROS observed in numerous in vivo studies was also observed in all of the dissolution tests. In conclusion, the present study shows that besides pH dependency the aspect of the mechanical robustness may be an essential factor affecting the dissolution characteristic of hydrogel matrix formulations.

Garbacz G; Golke B; Wedemeyer RS; Axell M; Söderlind E; Abrahamsson B; Weitschies W

2009-09-01

208

Comparison of dissolution profiles obtained from nifedipine extended release once a day products using different dissolution test apparatuses.  

Science.gov (United States)

In order to improve the predictability of dissolution testing new apparatuses have been proposed that mimic hydrodynamic and mechanical conditions in the gastrointestinal tract. In this study tested were four different nifedipine extended release (ER) formulations using the paddle apparatus and the reciprocating cylinder as pharmacopoeial test devices as well as two newly developed test apparatuses: the rotating beaker apparatus and the dissolution stress test apparatus. Investigated were Adalat OROS in strengths of 30 and 60 mg, and two hydrophilic matrix formulations: 60 mg nifedipine Coral and Nifedipin Sandoz 40 mg retard. The results demonstrate that the dissolution characteristic of the ER tablets is strongly dependent on the applied test conditions. The dosage form related food effects for Coral 60 mg tablets that were previously observed in human bioequivalence studies could be predicted with the two non-compendial dissolution test devices. The dissolution of Sandoz 40 mg tablets was very sensitive to all applied test conditions. The stable drug delivery characteristics of Adalat OROS observed in numerous in vivo studies was also observed in all of the dissolution tests. In conclusion, the present study shows that besides pH dependency the aspect of the mechanical robustness may be an essential factor affecting the dissolution characteristic of hydrogel matrix formulations. PMID:19591927

Garbacz, Grzegorz; Golke, Berit; Wedemeyer, Ralph-Steven; Axell, Marie; Söderlind, Erik; Abrahamsson, Bertil; Weitschies, Werner

2009-07-08

209

Instrumented impact testing as a way to obtain further information on the behaviour of steel in welded constructions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Based on experience gained from instrumented impact testing of ten different mild steels using test pieces of different geometrical shape (Charpy V-notch, Charpy knife-notch, DVM, Schnadt K0, Ksub(0.5), K1 and K2), some general features of the fracture process during impact testing are discussed. Steels can be divided into two main groups that are significantly different with respect to the behaviour during Charpy V-notch testing. The difference vanishes when a crack-like notch is used, and other properties of steel are revealed. It is evident that, even when modified impact testing bears little resemblance to what is happening in an actual steel construction. For the purpose of investigating the fracture conditions in welds, it seems more significant to relate the dynamic aspects to the speed of propagation of the crack when it starts to penetrate the volume considered at a certain stress level. (author)

1976-01-01

210

[Interpreting "equivocal" results obtained from the QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube test in contact investigations].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: In this study, we demonstrate the interpretation of "equivocal" results by the QuantiFERON"-TB Gold In-Tube (QFT-GIT) test in contact investigations. METHODS: The participants of the contact examinations were assessed by the QFT-GIT test after 2 to 4 months from the last contact with smear-positive tuberculosis patients. The study was conducted between April 2011 and March 2012. We enrolled 79 contact participants whose QFT-GIT tests produced equivocal results. RESULTS: The average age of the enrolled contacts was 35.9 years and the average interval from the last contact to the first QFT-GIT test was 85.4 days (range 62-118 days). The second QFT-GIT test produced negative results in 42 (53%) participants, equivocal results in 28 (35%), and positive results in 9 (11%). These 9 positive contacts belonged to the group of contacts with an index case whose QFT-GIT positive rate was more than 15%. The contacts belonging to groups with a QFT positive rate higher than 15% in the initial test had significantly higher QFT positive rates in the follow-up test than those belonging to groups with lower initial QFT positive rates (p=0.011). CONCLUSIONS: After retesting contacts with initially equivocal QFT results, 65% demonstrated either negative or positive results. If a contact's second QFT-GIT test is positive, it is highly probable that he/she is infected with tuberculosis and adequate treatment for latent TB infection is indicated. Thus far, no guidelines have been established for the management of contacts with equivocal results by the QFT-GIT test; therefore, further investigations and discussions are mandatory.

Komukai J; Matsumoto K; Hirota S; Yoshida H; Koda S; Terakawa K; Shimouchi A

2013-03-01

211

Comprehensive demonstration tests of stress release (I): an outline of the measuring system employed and the results obtained  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The authors report stress relaxation tests carried out at Sumitomo's Akabira coal mine. Various methods of stress relaxation were tried, including driving a roadway immediately above the hanging wall, drilling large-diameter boreholes, etc. Plans are given showing the locations where the tests were conducted. The tests are explained and the various parameters measured are discussed. The authors then outline the data-collecting system and summarize the results of measurements of eleven parameters. Typical measurements of in-hole gas pressure and rate of gas flow from boreholes are also given.

Fukushima, A.; Ideguchi, T.; Koizumi, K.; Sugiuchi, S.; Oda, N.; Yamaguchi, M.; Kamei, A.; Nakata, T.

1984-01-01

212

Comparison of different IRT-PAP protocols to screen newborns for cystic fibrosis in three central European populations.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: In recent years different IRT/PAP protocols have been evaluated, but the individual performance remains unclear. To optimize the IRT/PAP strategy we compared protocols from three regional CF newborn screening centers (Heidelberg, Dresden, and Prague). METHODS: We evaluated the effect of elevating the IRT-cut-off from 50 to 65?g/l (~97.5th to ~99.0th percentile), the need of a failsafe protocol (FS, IRT?99.9th percentile) and the relative performance using either two IRT-dependent PAP-cut-offs or one PAP-cut-off. FINDINGS: Elevation of the IRT cut-off to 65?g/l (~99.0th percentile) increased the PPV significantly (Dresden: 0.065 vs. 0.080, p<0.0001, Prague: 0.052 vs. 0.074, p<0.0001) without reducing sensitivity. All three IRT/PAP protocols showed a trend towards a higher sensitivity with FS than without and when using one PAP-cut-off instead of two IRT-dependent PAP-cut-offs. CONCLUSIONS: For best performance we suggest an IRT/PAP protocol with an IRT-cut-off close to the 99.0th percentile, FS, and a single PAP-cut-off.

Sommerburg O; Krulisova V; Hammermann J; Lindner M; Stahl M; Muckenthaler M; Kohlmueller D; Happich M; Kulozik AE; Votava F; Balascakova M; Skalicka V; Stopsack M; Gahr M; Macek M Jr; Mall MA; Hoffmann GF

2013-07-01

213

Factors Affecting Compliance with Clinical Practice Guidelines for Pap Smear Screening among Healthcare Providers in Africa: Systematic Review and Meta-Summary of 2045 Individuals.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Although the importance of the Pap smear in reducing cancer incidence and mortality is known, many countries in Africa have not initiated yet widespread national cervical cancer screening programs. The World Health Organization (WHO) has published Clinical Practice Guidelines (CPGs) on cervical cancer screening in developing countries; however, there is a gap between expectations and clinical performance. Thus, the aim of this study was to conduct a systematic review and meta-summary to identify factors affecting compliance with CPGs for Pap screening among healthcare providers in Africa. METHODS: And Findings: MEDLINE, Scirus, Opengate and EMBASE databases were searched in January 2012. Studies involving medical personnel practicing in Africa, whose outcome measured any factors that affect medical personnel from using a Pap smear to screen for cervical cancer, were included. Two reviewers independently evaluated titles and abstracts, then full-texts, extracted data and assessed quality of the included studies. A descriptive analysis of the included studies was conducted. We calculated Frequency effect sizes (FES) for each finding and Intensity effect sizes (IES) for each article to represent their magnitudes in the analyses. Of 1011 studies retrieved, 11 studies were included (2045 individuals). Six different themes related to the factors affecting compliance with CPGs were identified: Insufficient Knowledge/Lack of awareness (FES = 82%), Negligence/Misbeliefs (FES = 82%), Psychological Reasons (FES = 73%), Time/Cost Constraint (FES = 36%), Insufficient infrastructure/training (FES = 45%) and also no reason given (FES = 36%). IES for articles ranged between 33 and 83%. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that prevention initiatives should be comprehensive to include education and resources needs assessments and improvement, Pap smear test training, strategies on costing, and practitioner time studies.

Asonganyi E; Vaghasia M; Rodrigues C; Phadtare A; Ford A; Pietrobon R; Atashili J; Lynch C

2013-01-01

214

Validation of nuclear design method by measured data obtained in the physics test at a small fast reactor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The present paper discusses applicability of the measured data of Joyo cores from a view point of integral validation for the 4S nuclear design methodology. Through the evaluation of isothermal reactivity coefficients and reactivity losses due to burnup, the results confirm that those MK-I and MK-II database are effective in order to increase the dataset for uncertainty estimation for the prediction. Discussions on the 4S design method validation are also done through the analyses of criticality, power distributions and reactivity loss due to burn-up. The C/E values for criticality and reaction rate distributions are confirmed to be consistent with those obtained from the physics benchmark experiments. Through an analysis of burnup coefficient of the MK-I core by the detailed Monte Carlo calculations, the C/E value is 1.1, which is close to 1.06 obtained by the deterministic transport analysis. (authors)

2012-01-01

215

Validation of nuclear design method by measured data obtained in the physics test at a small fast reactor  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The present paper discusses applicability of the measured data of Joyo cores from a view point of integral validation for the 4S nuclear design methodology. Through the evaluation of isothermal reactivity coefficients and reactivity losses due to burnup, the results confirm that those MK-I and MK-II database are effective in order to increase the dataset for uncertainty estimation for the prediction. Discussions on the 4S design method validation are also done through the analyses of criticality, power distributions and reactivity loss due to burn-up. The C/E values for criticality and reaction rate distributions are confirmed to be consistent with those obtained from the physics benchmark experiments. Through an analysis of burnup coefficient of the MK-I core by the detailed Monte Carlo calculations, the C/E value is 1.1, which is close to 1.06 obtained by the deterministic transport analysis. (authors)

Nagata, A.; Tsuboi, Y. [Advanced Energy Design and Engineering Dep., Toshiba Corporation, 8 Shinsugita-cho, Isogo-ku, Yokohama, 235-8523 (Japan); Moriki, Y. [Power and Industrial Systems Research and Development Center, Toshiba Corporation, 8 Shinsugita-cho, Isogo-ku, Yokohama, 235-8523 (Japan); Kawashima, M. [Nuclear Technology Application Dept., Toshiba Nuclear Engineering Services Corporation, 8 Shinsugita-cho, Isogo-ku, Yokohama, 235-8523 (Japan)

2012-07-01

216

Activation of an immune response in Litopenaeus vannamei by oral immunization with phagocytosis activating protein (PAP) DNA.  

Science.gov (United States)

The phagocytosis activating protein (PAP) gene has been reported to stimulate the phagocytic activity of shrimp hemocytes and to protect shrimp from several pathogens. In this study oral administration of the chitosan-PAP gene to shrimp was investigated for its ability to induce immunity. The PAP gene was cooperated into a phMGFP plasmid, named PAP-phMGFP. Chitosan-PAP-phMGFP nanoparticles were formed by mixing a low molecular weight chitosan (50 kDa) and a high molecular weight chitosan (150 kDa) with various ratios of PAP-phMGFP. The optimal ratio of chitosan PAP-phMGFP nanoparticles was first determined by transfection into Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells before being used for oral immunization in shrimp. The chitosan-PAP-phMGFP nanoparticles at a ratio of 2:1 with the low molecular weight chitosan were optimum for transfecting the CHO cells. The shrimp were then fed with 25, 50, 100 and 150 ?g/shrimp/day of chitosan-PAP-phMGFP (2:1) nanoparticles then challenged by the white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). Shrimp fed with 50 ?g of chitosan-PAP-phMGFP nanoparticles per day for 7 consecutive days, produced the highest relative percent survival (RPS) (94.45 ± 9.86%). The presence of PAP-phMGFP was detected in every shrimp tissue including the hemolymph, lymphoid organ, heart, hepatopancreas, intestine and muscle. The folds increase of the PAP gene expression increased significantly together with an increase of the phagocytic activity in the immunized shrimp. The stability of the PAP-phMGFP in the immunized shrimp hemolymph was detected by determination of the expression of the GFP at various days after immunization ceased. GFP expression was detected until the 15th day but not at the 30th day after immunization ceased. A quantitative analysis of the WSSV copies in shrimp heart tissue was significantly reduced in the immunized shrimp. In addition, chitosan-PAP-phMGFP nanoparticles protected shrimp against WSSV, Yellow head virus (YHV) and Vibrio harveyi with RPS values of 83.34 ± 7.86%, 55.56 ± 15.72% and 53.91 ± 5.52%, respectively. This study therefore confirms the role of the PAP gene in shrimp immunity and may lead to the development of a way to prevent microbial diseases of shrimp at an industrial level by appropriate feeding of a chitosan/DNA complex. PMID:23353001

Khimmakthong, Umaporn; Kongmee, Pataraporn; Deachamag, Panchalika; Leggat, Ureporn; Chotigeat, Wilaiwan

2013-01-24

217

Activation of an immune response in Litopenaeus vannamei by oral immunization with phagocytosis activating protein (PAP) DNA.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The phagocytosis activating protein (PAP) gene has been reported to stimulate the phagocytic activity of shrimp hemocytes and to protect shrimp from several pathogens. In this study oral administration of the chitosan-PAP gene to shrimp was investigated for its ability to induce immunity. The PAP gene was cooperated into a phMGFP plasmid, named PAP-phMGFP. Chitosan-PAP-phMGFP nanoparticles were formed by mixing a low molecular weight chitosan (50 kDa) and a high molecular weight chitosan (150 kDa) with various ratios of PAP-phMGFP. The optimal ratio of chitosan PAP-phMGFP nanoparticles was first determined by transfection into Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells before being used for oral immunization in shrimp. The chitosan-PAP-phMGFP nanoparticles at a ratio of 2:1 with the low molecular weight chitosan were optimum for transfecting the CHO cells. The shrimp were then fed with 25, 50, 100 and 150 ?g/shrimp/day of chitosan-PAP-phMGFP (2:1) nanoparticles then challenged by the white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). Shrimp fed with 50 ?g of chitosan-PAP-phMGFP nanoparticles per day for 7 consecutive days, produced the highest relative percent survival (RPS) (94.45 ± 9.86%). The presence of PAP-phMGFP was detected in every shrimp tissue including the hemolymph, lymphoid organ, heart, hepatopancreas, intestine and muscle. The folds increase of the PAP gene expression increased significantly together with an increase of the phagocytic activity in the immunized shrimp. The stability of the PAP-phMGFP in the immunized shrimp hemolymph was detected by determination of the expression of the GFP at various days after immunization ceased. GFP expression was detected until the 15th day but not at the 30th day after immunization ceased. A quantitative analysis of the WSSV copies in shrimp heart tissue was significantly reduced in the immunized shrimp. In addition, chitosan-PAP-phMGFP nanoparticles protected shrimp against WSSV, Yellow head virus (YHV) and Vibrio harveyi with RPS values of 83.34 ± 7.86%, 55.56 ± 15.72% and 53.91 ± 5.52%, respectively. This study therefore confirms the role of the PAP gene in shrimp immunity and may lead to the development of a way to prevent microbial diseases of shrimp at an industrial level by appropriate feeding of a chitosan/DNA complex.

Khimmakthong U; Kongmee P; Deachamag P; Leggat U; Chotigeat W

2013-03-01

218

RELIABILITY AND VALIDITY OF PHYSIOLOGICAL DATA OBTAINED WITHIN A CYCLE-RUN TRANSITION TEST IN AGE-GROUP TRIATHLETES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study examined the validity and reliability of a sequential "Run-Bike-Run" test (RBR) in age-group triathletes. Eight Olympic distance (OD) specialists (age 30.0 ± 2.0 years, mass 75.6 ± 1.6 kg, run VO2max 63.8 ± 1.9 ml·kg-1·min-1, cycle VO2peak 56.7 ± 5.1 ml·kg-1·min-1) performed four trials over 10 days. Trial 1 (TRVO2max) was an incremental treadmill running test. Trials 2 and 3 (RBR1 and RBR2) involved: 1) a 7-min run at 15 km·h-1 (R1) plus a 1-min transition to 2) cycling to fatigue (2 W·kg-1 body mass then 30 W each 3 min); 3) 10-min cycling at 3 W·kg-1 (Bsubmax); another 1-min transition and 4) a second 7-min run at 15 km·h-1 (R2). Trial 4 (TT) was a 30-min cycle - 20-min run time trial. No significant differences in absolute oxygen uptake (VO2), heart rate (HR), or blood lactate concentration ([BLA]) were evidenced between RBR1 and RBR2. For all measured physiological variables, the limits of agreement were similar, and the mean differences were physiologically unimportant, between trials. Low levels of test-retest error (i.e. ICC <0.8, CV<10%) were observed for most (logged) measurements. However [BLA] post R1 (ICC 0.87, CV 25.1%), [BLA] post Bsubmax (ICC 0.99, CV 16.31) and [BLA] post R2 (ICC 0.51, CV 22.9%) were least reliable. These error ranges may help coaches detect real changes in training status over time. Moreover, RBR test variables can be used to predict discipline specific and overall TT performance. Cycle VO2peak, cycle peak power output, and the change between R1 and R2 (deltaR1R2) in [BLA] were most highly related to overall TT distance (r = 0.89, p < 0. 01; r = 0.94, p < 0.02; r = 0.86, p < 0.05, respectively). The percentage of TR VO2max at 15 km·h-1, and deltaR1R2 HR, were also related to run TT distance (r = -0.83 and 0.86, both p < 0.05)

Veronica Vleck; Gregoire P. Millet; Francisco Bessone Alves; David J. Bentley

2012-01-01

219

In silico Comparative Modeling of PapA1 and PapA2 Proteins Involved in Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Sulfolipid-1 Biosynthesis Pathway  

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Full Text Available Tuberculosis is one of the most serious health problems, as globally; around 2 billion or one third of the world's total population has been infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a unique among bacterial pathogens in that it displays a wide array of complex lipids and lipoglycans on its cell surface. One such glycolipid, sulfolipid-1 (SL-1), is the most sulfatide, consists of a trehalose core, four fatty acyl groups, and a sulfate ester. Several proteins involved in SL-1 biosynthesis have been identified, the enzymes that acylate the T2S core to form SL1278 and SL-1, and the biosynthetic order of these acylation reactions, are unknown. Here we studied the in silico identification of PapA2 and PapA1, proteins responsible for the sequential acylation of T2S to form SL1278 and are essential for SL-1 biosynthesis, by applying different bioinformatics tools. Benchmark, of 3 different homology modeling programs Modeller, Swiss-Model (Deep View), and ESyPred3D, has been performed used to transform the alignment to a 3D model. The 3D structures of targeted proteins were evaluated by evaluation tools, ANOLEA and Verify3D. It is concluded that in SL-1 biosynthesis pathway, PapA1 and PapA2 proteins could be used as drug target, drug lead design and to find out the other proteins involved in this pathway that not yet have been identified and may be used to the cure of tuberculosis infection.

Rana Adnan Tahir; Sheikh Arslan Sehgal; Ambreen Ijaz

2012-01-01

220

Electrolytes assessed by point-of-care testing - Are the values comparable with results obtained from the central laboratory?  

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Full Text Available Background and Aims: When dealing with very sick patients, the speed and accuracy of tests to detect metabolic derangements is very important. We evaluated if there was agreement between whole blood electrolytes measured by a point-of-care device and serum electrolytes measured using indirect ion-selective electrodes. Materials and Methods: In this prospective study, electrolytes were analyzed in 44 paired samples drawn from critically ill patients. Whole blood electrolytes were analyzed using a point-of-care blood gas analyzer and serum electrolytes were analyzed in the central laboratory on samples transported through a rapid transit pneumatic system. Agreement was summarized by the mean difference with 95% limits of agreement (LOA) and Lin?s concordance correlation (p c). Results: There was a significant difference in the mean (±standard deviation) sodium value between whole blood and serum samples (135.8 ± 5.7 mmol/L vs. 139.9 ± 5.4 mmol/L, P p c = 0.71; mean difference -4.0; 95% LOA -8.78 to 0.65). Although the agreement between whole blood and serum potassium was good (p c = 0.96), and the average difference small (-0.3; 95% LOA -0.72 to 0.13), individual differences were clinically significant, particularly at lower potassium values. For potassium values p c = 0.53) and the LOA was wide (1.0 to -0.13). The concordance for potassium was good (p c = 0.96) for values ?3.0 (mean difference -0.2; 95% LOA -0.48 to 0.06). Conclusions: Clinicians should be aware of the difference between whole blood and serum electrolytes, particularly when urgent samples are tested at point of care and routine follow-up electrolytes are sent to the central laboratory. A correction factor needs to be determined at each center.

Chacko Binila; Peter John; Patole Shalom; Fleming Jude; Selvakumar Ratnasamy

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
221

Electrolytes assessed by point-of-care testing - Are the values comparable with results obtained from the central laboratory?  

Science.gov (United States)

Background and Aims: When dealing with very sick patients, the speed and accuracy of tests to detect metabolic derangements is very important. We evaluated if there was agreement between whole blood electrolytes measured by a point-of-care device and serum electrolytes measured using indirect ion-selective electrodes. Materials and Methods: In this prospective study, electrolytes were analyzed in 44 paired samples drawn from critically ill patients. Whole blood electrolytes were analyzed using a point-of-care blood gas analyzer and serum electrolytes were analyzed in the central laboratory on samples transported through a rapid transit pneumatic system. Agreement was summarized by the mean difference with 95% limits of agreement (LOA) and Lin’s concordance correlation (p c). Results: There was a significant difference in the mean (±standard deviation) sodium value between whole blood and serum samples (135.8 ± 5.7 mmol/L vs. 139.9 ± 5.4 mmol/L, P < 0.001), with the agreement being modest (pc = 0.71; mean difference ?4.0; 95% LOA ?8.78 to 0.65). Although the agreement between whole blood and serum potassium was good (pc = 0.96), and the average difference small (?0.3; 95% LOA ?0.72 to 0.13), individual differences were clinically significant, particularly at lower potassium values. For potassium values <3.0 mmol/L, the concordance was low (pc = 0.53) and the LOA was wide (1.0 to ?0.13). The concordance for potassium was good (pc = 0.96) for values ?3.0 (mean difference ?0.2; 95% LOA ?0.48 to 0.06). Conclusions: Clinicians should be aware of the difference between whole blood and serum electrolytes, particularly when urgent samples are tested at point of care and routine follow-up electrolytes are sent to the central laboratory. A correction factor needs to be determined at each center.

Chacko, Binila; Peter, John V; Patole, Shalom; Fleming, Jude J; Selvakumar, Ratnasamy

2011-01-01

222

Asistencia a Citología del Cuello Uterino y sus Determinantes en una Población Rural Colombiana, 1998-1999 Use and determinants of Pap smear in a rural Colombian municipality 1998-1999  

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Full Text Available Objetivos Establecer la prevalencia de uso de la citología del cuello uterino e identificar los factores que determinan la asistencia a este examen. Métodos Estudio de corte transversal en voluntarias de un programa de prevención de cáncer de cuello uterino realizado en Mogotes, Colombia. Se calcularon razones de prevalencia (RP). La variable dependiente fue el antecedente de asistencia a citología. Se recolectaron características sociodemográficas, clínicas, familiares y de hábitos. Resultados La prevalencia de asistencia previa a citología fue 67,3 %. A mayor edad de la mujer aumentaba la probabilidad de tener una citología anterior. El uso de métodos de planificación familiar que requerían control (RP: 1,4; IC95%: 1,2-1,7) y la residencia rural (RP: 0,9; IC95%: 0,8-1,0) también fueron factores que determinaron su utilización. Conclusiones Estos datos confirman que vivir en zonas rurales está asociado con una menor oportunidad de la mujer para acceder al examen citológico.Objectives Determining the prevalence of Pap smear use and identifying the factors associated with Pap test performance. Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out on volunteer women recruited from a local programme for detecting cervical cancer in Mogotes, Colombia. Prevalence ratios (PR) were calculated. Papanicolau smear use was the outcome being measured. Information about demographic characteristics, clinical factors, history of cancer in the family, lifestyle factors and using birth control methods was collected. Results Pap smear use prevalence was 67,3 %. Age group, using birth control methods (PR:1,4; 95 %CI:1,2-1,7) and living in rural settings (PR:0,9; 95 %CI:0,8-1,0) were the factors associated with Pap test performance. Conclusions This data suggests that living in rural settings is associated with decreased opportunities for performing Pap tests.

Miguel A. Castro-Jiménez; Paula A. Londoño-Cuellar; Lina M. Vera-Cala

2006-01-01

223

[Formation of cointegrates during mobilization of nonconjugated plasmids to genetic transfer by plasmid pAP42].  

Science.gov (United States)

pAP42 plasmid mobilizes nonconjugative pMR5, pBR322, pACYC 184, RSF2124, RSF1010 plasmids with different frequency. During mobilization of nonconjugative RSF2124 and pACYC184 plasmids by pAP42 factor there form cointegrative structures similar in their properties to typical R plasmids. PMID:6318863

Khamidullina, R G; Gigani, O B; Pekhov, A P

1984-01-01

224

[Formation of cointegrates during mobilization of nonconjugated plasmids to genetic transfer by plasmid pAP42  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

pAP42 plasmid mobilizes nonconjugative pMR5, pBR322, pACYC 184, RSF2124, RSF1010 plasmids with different frequency. During mobilization of nonconjugative RSF2124 and pACYC184 plasmids by pAP42 factor there form cointegrative structures similar in their properties to typical R plasmids.

Khamidullina RG; Gigani OB; Pekhov AP

1984-01-01

225

CNS activity of Pokeweed Anti-viral Protein (PAP) in mice infected with Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis Virus (LCMV)  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Others and we have previously described the potent in vivo and in vitro activity of the broad-spectrum antiviral agent PAP (Pokeweed antiviral protein) against a wide range of viruses. The purpose of the present study was to further elucidate the anti-viral spectrum of PAP by examining its effects on the survival of mice challenged with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV). Methods We examined the therapeutic effect of PAP in CBA mice inoculated with intracerebral injections of the WE54 strain of LCMV at a 1000 PFU dose level that is lethal to 100% of mice within 7–9 days. Mice were treated either with vehicle or PAP administered intraperitoneally 24 hours prior to, 1 hour prior to and 24 hours, 48 hours 72 hours and 96 hours after virus inoculation. Results PAP exhibits significant in vivo anti- LCMV activity in mice challenged intracerebrally with an otherwise invariably fatal dose of LCMV. At non-toxic dose levels, PAP significantly prolonged survival in the absence of the majority of disease-associated symptoms. The median survival time of PAP-treated mice was >21 days as opposed to 7 days median survival for the control (p = 0.0069). Conclusion Our results presented herein provide unprecedented experimental evidence that PAP exhibits antiviral activity in the CNS of LCMV-infected mice.

Uckun Fatih M; Rustamova Larisa; Vassilev Alexei O; Tibbles Heather E; Petkevich Alexander S

2005-01-01

226

Mycobacterial polyketide-associated proteins are acyltransferases: Proof of principle with Mycobacterium tuberculosis PapA5  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mt) produces complex virulence-enhancing lipids with scaffolds consisting of phthiocerol and phthiodiolone dimycocerosate esters (PDIMs). Sequence analysis suggested that PapA5, a so-called polyketide-associated protein (Pap) encoded in the PDIM synthesis gene cluster, as...

Onwueme, Kenolisa C.; Ferreras, Julian A.; Buglino, John; Lima, Christopher D.; Quadri, Luis E. N.

227

Deoxygenation and the blood volume signals in the flexor carpi ulnaris and radialis muscles obtained during the execution of the Mirallas's test of judo athletes  

Science.gov (United States)

The technique of execution of any movement in Judo is extremely important. The coaches want tests and tools easy to use and cheaper, to evaluate the progress of a judoist in the tatame. In this paper we present a test developed by Mirallas, which has his name 'Test of Mirallas' to evaluate the maximal power capacity of the judoist. The near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) signals were obtained to have a measurement of the metabolic work of the flexor carpi ulnaris and radialis muscles, during the execution of the ippon-seoi-nage movement, allowing this measurement to assess by NIRS the maximal oxygen uptake. Also obtained were tympanic, skin forehead, and biceps brachii temperatures during the test time and recovery phase to study the effects of ambient conditions and the post-exercise oxygen consumption. The deoxygenation and blood volume signals obtained gave different results, demonstrating the hypothesis of the coaches that some judoist do the execution of the ippon-seoi-nage movement correctly and the rest didn't. The heart rate frequency obtained in the group of judoist was between 190-207 bpm, and in the minute five of post-exercise was 114-137 bpm; the time employed in the MIrallas's test were from 7 feet 14 inches to 13 feet 49 inches, and the total of movements were from 199 to 409. The data obtained in the skin forehead, and skin biceps brachii confirms previous works that the oxygen consumption remains after exercise in the muscle studied. According to the results, the test developed by Mirallas is a good tool to evaluate the performance of judoist any time, giving better results compared with standard tests.

Verdaguer-Codina, Joan; Mirallas, J.

1996-12-01

228

Treatment of cardiomyopathy with PAP therapy in a patient with severe obstructive sleep apnea.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Obstructive sleep apnea is common in patients with heart failure. This case illustrates that treatment with PAP therapy can improve cardiac function in patients with both conditions. CPAP-emergent central apnea, as seen in this patient, has multiple etiologies. It is commonly seen in patients with severe sleep apnea, usually resolves over time, and does not need treatment with adaptive servoventilation.

Grewal RG

2012-10-01

229

Physical activity on prescription (PAP) from the general practitioner's perspective - a qualitative study  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Physical activity on prescription (PAP) is a successful intervention for increasing physical activity among patients with a sedentary lifestyle. The method seems to be sparsely used by general practitioners (GPs) and there is limited information about GPs’ attitudes to counselling using PAP as a tool. The aim of the study was to explore and understand the meaning of prescribing physical activity from the general practitioner’s perspective. Methods Three focus group interviews were conducted with a purposive sample of 15 Swedish GPs in the south of Sweden. Participants were invited to talk about their experience of using PAP. The interviews were transcribed verbatim, analysed using qualitative content analysis. Results The analysis resulted in four categories: The tradition makes it hard to change attitude, Shared responsibility is necessary, PAP has low status and is regarded with distrust and Lack of procedures and clear guidelines. Traditionally GPs talk with patients about the importance of an increased level of physical activity but they do not prescribe physical activity as a treatment. Physician’s education focuses on the use of pharmaceuticals. The responsibility for patients’ physical activity level is shared with other health professionals, the patient and society. The GPs express reservations about prescribing physical activity. A heavy workload is a source of frustration. PAP is regarded with distrust and considered to be a task of less value and status. Using a prescription to emphasize an increased level is considered to be redundant and the GPs think it should be administered by someone else in the health care system. Scepticism about the result of the method was also expressed. Conclusions There is uncertainty about using PAP as a treatment since physicians lack education in non-pharmaceutical methods. The GPs do not regard the written referral as a prioritized task and rather refer to other professionals in the health care system to prescribe PAP. GPs pointed out a need to create routines and arrangements for the method to gain credibility and become everyday practice among GPs.

2013-01-01

230

PAP and NT5E inhibit nociceptive neurotransmission by rapidly hydrolyzing nucleotides to adenosine  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP) and ecto-5'-nucleotidase (NT5E, CD73) produce extracellular adenosine from the nucleotide AMP in spinal nociceptive (pain-sensing) circuits; however, it is currently unknown if these are the main ectonucleotidases that generate adenosine or how rapidly they generate adenosine. Results We found that AMP hydrolysis, when measured histochemically, was nearly abolished in dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons and lamina II of spinal cord from Pap/Nt5e double knockout (dKO) mice. Likewise, the antinociceptive effects of AMP, when combined with nucleoside transport inhibitors (dipyridamole or 5-iodotubericidin), were reduced by 80-100% in dKO mice. In addition, we used fast scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) to measure adenosine production at subsecond resolution within lamina II. Adenosine was maximally produced within seconds from AMP in wild-type (WT) mice but production was reduced >50% in dKO mice, indicating PAP and NT5E rapidly generate adenosine in lamina II. Unexpectedly, we also detected spontaneous low frequency adenosine transients in lamina II with FSCV. Adenosine transients were of short duration (60%) in frequency in Pap-/-, Nt5e-/- and dKO mice, suggesting these ectonucleotidases rapidly hydrolyze endogenously released nucleotides to adenosine. Field potential recordings in lamina II and behavioral studies indicate that adenosine made by these enzymes acts through the adenosine A1 receptor to inhibit excitatory neurotransmission and nociception. Conclusions Collectively, our experiments indicate that PAP and NT5E are the main ectonucleotidases that generate adenosine in nociceptive circuits and indicate these enzymes transform pulsatile or sustained nucleotide release into an inhibitory adenosinergic signal.

Street Sarah E; Walsh Paul L; Sowa Nathaniel A; Taylor-Blake Bonnie; Guillot Thomas S; Vihko Pirkko; Wightman R Mark; Zylka Mark J

2011-01-01

231

Comparison of PCR, culturing and Pap smear microscopy for accurate diagnosis of genital Actinomyces.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Members of the genus Actinomyces, Gram-positive, non-spore-forming anaerobic bacteria, are normal inhabitants of the mucosal surfaces of the oral, gastrointestinal and genital tracts. Identification of these bacteria using conventional methods is generally difficult because of their complex transport and growth requirements and their fastidious and slow-growing nature. However, in recent years, the advancement of molecular techniques has provided much improved identification and differentiation of closely related Actinomyces species. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of the PCR technique in the diagnosis of genital Actinomyces in comparison with culturing and Papanicolaou (Pap) smear microscopy. Multiple sampling was conducted from 200 women using smear microscopy, culturing and PCR. Cyto-brushes were smeared on glass slides and stained using the routine Pap technique. Culturing was performed from a sterile swab, and Actinomyces were determined using the BBL Crystal ANR ID kit. PCR was performed from a second swab, and the Actinomyces type was determined using type-specific primers designed in our laboratory. Only one vaginal fluid sample (0.5%) revealed Actinomyces-like organisms on Pap smear examination. Actinomyces were detected in nine samples (4.5%) using the BBL Crystal ANR ID kit. Using PCR, eight samples (4%) were found positive for Actinomyces. No specimens that gave positive results by Pap smear microscopy and culturing could be confirmed by PCR. Pap smear microscopy and culturing were both found to have zero sensitivity for Actinomyces. PCR appears to be a sensitive and reliable diagnostic method for the detection of Actinomyces, which are difficult to cultivate from genital samples. PCR can be used for diagnostic confirmation in cases diagnosed by conventional methods, to prevent false-positive results.

Kaya D; Demirezen ?; Hasçelik G; Gülmez Kivanç D; Beksaç MS

2013-05-01

232

Test of irradiation of tellurium oxide for obtaining iodine-131 by dry distillation; Prueba de irradiacion de dioxido de telurio para obtener yodo-131 por destilacion seca  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

With the purpose of optimizing to the maximum independently the work of the reactor of those mathematical calculations of irradiation that are already optimized, now it corresponds to carry out irradiation tests in the different positions with their respective neutron fluxes that it counts the reactor for samples irradiation. Then, it is necessary to carry out the irradiation of the tellurium dioxide through cycles, with the purpose of observing the activity that it goes accumulating in each cycle and this way to obtain an activity of the Iodine-131 obtained when finishing the last cycle. (Author)

Alanis M, J. [ININ, Departamento de Materiales Radiactivos, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

2003-07-15

233

Generador de flujo con presión binivelada (BiPAP) a través de traqueostomía/ Flow generator with double level pressure (BiPAP) through Tracheostomy  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Introducción: El Programa Chileno de Ventilación No Invasiva en domicilio (AVNI) extendió su cobertura utilizando generadores de flujo con presión bi-nivelada (BiPAP) en niños con ventilación mecánica prolongada (VMP) y traqueostomía (TQT). Objetivo: Reportar la experiencia de esta estrategia describiendo criterios de selección, modalidades de uso y tecnologías complementarias. Pacientes y Métodos: Estudio descriptivo, transversal y prospectivo durante un año (more) desde Junio 2006, en 20 pacientes manejados en el Hospital Josefina Martínez, otros centros de la red asistencial del Ministerio de Salud y en domicilio. Se registraron las características clínicas, modos ventilatorios, evolución y complicaciones. Resultados: La mediana de edad fue de 3,5 años (rango 3 meses a 17 años). La duración de la VMP fue lm a 5a, 6 pacientes (30%) se encuentran en domicilio y 14 (70%) hospitalizados. La principal causa para VMP fue enfermedad neuromuscular (14, 70%). No hubo mortalidad y 4 pacientes tuvieron complicaciones menores. Conclusión: El BiPAP a través de TQT, usado con criterios estrictos de selección, es un método de VMP que puede ser factible. Se requieren estudios comparativos para definir costos, beneficios y riesgos de estos equipos comparándolos con ventiladores licenciados para soporte vital. Abstract in english Background: The Chilean Program of Noninvasive Home Ventilation started using flow generating equipment with differential pressure at 2 levels (BiPAP) through tracheostomies for prolonged mechanical ventilation (PMV). Objective: Describe the experience of this ventilatory support, reporting selection criteria, procedure and technological requirements. Method: Descriptive-transversal study that includes 20 patients treated at Hospital Josefina Martínez, other pediatric ho (more) spitals and at home, for 12 months since June 2006. The clinical features, ventilation support, technical characteristics, follow-up and complications were reported. Results: The mean age was 3.5 years-old (range 3 months - 17 years). The duration of PMV ranged between 1 month to 5 years. Six patients (30%) are at home and 14 (70%) are hospitalized. In 14 patients (70%), the need of PMV was due to neuromuscular diseases. There was no mortality related to the use of Bipap through tracheostomy; only 4 patients had minor complications. Conclusions: This report suggests that the use of BiPAP through tracheostomy in patients with selection criteria is an applicable PVM method. However, comparative systematic trials are necessary to define costs, benefits and risks of this type of ventilation.

MONTES F, SOLEDAD; MÉNDEZ R, MIREYA; BARAÑAO G, PATRICIO; SALINAS F, PAMELA; PRADO A, FRANCISCO

2008-10-01

234

Generador de flujo con presión binivelada (BiPAP) a través de traqueostomía Flow generator with double level pressure (BiPAP) through Tracheostomy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introducción: El Programa Chileno de Ventilación No Invasiva en domicilio (AVNI) extendió su cobertura utilizando generadores de flujo con presión bi-nivelada (BiPAP) en niños con ventilación mecánica prolongada (VMP) y traqueostomía (TQT). Objetivo: Reportar la experiencia de esta estrategia describiendo criterios de selección, modalidades de uso y tecnologías complementarias. Pacientes y Métodos: Estudio descriptivo, transversal y prospectivo durante un año desde Junio 2006, en 20 pacientes manejados en el Hospital Josefina Martínez, otros centros de la red asistencial del Ministerio de Salud y en domicilio. Se registraron las características clínicas, modos ventilatorios, evolución y complicaciones. Resultados: La mediana de edad fue de 3,5 años (rango 3 meses a 17 años). La duración de la VMP fue lm a 5a, 6 pacientes (30%) se encuentran en domicilio y 14 (70%) hospitalizados. La principal causa para VMP fue enfermedad neuromuscular (14, 70%). No hubo mortalidad y 4 pacientes tuvieron complicaciones menores. Conclusión: El BiPAP a través de TQT, usado con criterios estrictos de selección, es un método de VMP que puede ser factible. Se requieren estudios comparativos para definir costos, beneficios y riesgos de estos equipos comparándolos con ventiladores licenciados para soporte vital.Background: The Chilean Program of Noninvasive Home Ventilation started using flow generating equipment with differential pressure at 2 levels (BiPAP) through tracheostomies for prolonged mechanical ventilation (PMV). Objective: Describe the experience of this ventilatory support, reporting selection criteria, procedure and technological requirements. Method: Descriptive-transversal study that includes 20 patients treated at Hospital Josefina Martínez, other pediatric hospitals and at home, for 12 months since June 2006. The clinical features, ventilation support, technical characteristics, follow-up and complications were reported. Results: The mean age was 3.5 years-old (range 3 months - 17 years). The duration of PMV ranged between 1 month to 5 years. Six patients (30%) are at home and 14 (70%) are hospitalized. In 14 patients (70%), the need of PMV was due to neuromuscular diseases. There was no mortality related to the use of Bipap through tracheostomy; only 4 patients had minor complications. Conclusions: This report suggests that the use of BiPAP through tracheostomy in patients with selection criteria is an applicable PVM method. However, comparative systematic trials are necessary to define costs, benefits and risks of this type of ventilation.

SOLEDAD MONTES F; MIREYA MÉNDEZ R; PATRICIO BARAÑAO G; PAMELA SALINAS F; FRANCISCO PRADO A

2008-01-01

235

Correlation between cone penetration test data and dynamic properties obtained from in situ frozen samples; Cone kannyu shiken kekka to toketsu sampling shiryo no doteki tokusei tono kankei  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A comparison was made between the cone penetration test data that was used as a means to evaluate the liquefaction of sandy soil and the indoor dynamic test data on in situ frozen samples, and the applicability was studied of the cone penetration test to the evaluation of sandy soil. In the cone, each measuring apparatus is built in for measuring penetration resistance, sleeve friction, pore water pressure, shear wave velocity and cone bend. A triaxial test equipment was repeatedly used in the liquefaction test with the frozen samples. Following knowledge was obtained from the cone penetration test at 6 sites. It is possible to roughly estimate the content of fines from the friction ratio. A correlation is established between the cone penetration resistance and the initial elastic shear modulus of the frozen samples. A correlation exists between the normalized penetration resistance for correcting soil influence and the normalized elastic shear modulus. Consequently, the estimation of liquefaction is made possible by correcting the cone penetration resistance with a vertical effective stress and minimum void ratio. In other words, a correlation exists between the normalized penetration resistance and the liquefaction resistance. 6 refs., 14 figs.

Sasao, H.; Kinoshita, F.; Nishi, K.; Suzuki, Y.; Takesue, K. [Kajima Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

1994-10-31

236

An evaluation of parameters compliance obtained through quality control tests in mammography undertaken at Sao Paulo, Brazil, from 2000 to 2009  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Portaria 453 of 1998 established a mandatory police for quality assurance program in Radiodiagnostic (PGQ), as a constituent part the Quality Control of Equipment, which includes a minimum set of constancy tests, it establishes acceptance performance limits and requires a minimum frequency to be undertaken. The Resolution 64 of 2003 added a methodology to undertake tests in Mammography which was substituted by Resolution 1016 of 2006 up today. The objective of mammography is the early detection of breast anomalies in order to indicate the efficient treatment with better chance of healing. The PGQ goal is optimization of the detection process with a good quality image and a minimum necessary patient dose. This work presents an evaluation of improvement in adequacy of main parameters obtained through quality assurance tests in Mammography undertaken at Sao Paulo from 2000 to 2009. (author)

2009-01-01

237

[Comparison of conventional PAP smear with liquid based cytology method (LBC)].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

AIM: Our aim was to summarize our and foreign experience in screening of cervical cancer, using conventional PAP smear and liquid-based cytology-LBC. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology of Medical university of Varna, Bulgaria we made clinical trial on 100 patients, that has the goal of comparing the results of liquid -based cytology with conventional PAP smear in different criteria. RESULTS: There are significant advantages of LBC mainly due to the lower number of unsatisfactory results and higher specificity for LSIL. Compared to foreign results our results are showing the same tendencies and values. CONCLUSIONS: Our and foreign authors results for the benefits of LBC are undisputable, although this method is still rarely used in our country.

Tsonev A; Ivanov S; Kovachev E

2012-01-01

238

Pancreatic STAT3 protects mice against caerulein-induced pancreatitis via PAP1 induction.  

Science.gov (United States)

The signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) is a transcription factor that controls expressions of several genes involved in cell survival, proliferation and differentiation, and tissue inflammation. However, the significance of pancreatic STAT3 in acute pancreatitis remains unclear. We generated conditional STAT3 knockout (stat3(?/?)) mice by crossing stat3(flox/flox) mice with Pdx1-promoter Cre transgenic mice. Caerulein administration activated pancreatic STAT3 and induced acute pancreatitis as early as 3 hours in wild-type mice, and full recovery from the induced pancreatic injury was observed within 7 days. The levels of serum amylase and lipase and histologic scores of pancreatic necrosis and inflammatory cell infiltration were significantly higher at 3 hours in stat3(?/?) mice than in stat3(flox/flox) mice. Pancreatic recovery after pancreatitis was significantly delayed in stat3(?/?) mice compared with stat3(flox/flox) mice. Although stat3(flox/flox) mice had marked production in the pancreas of pancreatitis-associated protein 1 (PAP1), a serum acute phase protein, this induction was completely abrogated in stat3(?/?) mice. Enforced production of PAP1 by a hydrodynamic procedure in the liver significantly suppressed pancreatic necrosis and inflammation and also promoted pancreatic regeneration and recovery in stat3(?/?) mice to levels similar to those observed in stat3(flox/flox) mice. In conclusion, pancreatic STAT3 is indispensable for PAP1 production, and this STAT3/PAP1 pathway plays a protective role in caerulein-induced pancreatitis. PMID:23064197

Shigekawa, Minoru; Hikita, Hayato; Kodama, Takahiro; Shimizu, Satoshi; Li, Wei; Uemura, Akio; Miyagi, Takuya; Hosui, Atsushi; Kanto, Tatsuya; Hiramatsu, Naoki; Tatsumi, Tomohide; Takeda, Kiyoshi; Akira, Shizuo; Takehara, Tetsuo

2012-10-10

239

Pancreatic STAT3 protects mice against caerulein-induced pancreatitis via PAP1 induction.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) is a transcription factor that controls expressions of several genes involved in cell survival, proliferation and differentiation, and tissue inflammation. However, the significance of pancreatic STAT3 in acute pancreatitis remains unclear. We generated conditional STAT3 knockout (stat3(?/?)) mice by crossing stat3(flox/flox) mice with Pdx1-promoter Cre transgenic mice. Caerulein administration activated pancreatic STAT3 and induced acute pancreatitis as early as 3 hours in wild-type mice, and full recovery from the induced pancreatic injury was observed within 7 days. The levels of serum amylase and lipase and histologic scores of pancreatic necrosis and inflammatory cell infiltration were significantly higher at 3 hours in stat3(?/?) mice than in stat3(flox/flox) mice. Pancreatic recovery after pancreatitis was significantly delayed in stat3(?/?) mice compared with stat3(flox/flox) mice. Although stat3(flox/flox) mice had marked production in the pancreas of pancreatitis-associated protein 1 (PAP1), a serum acute phase protein, this induction was completely abrogated in stat3(?/?) mice. Enforced production of PAP1 by a hydrodynamic procedure in the liver significantly suppressed pancreatic necrosis and inflammation and also promoted pancreatic regeneration and recovery in stat3(?/?) mice to levels similar to those observed in stat3(flox/flox) mice. In conclusion, pancreatic STAT3 is indispensable for PAP1 production, and this STAT3/PAP1 pathway plays a protective role in caerulein-induced pancreatitis.

Shigekawa M; Hikita H; Kodama T; Shimizu S; Li W; Uemura A; Miyagi T; Hosui A; Kanto T; Hiramatsu N; Tatsumi T; Takeda K; Akira S; Takehara T

2012-12-01

240

Can heart rate values obtained from laboratory and field lactate tests be used interchangeably to prescribe exercise intensity for soccer players?  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study was undertaken to investigate the relationship between blood lactate concentration ([La]) and heart rate (HR) values obtained during treadmill and field tests at fixed velocities with respect to interchangeability of results to be used in exercise prescription. A total of 22 male soccer players participated in the study. Each player performed exercise tests on a motorized treadmill and in the field with 3-min runs and 30 s allowed for blood sampling. During both tests, velocities at the first, second, and third stages were 8, 10, and 12 km x hr(-1), respectively. Velocity was then increased by 1 km x hr(-1) every 3 min until exhaustion. During the field test, players ran on artificial turf on a 120-m hexagonal track marked with cones placed 20 m apart. Running velocity was controlled by means of audio signals. Blood samples were analyzed immediately with an automated lactate analyzer. HR was monitored continuously at 5-s intervals. Data were analyzed with Student's paired t tests to look for differences between treadmill and field data. Coefficients of variation and Blan-Altman plots assessed agreement of HR and blood [La] values between the 2 tests. Although running velocities corresponding to a fixed blood [La] of 4 mmol L-1 showed significant differences between treadmill and field tests (15.9+/-0.9 vs 14.1+/-0.7 km x h(-1), respectively) (P<.01), no significant difference between HR values was noted (190+/-7 vs 187+/-7, field vs laboratory, respectively). Overall, the mean intermeasurement coefficient of variation was 4.8% (+/-0.9%) for HR. Although the lowest coefficient of variation (2.4%) was found, fairly wide differences between individual field and laboratory HR values at velocities corresponding to fixed blood [La] of 4 mmol.L(-1) cast doubt on the interchangeability of tests.

Kunduracioglu B; Guner R; Ulkar B; Erdogan A

2007-07-01

 
 
 
 
241

The Pap smear screening as an occasion for smoking cessation and physical activity counselling: effectiveness of the SPRINT randomized controlled trial.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: The organized Cervical Cancer Screening Programme (CCSP) in Italy might represent an occasion to deliver smoking cessation (SC) counselling to women attending the Pap test examination. Evidence of effectiveness of physical activity (PA) promotion and intervention in adjunct to SC counselling is not strong.Objective of the SPRINT trial was to evaluate the effectiveness of a standard SC counselling intervention delivered by trained midwives in the CCSP, and whether the adjunct of a PA counselling to the SC counselling might increase quit rates. METHODS/DESIGN: We undertook a randomized controlled trial of 1,100 women undergoing the Pap examination in the three study centres Florence, Turin, and Mantua: 363 were randomly assigned to the SC counselling arm, 366 to the SC?+?PA counselling arm, and 371 to the control group. The intervention was a standard brief SC counselling combined with a brief counselling on increasing PA, and was tailored according to the Di Clemente-Prochaska motivational stages of change for SC and/or PA. Primary outcomes were quit rates, improvement in the motivational stages of change for SC, and reduced daily cigarette consumption. Analysis was by intention to treat. RESULTS: Participants randomized in both intervention arms and in the preparation stage of change for SC doubled their likelihood of quitting at 6-month follow-up in comparison to controls (odds ratio [OR]=2.1, 95% confidence interval [95% CI]:1.0-4.6). Moreover, participants in the intervention arms and in the contemplation stage were more likely to reduce their daily cigarette consumption after the intervention (OR=1.8, 95% CI:1.1-3.0). Our study did not show any effect of PA counselling on various outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: Smoking cessation counselling delivered by midwives to smokers in preparation and contemplation stages of change during the Pap-smear screening was effective and should be recommended, given the high number of women attending the cervical cancer screening programme in Italy. Moreover, the daily number of women invited for the Pap-smear examination should be slightly lowered, in order to let midwives deliver SC counselling to smokers. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN52660565.

Gorini G; Carreras G; Giordano L; Anghinoni E; Iossa A; Coppo A; Talassi F; Galavotti M; Chellini E

2012-01-01

242

Papanicolaou na pós-menopausa: fatores associados a sua não realização Factors associated with lack of Pap smear screening in a group of postmenopausal Brazilian women  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar os fatores de risco relacionados à não realização do exame de Papanicolaou entre as mulheres que vivenciam a menopausa. Neste estudo de base populacional, composto de mulheres de 45-69 anos, residentes na área urbana de Maringá, Paraná, Brasil, foram avaliadas 456 mulheres no período da menopausa, as quais apresentaram uma média de 58,7 ± 5,7 anos, sendo 48,0 ± 5,0 anos a idade média do início da menopausa. A maior parte relatou ter até sete anos de estudo, apresentava companheiro, realizava atividade remunerada, era sedentária e não usuária de terapia de reposição hormonal. A cobertura de rastreamento de Papanicolaou foi de 84,5%. Após ajuste por análise multivariada, a faixa etária de 45-69 anos, ocupação remunerada, sem consulta ao ginecologista no último ano e sem realização de mamografia nos últimos dois anos foram associadas à não realização do exame. Os esforços para melhorar o rastreamento do câncer de colo do útero devem estar focados no conhecimento das mulheres e na diminuição dos fatores contribuintes para a não realização do exame de Papanicolaou.This study aimed to analyze risk factors for lack of Pap smear screening among menopausal women. This population-based study evaluated 456 women 45-69 years of age (mean 58.7; SD 5.7), with age at menopause 48.0 years (SD 5.0) living in the urban area of Maringá, Paraná State, Brazil. Most reported having 7 years of schooling or less, were married or living with a partner, had paid work, were sedentary, and were not on hormone replacement therapy. Coverage of Pap smear screening was 84.5%. After adjustment by multivariate analysis, the 45-69-year age bracket, paid work, no visit to the gynecologist in the previous year, and no mammogram in the two previous years were statistically associated with lack of Pap smear screening. Efforts to improve cervical cancer screening should focus on women's knowledge and reduce the factors that hinder women from performing Pap smear tests.

Sheila Cristina Rocha Brischiliari; Cátia Millene Dell'Agnolo; Laís Moraes Gil; Tiara Cristina Romeiro; Ângela Andréia França Gravena; Maria Dalva de Barros Carvalho; Sandra Marisa Pelloso

2012-01-01

243

Citopatológico de colo uterino entre gestantes no Sul do Brasil: um estudo transversal de base populacional Pap smears among pregnant women in Southern Brazil: a representative cross-sectional survey  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar a prevalência e identificar fatores associados ao não rastreamento voluntário para citopatológico (CP) de colo uterino entre puérperas em Rio Grande (RS). MÉTODOS: Entrevistadores previamente treinados aplicaram questionário padronizado, ainda na maternidade, em busca de informações sobre características demográficas da gestante, nível socioeconômico da família e tipo de assistência recebida durante o pré-natal para todas aquelas residentes nesse município que tiveram filhos entre 1º de janeiro e 31 de dezembro de 2010. Foram utilizados o teste do ?² para comparar proporções e a regressão de Poisson com ajuste robusto da variância na análise multivariável. RESULTADOS: Dentre as 2.288 entrevistadas, 33% não se submeteram ao CP de colo uterino. Destas, dois terços disseram desconhecer a necessidade de realizá-lo, 18% não fizeram este exame por medo ou vergonha e as demais por outras razões. Após ajuste para diversos fatores de confusão, as maiores razões de prevalência (RP) para não buscar por CP ocorreram entre aquelas de menor idade (RP=1,5; IC95% 1,25 - 1,80) e escolaridade (RP=1,5; IC95% 1,12 - 2,12), que viviam sem companheiro (RP=1,4; IC95% 1,24 - 1,62), fumantes (RP=1,2; IC95% 1,07 - 1,39), que não planejaram a gravidez (RP=1,3; IC95% 1,21 - 1,61), que completaram menos de seis consultas durante pré-natal (RP=1,4; IC95% 1,32 - 1,69) e usuárias de contraceptivo oral (RP=1,2; IC95% 1,04 - 1,38). CONCLUSÕES: Quanto maior o risco para câncer de colo uterino, menor a probabilidade de a gestante se submeter ao CP de colo uterino. Isso, certamente, tem contribuído para o aumento da morbimortalidade por esta doença nesta localidade.PURPOSE: To determine the prevalence and risk factors associated with failure of voluntary screening for cervical cancer during the gestational period in Rio Grande, Rio Grande do Sul State, Southern Brazil. METHODS: Previously trained interviewers applied a standardized questionnaire in the maternity to all mothers from this municipality who had delivered from January 1st to December 31st 2010 to obtain information about the demographic characteristics of the pregnant women, family socioeconomic status, and prenatal care received. The ?² test was used to compare proportions and Poisson regression with robust adjustment of variance was used in the multivariate analysis. RESULTS: Among the 2,288 respondents, 33% were not submitted to the Pap smear during pregnancy. Two thirds of these women stated that they were not aware of the need to perform it, 18% were not screened out of fear or shame, and the rest for other reasons. After adjustment, the highest prevalence ratios (PR) for noncompliance with the Pap smear occurred among young women (PR=1.5; 95%CI 1.25 - 1.80), with lower educational level (PR=1.5; 95%CI 1.12 - 2.12), who were living without a partner (PR=1.4; 95%CI 1.24 - 1.62), smokers (PR=1.2; 95%CI 1.07 - 1.39), who did not plan the current pregnancy (PR=1.3; 95%CI 1,21 - 1.61), who had attended less than six medical visits during the prenatal period (PR=1.4; 95%CI 1.32 - 1.69) and among users of oral contraceptives (PR=1.2; 95%CI 1.04 - 1.38). CONCLUSIONS: The higher the risk for uterine cervical cancer, the less likely a pregnant woman is to undergo a Pap smear. This definitely contributed to the increased morbidity and mortality from this disease in this setting.

Juraci Almeida Cesar; Gabriela Breitembach dos Santos; Andrea Tomais Sutil; Carolina Fischer Cunha; Samuel de Carvalho Dumith

2012-01-01

244

Análise da cobertura e dos exames colpocitológicos não retirados de uma Unidade Básica de Saúde/ Analysis of coverage and of the pap test exams not retired of a Basic Health Unit/ Análisis de la cobertura y de los exámenes de papanicolaou no retirados de una Unidad Basica de Salud  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Analisar a cobertura e os exames colpocitológicos não retirados de uma Unidade de Saúde. Pesquisa documental retrospectiva, na qual foram avaliados os dados de cobertura de 2007 e os 225 exames realizados e não retirados da unidade até janeiro de 2008. Para a análise estatística foi aplicado o cálculo da freqüência das variáveis pesquisadas. A média mensal de exames realizados foi de 102,6 exames. A cobertura do exame em 2007 foi de 11,22% entre as mulheres de (more) 25 a 59 anos. Dos 938 exames realizados entre fevereiro e novembro de 2007, 225 (23,98%) mulheres não receberam o resultado. A maioria das mulheres (67,5%), que realizou o exame e não retornou, tinha até 30 anos de idade. O não retorno das mulheres para receber o resultado do exame dificulta o acompanhamento, a integralidade e continuidade da assistência, contribuindo para uma intervenção em fases mais avançadas da doença. Abstract in spanish Analizar la cobertura y los resultados de los exámenes colpocitológicos no retirados de una Unidad de Salud. Investigación documental retrospectiva, en la que fueron evaluados los datos de cobertura de 2007 y las 225 pruebas realizadas y no retiradas en la unidad hasta enero de 2008. Para el análisis estadístico se utilizó el cálculo de la frecuencia de las variables estudiadas. El promedio mensual de exámenes efectuados fue 102,6. La cobertura del examen en 2007 (more) fue del 11,22% entre las mujeres de 25 a 59 años. Sobre los 938 análisis realizados entre febrero y noviembre de 2007, 225 (23,98%) mujeres no retiraron el resultado. La mayoría de las mujeres (67,5%) que llevaron a cabo el examen y no retornaron tenían 30 años de edad o menos. El no retorno de la mujer a recibir el resultado del examen dificulta el seguimiento, la integralidad y la continuidad de la atención, lo cual aumenta la posibilidad de una intervención en etapas más avanzadas de la enfermedad. Abstract in english To analyze the coverage and the colpocytology exams that were not collected from a Health Center. This is a retrospective documentary study, in which the data were evaluated for coverage of 2007 and all 225 tests that were performed but were not collected by the patients unit until January 2008. Statistical analysis was performed using the frequency of the studied variables. The average monthly number of tests was 102.6 examinations. The coverage of the examination in 200 (more) 7 was 11.22% among women with 25 to 59 years of age. Of the 938 tests conducted between February and November 2007, 225 (23.98%) women did not receive the result. Most women (67.5%) who performed the examination and had not returned were 30 years old or younger. The women's attitude of not returning to collect their exam results increases the difficulty of follow up, and providing comprehensive and continuity of care, contributing with an intervention in advanced stages of the disease.

Vasconcelos, Camila Teixeira Moreira; Vasconcelos Neto, José Ananias; Castelo, Ana Rita Pimentel; Medeiros, Francisco das Chagas; Pinheiro, Ana Karina Bezerra

2010-06-01

245

Análise da cobertura e dos exames colpocitológicos não retirados de uma Unidade Básica de Saúde Análisis de la cobertura y de los exámenes de papanicolaou no retirados de una Unidad Basica de Salud Analysis of coverage and of the pap test exams not retired of a Basic Health Unit  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Analisar a cobertura e os exames colpocitológicos não retirados de uma Unidade de Saúde. Pesquisa documental retrospectiva, na qual foram avaliados os dados de cobertura de 2007 e os 225 exames realizados e não retirados da unidade até janeiro de 2008. Para a análise estatística foi aplicado o cálculo da freqüência das variáveis pesquisadas. A média mensal de exames realizados foi de 102,6 exames. A cobertura do exame em 2007 foi de 11,22% entre as mulheres de 25 a 59 anos. Dos 938 exames realizados entre fevereiro e novembro de 2007, 225 (23,98%) mulheres não receberam o resultado. A maioria das mulheres (67,5%), que realizou o exame e não retornou, tinha até 30 anos de idade. O não retorno das mulheres para receber o resultado do exame dificulta o acompanhamento, a integralidade e continuidade da assistência, contribuindo para uma intervenção em fases mais avançadas da doença.Analizar la cobertura y los resultados de los exámenes colpocitológicos no retirados de una Unidad de Salud. Investigación documental retrospectiva, en la que fueron evaluados los datos de cobertura de 2007 y las 225 pruebas realizadas y no retiradas en la unidad hasta enero de 2008. Para el análisis estadístico se utilizó el cálculo de la frecuencia de las variables estudiadas. El promedio mensual de exámenes efectuados fue 102,6. La cobertura del examen en 2007 fue del 11,22% entre las mujeres de 25 a 59 años. Sobre los 938 análisis realizados entre febrero y noviembre de 2007, 225 (23,98%) mujeres no retiraron el resultado. La mayoría de las mujeres (67,5%) que llevaron a cabo el examen y no retornaron tenían 30 años de edad o menos. El no retorno de la mujer a recibir el resultado del examen dificulta el seguimiento, la integralidad y la continuidad de la atención, lo cual aumenta la posibilidad de una intervención en etapas más avanzadas de la enfermedad.To analyze the coverage and the colpocytology exams that were not collected from a Health Center. This is a retrospective documentary study, in which the data were evaluated for coverage of 2007 and all 225 tests that were performed but were not collected by the patients unit until January 2008. Statistical analysis was performed using the frequency of the studied variables. The average monthly number of tests was 102.6 examinations. The coverage of the examination in 2007 was 11.22% among women with 25 to 59 years of age. Of the 938 tests conducted between February and November 2007, 225 (23.98%) women did not receive the result. Most women (67.5%) who performed the examination and had not returned were 30 years old or younger. The women's attitude of not returning to collect their exam results increases the difficulty of follow up, and providing comprehensive and continuity of care, contributing with an intervention in advanced stages of the disease.

Camila Teixeira Moreira Vasconcelos; José Ananias Vasconcelos Neto; Ana Rita Pimentel Castelo; Francisco das Chagas Medeiros; Ana Karina Bezerra Pinheiro

2010-01-01

246

Engineering of papaya mosaic virus (PapMV) nanoparticles with a CTL epitope derived from influenza NP.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: The ever-present threat of infectious disease, e.g. influenza pandemics, and the increasing need for new and effective treatments in immunotherapy are the driving forces that motivate research into new and innovative vaccine platforms. Ideally, such platforms should trigger an efficient CTL response, be safe, and easy to manufacture. We recently developed a novel nanoparticle adjuvant comprised of papaya mosaic virus (PapMV) coat protein (CP) assembled around an RNA. The PapMV nanoparticle is an efficient vaccine platform in which the peptide antigen is fused to the C-terminus of the PapMV CP, leading to nanoparticles presenting surface-exposed epitope. The fusion stabilizes the epitope and improves its immunogenicity. We found recently that C-terminal fusions are not always efficient, depending on the nature of the peptide fused to the platform. RESULTS: We chose a CTL epitope derived from the nucleocapsid (NP) of influenza virus (NP???????) for this proof-of-concept demonstration. Recombinant nanoparticles harbouring a fusion at the N-terminus were more efficient in triggering a CTL response. Efficacy appeared to be linked to the stability of the nanoparticles at 37°C. We also showed that discs--smaller than nanoparticles--made of 20 subunits of PapMV CP are less efficient for induction of a CTL response in mice, revealing that assembly of the recombinant PapMV CP into nanoparticles is crucial to triggering an efficient CTL response. CONCLUSION: The point of fusion on the PapMV vaccine platform is critical to triggering an efficient CTL response. Efficacy is linked to nanoparticle stability; nanoparticles must be stable at 37°C but remain susceptible to cellular proteases to ensure efficient processing of the CTL epitope by cells of the immune system. The results of this study improve our understanding of the PapMV vaccine platform, which will facilitate the design of efficient vaccines to various infectious threats.

Babin C; Majeau N; Leclerc D

2013-01-01

247

Engineering of papaya mosaic virus (PapMV) nanoparticles with a CTL epitope derived from influenza NP  

Science.gov (United States)

Background The ever-present threat of infectious disease, e.g. influenza pandemics, and the increasing need for new and effective treatments in immunotherapy are the driving forces that motivate research into new and innovative vaccine platforms. Ideally, such platforms should trigger an efficient CTL response, be safe, and easy to manufacture. We recently developed a novel nanoparticle adjuvant comprised of papaya mosaic virus (PapMV) coat protein (CP) assembled around an RNA. The PapMV nanoparticle is an efficient vaccine platform in which the peptide antigen is fused to the C-terminus of the PapMV CP, leading to nanoparticles presenting surface-exposed epitope. The fusion stabilizes the epitope and improves its immunogenicity. We found recently that C-terminal fusions are not always efficient, depending on the nature of the peptide fused to the platform. Results We chose a CTL epitope derived from the nucleocapsid (NP) of influenza virus (NP147-155) for this proof-of-concept demonstration. Recombinant nanoparticles harbouring a fusion at the N-terminus were more efficient in triggering a CTL response. Efficacy appeared to be linked to the stability of the nanoparticles at 37°C. We also showed that discs—smaller than nanoparticles—made of 20 subunits of PapMV CP are less efficient for induction of a CTL response in mice, revealing that assembly of the recombinant PapMV CP into nanoparticles is crucial to triggering an efficient CTL response. Conclusion The point of fusion on the PapMV vaccine platform is critical to triggering an efficient CTL response. Efficacy is linked to nanoparticle stability; nanoparticles must be stable at 37°C but remain susceptible to cellular proteases to ensure efficient processing of the CTL epitope by cells of the immune system. The results of this study improve our understanding of the PapMV vaccine platform, which will facilitate the design of efficient vaccines to various infectious threats.

2013-01-01

248

Tailored telephone counseling to improve adherence to follow-up regimens after an abnormal pap smear among minority, underserved women.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: The present study explored the impact of a tailored telephone counseling intervention on increasing follow-up adherence after an abnormal Pap smear result among low-income, minority women, which may reduce cervical cancer disparity. METHODS: Participants (N=211) were randomly assigned to receive: (1) a telephone reminder that included an assessment of barriers to adherence, as well as counseling tailored to the barriers elicited; (2) telephone reminder and barriers assessment, followed by a mailed home tailored barriers print brochure; or (3) enhanced standard care comprising telephone reminder and barriers assessment. Assessments were obtained at initial contact and 1-week later, as well as at 6- and 12-months after the initial colposcopy. RESULTS: The telephone counseling group showed greater adherence to follow-up recommendations than did the combined other two groups (p<0.05). For the initial colposcopy, tailored telephone barriers counseling was more effective among women with a high school education or less. CONCLUSION: Tailored telephone barriers counseling improves adherence to initial colposcopy, as well as to longer-term medical follow-up, among low-income, inner-city women. PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS: Dissemination of barriers counseling into ongoing telephone reminder calls and contacts may decrease disparities in cancer outcomes, especially among women with less than post-secondary education.

Miller SM; Hui SK; Wen KY; Scarpato J; Zhu F; Buzaglo J; Hernandez EE

2013-08-01

249

Correlation between extent of metastatic lesions in whole body bone scintigraphy of patients with prostatic cancer and prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP) in blood by PAP RIA kit 'Eiken'  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Whole body bone scintigraphy of thirteen patients who were pathohistologically confirmed prostatic cancer was processed by four colors, and then the extent of bone metastases was estimated quantitatively. On the basis of this estimation, the grade of the expansion of bone metastases was classified into 4 grades (0, 1, 2, and 3 grades). And then, correlations of the expansion of bone metastases with PAP, AcP and AlP levels in blood were investigated. The results are as follows: 1) Correlation between the extent of bone metastases and PAP levels was relatively high (r = 0.81). 2) As for the relation between the expansion grade of bone metastases and PAP levels, the levels did not increase in 0 and 1 grades, but markedly increased in 2 and 3 grades. AcP also showed a little similar tendency. 3) In the correlation of PAP with AcP and with AlP, AcP (r = 0.78) was higher than AlP (r = 0.42). 4) Therefore, PAP levels seem to be a good index of the extent of bone metastases in prostatic cancer.

Kida, T.; Higuchi, Y. (Fukushima Medical Coll. (Japan))

1981-08-01

250

Pap, mammography, and clinical breast examination screening among women with disabilities: a systematic review.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Research has found some disparities between U.S. women with and without disabilities in receiving clinical preventive services. Substantial differences may also exist within the population of women with disabilities. The current study examined published research on Pap smears, mammography, and clinical breast examinations across disability severity levels among women with disabilities. METHODS: Informed by an expert panel, we followed guidelines for systematic literature reviews and searched MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and Cinahl databases. We also reviewed in-depth four disability- or preventive service-relevant journals. Two reviewers independently extracted data from all selected articles. FINDINGS: Five of 74 reviewed publications of met all our inclusion criteria and all five reported data on Pap smears, mammography, and clinical breast examination. Articles classified disability severity groups by functional and/or activity levels. Associations between disability severity and Pap smear use were inconsistent across the publications. Mammography screening fell as disability level increased according to three of the five studies. Results demonstrated modestly lower screening, but also were inconsistent for clinical breast examinations across studies. CONCLUSION: Evidence is inconsistent concerning disparities in these important cancer screening services with increasing disability levels. Published studies used differing methods and definitions, adding to concerns about the evidence for screening disparities rising along with increasing disability. More focused research is required to determine whether significant disparities exist in cancer screening among women with differing disability levels. This information is essential for national and local public health and health care organizations to target interventions to improve care for women with disabilities.

Andresen EM; Peterson-Besse JJ; Krahn GL; Walsh ES; Horner-Johnson W; Iezzoni LI

2013-07-01

251

Male urethral Pap smears and peniscopy examination and polymerase chain reaction human papillomavirus correlation.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aims of this study were to determine HPV in a male population and its correlation with penile gross inspection and urethral pap smears. Fifty male volunteers were included in the study; all of them were sexual partners of women with evidence of HPV-related cervical diseases. Urethral Pap smear features and polymerase chain reaction (PCR; HPV detection) of urethral samples were correlated. Statistical analyses were conducted to identify variables associated with high and low-risk HPV types. Mean age of participants was 33.14 ± 1.52 (range, 23-50 years), and the mean age for those with high risk HPV was 32.12 ± 6.66 and 34.08 ± 6.58 for subjects with low-risk HPV (P = 0.820). Penile gross inspection revealed 19 (38%) cases with no lesions, papules in balanoprepusial furrol/sulcus in 23 (46%) cases, papilla in 23 (46%) cases, urethral lesions in 22 (44%) cases, penile body plaques in 22 (44%) cases, melanoses in 11 (22%) cases, sebaceous cysts on scrotum in 10 (20%) cases, and molting of the glands in 28 (56%) cases. Cytopathologic analysis revealed koilocytes in 24 (48%) cases. Dyskeratosis was observed in 24 (48%) cases. A bacterial background was found in 27 (54%) cases, and inflammatory cells were found in 27 (54%) cases. Twenty-six (52%) cases showed cytological features suggestive of Gardnerella Vaginalis. Twenty-four (48%) cases were high-risk HPV, and 26 (52%) were low-risk HPV (P = 0.037) as assessed by PCR-based detection. There was a statistically significant difference between koilocytes and bacterial background with high-risk human papillomavirus (P = 0.001). Abnormal colposcopy examination detected lesions were sampled for cytology by Pap smears. PMID:21538947

Tena-Suck, Martha Lilia; Alarcón-Herrera, América; Tirado-Sánchez, Andrés; Rösl, Frank; Astudillo-de la Vega, Horacio

2011-04-28

252

Pap Smear  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Inc. www.X-Plain.com og020106 Last reviewed: 10/01/2012 1 The female reproductive organs include: • ... Inc. www.X-Plain.com og020106 Last reviewed: 10/01/2012 2 Cervical cancer usually develops gradually. ...

253

Pap Smear  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... cancer of the cervix, also called cervical cancer. Since the cervix comes in contact with semen during ... neoplasia (CIN) 2, CIN 3, or cervical cancer. Since cervical cancer is very strongly associated with sexually ...

254

Pap Smear  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Some sexually transmitted diseases are associated with the development of cancer of the cervix, also called cervical ... available. These viruses have been linked to the development of cervical cancer. Taking the vaccine helps prevent ...

255

Pap Smear  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... make sure to ask your doctor about it. Smoking has also been linked to cervical cancer. This ... an excellent reason to refrain from or stop smoking! This document is for informational purposes and is ...

256

Pap Smear  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... and the rectum. Diseases of the Cervix Some sexually transmitted diseases are associated with the development of cancer of ... unprotected heterosexual sex, it could get infected with sexually transmitted diseases. This document is for informational purposes and is ...

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Pap Smear  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... surface area of the cervix. This is called “carcinoma in situ.” If left untreated, the cancer will ... could move to other organs. Treating atypia and carcinoma in situ is very successful in curing cervical ...

258

Pap Smear  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... found early. There are several different recommendations for screening. The following are some of the recommendations. Talk ... liquid-based cytology. Your doctor may have recommended screenings more or less often. Talk to your healthcare ...

259

Pap Smear  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... is and why it is beneficial. Ovaries Fallopian Tubes Uterus Vagina Anatomy This document is for informational ... organs include: • The vagina • The uterus • The Fallopian tubes • The ovaries These organs are located in the ...

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Pap Smear  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... extremely helpful in preventing sexually transmitted diseases. A vaccine against some types of the human papilloma viruses ... to the development of cervical cancer. Taking the vaccine helps prevent cervical cancer. If you have not ...

 
 
 
 
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Pap Smear  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... organs are located in the pelvis, between the urinary bladder and the rectum. The ovaries have 2 ... the body between the urethra, which is the urinary bladder opening, and the rectum. Diseases of the ...

262

HPV Testing Proves Sensitive in Identifying ASCUS Abnormalities That May Lead to Cervical Cancer  

Science.gov (United States)

Testing for the human papillomavirus (HPV) may help doctors and patients decide what to do about the mildly abnormal and very common Pap test result known as ASCUS (short for atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance)

263

Fødevareemballager af trykt papir og pap : Udvikling og validering af analysekoncept  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Der er i dette projekt udviklet et analysekoncept der kan anvendes som et led i trykkeriernes vurdering af om fødevareemballager af trykt pap og papir lever op til lovgivningens krav. Der er arbejdet med vurderinger baseret på såvel ”worst-case” ekstraktion af de trykte materialer som på migrationstest foretaget med fødevaresimulatoren for tørre fødevarer. Fødevaresimulatoren er en adsorbent (polymeren Tenax) som effektivt optager stoffer der via gasfasen afgives fra tryksagen. Der er valideret og sammenlignet analysemetoder baseret på ekstraktioner af både tryksagerne og Tenax med henholdsvis ethanol og superkritisk kuldioxid. I alle tilfælde er slutbestemmelsen sket ved gaskromatografi med massespektrometrisk detektion (GC-MS). Med det anvendte udstyr kunne vi i nogle tilfælde detektere kendte stoffer i koncentrationer svarende til 10 ?g/kg fødevare. Følsomheden i en screeningsanalyse for ukendte stoffer ligger desværre en del højere. På baggrund af flere fødevareskandaler de senere år, stilles der fra forbrugere, fødevareproducenter og myndighederne stadig større krav til trykkerier af emballager af pap og papir om at levere produkter af høj og dokumenteret kvalitet. I rapporten gennemgås derfor summarisk de gældende europæiske regler på området som trykkerierne skal leve op til og der henvises til relevante vejledninger fra myndigheder og brancheforeninger. Det er væsentligt at trykkerierne arbejder efter god fremstillingsmæssig praksis (GMP) og det beskrives hvordan dette kan organiseres. Ved fremstillingen af en tryksag indgår mange processer, materialer og kemikalier. Det er derfor fundet nødvendigt at give en oversigt over de forskellige trykteknikker som er relevante for pap og papir ligesom råvarerne, fra forskellige papkvaliteter over trykfarverne til det fugtevand som indgår i produktionen af en tryksag bliver gennemgået. Som et led i trykkeriernes GMP vil det være naturligt at indsamle informationer om råvarenes eventuelle indhold af sundhedsskadelige stoffer. Trykfarve- og lakproducenternes manglende vilje til at oplyse om deres produkters sammensætning vanskeliggør desværre trykkeriernes opgave med at dokumentere, at den færdige emballage er i overensstemmelse med lovgivningen. Det ville derfor være ønskeligt, at man havde en generel kemisk analysemetode som kunne sikre at en tryksag er i orden. Men der findes desværre ikke en metode der kan sikre at bare migrationsgrænserne bliver overholdt for de mere end 6000 stoffer, der eksempelvis står opført i den svejtsiske lovgivning om trykfarver. Men jo mere trykkerierne ved om råvarernes sammensætning, jo simplere metoder kan man bruge til at dokumentere overensstemmelse med reglerne. Ved analyse af en række tryksager gennem projektforløbet fandt vi flere problematiske forhold. Eksempelvis førte anvendelsen af de såkaldt UV-hybrid-farver til en for høj migration af to fotoinitiatorer. Trykkeriet har derfor valgt at lade disse farver udgå af sortimentet. Selv om projektet handlede om trykfarver er kvaliteten af materialet der trykkes på meget væsentligt for slutproduktet. Det skal derfor nævnes at pap og papir ofte fremstilles helt eller delvis af genbrugsfibre som potentielt indeholder forureninger der kan give anledning til forurening af fødevarerne. I afsnit 9 opsummeres en samling anbefalinger til trykkerierne om GMP, valg af egnet pap og trykfarver og en strategi for arbejdet med analytisk at sikre overensstemmelse med reglerne.

Petersen, Jens HØjslev; Jensen, Lisbeth Krüger

2013-01-01

264

Star-PAP controls HPV E6 regulation of p53 and sensitizes cells to VP-16.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Cervical cancer is the most common genital malignancy and the high-risk human papillomaviruses (HPV type 16, 18 and 31, and so on) are major agents for its cause. A key switch for the onset of cervical cancers by HPVs is the cellular degradation of the tumor-suppressor p53 that is mediated by the HPV-generated E6 protein. E6 forms a complex with the E3 ubiquitin-ligase E6-associated protein (E6AP) leading to p53 degradation. The components that control E6 expression and the mechanisms for regulation of the expression in host cells remain undefined. Here we show that the nuclear noncanonical poly(A) polymerase (PAP) speckle targeted PIPKI? regulated PAP (Star-PAP) controls E6 mRNA polyadenylation and expression and modulates wild-type p53 levels as well as cell cycle profile in high-risk HPV-positive cells. In the absence of Star-PAP, treatment of cells with the chemotherapeutic drug VP-16 dramatically reduced E6 and increased p53 levels. This diminished both cell proliferation and anchorage-independent growth required for cancer progression, indicating a synergism between VP-16 treatment and the loss of Star-PAP. This identifies Star-PAP as a potential drug target for the treatment of HPV-positive cancer cells. These data provide a mechanistic basis for increasing the sensitivity and efficiency of chemotherapy in the treatment of cancers that have low levels of wild-type p53.Oncogene advance online publication, 18 February 2013; doi:10.1038/onc.2013.14.

Li W; Anderson RA

2013-02-01

265

The novel poly(A) polymerase Star-PAP is a signal-regulated switch at the 3'-end of mRNAs.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The mRNA 3'-untranslated region (3'-UTR) modulates message stability, transport, intracellular location and translation. We have discovered a novel nuclear poly(A) polymerase termed Star-PAP (nuclear speckle targeted PIPKI? regulated-poly(A) polymerase) that couples with the transcriptional machinery and is regulated by the phosphoinositide lipid messenger phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate (PI4,5P(2)), the central lipid in phosphoinositide signaling. PI4,5P(2) is generated primarily by type I phosphatidylinositol phosphate kinases (PIPKI). Phosphoinositides are present in the nucleus including at nuclear speckles compartments separate from known membrane structures. PIPKs regulate cellular functions by interacting with PI4,5P(2) effectors where PIPKs generate PI4,5P(2) that then modulates the activity of the associated effectors. Nuclear PIPKI? interacts with and regulates Star-PAP, and PI4,5P(2) specifically activates Star-PAP in a gene- and signaling-dependent manner. Importantly, other select signaling molecules integrated into the Star-PAP complex seem to regulate Star-PAP activities and processivities toward RNA substrates, and unique sequence elements around the Star-PAP binding sites within the 3'-UTR of target genes contribute to Star-PAP specificity for processing. Therefore, Star-PAP and its regulatory molecules form a signaling nexus at the 3'-end of target mRNAs to control the expression of select group of genes including the ones involved in stress responses.

Li W; Laishram RS; Anderson RA

2013-01-01

266

Training of health personnel to improve knowledge and skills in taking Pap: Effect of an educational intervention to prevent cervical cancer  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of an educational intervention to improve knowledge and skills in taking Pap smear conducted by health staff implementing the program on Early Detection of Cervical Cancer. Methods: A quasiexperimental, longitudinal and prospective study, held from October 25 2010 to April 11, 2011 at a hospital in San Luis Potosi, Mexico. To select groups applied a non-probabilistic convenience sampling that was composed of 28 people, 15 for the study group and 13 to the control group. The study group received training that was divided into three phases in which assessed the knowledge and skills taking the smear, the control group received conventional training offered by your workplace. Papanicolaou quality was measured before and after the intervention. The reference used international classification system Bethesda 2001. For data analysis we used the Student t test. Results: The study group increased knowledge (t = 8.768, p = 0.000) in the management of official standards, in the anatomy of the lower female genital tract and in the form of testing. Technical skills (t = 8.639, p = 0.000) also increased in the study group after the intervention. The control group showed no significant changes. The quality report of the samples in the study group increased from 60% to 86.7% and in the control group decreased from 92.3% to 84.6%. Conclusions: The training is effective in improving the knowledge and skills in taking Pap. Health staff who received the training improved their performance and showed more interest in providing high quality service to women.

Gutiérrez-Enríquez Sandra Olimpia; Frías-Navarro Víctor Omar; Oros-Ovalle Cuauhtémoc; Ortiz-Valdez Julio Alejandro; Gaytán-Hernández Darío; Terán-Figueroa Yolanda

2013-01-01

267

Examen oftálmico para trámite de la licencia de conducción en Santiago de Cuba Ophthalmic test for the procedure to obtain a driving licence in Santiago de Cuba  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Se evaluó la experiencia acumulada durante los años 2003-2009 por la Comisión Municipal de Chequeo Oftalmológico de Santiago de Cuba; grupo de trabajo evaluador de los aspirantes a obtener la licencia de conducción, que radica en el Policlínico Docente "Frank País García". En tal sentido, el examen ocular a los presuntos futuros conductores reviste suma importancia, de modo que constituye una gran responsabilidad, tanto para el médico como para los interesados, que esa revisión de la agudeza visual se realice con la calidad requerida y periódicamente para brindar una mayor seguridad en la vía pública. En el municipio de Santiago de Cuba, donde se dispone de vastos conocimientos prácticos al respecto y capital humano capacitado, se han logrado buenos resultados hasta el 2010; éxito en esta esfera que se ha extendido a las restantes comisiones de la provincia y contribuido a alcanzar la excelencia en los servicios.The experience gathered during the years 2003-2009 from the Municipal Committee of Ophthalmic Examination in Santiago de Cuba was assessed; this work group is settled in the Teaching General Hospital "Frank País Garcia" and evaluates the candidates for obtaining a driving license. In this way, the ophthalmic test to the presumptive future drivers involves great significance, so it constitutes a great responsibility for both, the doctor and the interested person, to carry out this ophthalmic examination with the required quality and periodically, to provide a major safety in the public highway. In the municipality of Santiago de Cuba, where wide practical knowledge on the topic and qualified human staff is stipulated. Good results have been achieved up to 2010 in Santiago de Cuba municipality where wide practical knowledge and qualified human staff exist; and this success was broaden to the other committees of the province, which has contributed to reach excellence on the services.

Eglis Esteban García Alcolea; Gaspar González Deruville; Magalis Despaigne Revilla; María del Carmen Ruiz Álvarez

2011-01-01

268

Examen oftálmico para trámite de la licencia de conducción en Santiago de Cuba/ Ophthalmic test for the procedure to obtain a driving licence in Santiago de Cuba  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Se evaluó la experiencia acumulada durante los años 2003-2009 por la Comisión Municipal de Chequeo Oftalmológico de Santiago de Cuba; grupo de trabajo evaluador de los aspirantes a obtener la licencia de conducción, que radica en el Policlínico Docente "Frank País García". En tal sentido, el examen ocular a los presuntos futuros conductores reviste suma importancia, de modo que constituye una gran responsabilidad, tanto para el médico como para los interesados, q (more) ue esa revisión de la agudeza visual se realice con la calidad requerida y periódicamente para brindar una mayor seguridad en la vía pública. En el municipio de Santiago de Cuba, donde se dispone de vastos conocimientos prácticos al respecto y capital humano capacitado, se han logrado buenos resultados hasta el 2010; éxito en esta esfera que se ha extendido a las restantes comisiones de la provincia y contribuido a alcanzar la excelencia en los servicios. Abstract in english The experience gathered during the years 2003-2009 from the Municipal Committee of Ophthalmic Examination in Santiago de Cuba was assessed; this work group is settled in the Teaching General Hospital "Frank País Garcia" and evaluates the candidates for obtaining a driving license. In this way, the ophthalmic test to the presumptive future drivers involves great significance, so it constitutes a great responsibility for both, the doctor and the interested person, to carry (more) out this ophthalmic examination with the required quality and periodically, to provide a major safety in the public highway. In the municipality of Santiago de Cuba, where wide practical knowledge on the topic and qualified human staff is stipulated. Good results have been achieved up to 2010 in Santiago de Cuba municipality where wide practical knowledge and qualified human staff exist; and this success was broaden to the other committees of the province, which has contributed to reach excellence on the services.

García Alcolea, Eglis Esteban; González Deruville, Gaspar; Despaigne Revilla, Magalis; Ruiz Álvarez, María del Carmen

2011-03-01

269

Four-center oxidation state combinations and near-infrared absorption in [Ru(pap)(Q)2]n (Q = 3,5-di-tert-butyl-N-aryl-1,2-benzoquinonemonoimine, pap = 2-phenylazopyridine).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The complex series [Ru(pap)(Q)2](n) ([1](n)-[4](n); n = +2, +1, 0, -1, -2) contains four redox non-innocent entities: one ruthenium ion, 2-phenylazopyridine (pap), and two o-iminoquinone moieties, Q = 3,5-di-tert-butyl-N-aryl-1,2-benzoquinonemonoimine (aryl = C6H5 (1(+)); m-(Cl)2C6H3 (2(+)); m-(OCH3)2C6H3 (3(+)); m-(tBu)2C6H3 (4(+))). A crystal structure determination of the representative compound, [1]ClO4, established the crystallization of the ctt-isomeric form, that is, cis and trans with respect to the mutual orientations of O and N donors of two Q ligands, and the coordinating azo N atom trans to the O donor of Q. The sensitive C-O (average: 1.299(3)?Å), C-N (average: 1.346(4)?Å) and intra-ring C-C (meta; average: 1.373(4)?Å) bond lengths of the coordinated iminoquinone moieties in corroboration with the N-N length (1.292(3)?Å) of pap in 1(+) establish [Ru(III)(pap(0))(Q(·-))2 ](+) as the most appropriate electronic structural form. The coupling of three spins from one low-spin ruthenium(III) (t2g(5)) and two Q(·-) radicals in 1(+)-4(+) gives a ground state with one unpaired electron on Q(·-), as evident from g = 1.995 radical-type EPR signals for 1(+)-4(+). Accordingly, the DFT-calculated Mulliken spin densities of 1(+) (1.152 for two Q, Ru: -0.179, pap: 0.031) confirm Q-based spin. Complex ions 1(+)-4(+) exhibit two near-IR absorption bands at about ? = 2000 and 920?nm in addition to intense multiple transitions covering the visible to UV regions; compounds [1]ClO4-[4]ClO4 undergo one oxidation and three separate reduction processes within ±2.0?V versus SCE. The crystal structure of the neutral (one-electron reduced) state (2) was determined to show metal-based reduction and an EPR signal at g = 1.996. The electronic transitions of the complexes 1(n)-4(n) (n = +2, +1, 0, -1, -2) in the UV, visible, and NIR regions, as determined by using spectroelectrochemistry, have been analyzed by TD-DFT calculations and reveal significant low-energy absorbance (?max >1000?nm) for cations, anions, and neutral forms. The experimental studies in combination with DFT calculations suggest the dominant valence configurations of 1(n)-4(n) in the accessible redox states to be [Ru(III)(pap(0))(Q(·-))(Q(0))](2+) (1(2+)-4(2+))?[Ru(III)(pap(0))(Q(·-))2](+) (1(+)-4(+))?[Ru(II)(pap(0))(Q(·-))2] (1-4)?[Ru(II)(pap(·-))(Q(·-))2](-) (1(-)-4(-))?[Ru(III)(pap(·-))(Q(2-))2](2-) (1(2-)-4(2-)).

Das D; Agarwala H; Chowdhury AD; Patra T; Mobin SM; Sarkar B; Kaim W; Lahiri GK

2013-06-01

270

CIEMAT Interlaboratories Comparison of the Results obtained in the Proficiency Test Run by IAEA; Comparacion Interlaboratorios del CIEMAT de los Resultados Obtenidos en la Prueba de Capacitacion de Analisis de Transuranicos en Cenizas propocionadas por el OIEA  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report contains the results obtained by two different laboratories from CIEMAT after participating in the Proficiency Test organised by IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency) in 1999. This test involves the analysis of fly ashes containing natural radionuclides and different amounts of added transuranics. The extraction techniques, counting methods and results obtained are detailed. This type of test are used for the labs to achieve their accreditation and check the reliability of the procedures routinely employed. (Author) 4 refs.

Gasco, C.; Anton, M. P.; Alvarez, A.; Navarro, N.; Meral, J.; Gonzalez, A.; Higueras Lafaja, E. [Ciemat. Madrid (Spain)

2000-07-01

271

PAP- and GLD-2-type poly(A) polymerases are required sequentially in cytoplasmic polyadenylation and oogenesis in Drosophila.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Cytoplasmic polyadenylation has an essential role in activating maternal mRNA translation during early development. In vertebrates, the reaction requires CPEB, an RNA-binding protein and the poly(A) polymerase GLD-2. GLD-2-type poly(A) polymerases form a family clearly distinguishable from canonical poly(A) polymerases (PAPs). In Drosophila, canonical PAP is involved in cytoplasmic polyadenylation with Orb, the Drosophila CPEB, during mid-oogenesis. We show that the female germline GLD-2 is encoded by wispy. Wispy acts as a poly(A) polymerase in a tethering assay and in vivo for cytoplasmic polyadenylation of specific mRNA targets during late oogenesis and early embryogenesis. wispy function is required at the final stage of oogenesis for metaphase of meiosis I arrest and for progression beyond this stage. By contrast, canonical PAP acts with Orb for the earliest steps of oogenesis. Both Wispy and PAP interact with Orb genetically and physically in an ovarian complex. We conclude that two distinct poly(A) polymerases have a role in cytoplasmic polyadenylation in the female germline, each of them being specifically required for different steps of oogenesis.

Benoit P; Papin C; Kwak JE; Wickens M; Simonelig M

2008-06-01

272

PAP- and GLD-2-type poly(A) polymerases are required sequentially in cytoplasmic polyadenylation and oogenesis in Drosophila.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cytoplasmic polyadenylation has an essential role in activating maternal mRNA translation during early development. In vertebrates, the reaction requires CPEB, an RNA-binding protein and the poly(A) polymerase GLD-2. GLD-2-type poly(A) polymerases form a family clearly distinguishable from canonical poly(A) polymerases (PAPs). In Drosophila, canonical PAP is involved in cytoplasmic polyadenylation with Orb, the Drosophila CPEB, during mid-oogenesis. We show that the female germline GLD-2 is encoded by wispy. Wispy acts as a poly(A) polymerase in a tethering assay and in vivo for cytoplasmic polyadenylation of specific mRNA targets during late oogenesis and early embryogenesis. wispy function is required at the final stage of oogenesis for metaphase of meiosis I arrest and for progression beyond this stage. By contrast, canonical PAP acts with Orb for the earliest steps of oogenesis. Both Wispy and PAP interact with Orb genetically and physically in an ovarian complex. We conclude that two distinct poly(A) polymerases have a role in cytoplasmic polyadenylation in the female germline, each of them being specifically required for different steps of oogenesis. PMID:18434412

Benoit, Perrine; Papin, Catherine; Kwak, Jae Eun; Wickens, Marvin; Simonelig, Martine

2008-04-23

273

Effect of sulfhydryl-deficient diets on hepatic metallothionein, glutathione, and adenosine 3'-phosphate 5'-phosphosulfate (PAPS) levels in rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

Low dietary concentrations of methionine and cysteine are known to decrease hepatic glutathione content. However, it is not known if restricting the dietary content of these sulfur containing amino acids also affects hepatic levels of adenosine 3'-phosphate 5'-phosphosulfate (PAPS), the cofactor for sulfation, or metallothionein, a protein rich in sulfhydryl groups. Rats were fed diets lacking cysteine and containing various concentrations of methionine (0.15, 0.3, or 0.6%) for 8 days. Control diet contained 0.3% each of methionine and cysteine. Hepatic glutathione levels were decreased approximately 75% in rats fed diets containing 0.15 or 0.3% methionine. In contrast, PAPS and hepatic metallothionein concentrations were not decreased by the low sulfhydryl diets. Additionally, rats on the various diets were challenged by the administration of ZnCl2 (3 mmol/kg. sc). In both control rats and rats maintained on sulfhydryl-deficient diets, ZnCl2 increased hepatic metallothionein to the same level. However, significantly lower levels of PAPS were observed after ZnCl2 in rats receiving sulfhydryl-deficient diets than in controls. In summary, restriction of dietary sulfhydryl markedly decreases the hepatic content of glutathione and has a minor effect on PAPS concentration, but does not decrease the basal hepatic concentration of metallothionein or its induction by ZnCl2. PMID:2300970

Sendelbach, L E; White, C A; Howell, S; Gregus, Z; Klaassen, C D

1990-02-01

274

A sensitive, direct colorimetric assay of serum zinc using nitro-PAPS and microwell plates.  

Science.gov (United States)

A direct colorimetric assay of zinc in 0.02-ml of serum using a new, water-soluble reagent, 2-(5-nitro-2-pyridylazo)-5-(N-propyl-N-sulfopropylamino)phenol disodium salt dihydrate (nitro-PAPS epsilon = 14.5 X 10(4) l/mol per cm at 574 nm), is presented. Use of microwell plates allowed a reduction in the sizes of samples and reagents without affecting the sensitivity or the precision. Zinc and interfering metal ions in serum are bound as cyanide complexes; the zinc ions are preferentially demasked by use of the chloral hydrate, permitting a colorimetric reaction with the chromogen. Within-run and between-run coefficients of variation (CV) were in the ranges of 1.6-2.3% and 1.8-5.2%. This method correlated well with atomic absorption spectrometry. PMID:2049863

Makino, T

1991-03-29

275

A sensitive, direct colorimetric assay of serum zinc using nitro-PAPS and microwell plates.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A direct colorimetric assay of zinc in 0.02-ml of serum using a new, water-soluble reagent, 2-(5-nitro-2-pyridylazo)-5-(N-propyl-N-sulfopropylamino)phenol disodium salt dihydrate (nitro-PAPS epsilon = 14.5 X 10(4) l/mol per cm at 574 nm), is presented. Use of microwell plates allowed a reduction in the sizes of samples and reagents without affecting the sensitivity or the precision. Zinc and interfering metal ions in serum are bound as cyanide complexes; the zinc ions are preferentially demasked by use of the chloral hydrate, permitting a colorimetric reaction with the chromogen. Within-run and between-run coefficients of variation (CV) were in the ranges of 1.6-2.3% and 1.8-5.2%. This method correlated well with atomic absorption spectrometry.

Makino T

1991-03-01

276

Tamizaje en cáncer cervical: conocimiento de la utilidad y uso de citología cervical en México Cervical cancer screening: knowledge of Pap smear benefits and utilization in Mexico  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Identificar y evaluar los factores que predisponen a la utilización de la prueba de Papanicolaou en la población que usa el servicio del Programa Nacional de Detección Oportuna de Cáncer en México. MÉTODOS: Se realizó un estudio del tipo transversal de enero de 1997 a diciembre de 1998, en la Ciudad de México; se incluyeron a 2.107 mujeres en edad reproductiva que acudieron a un servicio de planificación familiar, las cuáles respondieron a un cuestionario con preguntas sobre características: sociodemográficas, factores de riesgo reproductivo asociados a cáncer cervical, historia de vida sexual, uso de métodos anticonceptivos, conocimiento de la utilidad y utilización del Papanicolaou. Para el análisis de los datos se construyeron modelos multivariados de regresión logística no condicional. RESULTADOS: Los predisponentes de utilización del programa de detección oportuna de cáncer en esta población fueron: el conocimiento de la utilidad del Papanicolaou incrementó en seis veces más la posibilidad de utilización (IC 95% 4,70-7,67); el antecedente de utilización de dos o más métodos de planificación familiar (OR=2,38; IC 95% 1,75-3,24); el antecedente de historia de infección vaginal (OR=2,18; IC 95% 1,73-2,75), y la aceptación del esposo para la realización de exploraciones ginecológicas (OR=1,56; IC 95% 1,07-2,29). CONCLUSIONES: La implementación de programas educativos en la prevención de cáncer, deberán incluir la utilidad de las pruebas de detección. En México, en mujeres en edad reproductiva utilización de la prueba de Papanicolaou se ofrece predominantemente en forma oportunista, por lo que el antecedente de utilización de los Servicios de Salud es un determinante para la utilización del Programa de Detección Oportuna de Cáncer Cervical. Estos resultados muestran la necesidad de ampliar la promoción a la salud de este programa a las mujeres de alto riesgo, incluyendo a sus parejas sexuales.OBJECTIVE: To identify and evaluate the predisposing factors regarding the utilization of the Pap smears in the population seen in the Cervical Cancer Screening Program in Mexico METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted from January 1997 through December 1998 in Mexico city. A questionnaire was applied to a total of 2,107 women of reproductive age who attended a family planning program and data was collected regarding the following topics: social-demographics, reproductive risk factors associated with cervical cancer, sexual behavior and partner history, birth control, knowledge about Pap smear' benefits, and its utilization. Statistic analysis was conducted using Student´s test and non-conditional multiple logistic regression model for determining significance. RESULTS: The predisposing factors were: knowledge about Pap smear's benefits (OR=6.00, CI 95% 4.70-7.67), history of using at least two birth control methods (OR=2.38, CI 95% 1.75-3.24), previous history of vaginal infection (OR=2.18, CI 95% 1.73-2.75), sexual partner's approval of gynecological examinations (OR=1.56, CI 95% 1.07-2.29). CONCLUSIONS: Educational programs on cancer prevention in this population should include the benefits of screening tests. Pap smears for Mexican women of reproductive age are mostly offered opportunely. The previous use of health services is a determinant factor for the utilization of the Cervical Cancer Screening Program. These results show the need to strengthen health promotion programs to women at high risk of cervical cancer and their sexual partners.

José A Aguilar-Pérez; Ahidée Gpe Leyva-López; David Angulo-Nájera; Antonio Salinas; Eduardo C Lazcano-Ponce

2003-01-01

277

Early detection of oral cancer: PAP and AgNOR staining in brush biopsies  

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Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the diagnostic accuracy of routine Papanicolaou stain (PAP) and Silver stained Nucleolar Organizer Regions (AgNOR) staining in brush biopsies taken from suspected oral lesions for early detection of oral cancer. Materials and Methods: Brush biopsies were collected from macroscopically suspicious lesions of the oral cavity of 34 patients and 10 normal-aged and sex-matched controls. The numbers of AgNORs were counted in 100 squamous epithelial cell nuclei per slide after silver staining of the smears (Ploton?s one-step method). Results: Sensitivity and specificity of PAP analysis in the oral smears for detection of oral cancer and normal cells was 91.176% and 100%. The positive and negative prediction values were 100% and 76.92%, respectively. Sensitivity and specificity of AgNOR analysis in the oral smears for detection of oral cancer and normal cells was 100%. The positive and negative prediction values were 100% each. Conclusion: Based on the above facts, we conclude that brush biopsy in conjunction with AgNOR staining is an easily practicable, non-invasive, safe and accurate screening method for the detection of macroscopically suspicious oral cancerous lesions. Because of its simple technique and high reliability for cellular proliferation, AgNOR staining in brush smears can be used as an adjunct to other routine cytological diagnoses for the early detection of oral cancer. However, further investigations with more number of study samples will be needed to establish this correlation beyond doubt.

Rajput Dinesh; Tupkari Jagdish

2010-01-01

278

No increased risk for cervical cancer after a broader definition of a negative Pap smear  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The definition of minimal relevant Pap smear abnormality is crucial for balancing the beneficial effects of screening (prevented mortality) with negative side-effects (the high positivity rate). After inflammation ceased to be defined as a borderline abnormal smear outcome in The Netherlands in 1996, the proportion of these smears dropped from 10% to less than 2%. Because this may have caused a loss in smear sensitivity, we analysed the changes in the incidence of cervical cancer after a negative Pap smear. All negative smears made at ages 30-64 in 1990-1995 (n = 1,546,252) and 1998-2006 (n = 3,552,716), registered in the national registry of histo- and cytopathology (PALGA), were followed for up to 9 years. During follow-up of the 1990-1995 smears, 377 women developed cervical cancer within 5,232,959 woman-years at risk, while during the follow-up of the 1998-2006 smears, 619 women developed cervical cancer within 11,210,675 woman-years at risk. The cumulative incidence after the definition change was not significantly higher than before: e.g. at 6 years, the cumulative incidence for smears made in 1990-1995 was 46 per 100,000 (95% CI: 41-52), and for smears in 1998-2006 was 48 per 100,000 (95% CI: 43-54), p = 0.59. The hazard ratio for 1998-2006 compared to 1990-1995 adjusted for age, number of previous negative smears and history of abnormalities was 0.90 (95% CI: 0.78-1.03). In The Netherlands, a setting with high-quality cytological screening, treating smears with only signs of inflammation as negative leads to a considerably lower positivity rate without increasing the risk for cervical cancer after a negative smear.

Rebolj, Matejka; van Ballegooijen, Marjolein

2008-01-01

279

Flexible Positive Airway Pressure Improves Treatment Adherence Compared with Auto-adjusting PAP  

Science.gov (United States)

Study Objectives: There are no clinical data comparing adherence and quality of life between auto-adjusting positive airway pressure (APAP) and two different flex positive airway pressure (PAP) devices (A-Flex, C-Flex) in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Design and Setting: Ninety-three patients in whom OSA was newly diagnosed were randomly assigned to receive 3 mo of APAP (n = 31), APAP with C-Flex (n = 31), or APAP with A-Flex (n = 31). Objective adherence was determined after 3 mo of CPAP treatment, and the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), and Calgary Sleep Apnea Quality of Life Index (SAQLI) were examined at baseline and after 3 mo. After 3 mo, patients in the APAP with A-Flex group and those in the APAP with C-Flex group were crossed over and those in the APAP group were switched to A-Flex for an additional 3 mo. Measurements and Results: The groups were similar demographically. Treatment adherence during the first 3 mo was significantly greater in the APAP with C-Flex group (APAP with C-Flex: 5.19 ± 1.84 h/night versus APAP: 3.96 ± 1.66 h/night versus APAP with A-Flex: 4.27 ± 2.12 h/night, P = 0.04). There was a significant improvement in two of four of the SAQLI domain scores and in the ESS and PSQI in the APAP with C-Flex group. Adherence significantly improved among the poor compliers (Handa T; Yoshimura C; Oga T; Yamamoto K; Mishima M; Chin K. Flexible positive airway pressure improves treatment adherence compared with auto-adjusting PAP. SLEEP 2013;36(2):229-236.

Chihara, Yuichi; Tsuboi, Tomomasa; Hitomi, Takefumi; Azuma, Masanori; Murase, Kimihiko; Toyama, Yoshiro; Harada, Yuka; Aihara, Kensaku; Tanizawa, Kiminobu; Handa, Tomohiro; Yoshimura, Chikara; Oga, Toru; Yamamoto, Kazuhiko; Mishima, Michiaki; Chin, Kazuo

2013-01-01

280

HPV testing for cervical cancer screening appears more cost-effective than Papanicolau cytology in Mexico.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To determine the incremental costs and effects of different HPV testing strategies, when compared to Papanicolau cytology (Pap), for cervical cancer screening in Mexico. METHODS: A cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) examined the specific costs and health outcomes associated with (1) no screening; (2) only the Pap test; (3) only self-administered HPV; (4) only clinician administered HPV; and (5) clinician administered HPV plus the Pap test. The costs of self- and clinician-HPV testing, as well as with the Pap test, were identified and quantified. Costs were reported in 2008 US dollars. The health outcome associated with these screening strategies was defined as the number of high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia or cervical cancer cases detected. This CEA was performed using the perspective of the Mexican Institute of Social Security (IMSS) in Morelos, Mexico. RESULTS: Screening women between the ages of 30-80 for cervical cancer using clinical-HPV testing or the combination of clinical-HPV testing, and the Pap is always more cost-effective than using the Pap test alone. CONCLUSIONS: This CEA indicates that HPV testing could be a cost-effective screening alternative for a large health delivery organization such as IMSS. These results may help policy-makers implement HPV testing as part of the IMSS cervical cancer screening program.

Flores YN; Bishai DM; Lorincz A; Shah KV; Lazcano-Ponce E; Hernández M; Granados-García V; Pérez R; Salmerón J

2011-02-01

 
 
 
 
281

Relação entre indicadores fisiológicos obtidos em teste ergoespirométrico em cicloergômetro de membros superiores e desempenho na canoagem Relationship between physiological indicators obtained in ergospirometry test in cycle ergometer of upper extremities and performance in canoeing  

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Full Text Available A avaliação de indicadores de aptidão aeróbia em canoístas revela características funcionais adquiridas por treinamento específico, podendo estar relacionadas ao desempenho competitivo. Assim, o objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar indicadores funcionais obtidos em teste ergoespirométrico de jovens canoístas, e verificar a relação destas variáveis com a performance em distâncias de 200, 500 e 1.000m. Foram avaliados 12 atletas do sexo masculino (17,6 ± 2,1 anos; 175,7 ± 2,5cm; 68,3 ± 6,3kg) por meio de teste em cicloergômetro de membros superiores para determinação do consumo de oxigênio no limiar ventilatório 1 (LV1 - 1,8 ± 0,4L/min), no limiar ventilatório 2 (LV2 - 2,9 ± 0,4L/min) e VO2pico (3,5 ± 0,4L/min). O teste tinha início com carga de 17W, com incrementos de 17W/min até a exaustão voluntária. Os atletas foram também submetidos a testes específicos em embarcação individual K-1 em um lago, objetivando alcançar os menores tempos nas distâncias referidas (tempos equivalentes a 47,6 ± 4,3, 122,0 ± 9,0 e 239,5 ± 12,6s, respectivamente). Foi utilizado o teste de correlação de Spearman-Rank (rs), com nível de significância fixado em 5%. Observou-se correlação moderada entre LV2 e tempo nos 1.000m (rs = -0,685), VO2pico e tempo nos 500m (rs = -0,699) e VO2pico e tempo nos 1.000m (rs = -0,734). Portanto, conclui-se que LV2 e VO2pico obtidos em cicloergômetro de membros superiores, e expressos em termos absolutos, predizem o desempenho em provas de 500 e 1.000m de canoagem, podendo ser potencialmente empregados na avaliação de canoístas.Evaluation of aerobic fitness indicators in canoers reveals functional characteristics acquired through specific training, which can be related to competitive performance. Thus, the aim of the present study was to evaluate functional evaluators obtained in ergospirometry test of young canoers, as well as to verify the relationship of these variables with performance in 200, 500 and 1000 m distances. The sample consisted of 12 male athletes (17.6 ± 2.1 years; 175.7 ± 2.5 cm; 68.3 ± 6.3 kg) through a test in cycle ergometer of upper extremities for determination of oxygen uptake in the ventilatory threshold 1 (VT1 - 1.8 ± 0.4 L/min), in the ventilatory threshold 2 (VT2 - 2.9 ± 0.4 L/min) and VO2peak (3.5 ± 0.4 L/min). The test began with a 17 W load, with 17 W/min increments until voluntary exhaustion. The athletes have been also submitted to specific tests in K-1 individual canoe in a lake, with the purpose to reach the lowest times in the referred distances (times equivalent to 47.6 ± 4.3, 122.0 ± 9.0 and 239.5 ± 12.6 s, respectively). The Spearman-Rank correlation test was used (rs), with significance level set at 5%. Moderate correlation was observed between VT2 and time in the 1000 m (rs = -0.685), VO2peak and time in the 500 m (rs = -0.699) and VO2peak and time in the 1000 m) rs = -0.734). Therefore, it is concluded that VT2 and VO2peak obtained in cycle ergometer of upper extremities, and expressed in absolute terms, predict performance in 500 and 1000 m canoeing events and can be potentially applied in evaluation of canoers.

Fábio Yuzo Nakamura; Daniel Müller Hirai; Thiago Oliveira Borges; Alexandre Hideki Okano; Fernando Roberto De-Oliveira; Antonio Fernando Brunetto

2007-01-01

282

Comparison of hearing thresholds obtained using pure-tone behavioral audiometry, the Cantonese Hearing in Noise Test (CHINT) and cortical evoked response audiometry  

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Conclusion. Speech thresholds measured using Cantonese Hearing in Noise Test (CHINT) and cortical evoked response audiometry (CERA) thresholds were highly correlated with pure-tone behavioral results. Both tests are considered to provide good estimates of hearing thresholds and can be employed to co...

Wong, LLN; Cheung, C; Wong, ECM

283

[Coverage and factors involved in submitting to the Papanicolaou test in the Municipality of Sao Paulo].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study estimated Pap smear coverage (at least one test in the lifetime and one in the last three years) among women aged 15 to 49 years old. The study also discusses whether the women received the results of their last test, as well as self-reported reasons for and against submitting to the test. A population-based survey was conducted in the city of São Paulo in 2000 with a randomly selected representative sample of 1,172 women. Among the women who were already sexually active (n = 1,050), 86.1% reported having had at least one Pap smear during their lifetime, and 77.3% had undergone the test in the previous 3 years. Among those who reported having had at least one Pap smear, 87.0% had received the result of the last test. The main reasons reported for having had the last test were: spontaneous demand (55.5%), medical referral (25%), and gynecological complaints (18.2%). The main reasons for never having had a Pap test were: no gynecological problems, embarrassment or fear, and difficulties in accessing health services. Despite high coverage of the Pap test and the fact that the majority of the women had self-reported a spontaneous demand, use of the Pap test was less prevalent among women with the lowest socioeconomic level (and consequently at greater risk of cervical cancer).

Pinho Ade A; França Junior I; Schraiber LB; D'Oliveira AF

2003-01-01

284

MCM immunocytochemistry as a first line cervical screening test in developing countries: a prospective cohort study in a regional cancer centre in India  

Science.gov (United States)

Cervical screening is not available for the majority of women in resource-poor countries. An important factor is a lack of skilled operators necessary for high-throughput assessment of the Papanicolaou (Pap) test currently in use. We compared the efficacy of immunocytochemistry for minichromosome maintenance (MCM) proteins vs standard Pap testing at detecting disease in 455 cervical smears processed in a typical Indian screening laboratory. Conventional (non-monolayer) smears were stained manually and then examined by a cytotechnologist and a cytopathologist. The MCM test was called positive when immunolabelled cells were identified as dyskaryotic by the Pap counterstain. The MCM test was read more quickly than the Pap test (approximately 2 vs 10?min) and there was 100% inter-observer agreement compared with 85% for Pap (P<0.0001). The MCM test detected 10 biopsy-proven cancers or pre-cancers that were not detected by Pap (P=0.002; P=0.016 excluding three cases where the Pap was deemed unsatisfactory on review). The cases in question included one recurrent squamous carcinoma and one adenocarcinoma in a screening patient who would have returned to 5 year recall. There were no false positive MCM test results. We propose that MCM immunocytochemistry has considerable advantages for cervical screening in developing countries like India.

Mukherjee, G; Muralidhar, B; Bafna, U D; Laskey, R A; Coleman, N

2007-01-01

285

HPV vaccination programs have not been shown to be cost-effective in countries with comprehensive Pap screening and surgery.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Pap screening combined with loop electrosurgical excision procedures (LEEP) is almost 100% effective in preventing cervical cancer mortality yet many countries with these procedures have now implemented broad HPV vaccination programs. HPV vaccines have not been demonstrated to be more effective or safer than Pap screening in the prevention of cervical cancer and Pap screening will still be required even in vaccinated women. The HPV vaccine costs Au$450 per person and it does not protect against ~30% of cancer. This investigation analyses the cost-effectiveness of using the HPV vaccine in countries where Pap screening and surgical procedures have already reduced cervical cancer mortality to very low rates. Cost-effectiveness of vaccination programs is being determined by mathematical models which are founded on many assumptions. It is necessary to examine the rigor of these assumptions to be certain of the health benefits that are predicted. In 2002 scientists concluded that HPV 16 and 18 were the central and independent cause of most cervical cancer. This conclusion was based on molecular technology. If HPV 16 and 18 infections are the central and independent cause of most cervical cancer then the incidence of HPV 16 and 18 should vary with the incidence and mortality of cervical cancer worldwide. This correlation does not exist. It is also observed that the majority of HPV 16/18 infections do not lead to cervical cancer. This indicates that other etiological or 'risk' factors are necessary for persistent HPV infection to progress to cancer. The benefits of HPV vaccines have been determined by using pre-cancerous lesions in young women as a surrogate for cervical cancer. This surrogate is found to be inadequate as an end-point for cervical cancer. Clinical trials have only provided speculative benefits for the efficacy of HPV vaccines against cancer and the long-term risks of the vaccine have not been established. Pap screening will still be required in vaccinated women hence HPV vaccination programs are not cost-effective, and may do more harm than good, in countries where regular Pap screening and surgery has already reduced the burden of this disease.

Wilyman J

2013-01-01

286

NMR measurement of dynamic nuclear polarization: a technique to test the quality of its volume average obtained with different NMR coil configurations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the NMR measurement of dynamic nuclear polarization, a volume average is obtained where the contribution from different parts of the sample is weighted according to the local intensity of the RF field component perpendicular to the large static field. A method of mapping this quantity is described. A small metallic object whose geometry is chosen to perturb the appropriate RF component is scanned through the region to be occupied by the sample. The response of the phase angle of the impedance of a tuned circuit comprising the NMR coil gives a direct measurement of the local weighting factor. The correlation between theory and experiment was obtained by using a circular coil. The measuring method, checked in this way, was then used to investigate the field profiles of practical coils which are required to be rectangular for a proposed experimental neutron polarizing filter. This method can be used to evaluate other practical RF coils. (author).

1980-01-01

287

Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization(FISH) or Other In Situ Hybridization(ISH) Testing of Uterine Cervical Cells to Predict Precancer and Cancer. (Final).  

Science.gov (United States)

Screening for cervical cancer has the potential to detect precancerous lesions and cancers in early stages, which can be effectively treated. Screening tests currently used in the United States on cervical cell samples include the Papanicolaou(Pap) test t...

A. Earley E. E. Avendano I. J. Dahabreh J. Lamont J. M. Cowan K. Uhlig S. Feldman

2013-01-01

288

Discordant results obtained on testing sera from immunocompromised patients for cytomegalovirus IgG by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and radioimmunoassay  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The investigation of sera from immunocompromised patients for antibody to CMV by ELISA, RIA, immunofluorescence (IF) and complement-fixation (CF) revealed discrepancies that reflected differences in test specificity rather than sensitivity and suggested that for the long-term serological follow-up of such patients it would be advisable not to rely on only a single assay procedure. (author). 12 refs.; 8 figs.; 1 tab.

Booth, J.C.; El Mohandes, L.; Tryhorn, Y.S. (London University (United Kingdom). St. George' s Hospital Medical School, Department of Medical Microbiology); Kangro, H.O.; Liu, K.M. (Saint Bartholomew' s Hospital, London (UK))

1989-10-01

289

GET MORE, PAY MORE? An elaborate test of construct validity of willingness to pay per QALY estimates obtained through contingent valuation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Estimates of WTP per QALY can be taken as an indication of the monetary value of health gains, which may carry information regarding the appropriate height of the cost-effectiveness threshold. Given the far-reaching consequences choosing a particular threshold, and thus the potential relevance of WTP per QALY estimates, it is important to address the validity of these estimates. This study addresses this issue. Our findings offer little support to the validity of WTP per QALY estimates obtained in this study. Implications for general WTP per QALY estimates and further research are discussed.

Bobinac A; van Exel NJ; Rutten FF; Brouwer WB

2012-01-01

290

Perception of cervical cancer screening among Japanese university students who have never had a pap smear: a qualitative study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study aimed to explore attitudes towards cervical cancer screening among Japanese university students who had never had a Pap smear. Four focus-group discussions, each with 15 female university students, took place in November and December 2009. Discussions were recorded and transcripts were analyzed to extract attitudes of young women towards cervical cancer screening. The four themes that emerged were: i) a low sense of reality about cervical cancer; ii) a lack of knowledge about both cervical cancer and Pap smears; iii) a lack of motivation to get screened, and iv) a reluctance to visit the gynecologist. Participants who were interested in undergoing screening for cervical cancer cited the influence of conversations with friends and family, a diagnosis of cancer within their family, and relevant information from the media. The results indicate the importance of getting young women more interested in cervical cancer screening and overcoming their tendency to avoid visiting a gynecologist.

Oshima S; Maezawa M

2013-01-01

291

Fission yeast 26S proteasome mutants are multi-drug resistant due to stabilization of the Pap1transcription factor.  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Here we report the result of a genetic screen for mutants resistant to the microtubule poison methyl benzimidazol-2-yl carbamate (MBC) that were also temperature sensitive for growth. In total the isolated mutants were distributed in ten complementation groups. Cloning experiments revealed that most of the mutants were in essential genes encoding various 26S proteasome subunits. We found that the proteasome mutants are multi-drug resistant due to stabilization of the stress-activated transcription factor Pap1. We show that the ubiquitylation and ultimately the degradation of Pap1 depend on the Rhp6/Ubc2 E2 ubiquitin conjugating enzyme and the Ubr1 E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase. Accordingly, mutants lacking Rhp6 or Ubr1 display drug-resistant phenotypes.

Penney, Mary; Samejima, Itaru

2012-01-01

292

AtPAP2 is a tail-anchored protein in the outer membrane of chloroplasts and mitochondria.  

Science.gov (United States)

To date, Arabidopsis purple acid phosphatase 2 (AtPAP2) is the only known plant protein that is dual-targeted to chloroplasts and mitochondria by a C-terminal targeting signal. Using in vitro organelle import and green fluorescence protein (GFP) localization assays, we showed that AtPAP2 is located on, but not imported across the outer membrane (OM) of chloroplasts and mitochondria and exposed its N-terminal enzymatic domain to the cytosol. It was also found that a short stretch of 30 amino acids (a.a.) at the C-terminal region (a.a. 615-644) that contains a stretch of 18 hydrophobic residues, a WYAK motif and 8 hydrophilic residues is sufficient for dual-targeting. Mutation of WYAK to WYAE had no effect on dual-targeting ability suggesting that the charge within this flanking region alone is not an important determinant for dual-targeting.    PMID:22751362

Sun, Feng; Carrie, Chris; Law, Simon; Murcha, Monika W; Zhang, Renshan; Law, Yee Song; Suen, Pui Kit; Whelan, James; Lim, Boon Leong

2012-07-25

293

AtPAP2 is a tail-anchored protein in the outer membrane of chloroplasts and mitochondria.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

To date, Arabidopsis purple acid phosphatase 2 (AtPAP2) is the only known plant protein that is dual-targeted to chloroplasts and mitochondria by a C-terminal targeting signal. Using in vitro organelle import and green fluorescence protein (GFP) localization assays, we showed that AtPAP2 is located on, but not imported across the outer membrane (OM) of chloroplasts and mitochondria and exposed its N-terminal enzymatic domain to the cytosol. It was also found that a short stretch of 30 amino acids (a.a.) at the C-terminal region (a.a. 615-644) that contains a stretch of 18 hydrophobic residues, a WYAK motif and 8 hydrophilic residues is sufficient for dual-targeting. Mutation of WYAK to WYAE had no effect on dual-targeting ability suggesting that the charge within this flanking region alone is not an important determinant for dual-targeting.   

Sun F; Carrie C; Law S; Murcha MW; Zhang R; Law YS; Suen PK; Whelan J; Lim BL

2012-08-01

294

Pap smear diagnosis using a hybrid intelligent scheme focusing on genetic algorithm based feature selection and nearest neighbor classification.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The term pap-smear refers to samples of human cells stained by the so-called Papanicolaou method. The purpose of the Papanicolaou method is to diagnose pre-cancerous cell changes before they progress to invasive carcinoma. In this paper a metaheuristic algorithm is proposed in order to classify the cells. Two databases are used, constructed in different times by expert MDs, consisting of 917 and 500 images of pap smear cells, respectively. Each cell is described by 20 numerical features, and the cells fall into 7 classes but a minimal requirement is to separate normal from abnormal cells, which is a 2 class problem. For finding the best possible performing feature subset selection problem, an effective genetic algorithm scheme is proposed. This algorithmic scheme is combined with a number of nearest neighbor based classifiers. Results show that classification accuracy generally outperforms other previously applied intelligent approaches.

Marinakis Y; Dounias G; Jantzen J

2009-01-01

295

Pap smear diagnosis using a hybrid intelligent scheme focusing on genetic algorithm based feature selection and nearest neighbor classification.  

Science.gov (United States)

The term pap-smear refers to samples of human cells stained by the so-called Papanicolaou method. The purpose of the Papanicolaou method is to diagnose pre-cancerous cell changes before they progress to invasive carcinoma. In this paper a metaheuristic algorithm is proposed in order to classify the cells. Two databases are used, constructed in different times by expert MDs, consisting of 917 and 500 images of pap smear cells, respectively. Each cell is described by 20 numerical features, and the cells fall into 7 classes but a minimal requirement is to separate normal from abnormal cells, which is a 2 class problem. For finding the best possible performing feature subset selection problem, an effective genetic algorithm scheme is proposed. This algorithmic scheme is combined with a number of nearest neighbor based classifiers. Results show that classification accuracy generally outperforms other previously applied intelligent approaches. PMID:19147127

Marinakis, Yannis; Dounias, Georgios; Jantzen, Jan

2009-01-15

296

Single-slide versus double-slide Pap smear: a comparative study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Comparison of the single-slide versus double-slide Pap smear method was performed using ectocervical and endocervical samples taken with the Ayre spatula and Cytobrush and placed together on one slide or on two separate slides. Eight hundred cases were collected by four different physicians in a gynecologic clinic (100 consecutive cases per doctor per method). All samples were evaluated at the Thomas Jefferson University Hospital. Parameters evaluated were: specimen adequacy, quality and detection of disease. Results for the double-slide method were: 352/400 (88%) satisfactory, 48/400 (12%) satisfactory, but limited, and 0% unsatisfactory cases. Results for the single-slide method were: 347/400 (86.7%) satisfactory, 50/400 (12.5%) satisfactory, but limited, and 3/400 (0.75%) unsatisfactory cases. Results regarding detection of disease were 16/400 (4%) CIN 1/400 (0.25%) carcinomas with the double-slide method as compared to 13/400 (3.25%) CIN and no carcinomas with the single-slide method. No statistically significant differences were found regarding specimen adequacy (P = 0.31), quality (P = 1.00), and detection of disease [CIN (P = 0.71) and carcinomas (P = 1.0)]. These preliminary findings suggest that the single-slide method is as efficacious as the double-slide method, although a larger group of patients with a longer follow-up need to be evaluated.

Saitas VL; Hawthorne C; Cater J; Bibbo M

1995-06-01

297

Capture of uropathogenic E. coli by using synthetic glycan ligands specific for the pap-pilus.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Biotinylated mono- and biantennary di-/trisaccharides were synthesized to evaluate their ability to capture E. coli strains that express pilus types with different receptor specificities. The synthesized biotinylated di-/trisaccharides contain Gal?(1?4)Gal, Gal?(1?4)GalNHAc, GalNHAc?(1?4)Gal, Gal?(1?4)Gal?(1?4)Glc and GalNHAc?(1?4)Gal?(1?4)Glc as carbohydrate epitopes. These biotinylated oligosaccharides were immobilized on streptavidin-coated magnetic beads, and incubated with different strains of live E. coli. Capturing ability was assessed by using a luciferase assay that detects bacterial ATP. The trisaccharides containing Gal?(1?4)Gal?(1?4)Glc and the disaccharides containing Gal?(1?4)Gal as the epitopes exhibited strong capturing ability for uropathogenic E. coli strains with the pap pilus genotype, including CFT073, J96 and J96 pilE. The same ligands failed to capture E. coli strains with fim, prs, or foc genotypes. Uropathogenic CFT073 was also captured moderately by biantennary disaccharides containing a GalNHAc moiety at the reducing end; however, other saccharides containing GalNHAc at the nonreducing end did not capture the CFT073 strain. These synthetic glycoconjugates could potentially be adapted as rapid diagnostic agents to differentiate between different E. coli pathovars.

Yosief HO; Weiss AA; Iyer SS

2013-01-01

298

Detection of false-negative Pap smears using the PAPNET system.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

AIMS AND BACKGROUND: False-negative cytological diagnoses represent the critical point of a screening program for early detection of cervical cancer. Computer-assisted reading using neural network technology has been suggested as a possible approach to manage the problem. The study assessed the performance and the cost-outcome ratio of computer-assisted versus conventional manual Pap smear reading. METHODS: One thousand routine smears, seeded with 81 false-negative smears, were independently interpreted by two readers by conventional and PAPNET-assisted reading. Results of both readings were compared in terms of: a)sensitivity for false-negative smears, b)specificity, and c) cost-outcome (cost per CIN2+ lesion detected). RESULTS: PAPNET-assisted reading showed a small increase in sensitivity only for one reader. Including the cost of PAPNET, the cost per detected lesion would be $7,543 and the cost per additional detected lesion would be $25,748. CONCLUSIONS: The present study provides further evidence that PAPNET-assisted screening may allow the detection of a few extra cases of CIN2+ lesions with respect to conventional reading, though at a very high cost.

Troni GM; Cipparrone I; Cariaggi MP; Ciatto S; Miccinesi G; Zappa M; Confortini M

2000-11-01

299

Comparison of doses and risks obtained from dose reconstructions for historical operations of federal facilities that supported the development, production, or testing of nuclear weapons.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Five dose reconstruction projects focusing on historical public exposures from U.S. government nuclear facilities have been completed in the last 12 y (Fernald, Hanford, Nevada Test Site, Oak Ridge, Rocky Flats). Using information available in published reports, doses and excess health risks of the most serious contaminants in each study are compared for representative maximally and typically exposed individuals. For both the representative maximally exposed individual and the representative typically exposed individual, the highest excess risks of cancer incidence were from 131I released from Hanford, Nevada Test Site, and Oak Ridge and 222Rn released from Fernald (with central estimates for maximally exposed individuals approaching or exceeding 10(-2)); the lowest risks for both maximally and typically exposed individuals were from 239/240Pu and carbon tetrachloride released from Rocky Flats. Excess health risks to the representative maximally exposed individual were at or below 10(-40 for releases from Rocky Flats. For representative typically exposed individuals, the excess risks from releases of mixed radionuclides in the Clinch River (Oak Ridge), PCBs in East Fork Poplar Creek (Oak Ridge), and both plutonium and carbon tetrachloride released from Rocky Flats were mostly below 10(-5).

Reed EW; Thiessen KM; Hoffman FO; Apostoaei AI

2003-06-01

300

Noninvasive mechanical ventilation with BiPAP therapy for comatose exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease through an endotracheal tube: is it justified?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Antonio Esquinas,1 Ritesh Agarwal21Intensive Care Unit, Hospital Morales Meseguer, Murcia, Spain; 2Department of Pulmonary Medicine, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, IndiaWe read with interest the paper by Rawat et al1 related to the role of bilevel positive airway pressure (BiPAP) delivered via endotracheal tube in unconscious patients suffering from acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in a real-world situation. Although the authors provide some justification for the use of BiPAP through an endotracheal tube, we believe that this technique is fraught with complications and should not be routinely employed. In fact, three patients failed BiPAP therapy, two patients received conventional invasive ventilation, and one patient failed to respond to BiPAP. Thus, almost 30% of patients either failed or showed no evidence for benefit of BiPAP. Further, the authors provide no data on the amount of leakage that was present while administering BiPAP therapy. The authors also do not provide details on whether the nurses/chest therapist administered intermittent manual bag ventilation. Ideally, the authors should have referred the patients on manual bag ventilation to another public health center where facilities for invasive ventilation are available free of cost.View original paper by Rawat and colleagues.

Esquinas A; Agarwal R

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

Interpretation of data obtained from non-destructive and destructive post-test analyses of an intact-core column of culebra dolomite  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has been developing a nuclear waste disposal facility, the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), located approximately 42 km east of Carlsbad, New Mexico. The WIPP is designed to demonstrate the safe disposal of transuranic wastes produced by the defense nuclear-weapons program. Pefiormance assessment analyses (U.S. DOE, 1996) indicate that human intrusion by inadvertent and intermittent drilling for resources provide the only credible mechanisms for significant releases of radionuclides horn the disposal system. These releases may occur by five mechanisms: (1) cuttings, (2) cavings, (3) spallings, (4) direct brine releases, and (5) long- term brine releases. The first four mechanisms could result in immediate release of contaminant to the accessible environment. For the last mechanisq migration pathways through the permeable layers of rock above the Salado are important, and major emphasis is placed on the Culebra Member of the Rustler Formation because this is the most transmissive geologic layer in the disposal system. For reasons of initial quantity, half-life, and specific radioactivity, certain isotopes of T~ U, Am, and Pu would dominate calculated releases from the WIPP. In order to help quantifi parameters for the calculated releases, radionuclide transport experiments have been carried out using five intact-core columns obtained from the Culebra dolomite member of the Rustler Formation within the Waste Isolation Pilot Pknt (WIPP) site in southeastern New Mexico. This report deals primarily with results of analyses for 241Pu and 241Am distributions developed during transport experiments in one of these cores. All intact-core column transport experiments were done using Culebra-simukmt brine relevant to the core recovery location (the WIPP air-intake shaft - AK). Hydraulic characteristics (i.e., apparent porosity and apparent dispersion coefficient) for intact-core columns were obtained via experiments using conservative tracer `Na. Elution experiments carried out over periods of a few days with tracers `2U and `?Np indicated that these tracers were weakly retarded as indicated by delayed elution of these species. Elution experiments with tracers 24% and 24*Arn were performed, but no elution of either species was observed in any flow experiment to date, including experiments of many months' duration. In order to quanti~ retardation of the non-eluted species 24*Pu and 241Arn afler a period of brine flow, non-destructive and destructive analyses of an intact-core column were carried out to determine distribution of these actinides in the rock. Analytical results indicate that the majority of the 241Am is present very near the top (injection) surface of the core (possibly as a precipitate), and that the majority of the 241Pu is dispersed with a very high apparent retardation value. The 24]Pu distribution is interpreted using a single-porosity advection-dispersion model, and an approximate retardation value is reported for this actinide. The specific radionuclide isotopes used in these experiments were chosen to facilitate analysis. Even though these isotopes are not necessarily the same as those that are most important to WIPP performance, they are isotopes of the same elements, and their chemical and transport properties are therefore identical to those of isotopes in the inventory.

Lucero, Daniel L.; Perkins, W. George

1998-09-01

302

Fatores associados à não realização do exame de Papanicolaou: um estudo de base populacional no Município de Campinas, São Paulo, Brasil Factors associated with women's failure to submit to Pap smears: a population-based study in Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar a prevalência da não realização do exame de Papanicolaou segundo variáveis sócio-econômicas, demográficas e de comportamentos relacionados à saúde, em mulheres com 40 anos ou mais de idade, residentes no Município Campinas, São Paulo, Brasil. O estudo foi do tipo transversal, de base populacional em uma amostra de 290 mulheres. Os fatores associados à não realização do Papanicolaou, encontrados na análise multivariada, foram: ter de 40 a 59 anos, ser preta/parda, ter escolaridade de até 4 anos. Entre os motivos alegados por quem nunca realizou o Papanicolaou destacam-se: achar desnecessário (43,5%), sentir vergonha (28,1%) e 13,7% por dificuldades relacionadas aos serviços. O SUS foi responsável por 43,2% dos exames de Papanicolaou realizados. Verificou-se a existência de discriminação racial e social na realização do exame, o que enfatiza a necessidade de intervenções que garantam melhor cobertura e atenção às mulheres mais vulneráveis à incidência e mortalidade por câncer do colo do útero.This study analyzes the prevalence of non-submittal to Pap smears according to socioeconomic, demographic, and health-related behavioral variables in women 40 years or older in Campinas, São Paulo State. This was a cross-sectional population-based study with a sample of 290 women. Based on multivariate analysis, factors associated with not having Pap smears were: age (40-59 years), race/ethnicity (black or mixed-race), and schooling (< 4 years). The following reasons were cited for not having Pap smears: considered unnecessary (43.5%), embarrassment (28.1%), and barriers related to health services (13.7%). The Unified National Health System performed 43.2% of the reported Pap smears. Health services should promote more equitable access to the health care system and improve the quality of care for women, since Pap smears are an effective tool against cervical cancer. The study confirmed that women's failure to obtain Pap smears is associated with social and racial inequality, placing these women at increased risk of cervical cancer.

Vivian Mae Schmidt Lima Amorim; Marilisa Berti de Azevedo Barros; Chester Luiz Galvão César; Luana Carandina; Moisés Goldbaum

2006-01-01

303

Clinical evaluation of follow-up methods and results of atypical glandular cells of undetermined significance (AGUS) detected on cervicovaginal Pap smears.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of the follow-up methods and results of atypical glandular cells of undetermined significance (AGUS) detected on cervicovaginal Pap smears. METHODS: From May 1991 to December 1996, we have performed 407, 451 cervicovaginal Pap smears, of which 326 patients were identified as AGUS. Of the 326 patients, 268 patients were followed by repeat Pap smears, colposcopy, cone biopsy, or endometrial curettage. RESULTS: The incidence of AGUS on Pap smears is approximately 0.08%. The mean age of the patients was 43 years (range 22-79 years). The most common complaint was abnormal vaginal bleeding. The gross findings of the cervix were normal to mild erosion. The following past histories of patients could affect the AGUS results on Pap smear: 30 had cone biopsy, 21 had Pap smears on pregnancy and within 8 weeks after delivery or evacuation, 3 were on hormonal replacement therapy, 2 had intrauterine devices for contraception, and 5 were undergoing follow-up after treatment of cervical cancer. The benign lesions detected during follow-up periods were 6 microglandular hyperplasia of the cervix, 5 atypical squamous metaplasia of the cervix, 2 cervical endometriosis, 2 tubal metaplasia, 10 cervical myoma, 11 cervical polyps, 9 endometrial polyps, 3 uterine myoma, 1 pelvic endometriosis, 1 ovarian endometriosis, and 4 uterine adenomyosis. The premalignant or malignant lesions of the cervix were 4 low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions, 24 high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions, 8 glandular atypia/dysplasia, 5 adenocarcinoma in situ, 3 microinvasive adenocarcinoma, and 4 invasive adenocarcinoma. The neoplastic lesions of the uterus were 6 endometrial hyperplasia, 11 endometrial adenocarcinoma, 1 malignant mixed Müllerian tumor, and 1 metastatic endometrial adenocarcinoma. Sixty-seven (25%) of 268 patients followed up were identified as having clinically significant lesions of the cervix or uterus. The detection rates of abnormal lesions were 3.1% with repeated Pap smears (3/98), 28.4% with colposcopic-directed biopsy (31/109), 63.6% with cone biopsy (35/55), and 29.7% with endometrial curettage (19/64). CONCLUSION: AGUS on Pap smears showed various benign and malignant lesions of the cervix or uterus. The clinicians must communicate with the pathologists regarding the patient's clinical information as well as the origin of the atypical glandular cells in Pap smears. We recommend that patients with AGUS on Pap smear should undergo immediate intensive diagnostic studies, including colposcopic-directed biopsy with endocervical curettage or cone biopsy, to detect cervical lesions and endometrial curettage to detect endometrial lesions.

Kim TJ; Kim HS; Park CT; Park IS; Hong SR; Park JS; Shim JU

1999-05-01

304

Perception, attitude and practices of women towards pelvic examination and pap smear in Jamaica  

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Full Text Available AbstractBackground: Studies have shown that women’s ability to access contraceptive methods depend on their socio-economic, educational, professional status, and the health and well-being of their families and themselves. Therefore, the embarking of the Governments of the Caribbean on important initiatives relating to gynecological matters is very important and timely. Aims: This study aims to examine the perception, attitude and practice of Jamaican women towards the matter of pelvic examination. Patients and Methods: The current study used an extracted sample of 7,168 women in their reproductive years (15-49 yrs) from a study which was undertaken by the National Family Planning Board in 2002 on Reproductive Health. Data was analyzed using SPSS for Windows, Version 16.0 (SPSS Inc.; Chicago, Ill. USA). Logistic regression was used to analyze factors/variables pertaining to Pelvic examination. Results: The findings revealed that older women are more likely to have done a Pelvic examination compared to younger women (?2= 675.29, P < 0.001). Age, number of pregnancies that resulted in miscarriages, number of pregnancies that resulted in induced abortion, age of first sexual intercourse, number of years of schooling, area of residence and socio-economic class are statistically significant factors of Pelvic examinations in Jamaica. Therefore, the model had significant predictive power where (?2= 1022.79, P < 0.001). Conclusion: The multidimensional nature of the variables, which emerged in the current study, indicate that a multisectoral approach should be used to address low pelvic and Pap smear examination among Jamaican women.

Paul A. Bourne; Christopher A.D. Charles; Cynthia G. Francis; Neva South-Bourne; Racquel Peters

2010-01-01

305

Constitutive equations of Li2TiO3 and Li4SiO4 pebble Beds obtained by means of standard triaxial tests: implementation of the model in a FEM code  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] During the ITER operation, some Test Breeding Modules (TBM) will be tested in the equatorial ports of the reactor. Presently, these TBM are being developed in different research centres in the world. The Helium-Cooled Pebble Bed (HCPB) blanket is one of two breeder blanket concepts developed in Europe. The HCPB uses Beryllium pebbles as neutron multiplier and. Li4SiO4 or Li2TiO3 pebbles as breeder material. The analysis of the breeding blanket is complex for the geometry as well as for the loading conditions. Advanced computer codes are needed in order to determine the reliability of the different designs. In this context the mechanical characterisation of pebble beds is important in order to simulate their behaviour. This paper illustrates the standard tests, performed in order to obtain the effective properties of the pebble beds, and the implementation of a constitutive model of the granular material in a FEM code. Several Authors have analyzed the pebble bed by meand uniaxial compression tests (oedometer tests). This test permits to obtain an effective displacement- load law under lateral constraint, but no data are obtained about the pebble bed shear resistance or about the three-dimensional behaviour of the bed. In the soil (made of sand, gravel or clay) qualification, triaxial tests are used for determining all their constitutive properties. In these test the soil is loaded by axial and lateral loads which can be varied independently. The measurement of the load and the displacement in both the directions permits to obtain the material constants f the constitutive models elaborated for describing the soil behaviour. The classic soil models are the Cam-Clay model and the Drucker-Prager with cap model. These models are implemented in several commercial FEM codes and they could be easily used for simulating the pebble beds. But the pebble bed behaviour is different from that of the soil. The soil models describe in detail the behaviour dependent on the water pressure and on the drainage conditions. These aspects have not any meaning for the pebble bed. Moreover the soil consolidation is different from the creep of the pebble bed. The paper demonstrates the limits of applying the soil model to the pebble bed. In fact the triaxial tests have been simulated numerically by means a commercial FEM code considering the classic soil models and the material constants obtained by the tests. Moreover the paper emphasizes the relative importance of the material constants (about 10), contained in the classic soil model, in order to fit the experimental results of the tests on the pebble beds. (orig.)

2007-10-05

306

Knowledge, attitude and practice of the pap smear as a screening procedure among nurses in a tertiary hospital in north eastern India.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Background: Cancer of the uterine cervix is one of the most common cancers among women worldwide. Industrialized countries have dramatically reduced the incidence of mortality from cervical carcinoma in the last 50 years through aggressive screening programs utilizing pelvic examinations and Papanicolaou (Pap) smears but it still remains a major problem in the developing world. Objectives: This study was performed to determine knowledge, attitude and practice of Pap smear as a screening procedure among nurses in a tertiary hospital in north eastern India. Material and Methods: This cross sectional study was carried out with a questionnaire survey covering the socio demographic factors, knowledge, attitude and practices about Pap smear screening among 224 nurses in Regional Institute of Medical Sciences, Imphal, Manipur, India during December 2011. Results: Two hundred and twenty one participants (98.6%) had heard about cervical carcinoma but 18.3% lacked adequate knowledge regarding risk factors. Knowledge about the Pap smear was adequate in 88.8% of the respondents. Out of these, only 11.6% had Pap smear at least once previously. The most common reasons for non-participation in screening were lack of any symptoms (58.4%), lack of counselling (42.8%), physician does not request (29.9%) and fear of vaginal examination (20.5%). Conclusion: Although knowledge of Pap smear as a screening procedure for cervical cancer is high, practice is still low. The nurses who should be responsible for opportunistic screening of women they care for are not keen on getting screened themselves. If we can improve the practice of Pap smear screening in such experts, they should be able to readily provide appropriate and accurate information and motivate the general population to join screening programs.

Thippeveeranna C; Mohan SS; Singh LR; Singh NN

2013-01-01

307

Identification of phase-I metabolites and chronic toxicity study of the Kv1.3 blocker PAP-1 (5-(4-phenoxybutoxy)psoralen) in the rat.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

1. PAP-1 (5-(4-phenoxybutoxy)psoralen), a potent small-molecule blocker of the voltage-gated potassium Kv1.3 channel, is currently in preclinical development for psoriasis. This study was undertaken to identify the major phase I metabolites of PAP-1 in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. 2. Five phase I metabolites, that is 5-(oxybutyric-acid)psoralen (M1), 5-[4-(4-hydroxybutoxy)]psoralen (M2), 5-[4-(4-hydroxyphenoxy)butoxy]psoralen (M3), 5-[4-(3-hydroxyphenoxy)butoxy]psoralen (M4), and 8-hydroxyl-5-(4-phenoxybutoxy)psoralen (M5), were isolated from the bile of rats and identified by mass spectrometry and NMR spectroscopy. The last four metabolites are new compounds. 3. Incubation of PAP-1 with SD rat liver microsomes rendered the same five major metabolites in a nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH)-dependent manner suggesting that cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes are involved in PAP-1 metabolism. Inhibitors of rat CYP1A1/2 (alpha-naphthoflavone) and CYP3A (ketoconazole) but not CYP2D6 (quinidine), CYP2E (diethyldithiocarbamate), or CYP2C9 (sulphaphenazole) blocked the metabolism of PAP-1 in rat microsomes. 4. Of the five metabolites M3, M4, and M5 were found to inhibit Kv1.3 currents with nanomolar IC50s, while M1 and M2 were inactive. Our results identified the Kv1.3-inactive M1 as the major phase I metabolite, and suggest that hydroxylation and O-dealkylation are the major pathways of PAP-1 metabolism. 5. We further conducted a 6-month repeat-dose toxicity study with PAP-1 at 50 mg/kg in both male and female Lewis rats and did not observe any toxic effects.

Hao B; Chen ZW; Zhou XJ; Zimin PI; Miljanich GP; Wulff H; Wang YX

2011-03-01

308

Comparison of the detection of HPV-16, 18, 31, 33, and 45 by type-specific DNA- and E6/E7 mRNA- based assays of HPV DNA positive women with abnormal Pap smears.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study compares the type-specific human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA test with E6/E7 mRNA detection assay because of their importance in cervical cancer screening programs. A total of 105 women with positive high-risk Hybrid Capture 2 or Abbott RealTime High Risk HPV screening test and an abnormal cervical Pap smear were enrolled in the study. HPV typing was performed by multiplex Real-Time PCR (HPV High Risk Typing Real-TM test). HPV-16, 18, 31, 33, and 45 E6/E7 mRNAs were determined by type-specific Real-Time NASBA assay (NucliSENS EasyQ(®) HPV v1.1). Infections caused by HPV-16, 18, 31, 33, and 45 types increased with severity of cervical cytology (p=0.008). Global positivity of five HPV E6/E7 mRNAs was lower than DNA positivity within women with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (p=0.016; p=0.008). High agreement of the tests was found in the groups of women with low-grade (p=1.000; p=0.063) and high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (p=0.250; p=0.125). Type-specific agreement of both diagnostic approaches was high regardless of cytology. Based on the found differences between HPV-16, 18, 31, 33, and 45 E6/E7 mRNA and DNA positivity, further study is needed to test the role of mRNA testing in the triage of women with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance in Pap smear.

Salimovi?-Beši? I; Tomi?-?i?a A; Smailji A; Huki? M

2013-09-01

309

Over-expression of AtPAP2 in Camelina sativa leads to faster plant growth and higher seed yield.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Lipids extracted from seeds of Camelina sativa have been successfully used as a reliable source of aviation biofuels. This biofuel is environmentally friendly because the drought resistance, frost tolerance and low fertilizer requirement of Camelina sativa allow it to grow on marginal lands. Improving the species growth and seed yield by genetic engineering is therefore a target for the biofuels industry. In Arabidopsis, overexpression of purple acid phosphatase 2 encoded by Arabidopsis (AtPAP2) promotes plant growth by modulating carbon metabolism. Overexpression lines bolt earlier and produce 50% more seeds per plant than wild type. In this study, we explored the effects of overexpressing AtPAP2 in Camelina sativa. RESULTS: Under controlled environmental conditions, overexpression of AtPAP2 in Camelina sativa resulted in longer hypocotyls, earlier flowering, faster growth rate, higher photosynthetic rate and stomatal conductance, increased seed yield and seed size in comparison with the wild-type line and null-lines. Similar to transgenic Arabidopsis, activity of sucrose phosphate synthase in leaves of transgenic Camelina was also significantly up-regulated. Sucrose produced in photosynthetic tissues supplies the building blocks for cellulose, starch and lipids for growth and fuel for anabolic metabolism. Changes in carbon flow and sink/source activities in transgenic lines may affect floral, architectural, and reproductive traits of plants. CONCLUSIONS: Lipids extracted from the seeds of Camelina sativa have been used as a major constituent of aviation biofuels. The improved growth rate and seed yield of transgenic Camelina under controlled environmental conditions have the potential to boost oil yield on an area basis in field conditions and thus make Camelina-based biofuels more environmentally friendly and economically attractive.

Zhang Y; Yu L; Yung KF; Leung DY; Sun F; Lim BL

2012-01-01

310

Over-expression of AtPAP2 in Camelina sativa leads to faster plant growth and higher seed yield  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Lipids extracted from seeds of Camelina sativa have been successfully used as a reliable source of aviation biofuels. This biofuel is environmentally friendly because the drought resistance, frost tolerance and low fertilizer requirement of Camelina sativa allow it to grow on marginal lands. Improving the species growth and seed yield by genetic engineering is therefore a target for the biofuels industry. In Arabidopsis, overexpression of purple acid phosphatase 2 encoded by Arabidopsis (AtPAP2) promotes plant growth by modulating carbon metabolism. Overexpression lines bolt earlier and produce 50% more seeds per plant than wild type. In this study, we explored the effects of overexpressing AtPAP2 in Camelina sativa. Results Under controlled environmental conditions, overexpression of AtPAP2 in Camelina sativa resulted in longer hypocotyls, earlier flowering, faster growth rate, higher photosynthetic rate and stomatal conductance, increased seed yield and seed size in comparison with the wild-type line and null-lines. Similar to transgenic Arabidopsis, activity of sucrose phosphate synthase in leaves of transgenic Camelina was also significantly up-regulated. Sucrose produced in photosynthetic tissues supplies the building blocks for cellulose, starch and lipids for growth and fuel for anabolic metabolism. Changes in carbon flow and sink/source activities in transgenic lines may affect floral, architectural, and reproductive traits of plants. Conclusions Lipids extracted from the seeds of Camelina sativa have been used as a major constituent of aviation biofuels. The improved growth rate and seed yield of transgenic Camelina under controlled environmental conditions have the potential to boost oil yield on an area basis in field conditions and thus make Camelina-based biofuels more environmentally friendly and economically attractive.

Zhang Youjun; Yu Laura; Yung Ka-Fu; Leung Dennis YC; Sun Feng; Lim Boon L

2012-01-01

311

High-specificity single-tube multiplex genotyping using Ribo-PAP PCR, tag primers, alkali cleavage of RNA/DNA chimeras and MALDI-TOF MS.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Here, we describe a high-throughput, single-tube, allele-specific ribonucleotide analog pyrophosphorolysis-activated polymerization (ribo-PAP) PCR multiplex genotyping and resequencing method. An RNA/DNA chimeric PCR product is generated using genomic DNA as starting template, a panel of allele-selective 5'-tagged primers, a reverse primer, one nucleotide in the ribo-form (90-100%), the other nucleotides in the deoxy-form, a DNA polymerase capable of incorporating ribonucleotides, a suitable buffer and thermal cycling. The RNA/DNA chimeric PCR products are fragmented by treatment with alkali and analyzed by mass spectrometry. All allele-selective primers have a 5' repetitive motif where each repeat unit has a unique, distinct mass upon reverse copying and alkali fragmentation. The mass of the complement repeat fragment or flag identifies the primer or primers that were recruited in the ribo-PAP PCR. The method readily identifies homozygous and heterozygous positions in simplex or duplex ribo-PAP PCR. Many different tags can be analyzed simultaneously. The assay can genotype several SNPs in a single tube. It thus constitutes the simplest genotyping protocol with multiplex analysis. This novel genotyping and resequencing protocol was applied to different genomic loci: NOS1 and H19 in 30 individuals in simplex ribo-PAP PCR and at two SLCO1B1 loci in 95 individuals in duplex ribo-PAP PCR.

Mauger F; Gelfand DH; Gupta A; Bodepudi V; Will SG; Bauer K; Myers TW; Gut IG

2013-01-01

312

Should high-risk adolescents have Papanicolaou tests?  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: The current American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists guidelines state that cervical cancer screening should begin at age 21 years, regardless of sexual or obstetric history. However, previous studies have demonstrated that there is a small but significant subset of high-risk adolescents with extensive sexual and obstetric history who harbor a significant squamous cervical lesion. The objective of the current study was to use histologic and demographic data from adolescents (aged <21 years) who received Papanicolaou (Pap) tests to determine whether they benefited from early cervical cancer screening. METHODS: Adolescent girls who had Pap tests between 2000 and 2010 were included in the study. Demographic data, including obstetric history, number of sexual partners, age of first coitus, age at first pregnancy, menarche, smoking history, and Chlamydia and syphilis infection, were analyzed for associations with levels of cervical dysplasia. RESULTS: Of 56,785 adolescent Pap tests, 277 (0.5%) were diagnosed as high-grade squamous HSIL, and 56 of those Pap tests (20%) were from patients who had grade 3 cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN-3) on subsequent biopsy and/or excision. One patient had microinvasive cervical carcinoma identified on loop electrosurgical excision procedure at age 27 years after an HSIL Pap test. Increased parity was associated significantly with higher rates of CIN-3. CONCLUSIONS: The study findings indicated that current American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists guidelines to begin Pap testing at age 21 years are appropriate for the majority of adolescents, because the rate of HSIL is very low, and the risk for invasive carcinoma is minimal. Although higher parity was associated with a significantly increased grade of CIN, the conclusions are questionable because of the significant amount of missing demographic data points. That being said, this study should lead to other similar studies to determine any association of higher grade CIN with adolescent sexual and obstetric history. Cancer (Cancer Cytopathol) 2013;121:432-9. © 2013 American Cancer Society.

Ma LT; Campbell GA; Richardson G; Schnadig VJ

2013-08-01

313

The Arabidopsis PAP1 Transcription Factor Plays an Important Role in the Enrichment of Phenolic Acids in Salvia miltiorrhiza.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Phenolic acids are health-promoting but low content secondary metabolites in Salvia miltiorrhiza. Here, the Arabidopsis transcription factor Production of Anthocyanin Pigment 1 (AtPAP1) was expressed in S. miltiorrhiza and improved the antioxidant capacity in transgenic plants up to 3-fold. Salvianolic acid B (Sal B) biosynthesis was strongly induced (10-fold higher) in 1 month old transgenic plantlets, a growth stage not normally characterized by significant levels of phenolic acids. This high-Sal B phenotype was stable in roots during vegetative growth, with tissues accumulating approximately 73.27 mg/g of dry weight. Total phenolics, total flavonoids, anthocyanin, and lignin were also significantly enhanced. Consistent with these biological and phytochemical changes, expression of phenolic acid biosynthetic genes was stimulated. Our results demonstrate that AtPAP1 has an additional, previously unknown, role as a transcriptional activator of phenolic acid biosynthesis in S. miltiorrhiza. The results provide a promising strategy for engineering phenolics production in economically significant medicinal plants.

Zhang Y; Yan YP; Wang ZZ

2010-11-01

314

Correlation of histopathologic/cytologic follow-up findings with vaginal ASC-US and ASC-H Papanicolaou test and HPV test results.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Current American Society of Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology recommendations about human papillomavirus (HPV) triage and further management for atypical squamous cells are pertinent to cervical Papanicolaou (Pap) tests. There are limited data on HPV detection in vaginal liquid-based cytology (LBC) specimens. The aims of this study were to determine whether adjunctive high-risk (HR)-HPV testing is useful for disease risk assessment in women with vaginal atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US) and atypical squamous cells, cannot exclude HSIL (ASC-H) Pap results. We identified 1,125 ASC-US and 36 ASC-H vaginal Pap results with HR-HPV testing. Of the cases, 244 (21.7%) ASC-US and 21 (58%) ASC-H were HR-HPV+. Among ASC-US HR-HPV+ cases, 47.8% had a squamous intraepithelial lesion (SIL) compared with 4.7% of HR-HPV- cases. Among ASC-H HR-HPV+ cases, 75% (12/16) had SIL compared with 31% (4/13) in HR-HPV- cases. Our results indicate that HPV triage testing is a reasonable and cost-effective approach for women with ASC-US vaginal Pap results and also a useful option for women with ASC-H vaginal Pap results.

Bansal M; Li Z; Zhao C

2012-03-01

315

Uso precoz del BiPAP en el tratamiento de la insuficiencia respiratoria en un lactante con osteogénesis imperfecta: Case report/ Early use of BiPAP in the management of respiratory failure in an infant with osteogenesis imperfecta  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is an heterogeneous group of genetic disorders that affect connective tissue integrity. Severe forms cause chest deformities, sometimes associated to alveolar hypoventilation. We report a 4 months old infant with OI type III, who developed respiratory failure (RF) due to a bronchiolitis and required mechanical ventilation. Weaning progressed successfully to a nasal bi-level Positive Airway Pressure (n-BiPAP) device. Clinical follow up showed a (more) normal cognitive development and growth. Respiratory condition, blood gases and ventilation status were in normal ranges. Non invasive ventilation, associated to careful monitoring may avoid tracheostomy and its complications in infants with OI (Rev Méd Chile 2004; 132: 861-4)

Vega-Briceño, Luis; Contreras E, Ilse; Sánchez D, Ignacio; Bertrand N, Pablo

2004-07-01

316

Citologia vaginal a fresco na gravidez: correlação com a citologia corada pela técnica de Papanicolaou Fresh wet mount in pregnancy: correlation with Pap smears  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJETIVO: analisar o conteúdo vaginal utilizando o exame citológico a fresco na primeira consulta pré-natal em mulheres com ou sem queixas genitais e correlacionar os resultados com os encontrados na citologia corada pela técnica de Papanicolaou. A microscopia direta durante a gravidez deve ser valorizada e reconhecida como método propedêutico capaz de diagnosticar, de forma imediata, 90% dos casos de vaginose bacteriana, candidose e tricomonose. MÉTODOS: estudo prospectivo em 216 gestantes, selecionadas em ambulatório de pré-natal no período de 30 de outubro de 2001 a 12 de novembro de 2002. Foram colhidas duas amostras do conteúdo existente no fundo de saco vaginal posterior e depositadas em lâminas de vidro para microscopia. Sobre a primeira e a segunda amostra eram colocadas uma gota de NaCl a 0,9% e uma de KOH a 10%, respectivamente. Adicionalmente, em todas as grávidas determinou-se o pH vaginal e realizaram-se os testes de produção das aminas com odores de pescado. O material era examinado ao microscópio em aumentos de 100 vezes, 400 vezes e excepcionalmente 1000 vezes. Foram realizados esfregaços cervicovaginais para citologia corada pelo método de Papanicolaou. A correlação entre os resultados dos métodos citológicos empregados foi realizada pelo cálculo do coeficiente kappa, que avalia a concordância para variáveis qualitativas. RESULTADOS: o encontro nos esfregaços a fresco de flora bacteriana normal foi de 51,8, representando o aspecto citológico mais observado e sem correspondência com os 3,7% apurados na microscopia corada. No exame citológico direto foram observados 30,9% de vaginose bacteriana e 7,9% de candidose. Todavia, no Papanicolaou não foi encontrada tal equivalência, sendo as porcentagens de 0,7 e 24,3%, respectivamente. A ausência de correlação no diagnóstico de colpite bacteriana inespecífica na microscopia direta (17,5%) e corada (51,3%) talvez deva-se ao subdiagnóstico de vaginose neste último método propedêutico. Os diagnósticos de tricomoníase observados em ambos os métodos citológicos (3,7 e 2,7%) traduzem a baixa prevalência destes parasitas na gestação. O cálculo do índice kappa para avaliação da concordância entre os dois procedimentos citológicos nos diversos achados microbiológicos demonstrou baixa correlação nos diagnósticos da vaginose bacteriana e colpites bacterianas inespecíficas, bem como na identificação da flora vaginal normal. CONCLUSÕES: embora a citologia corada apresente melhor acurácia no diagnóstico de fungos não formadores de micélios, a citologia direta a fresco demonstrou ser melhor avaliador dos elementos não epiteliais dos esfregaços vaginais. Entretanto, a microscopia corada pela técnica de Papanicolaou, por permitir melhor apreciação das células epiteliais cervicovaginais, representa o mais importante instrumento revelador das agressões e reações nucleocitoplasmáticas.PURPOSE: to analyze vaginal contents using the fresh wet mount of a cytological exam in the first prenatal visit of women with or without genital complaints and correlate the conclusion with the results from the Pap smears. Microscopy during pregnancy should be valued and recognized as a method capable of providing immediate diagnosis in 90% of bacterial vaginosis, candidiasis and trichomoniasis cases. METHODS: a prospective study was performed in 216 pregnant women selected from the prenatal department of a public hospital, between October 30, 2001 and November 12, 2002. Two samples were collected from the posterior vaginal vault and deposited onto two separate microscope slides. To one slide, a droplet of 0.9% NaCl was applied and to the other, a droplet of 10% KOH. Both slides were covered with a coverslip for immediate microscopic evaluation. Tests were perfomed in one drop of the material to examine pH and whiff. The microscopic examination of the material was carried out at a 100X, 400X and exceptionally 1000X magnification. Pap smears were performed in all pregnant patients. The correlation between th

Amadeu Ramos da Silva Filho

2004-01-01

317

RNA-seq Analysis of Antibiotic-Producing Bacillus subtilis SC-8 in Response to Signal Peptide PapR of Bacillus cereus.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Bacillus subtilis SC-8 produces an antibiotic that has narrow antagonistic activity against bacteria in the Bacillus cereus group. In B. cereus group bacteria, peptide-activating PlcR (PapR) plays a significant role in regulating the transcription of virulence factors. When B. subtilis SC-8 and B. cereus are co-cultured, PapR is assumed to stimulate antibiotic production by B. subtilis SC-8. To better understand the effect of PapR on this interspecies interaction, the global transcriptome profile of B. subtilis SC-8 was analyzed in the presence of PapR. Significant changes were detected in 12.8 % of the total transcripts. Genes related to amino acid transport and metabolism (16.5 %) and transcription (15 %) were mainly upregulated, whereas genes involved in carbohydrate transport and metabolism (12.7 %) were markedly downregulated. The expression of genes related to transcription, including several transcriptional regulators and proteins involved in tRNA biosynthesis, was increased. The expression levels of genes associated with several transport systems, such as antibiotic, cobalt, and iron complex transporters, was also significantly altered. Among the downregulated genes were transcripts associated with spore formation, the subtilosin A gene cluster, and nitrogen metabolism.

Yeo IC; Lee NK; Yang BW; Hahm YT

2013-10-01

318

Production of active chimeric pediocin AcH in Escherichia coli in the absence of processing and secretion genes from the Pediococcus pap operon.  

Science.gov (United States)

Minimum requirements have been determined for synthesis and secretion of the Pediococcus antimicrobial peptide, pediocin AcH, in Escherichia coli. The functional mature domain of pediocin AcH (Lys+1 to Cys+44) is targeted into the E. coli sec machinery and secreted to the periplasm in active form when fused in frame to the COOH terminus of the secretory protein maltose-binding protein (MBP). The PapC-PapD specialized secretion machinery is not required for secretion of the MBP-pediocin AcH chimeric protein, indicating that in Pediococcus, PapC and PapD probably are required for recognition and processing of the leader peptide rather than for translocation of the mature pediocin AcH domain across the cytoplasmic membrane. The chimeric protein displays bactericidal activity, suggesting that the NH2 terminus of pediocin AcH does not span the phospholipid bilayer in the membrane-interactive form of the molecule. However, the conserved Lys(+1)-Tyr-Tyr-Gly-Asn-Gly-Val(+7)-sequence at the NH2 terminus is important because deletion of this sequence abolishes activity. The secreted chimeric protein is released into the culture medium when expressed in a periplasmic leaky E. coli host. The MBP fusion-periplasmic leaky expression system should be generally advantageous for production and screening of the activity of bioactive peptides. PMID:9435056

Miller, K W; Schamber, R; Chen, Y; Ray, B

1998-01-01

319

Production of active chimeric pediocin AcH in Escherichia coli in the absence of processing and secretion genes from the Pediococcus pap operon.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Minimum requirements have been determined for synthesis and secretion of the Pediococcus antimicrobial peptide, pediocin AcH, in Escherichia coli. The functional mature domain of pediocin AcH (Lys+1 to Cys+44) is targeted into the E. coli sec machinery and secreted to the periplasm in active form when fused in frame to the COOH terminus of the secretory protein maltose-binding protein (MBP). The PapC-PapD specialized secretion machinery is not required for secretion of the MBP-pediocin AcH chimeric protein, indicating that in Pediococcus, PapC and PapD probably are required for recognition and processing of the leader peptide rather than for translocation of the mature pediocin AcH domain across the cytoplasmic membrane. The chimeric protein displays bactericidal activity, suggesting that the NH2 terminus of pediocin AcH does not span the phospholipid bilayer in the membrane-interactive form of the molecule. However, the conserved Lys(+1)-Tyr-Tyr-Gly-Asn-Gly-Val(+7)-sequence at the NH2 terminus is important because deletion of this sequence abolishes activity. The secreted chimeric protein is released into the culture medium when expressed in a periplasmic leaky E. coli host. The MBP fusion-periplasmic leaky expression system should be generally advantageous for production and screening of the activity of bioactive peptides.

Miller KW; Schamber R; Chen Y; Ray B

1998-01-01

320

Factors related to the practice of breast self examination (BSE) and Pap smear screening among Malaysian women workers in selected electronics factories  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background The Malaysian Ministry of Health promotes breast self-examination (BSE) for all women, and Pap smear screening every three years for all sexually active women ages 20 years and above. The objectives of this paper were to examine the practice of these two screenin...

Chee HL; Rashidah S; Shamsuddin K; Intan O

 
 
 
 
321

[Pap smear coverage and factors associated with non-participation in cervical cancer screening: an analysis of the Cervical Cancer Prevention Program in Pernambuco State, Brazil].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This research aimed to assess coverage of Pap smear screening in the State of Pernambuco, Brazil, during the three years prior to the study, among women 18 to 69 years of age, and to identify factors associated with women's lack of participation in screening. This was a cross-sectional, population-based study, using data from a survey in 2005-2006 with 640 women, selected by three-stage cluster sampling. Information on 258 women was analyzed. Pap smear coverage was 58.7% for women 18 to 69 years of age and 66.2% for those 25 to 59. Single marital status, no history of childbirth, and not having consulted a physician in the previous year were associated with lack of Pap smear screening. In the multivariate analysis, low schooling also showed a significant effect. Pap smear coverage in Pernambuco was satisfactory, but insufficient to impact the epidemiological profile of cervical cancer. It is necessary to strengthen and upgrade health promotion activities in order to reduce the inequalities and encourage women's active participation in cervical cancer prevention.

Albuquerque KM; Frias PG; Andrade CL; Aquino EM; Menezes G; Szwarcwald CL

2009-01-01

322

Comparison of biogeochemical dynamics in two time-series sites of a North Atlantic Ocean site (PAP and BATS): a modeling approach.  

Science.gov (United States)

Plankton functional type (PFT) models are highly complex ecosystem models. Indeed, the large number of processes and plankton functional groups represented in these models make the network of interactions extremely complicated. Slight differences in parameterization or formulation of single processes, therefore, may drive these models to respond in a very different way to perturbations of the system. An evaluation of such a different responses can be very useful to understand the processes regulating the functioning of the ecosystem. In this study we analyze the sensitivity of the biological parameters in a PFT model (European Regional Seas Ecosystem Model, ERSEM) in respect to primary production and detrital export. The tests are done on a subset of key parameters that control ocean ecosystem growth in a 1-D formulation of ERSEM coupled with a turbulence model (General Ocean Turbulence Model, GOTM). Results are compared with observed data from two time-series sites Bermuda Atlantic Time-Series (BATS, 32.16 N 64.5 W) and Porcupine Abyssal Plain (PAP, 49 N 16 W). A particular focus on factors determining the timing and intensity of the bloom is also presented on the base of literature review and on 1D(GOTM-ERSEM)-3D(NEMO-ERSEM) model simulations comparison. The different processes evaluated are: i). winter convective mixing, ii) lateral advection: mesoscale and sub-mesoscale eddies, iii) turbolent mixing iv) decoupling between euphotic zone and mixed layer depth. The study presented here is carried out in the framework of the European project EURO-BASIN (European Basin-scale Analysis, Synthesis and Integration), where long term 3D simulation aimed to evaluate the variability of primary production and carbon export are planned. Parameterization in use by the 3D NEMO-ERSEM is referring to the global ocean, while simulations are planned for the North North Atlantic. This study aims to contribute to fulfill the development of a specific parameterization for the North Atlantic Ocean.

Ibello, Valeria; Butenschon, Momme; Salihoglu, Baris; Erkan Kideys, Ahmet

2013-04-01

323

Process for obtaining emtricitabine  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The invention refers to a process for obtaining or isolating emtricitabine which comprises the azeotropic distillation of methanol-B(OMe) 3 . The invention is also directed to emtricitabine having a content of boron species of not more than 0.1 % by weight.

BARTRA SANMARTI MARTI; BERENGUER MAIMO RAMON; SOLSONA ROCABERT JOAN GABRIEL

324

PROCESS FOR OBTAINING EMTRICITABINE  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The invention refers to a process for obtaining or isolating emtricitabine which comprises the azeotropic distillation of methanol-B(OMe)3. The invention is also directed to emtricitabine having a content of boron species of not more than 0.1 % by weight.

BARTRA SANMARTI MARTI; BERENGUER MAIMO RAMON; SOLSONA ROCABERT JOAN GABRIEL

325

Resultados histológicos e detecção do HPV em mulheres com células escamosas atípicas de significado indeterminado e lesão escamosa intra-epitelial de baixo grau na colpocitologia oncológica/ Histological results and HPV detection in women with pap smear showing atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance and low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVOS: avaliar o desempenho da colpocitologia oncológica (CO) e da Captura de Híbridos II (CHII) para o diagnóstico de lesão cervical histológica significativa (NIC2/3) em mulheres encaminhadas com CO contendo atipias celulares de significado indeterminado (ASCUS) ou lesão escamosa intra-epitelial de baixo grau (LSIL). MÉTODOS: estudo de corte transversal no qual foram incluídas 161 mulheres encaminhadas, entre agosto de 2000 e setembro de 2002, devido a CO co (more) m resultado de ASCUS ou LSIL. As mulheres responderam a questionário específico sobre características sociodemográficas e reprodutivas e foram submetidas a exame ginecológico com coleta de CO e CHII, sendo realizada colposcopia com eventual biópsia de áreas suspeitas. Foi aplicado o teste do qui-quadrado para as associações da idade, uso de condom, uso de anticoncepcional oral e tabagismo com os resultados da CHII. Foram calculados a sensibilidade, especificidade, valor preditivo positivo e valor preditivo negativo da CO e da CHII para detectar NIC2/3. Todos os cálculos foram realizados com intervalos de confiança estatística de 95%. RESULTADOS: sessenta e sete porcento das mulheres com menos de 30 anos de idade tiveram testes positivos para o HPV. A CO e CHII tiveram sensibilidade de 82% em detectar NIC2/3 quando considerados como positivos ASCUS, LSIL ou HSIL. Quando se consideram como positivas apenas as CO com HSIL, este exame apresenta acentuado ganho de especificidade (de 29 para 95%) e valor preditivo positivo (de 12 para 50%), superando a CHII, porém com redução igualmente significativa de sua sensibilidade (de 82 para 41%). CONCLUSÕES: nossos resultados indicaram grande potencial da CHII para detectar mulheres com NIC2/3 entre as pacientes com ASCUS/LSIL na CO de encaminhamento. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: to assess the ability of Pap smear and hybrid capture II (HCII) to detect clinically significant cervical lesions (CIN2/3) in women referred to hospital due to atypical squamous cells of unknown significance (ASCUS) or low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL). METHODS: a cross-sectional study comprising 161 women referred to the Taubaté University Hospital due to ASCUS/LSIL, between August 2000 and September 2002. All women responded to a questionnair (more) e regarding sociodemographic and reproductive characteristics and were subjected to gynecological examination with specimen collection for Pap test and HCII, along with colposcopy and eventual cervical biopsy. The relationship between HCII results and age, use of condom, oral hormonal contraception, and smoking were evaluated by the chi-square test. The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of both Pap test and HCII were calculated. All calculations were performed within 95% confidence intervals. RESULTS: sixty-seven percent of the women that tested positive for HPV were less than 30 years old. Pap smear and HCII showed the same 82% sensitivity in detecting CIN2/3 when the threshold for a positive Pap result was ASCUS, LSIL or HSIL. Pap smear specificity and positive predictive values were substantially increased when only HSIL results were considered as positive (from 29 to 95% and 12 to 50%, respectively). These figures were superior to those of HCII, but at the expense of an expressive loss of sensitivity (from 82% to 41%). CONCLUSIONS: our results substantiate the potential of HCII in detecting CIN2/3 among women referred due to ASCUS/LSIL.

Santos, André Luis Ferreira; Derchain, Sophie Françoise Mauricette; Sarian, Luis Otávio; Campos, Elizabete Aparecida; Santos, Marcos Roberto dos; Fonsechi-Carvasan, Gislaine Aparecida

2004-07-01

326

Liqui Prepâ„¢ a New Liquid Based Cervical Cytology Method in Comparison with Conventional Pap Smear in Developing Counteries  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of the study was to compare, the screening performance of a new liquid-based cytology method, Liquiprepâ„¢,with conventional Pap in a low risk population, using colposcopy followed histology as "gold standard". Methods: This prospective study was performed in a general gynecology clinic in ValiAsr University Hospital, Tehran, Iran from February 2004 to March 2005. The split-sample method was used for preparing conventional and liquid-based cytology. A new technique of liquid-based cytology; Liqui-prepâ„¢ was used in this study. All positive result of smears and 10% of negative results in each group were submitted to colposcopy and a biopsy taken when any atypical transformation zone was seen. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values and overall accuracy of both conventional and Liquiprepâ„¢ methods were computed in relation to histology. A total of 506 patients were analyzed by two cytology methods and in 65 (12.84%) of cases histologic diagnosis was performed. There were more adequate samples with Liquiprepâ„¢ (94.7%) than with conventional (92.1%) smears. There was not any LSIL and HSIL report in two groups. ASCUS was diagnosed significantly more with conventional than with Liquiprepâ„¢ smear (1.56 vs. 0.79%). Pathologically 50% of ASCUS in Liquiprepâ„¢ and 12.5% in CP had squamous abnormality. Liquiprepâ„¢ had a significantly higher sensitivity (66 vs. 83%) and specificity (86 vs. 98%) than the conventional Pap smear to detect ASCUS+ at histology. This study confirms the superiority of the Liquiprepâ„¢ method to detect cervical lesions.

Nadereh Behtash; Zeinab Nazari; Mahmod Khaniki; Kazem Zendedel; Fereshteh Fakor; Mamak Shariat

2008-01-01

327

Cooler for obtaining crystals  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A modular air-cooled tube, with a series of movable Tamman test tubes or plugs (modular unilateral and bilateral ''crystallization comb''), installed in a laboratory tube furnace is presented. The setup allows easy regulation and simultaneous crystallization tests of a series of different crystallization parameters in crucible columns, enabling rapid acquisition of crystals. The relationship between the crystallization parameters has been given and numerically analyzed. This method can also be applied in crucible and chamber furnaces. (copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

Cabric, B.; Danilovic, N. [Faculty of Sciences, P.O. Box 60, 34000 Kragujevac (RS); Pavlovic, T. [Faculty of Sciences, P.O. Box 224, 18000 Nis (RS)

2011-03-15

328

Biodegradation of N-ethyl perfluorooctane sulfonamido ethanol (EtFOSE) and EtFOSE-based phosphate diester (SAmPAP diester) in marine sediments.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Investigations into the biodegradation potential of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS)-precursor candidates have focused on low molecular weight substances (e.g., N-ethyl perfluorooctane sulfonamido ethanol (EtFOSE)) in wastewater treatment plant sludge. Few data are available on PFOS-precursor biodegradation in other environmental compartments, and nothing is known about the stability of high-molecular-weight perfluorooctane sulfonamide-based substances such as the EtFOSE-based phosphate diester (SAmPAP diester) in any environmental compartment. In the present work, the biodegradation potential of SAmPAP diester and EtFOSE by bacteria in marine sediments was evaluated over 120 days at 4 and 25 °C. At both temperatures, EtFOSE was transformed to a suite of products, including N-ethyl perfluorooctane sulfonamidoacetate, perfluorooctane sulfonamidoacetate, N-ethyl perfluorooctane sulfonamide, perfluorooctane sulfonamide, and perfluorooctane sulfonate. Transformation was significantly more rapid at 25 °C (t(1/2) = 44 ± 3.4 days; error represents standard error of the mean (SEM)) compared to 4 °C (t(1/2) = 160 ± 17 days), but much longer than previous biodegradation studies involving EtFOSE in sludge (t(1/2) ?0.7-4.2 days). In contrast, SAmPAP diester was highly recalcitrant to microbial degradation, with negligible loss and/or associated product formation observed after 120 days at both temperatures, and an estimated half-life of >380 days at 25 °C (estimated using the lower bounds 95% confidence interval of the slope). We hypothesize that the hydrophobicity of SAmPAP diester reduces its bioavailability, thus limiting biotransformation by bacteria in sediments. The lengthy biodegradation half-life of EtFOSE and recalcitrant nature of SAmPAP diester in part explains the elevated concentrations of PFOS-precursors observed in urban marine sediments from Canada, Japan, and the U.S, over a decade after phase-out of their production and commercial application in these countries.

Benskin JP; Ikonomou MG; Gobas FA; Begley TH; Woudneh MB; Cosgrove JR

2013-02-01

329

Pattern of abnormal Pap smears in developing countries : A report from a large referral hospital in Saudi Arabia using the revised 2001 Bethesda System  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Reports describing the frequency and pattern of abnormal Pap smears in developing countries using the revised Bethesda system for Pap smear are few. We studied the pattern of cervical intraepithelial le--sions and carcinoma detected in Pap smears of Saudi females in the western region of Saudi Arabia using the revised system. Methods: All cervical Pap smears reported in the Department of Pathology of King Abdulaziz Medical City, Jeddah, from 1 January 1998 to 31 August 2005 were reclassified according to the revised system with age ranges identified. RESULTS: Of 5590 sufficient smears, 261 (5%) were identified as abnormal and were further classified as atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US) (103 cases, 40%), atypical squamous cells of high grade (6 cases, 2%), low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL) (56 cases, 22%), high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL) (31 cases, 12%), glandular cell abnormalities (30 cases, 11%) and invasive squa--mous cell carcinoma (21 cases, 9%). The ASC-US/SIL ratio was 1.9%. Invasive adenocarcinoma accounted for 14 cases (4%) with a similar age range as invasive squamous cell carcinoma. Conclusion: Although this study showed a lower incidence and a wider age range of cervical epithelial cell abnormalities than others published internationally, the results emphasize the need for a well-organized cervi--cal screening program supplemented by larger national studies on the pattern of cervical abnormalities in this country. The information provided in this study will encourage use of the Pap smear as a screening method for cervical cancer in developing countries.

Abdullah Layla

2007-01-01

330

A Review of the Perceived Barriers within the Health Belief Model on Pap Smear Screening as a Cervical Cancer Prevention Measure  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Aim: This study reviews the impact of perceived barriers on Pap cervical smear screening within the Health Belief Model (HBM) as an important prevention programme. Background: This research proposes to study perceived barrier constructs within the aforementioned model in order to understand reasons that might contribute to the consistency of Pap smear uptake. Previous use of HBM has shown that the main cause underpinning in affecting change is to alter behaviour (Webb and Sheeran, 2006). While use of HBM has made a positive influence on behavioural change by way of ‘cues to action’ element in its construct, the cues to action effect could be as good or as bad as the receivers’ perception (Rosenstock et al., 1994). It appears that HBM does not work when it comes to non-health behaviour prediction (GALVIN KT, 1992) Methods: a comprehensive literature review was carried out to identify, analyse, synthesize and evaluate the best-published information scholars, researchers and practitioners published in this subject area (Fink, 2009). Keywords used including perceived barriers of Health Belief Model, perceived barriers towards cervical cancer screening, perceived barriers towards pap smear in prevention of cervical cancer using the databases CINAHL, PubMed, Science Direct, Elsevier, and Emerald for journal papers published between the years 1994 until 2012. Studies published before 2008 normally focused on established theory and models, whereas subsequent studies were based on perceived or identified barriers to Pap smear screening uptake. Previously published barriers affecting cervical screening include differences in social class, education levels, knowledge and awareness, attitudes, fatalistic expressions, embarrassment issues, fear of pain, cost and time. Conclusion: an understanding and appreciation of perceived barriers inform healthcare providers in cervical cancer prevention screening and are described below. Perceived barriers construct rests in the middle of the process between intentions and behavioural change. Varying levels of perceived barriers to Pap smear uptake depend upon a countries socioeconomic development and culture.

Julinawati S.; Cawley D.; Domegan C.; Brenner M.; Rowan N.J.

2013-01-01

331

PROCESS FOR OBTAINING TETRAHYDROFURAN  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The invention relates to a process for obtaining tetrahydrofuran from a stream comprising tetrahydrofuran, alkanol and high boilers, comprising the following steps: (a) removing a stream comprising tetrahydrofuran and alcohol as an azeotrope in a first distillation stage, (b) feeding at least a portion of the stream comprising tetrahydrofuran and alcohol as an azeotrope into a reactor for esterification of maleic anhydride to obtain a stream comprising tetrahydrofuran, possibly alkanol, possibly unconverted maleic anhydride and monoalkyl maleate, (c) separating the stream comprising monoalkyl maleate, tetrahydrofuran and possibly alkanol into a stream comprising monoalkyl maleate and a stream comprising tetrahydrofuran and possibly alkanol in a second distillation stage, (d) supplying the stream comprising tetrahydrofuran and possibly alkanol from the second distillation stage and the portion of the tetrahydrofuran and alkanol not supplied to the reactor as an azeotrope-comprising stream from step (a) into a third distillation stage in which a product stream comprising essentially tetrahydrofuran and a stream comprising tetrahydrofuran and alkanol are obtained, (e) recycling the stream comprising tetrahydrofuran and alkanol from the third distillation stage into the first distillation stage or into the reactor in step (b).

GUIXA GUARDIA MARIA; PINKOS ROLF; POLLMER NADJA; WEISKER WOLF-STEFFEN; VANDENMERSCH HUGUES

332

[Cervical-vaginal smears: an unpopular test!  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

No screening test for cancer in asymptomatic patients can match the performance level of the Pap smear, yet no other screening test has been so strongly criticized in the popular press. For a large part, this paradoxical situation, greatly influenced by public opinion in the United States, has arisen from a utopic desire for a "perfect" screening system. Actually, though the Pap smear will never be 100% effective, it has made it possible to greatly reduce the prevalence of invasive cervical cancer. The fact that total eradication has not been achieved is not a sign of poor performance, but rather a signal for further improvement. Public education should be reinforced so the entire population, especially high risk groups of older women and those living in socially underprivileged conditions, can benefit from Pap smear screening programs. Clinicians and cytologists must also continue their efforts to assure quality smears and cytopathological examinations. In France, the Association for quality assurance in anatomy and pathological cytology, the Centers for collecting information on anatomy and pathological cytology, and the High Counsel for Public Health have taken innovative steps in this direction. The cytology report must also be written in a clear language, including a statement regarding the adequacy of the specimen, the description of the cells observed, a diagnosis and the use of an internationally accepted classification. Finally, patient follow-up is mandatory since the Pap smear technique is a screening method and cannot provide a definitive diagnosis. All positive smears must be confirmed by colposcopy and histologic assessment. Correctly used, the Pap smear remains the method of choice for the eradication of cervical cancer.

Gompel C

1998-06-01

333

Reflection of the changes in properties of pressure vessel metal due to irradiation, recovery annealing and re-irradiation in the character of fractures obtained in Charpy impact testing  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Pressure vessel steels of Russian and American origin were investigated by raster electron microscopy (fractography), optical microscopy (metallography) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The influence of Russian weld macrostructure parameters on the data obtained by Charpy test was revealed. Possible appearance of brittle intergranular components in fracture surfaces of sub-size Charpy specimen made of Russian weld metal with phosphorus content greater than 0.04% was shown when tested at temperatures close to the upper shelf level. Recovery annealing at 475 deg.C, for 15 hours did not induce reduction of the brittle intergranular component while recovery of DBTT was observed. This confirmed that the contribution of radiation induced intergranular phosphorus segregation to embrittlement of pressure vessel steels is not significant. The presence of ductile intergranular component in fractures of specimens made of Russian and American steels confirmed the possibility of radiation induced intragranular phosphorus segregation to precipitate/matrix interfaces. In accordance with the properties recovery due to annealing, the successive reduction of ductile intergranular component fraction in fracture surfaces indicates that the contribution of radiation induced ill-treating phosphorus segregation to radiation embrittlement of pressure vessel steels is valuable

1997-01-01

334

In vitro studies of the genotoxic effects of bitumen and coal-tar fume condensates: comparison of data obtained by mutagenicity testing and DNA adduct analysis by {sup 32}P-postlabelling  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Bitumens contain traces of polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs), a part of which will end up in fumes emitted during hot handling of bitumen-containing products, e.g. during road paving. Exposure of workers to these fumes might lead to health problems. Studies on bitumen fume condensates (BFCs) showed mutagenic activities, but studies on DNA adduct formation have not been reported. Thus a study was initiated in which fumes were generated from two road grade bitumens which were representative of the fumes produced in the field. The combined vapour/particulates were tested in vitro for their ability to produce DNA adducts and in modified Ames mutation assays. Results were related to chemical data, such as the content of a number of individual polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and with a measure for total PAC content. As a reference material fume condensate from coal tar (coal-tar pitch volatiles; CTPV) were subjected to the same tests. All fume condensates were tested were mutagenic to all strains and induced the formation of DNA adducts. The patterns of DNA adducts arising from the BFCs were qualitatively different from the patterns of adducts obtained from the CTPVs, implying qualitative differences in the nature of the compounds responsible for their formation. This is corroborated by the observation that for BFCs quantitative adduct levels are higher than would be expected based on the PAH content. These data thus indicate that the PAHs analysed are not the sole components responsible for adduct formation from BFCs, but that an important contribution comes from other (hetero- and/or substituted-) PACs. 32 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

De Meo, M.; Genevois, C.; Brandt, H.; Laget, M.; Bartsch, H.; Castegnaro, M. [Laboratoire de Biogenotoxicologie et Mutagenese Environnementale, Marseille (France). Faculte de Pharmcie

1996-08-14

335

Prevalência de alterações no exame citológico do colo do útero em pacientes com lúpus eritematoso sistêmico Prevalence of abnormal pap smears in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: estudos sugerem que mulheres com lúpus eritematoso sistêmico (LES) apresentam maior taxa de anormalidades no exame citológico do esfregaço cervical quando comparadas com a população geral. OBJETIVO: estudar a prevalência de anormalidades no exame citológico de Papanicolaou de pacientes com LES, procurando correlacionar o seu aparecimento com tempo de doença, uso de medicamentos imunossupressores e perfil de auto-anticorpos. MÉTODO: foram analisados 76 exames citológicos de pacientes do sexo feminino, portadoras de LES, e de 80 mulheres saudáveis. Nas pacientes com lúpus, foram verificados: tempo de doença, uso de anticoncepcionais, uso anterior de citostáticos (ciclofosfamida, azatioprina e metotrexato), antimaláricos e presença dos anticorpos anti-RO, anti-LA, anti-DNA. RESULTADO: a prevalência de alterações do Papanicolaou foi maior no grupo das pacientes com LES quando comparada com controles (9,4% versus 1,2%, p = 0,03). Não se encontrou associação entre o aparecimento de Papanicolaou alterado e o uso de ciclofosfamida (p = 1,0), metotrexato (p = 0,58), azatioprina (p = 1,0), antimaláricos (p = 0,051), tempo de doença (p = 0,85), exposição, nem com perfil de auto-anticorpos estudado. CONCLUSÃO: existe maior prevalência de alterações do exame citológico de esfregaço vaginal em pacientes com LES na população estudada, a qual não depende do tempo da doença, uso de agentes imunossupressores e presença de anti-RO, anti-LA ou anti-DNA.BACKGROUND: studies have suggested that patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) have increased risk of developing abnormal results in Pap smears, when compared to the general population. OBJECT: to check the prevalence of abnormal Pap smears in patients with SLE compared to the general population relating it with disease duration, use of immunosuppressive and antimalarial agents and autoantibody profile. METHOD: we studied Pap smears of 76 patients with SLE and 80 healthy controls. In patients with SLE we assessed disease duration, use of cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, azathioprine, antimalarials and the presence of anti-RO, anti-LA and anti-DNA. RESULT: the prevalence of abnormal Pap smears was higher in the SLE group than controls (9.4% versus 1.2%, p = 0.03). No relationship was found between abnormal Pap smears and cyclophosphamide (p = 1.0), methotrexate (p = 0.58), azathioprine (p = 1.0) or antimalarial use (p = 0.051), disease duration (p = 0.85), neither with any of the studied auto antibodies. CONCLUSION: there is a higher prevalence of abnormal Pap smears in the studied SLE population than in normal people that is independent of the duration of the disease, use of immunosupressive medication or presence of autoantibodies.

Bernardo Rodi Carvalho Barros; Roberta Matschinske; Marília Barreto Silva; Thelma Larocca Skare

2007-01-01

336

Influence of noninvasive ventilation by BiPAP® on exercise tolerance and respiratory muscle strength in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients (COPD)/ Influencia de la ventilación no evasiva mediante el BiPAP® sobre la tolerancia al ejercicio físico y fuerza muscular respiratoria en pacientes con enfermedad pulmonar obstrutiva crónica (EPOC)/ Influência da ventilação não invasiva por meio do BiPAP® sobre a tolerância ao exercício físico e força muscular respiratória em pacientes com doença pulmonar obstrutiva crônica (DPOC)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o efeito do BiPAP®, através de máscara nasal, na tolerância ao exercício físico e no desempenho muscular respiratório em pacientes com diagnóstico clínico e espirométrico de DPOC, moderado/grave (VEF1 (more) ões semanais, durante dois meses. Antes e após o tratamento mediu-se a espirometria, a força muscular inspiratória (PImax) e expiratória (PEmax) e a distância percorrida em seis minutos (TC6). Foram constatados aumentos significativos (Wilcoxon, p Abstract in spanish El objetivo de esto estudio fue evaluar el efecto del BiPAP®, por medio de la máscara nasal, sobre la tolerancia al ejercicio físico y el desempeño muscular respiratorio en pacientes con diagnosis clínico y espirométrico de EPOC moderada/grave (VEF1 (more) ses. Antes y después del tratamiento, fue medida la espirometría, la fuerza muscular inspiratoria (PImax) y expiratoria (PEmax) y la distancia cubierta en seis minutos (TC6). Fueron evidenciados aumentos significativos (Wilcoxon, p Abstract in english This study aimed to assess the effect of BiPAP®, by nasal mask, on exercise tolerance and respiratory muscle strength in patients with a clinical and spirometric diagnosis of moderate/severe COPD (FEV1 (more) IP) and expiratory (MEP) muscle strength and the distance walked in six minutes (6MWT) were measured. We observed a significant increase (Wilcoxon, p

Costa, Dirceu; Toledo, Andreza; Silva, Audrey Borghi e; Sampaio, Luciana Maria Malosá

2006-06-01

337

Self-Reports of Pap Smear Screening in Women with Physical Disabilities  

Science.gov (United States)

|We collected self reported rate of cervical smear testing to examine the affecting factors in women with physical disabilities in the study, to define the reproductive health care for this group of people. The study population recruited 521 women with physical disabilities aged more than 15 years who were officially registered as having physical…

Lin, Jin-Ding; Chen, Shih-Fan; Lin, Lan-Ping; Sung, Chang-Lin

2011-01-01

338

Self-Reports of Pap Smear Screening in Women with Physical Disabilities  

Science.gov (United States)

We collected self reported rate of cervical smear testing to examine the affecting factors in women with physical disabilities in the study, to define the reproductive health care for this group of people. The study population recruited 521 women with physical disabilities aged more than 15 years who were officially registered as having physical…

Lin, Jin-Ding; Chen, Shih-Fan; Lin, Lan-Ping; Sung, Chang-Lin

2011-01-01

339

Acyl-coenzyme A binding domain containing 3 (ACBD3; PAP7; GCP60): an emerging signaling molecule.  

Science.gov (United States)

Golgi body-mediated signaling has been linked to its fragmentation and regeneration during the mitotic cycle of the cell. During this process, Golgi-resident proteins are released to the cytosol and interact with other signaling molecules to regulate various cellular processes. Acyl-coenzyme A binding domain containing 3 protein (ACBD3) is a Golgi protein involved in several signaling events. ACBD3 protein was previously known as peripheral-type benzodiazepine receptor and cAMP-dependent protein kinase associated protein 7 (PAP7), Golgi complex-associated protein of 60kDa (GCP60), Golgi complex-associated protein 1 (GOCAP1), and Golgi phosphoprotein 1 (GOLPH1). In this review, we present the gene ontology of ACBD3, its relations to other Acyl-coenzyme A binding domain containing (ACBD) proteins, and its biological function in steroidogenesis, apoptosis, neurogenesis, and embryogenesis. We also discuss the role of ACBD3 in asymmetric cell division and cancer. New findings about ACBD3 may help understand this newly characterized signaling molecule and stimulate further research into its role in molecular endocrinology, neurology, and stem cell biology. PMID:20043945

Fan, Jinjiang; Liu, Jun; Culty, Martine; Papadopoulos, Vassilios

2010-01-04

340

Acyl-coenzyme A binding domain containing 3 (ACBD3; PAP7; GCP60): an emerging signaling molecule.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Golgi body-mediated signaling has been linked to its fragmentation and regeneration during the mitotic cycle of the cell. During this process, Golgi-resident proteins are released to the cytosol and interact with other signaling molecules to regulate various cellular processes. Acyl-coenzyme A binding domain containing 3 protein (ACBD3) is a Golgi protein involved in several signaling events. ACBD3 protein was previously known as peripheral-type benzodiazepine receptor and cAMP-dependent protein kinase associated protein 7 (PAP7), Golgi complex-associated protein of 60kDa (GCP60), Golgi complex-associated protein 1 (GOCAP1), and Golgi phosphoprotein 1 (GOLPH1). In this review, we present the gene ontology of ACBD3, its relations to other Acyl-coenzyme A binding domain containing (ACBD) proteins, and its biological function in steroidogenesis, apoptosis, neurogenesis, and embryogenesis. We also discuss the role of ACBD3 in asymmetric cell division and cancer. New findings about ACBD3 may help understand this newly characterized signaling molecule and stimulate further research into its role in molecular endocrinology, neurology, and stem cell biology.

Fan J; Liu J; Culty M; Papadopoulos V

2010-07-01

 
 
 
 
341

Aplicação do método de ensaio das frequências naturais de vibração para obtenção do módulo de elasticidade de peças estruturais de madeira Analysis of the natural vibration frequency test method to obtain the modulus of elasticity of wood structural components  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Existem diversas técnicas para caracterização do módulo de elasticidade de madeiras e, dentre as atualmente empregadas, destacam-se aquelas que utilizam as frequências naturais de vibração, por serem técnicas não destrutivas e, portanto, apresentarem resultados que podem ser repetidos e comparados ao longo do tempo. Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a eficácia, dos métodos de ensaios baseados nas frequências naturais de vibração comparando-os aos resultados obtidos na flexão estática na obtenção das propriedades elásticas em peças estruturais de madeira de reflorestamento que são usualmente empregadas na construção civil. Foram avaliadas 24 vigas de Eucalyptus sp. com dimensões nominais (40 x 60 x 2.000 mm) e 14 vigas de Pinus oocarpa com dimensões nominais (45 x 90 x 2.300 mm), ambas sem tratamento; 30 pranchas com dimensões nominais (40 x 240 x 2.010 mm) e 30 pranchas com dimensões nominais (40 x 240 x 3.050 mm), ambas de Pinnus oocarpa e com tratamento preservativo à base de Arseniato de Cobre Cromatado - CCA. Os resultados obtidos apresentaram boa correlação quando comparados aos resultados obtidos pelo método mecânico de flexão estática, especialmente quando empregada a frequência natural de vibração longitudinal. O emprego da frequência longitudinal mostrou-se confiável e prático, portanto recomendada para a determinação do módulo de elasticidade de peças estruturais de madeira. Verificou-se ainda que, empregando a frequência longitudinal, não há necessidade de um suporte específico para os corpos de prova ou calibrações prévias, reduzindo assim o tempo de execução e favorecendo o ensaio de grande quantidade de amostras.There are several techniques to characterize the elastic modulus of wood and those currently using the natural frequencies of vibration stand out as they are non-destructive techniques, producing results that can be repeated and compared over time. This study reports on the effectiveness of the testing methods based on the natural frequencies of vibration versus static bending to obtain the elastic properties of reforested structural wood components usually employed in civil construction. The following components were evaluated: 24 beams of Eucalyptus sp. with nominal dimensions (40 x 60 x 2.000 mm) and 14 beams of Pinus oocarpa with nominal dimensions (45 x 90 x 2.300 mm) both without treatment; 30 boards with nominal dimensions (40 x 240 x 2.010 mm) and 30 boards with nominal dimensions (40 x 240 x 3.050 mm), both of Pinus oocarpa and with chromate copper arsenate (CCA) preservative treatment. The results obtained in thiswork show good correlation when compared to the results obtained by the static bending mechanical method, especially when applying the natural frequency of longitudinal vibration. The use of longitudinal frequency was reliable and practical, therefore recommended for determining the modulus of elasticity of wood structural elements. It was also found that no specific support is needed for the specimens using the longitudinal frequency, as well as no previous calibrations, reducing the execution time and enabling to test many samples.

Pedro Gutemberg de Alcântara Segundinho; Leiliane Cristina Cossolino; Antônio Henrique Alves Pereira; Carlito Calil Junior

2012-01-01

342

Aplicação do método de ensaio das frequências naturais de vibração para obtenção do módulo de elasticidade de peças estruturais de madeira/ Analysis of the natural vibration frequency test method to obtain the modulus of elasticity of wood structural components  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Existem diversas técnicas para caracterização do módulo de elasticidade de madeiras e, dentre as atualmente empregadas, destacam-se aquelas que utilizam as frequências naturais de vibração, por serem técnicas não destrutivas e, portanto, apresentarem resultados que podem ser repetidos e comparados ao longo do tempo. Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a eficácia, dos métodos de ensaios baseados nas frequências naturais de vibração comparando-os aos resu (more) ltados obtidos na flexão estática na obtenção das propriedades elásticas em peças estruturais de madeira de reflorestamento que são usualmente empregadas na construção civil. Foram avaliadas 24 vigas de Eucalyptus sp. com dimensões nominais (40 x 60 x 2.000 mm) e 14 vigas de Pinus oocarpa com dimensões nominais (45 x 90 x 2.300 mm), ambas sem tratamento; 30 pranchas com dimensões nominais (40 x 240 x 2.010 mm) e 30 pranchas com dimensões nominais (40 x 240 x 3.050 mm), ambas de Pinnus oocarpa e com tratamento preservativo à base de Arseniato de Cobre Cromatado - CCA. Os resultados obtidos apresentaram boa correlação quando comparados aos resultados obtidos pelo método mecânico de flexão estática, especialmente quando empregada a frequência natural de vibração longitudinal. O emprego da frequência longitudinal mostrou-se confiável e prático, portanto recomendada para a determinação do módulo de elasticidade de peças estruturais de madeira. Verificou-se ainda que, empregando a frequência longitudinal, não há necessidade de um suporte específico para os corpos de prova ou calibrações prévias, reduzindo assim o tempo de execução e favorecendo o ensaio de grande quantidade de amostras. Abstract in english There are several techniques to characterize the elastic modulus of wood and those currently using the natural frequencies of vibration stand out as they are non-destructive techniques, producing results that can be repeated and compared over time. This study reports on the effectiveness of the testing methods based on the natural frequencies of vibration versus static bending to obtain the elastic properties of reforested structural wood components usually employed in ci (more) vil construction. The following components were evaluated: 24 beams of Eucalyptus sp. with nominal dimensions (40 x 60 x 2.000 mm) and 14 beams of Pinus oocarpa with nominal dimensions (45 x 90 x 2.300 mm) both without treatment; 30 boards with nominal dimensions (40 x 240 x 2.010 mm) and 30 boards with nominal dimensions (40 x 240 x 3.050 mm), both of Pinus oocarpa and with chromate copper arsenate (CCA) preservative treatment. The results obtained in thiswork show good correlation when compared to the results obtained by the static bending mechanical method, especially when applying the natural frequency of longitudinal vibration. The use of longitudinal frequency was reliable and practical, therefore recommended for determining the modulus of elasticity of wood structural elements. It was also found that no specific support is needed for the specimens using the longitudinal frequency, as well as no previous calibrations, reducing the execution time and enabling to test many samples.

Segundinho, Pedro Gutemberg de Alcântara; Cossolino, Leiliane Cristina; Pereira, Antônio Henrique Alves; Calil Junior, Carlito

2012-12-01

343

Cobertura do exame de Papanicolaou no Brasil e seus fatores determinantes: uma revisão sistemática da literatura/ Coverage of the Pap smear in Brazil and its determining factors: a systematic literature review  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: apresentar o panorama da cobertura do exame de Papanicolaou no Brasil, com ênfase nos seus fatores determinantes. MÉTODOS: foram pesquisadas as bases de dados "on line" LILACS (Literatura Latino-Americana e do Caribe em Ciências da Saúde), MEDLINE - 1966 a 2004 (Literatura Internacional em Ciências da Saúde), PAHO (Acervo da Biblioteca da Organização Pan-Americana de Saúde) e WHOLIS (Sistema de Informação da Biblioteca da OMS). A revisão foi ampliada (more) por meio da busca a referências bibliográficas dos estudos relevantes, solicitação de estudos publicados e não publicados a especialistas e outras fontes. Foram selecionados artigos que preenchiam os seguintes critérios: ser um estudo transversal, ter sido realizado no Brasil, conter informações sobre a cobertura do exame Papanicolaou (alguma vez na vida ou nos últimos três anos) ou sobre seus fatores determinantes. Foram excluídas as duplicidades e os artigos sem resumo. Um total de 13 artigos foram selecionados atendendo a esses critérios. RESULTADOS: são poucos os estudos sobre a cobertura do exame de Papanicolaou no Brasil. A maioria concentra-se nas grandes cidades das regiões Sul e Sudeste do país. Além da escassez, existe pouca padronização metodológica em relação à amostragem e perfil das mulheres a serem investigadas, o que torna difícil a comparação entre si. Estas diferenças metodológicas devem ter contribuído para a grande variabilidade nas coberturas encontradas. Entretanto, apesar de todos os problemas, observa-se tendência de aumento temporal no percentual de mulheres que foram submetidas a pelo menos um exame de Papanicolaou: os dois únicos estudos realizados nos anos 80 mostram coberturas de 55,0 e 68,9% na vida, ao passo que um inquérito domiciliar realizado em 15 capitais e no Distrito Federal entre 2002 e 2003 apresenta valores que variam de 73,4 a 92,9%; porém, dois estudos de abrangência nacional realizados em 2003 apresentaram coberturas abaixo de 70,0% nos últimos três anos. Por outro lado, algumas variáveis foram mais freqüentemente observadas nas mulheres não submetidas ao exame de Papanicolaou: ter baixo nível socioeconômico, ter baixa escolaridade, ter baixa renda familiar e pertencer às faixas etárias mais jovens. CONCLUSÃO: os dados aqui apresentados apontam para desigualdades regionais na cobertura do exame de Papanicolaou na população feminina brasileira e para a necessidade de intervenção junto àqueles fatores a ela associados. Abstract in english PURPOSE: to present an overview of the coverage of the Pap smear in Brazil, emphasizing the determinant factors associated with failure of women to submit to the test. METHODS: the literature was reviewed using the LILACS (Latin-American and Caribbean Literature in Sciences of the Health), MEDLINE - 1966 to 2004 (International Literature in Sciences of the Health), PAHO (Collection of the Library of the Pan-American Organization of Health), and WHOLIS (System of Informati (more) on of the Library of OMS) databases. The review was enlarged through the search of bibliographical references of relevant studies, request for published and unpublished studies by specialists, and other sources. Articles that fulfilled the following criteria were selected: to be a cross-sectional study, carried out in Brazil, including information about periodicity of the Pap test (some time in life or in the last three years) and/or containing information about factors associated with failure of women to submit to the test. Duplicates and articles without summary were excluded. A total of 13 articles fulfilling these criteria were selected. RESULTS: there are few studies on the coverage of Pap smear in Brazil. Most of them are concentrated in the big cities of the South and Southeast regions of the country. Besides the shortage, little methodological standardization exists in relation to the sampling and profile of the investigated women, which turns difficult the comparison among them. These methodologica

Martins, Luís Felipe Leite; Thuler, Luiz Claudio Santos; Valente, Joaquim Gonçalves

2005-08-01