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1

Pap and HPV Testing  

Science.gov (United States)

... based screening, known as the Pap test or Pap smear, and HPV testing. The main purpose of screening ... cause most HPV-associated cancers. 3. How is cervical cancer screening done? Cervical cancer screening can be done in ...

2

Pap Tests and Foreign-Born Women  

Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

Foreign-born women living in the U.S. are less likely to have Pap tests to detect cervical cancer than women born in this country. The problem is worse for women from certain countries or regions. Find out why this is a disturbing trend, who these women are and why they are less likely to get a Pap test, and what CDC is doing about it.  Created: 11/26/2007 by National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program.   Date Released: 12/7/2007.

2007-11-26

3

Pap Smears  

Science.gov (United States)

... Manage a Serious Allergic Reaction Quiz: Baseball Injuries Pap Smears KidsHealth > Teens > Sexual Health > For Girls > Pap Smears ... a Pap Smear? What Happens? What Is a Pap Smear? A Pap smear is a medical test that ...

4

Cervical Cancer and Pap Smear Awareness and Utilization of Pap Smear Test among Federal Civil Servants in North Central Nigeria  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Cervical cancer is a leading cause of cancer death in women in developing countries. A key factor linked to the relatively high levels of cervical cancer in these populations is the lack of awareness and access to preventive methods. This study aimed to determine the level of awareness of cervical cancer and Papanicolaou test (Pap smear test) and factors associated with the utilization of Pap test among female civil servants in Jos. Data was obtained from female workers (n?=?388) aged 18?...

Hyacinth, Hyacinth I.; Adekeye, Oluwatoyosi A.; Ibeh, Joy N.; Osoba, Tolulope

2012-01-01

5

Pap Smear  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Thanks to a procedure called a Pap smear test, many early stages of cervical cancer can be ... successful in curing cervical cancer. The Pap smear test is essential in detecting atypia early. It is ...

6

Evaluation of a nurse-designed mobile health education application to enhance knowledge of Pap testing.  

Science.gov (United States)

An experimental study was conducted using a 2-group randomized control pretest/ posttest design to determine if knowledge about Pap testing could be increased through use of a nurse-designed mobile smartphone app developed to educate individuals about the Pap test. A 14-item pretest survey of knowledge about Pap tests was distributed to women attending a university in New England. Participants in the intervention group were provided with an Android device on which a digital health education application on Pap testing had been downloaded. The control group was given a standard pamphlet on Pap testing., Paired t test results demonstrated that knowledge scores on the posttest increased significantly in both groups, but were significantly higher in the intervention group. User satisfaction with the app was high. The results of this study may enhance nursing care by informing nurses about a unique way of learning about Pap testing to recommend to patients. PMID:25000742

Christensen, Stacy

2014-01-01

7

How Often to Get a Pap Test (A Cup of Health with CDC)  

Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

Cervical cancer has declined in the U.S., and the decline is largely due to Pap testing and follow-up. Screening recommendations have changed. In this podcast, Meg Watson discusses Pap testing.  Created: 1/10/2013 by MMWR.   Date Released: 1/10/2013.

2013-01-10

8

Pap Smear  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available Pap Smear Introduction Cancer of the cervix affects more than 10,000 women in the United States every year. Thanks to a procedure ... Pap smear test, many early stages of cervical cancer can be detected and treated. Your doctor has ...

9

The influence of the professional’s gender in the periodicity of Pap Test  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Objective: To assess the influence of the professional’s gender in the regularity of the Pap test. Methods: A descriptive study, with a qualitative approach, held in the period of September to November, 2008 with 83 users of the Family Health Strategy of Caio Prado, Itapiúna-Ceará, who had Pap test in delay. The data were collected through a semi-structured interview and organized according to the Content Analysis: (1) Professional gender and the periodicity of Pap test and (2) Test that ...

Francisco Antonio da Cruz Mendonça; Roberta Jeane Bezerra Jorge; Maria Albertina Rocha Diógenes; Luis Rafael Leite Sampaio; Lucijane Leite Sampaio

2010-01-01

10

Papanicolaou (Pap test screening of staff members of a tertiary care teaching hospital in South India  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: In India, cancer cervix is the most common cancer among females. Papanicolaou cytological (Pap test helps in detecting the early epithelial abnormalities in cervical cells. Material and Methods: Pap smears of female health care staff members (n=80who underwent voluntary Pap test as part of a screening programme,from January to June 2012 were evaluated. Pap smears were evaluated by light microscopy. The 2001 Bethesda system for reporting cervical cytology was used in evaluating the pap smears. Results: Their mean age was 41.3 ± 5.6 years. Epithelial cell abnormality was noted in the Pap smear in 5 (6.3% cases. Conclusion: Our observations provide supportive evidence for using Pap test as a tool for screening for cervical cancer. There is a need for enhancing the awareness among lay public regarding the utility of this test so that more women will avail this test and precancerous changes in cervix can be detected before they progress to frank malignancy.

Amitabh Jena

2012-10-01

11

Pap Smear  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... com og020106 Last reviewed: 10/01/2012 3 Prevention A Pap smear test is one of the ... development of cervical cancer. Taking the vaccine helps prevent cervical cancer. If you have not taken the ...

12

Current approach of health employees in Turkey to pap smear test  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Objective: Our primary aim was to detect how much importance is given to pap smear test by the health staff.Material and Methods: In this study inquiries including questions about age, marital status, occupation, attitude for applying to gynecology polyclinics as well as questions regarding their knowledge about and attitude to pap smear test and HPV vaccination were delivered to health staff as well as to a control group which was formed from patients applying to our polyclinics.Results: Ne...

Hakan Yetimalar; Atilla Köksal; Burcu Kasap; Akif Uysal; Külal Çukurova

2009-01-01

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Attitude Concerning the Pap Smear Test of Women Who Admitted to the Family Medicine Outpatient Clinic  

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Aim: In this trial, we evaluated women’s knowledge and behavior concerning the Pap smear test. Material and Method: Women attending to the family medicine outpatient clinic in between April 1 to May 30 irrespective of their complaints included in the study in Dogansehir, Malatya, Turkey. Sociodemographic data form was filled by trained personnel. Questions regarding whether they heard about the Pap smear test, have ever taken it, if not what were the reasons, what are the indications of the...

Et Al, Ak M.

2010-01-01

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A case of plasmablastic lymphoma diagnosed on liquid-based pap test.  

Science.gov (United States)

Primary gynecological lymphomas are rare and difficult to diagnose with Pap test. Herein, we report an uncommon case of plasmablastic lymphoma in a 61-year-old female with human immunodeficiency virus that presents with vaginal bleeding. The following case report shows the cytological features on liquid-based Pap test, cell block studies with diagnostic immunohistochemistry, discussion of the diagnostic difficulties, and a literature review. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2014;42:956-958. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24273019

Arce, Julian; Broadway, Kameelah; Somma, Jonathan; Khader, Samer

2014-11-01

15

Attitude Concerning the Pap Smear Test of Women Who Admitted to the Family Medicine Outpatient Clinic  

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Full Text Available Aim: In this trial, we evaluated women’s knowledge and behavior concerning the Pap smear test. Material and Method: Women attending to the family medicine outpatient clinic in between April 1 to May 30 irrespective of their complaints included in the study in Dogansehir, Malatya, Turkey. Sociodemographic data form was filled by trained personnel. Questions regarding whether they heard about the Pap smear test, have ever taken it, if not what were the reasons, what are the indications of the Pap smear test were asked. 139 women accepted to participate in the study. 46,8% had heard and 54,2 % didn’t hear about the Pap smear test. The source of information was 57% from health professionals 26% from the media, and 14% from the neighbors. Those who were informed about the Pap smear test from health professionals undertook it more than others. Media was the second effective source and neighbors were ineffective in context to Pap smear test being done Results: As a result preventive medicine has a distinct position in the primary care. Cervical malignancy of the urogenital tract is one of the rare preventable cancers by screening tests. In the primary care set up every effort should be supported in order to improve the awareness of women particularly who are at the risk group.

Ak M et al.

2010-06-01

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Osveš?enost žensk o brisu materni?nega vratu - test PAP  

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Diplomsko delo predstavlja osveš?enost žensk o brisu materni?nega vratu – test PAP, državni program ZORA, osnovne in dodatne preiskave za ugotavljanje raka na materni?nem vratu in zdravstveno vzgojo diplomirane medicinske sestre. Diplomsko delo je sestavljeno iz dveh delov. V teoreti?nem delu je predstavljen bris PAP, ki zajema definicijo, dejavnike tveganja za nastanek raka na materni?nem vratu, metode za zgodnje odkrivanje raka na materni?nem vratu, klasifikacijo citoloških p...

Kovac?ec, Lea

2012-01-01

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Awareness of Pap testing and factors associated with intent to undergo Pap testing by level of sexual experience in unmarried university students in Korea: results from an online survey  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Young and unmarried women have not been a target group for cervical cancer prevention in Korea. No previous studies have investigated the awareness of Pap testing, the intention to undergo Pap testing, or the factors associated with that intention, in this group of women. This information would be useful for an expansion in the focus of primary cervical cancer prevention. This study aimed to compare the awareness of Pap testing between groups of unmarried university students in Korea, and to investigate the factors associated with the intention to undergo Pap testing, by level of sexual experience. Methods A total of 475 unmarried university students who had never undergone a Pap test completed a web-based survey. Differences in awareness of the importance of the Pap test, confidence in Pap testing, intention to undergo the test, attitudes, subjective norms, perceived control, stigma, and shame by level of sexual experience were analysed using independent t-tests. Associations between measurement variables and intention to undergo Pap testing were analysed using correlation analysis. Variables yielding significant associations (p?Pap testing. Results Most participants perceived that the need for regular Pap testing was less important (score, 77.76) than other methods of cervical cancer prevention. They were not confident that is was an effective method of cervical cancer prevention for themselves (score, 59.56). There were differences in confidence in Pap testing and in the factors associated with intention to undergo Pap testing between sexually experienced and sexually inexperienced students. Regardless of level of sexual experience, the subjective norm was the most important predictor of intention to undergo Pap testing. Conclusions There was a low level of Pap screening awareness among the students. The factors associated with intention to undergo Pap testing differed by level of sexual experience. Social influence was an important factor that could be used to increase the intention to receive a Pap test in the university student population. Strategies to increase the intention to undergo Pap screening should be introduced and should be adapted to the level of sexual experience. PMID:25163938

2014-01-01

18

The influence of the professional’s gender in the periodicity of Pap Test  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective: To assess the influence of the professional’s gender in the regularity of the Pap test. Methods: A descriptive study, with a qualitative approach, held in the period of September to November, 2008 with 83 users of the Family Health Strategy of Caio Prado, Itapiúna-Ceará, who had Pap test in delay. The data were collected through a semi-structured interview and organized according to the Content Analysis: (1 Professional gender and the periodicity of Pap test and (2 Test that causes pain and fear. Results: It was observed that 67 (80.72% were between 25 and 59 years, 52 (62.62% were married, 65 (78.31% had primary education, 45 (54.22% were farmers and 49 (59.04% earned less than minimum wage. Most users reported feelings of shame by male examiners as a reason for irregularity in the frequency of Pap test. On a smaller scale, the reason pointed out was to consider this a test that causes pain and fear. Final Considerations: The users reported that the presence of a male professional was a strong influence to irregularity in the frequency of Pap test in this health unit. Albeit to a lesser extent, prior negative experience with this exam and not the professional’s gender issue has been implicated as a reason not to perform periodic cytology.

Francisco Antonio da Cruz Mendonça

2010-06-01

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Factors contributing to high ThinPrep® Pap test unsatisfactory rates in an academic medical center laboratory.  

Science.gov (United States)

Specimen adequacy is a key component in the cytologic evaluation of cervical Pap tests. At our institution, yearly unsatisfactory rates continue to be high, placing our laboratory in the 95th percentile for CAP benchmark data for unsatisfactory Pap test rates. Using the 2001 Bethesda System criteria, unsatisfactory Pap test rates were calculated over a ten year period (January 2002 to December 2011) and contributing factors were analyzed. Of the 124,457 ThinPrep Pap tests performed, 4,163 (3.3%) were unsatisfactory for evaluation, the majority (90%) due to too few squamous epithelial cells. Peri/postmenopausal women and those who had received radiation/chemotherapy had the highest unsatisfactory rates; 55% and 25%, respectively. Higher unsatisfactory Pap test rates are related to the patient population served. Defined, reproducible adequacy criteria need to be defined for Pap tests from patients in certain clinical conditions. PMID:24167017

Selvaggi, Suzanne M

2014-05-01

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A Shandon PapSpin liquid-based gynecological test: A split-sample and direct-to-vial test with histology follow-up study  

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Full Text Available Background: Studies for liquid-based Papanicolaou (Pap tests reveal that liquid-based cytology (LBC is a safe and effective alternative to the conventional Pap smear. Although there is research on ThinPrep and SurePath systems, information is lacking to evaluate the efficiency and effectiveness of systems based on cytocentrifugation. This study is designed to determine the sensitivity and specificity of the Shandon PapSpin (ThermoShandon, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA liquid-based gynecological system. We used split-sample and direct-to-vial study design. Materials and Methods: 2,945 women referred to prophylactic check-up were enrolled in this study. Split sample design was used in 1,500 women and residual cervical cytology specimen from all these cases was placed in fluid for PapSpin preparation after performing conventional smear. The direct-to-vial study was carried out in another cohort of 1,445 women in whom the entire cervical material was investigated using only the PapSpin technique. Follow up histological diagnoses for 141 women were obtained from both study arms following 189 abnormal cytology cases. 80 LBC cases from the split sample group and 61 LBC cases in the direct-to-vial group were correlated with the histology results. The sensitivity and secificity of the conventional smear and PapSpin tests in both study arms were compared. Results: In the split sample group, conventional smears showed a higher proportion of ASC-US (atypical cells undetermined significance: 31 (2.1% vs 10 (0.7% in PapSpin (P = 0.001. A higher proportion of unsatisfactory samples was found in the conventional smear group: 25 (1.7% vs 6 (0.4% cases (P = 0.001. In the split sample group, the sensitivity of the conventional and PapSpin tests was 68.7% vs 78.1%, and the specificity 93.8% vs 91.8%, respectively. In the direct to vial group PapSpin sensitivity was 75.9% and specificity 96.5%. The differences in sensitivity and specificity were not significant. The positive predictive values for the conventional and PapSpin methods were not different in the split sample group: 88.0% vs 86.2% and 95.7% in the direct-to-vial group. Also, no differences were found for negative predictive value (82.1, 86.8% and 80.0% respectively. Conclusions: PapSpin showed good qualitative results in both study arms, even after the material splitting in the first study arm, and is a good alternative to the conventional Pap smear. Additionally, the PapSpin method offers several advantages such as the opportunity to prepare duplicate slides, option for HPV DNA testing and cell block preparations from residual material. Microscopic evaluation of thinner cell preparations is less time consuming than the conventional Pap smears.

Rimiene J

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
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La coloración fluorescente con naranja de acridina y el PAP: validación de ambas técnicas para la detección de Trichomonas vaginalis FLUORESCENT STAINING WITH ACRIDINE ORANGE AND PAP SMEAR: VALIDATION TESTS OF BOTH TECNIQUES FOR THE DETECTION OF Trichomonas vaginalis  

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Full Text Available Se efectuó la validación de la coloración de Papanicolaou, utilizada para citología vaginal, frente a la coloración fluorescente con naranja de acridina, a fin de evaluar el valor de un resultado negativo para Trichomonas vaginalis obtenido en un PAP. Se estudiaron 80 muestras de flujo vaginal de mujeres entre 18 y 45 años, pacientes de consultorios externos de Ginecología del Hospital Municipal de la ciudad de Bahía Blanca, Provincia de Buenos Aires (Argentina. Las muestras se colorearon paralelamente por la técnica de Papanicolaou y por la coloración fluorescente con naranja de acridina. Los resultados mostraron que el PAP presenta una sensibilidad del 54,5% para la detección de T. vaginalis, validación efectuada frente a la coloración fluorescente con naranja de acridina, para una prevalencia de enfermedad en el grupo de mujeres estudiadas del 13,75% y un nivel de confianza del 95%. Para ensayos "en paralelo" con ambas coloraciones, el valor global de la prueba fue del 93,8%, con un valor predictivo del resultado negativo del 93,2%. Concluimos que si bien T. vaginalis es detectada en el PAP, éste no presenta sensibilidad significativamente elevada como para ser considerada como única prueba, debiéndose complementar siempre con una coloración fluorescente con naranja de acridina, u otra prueba de similar valorThe present study examined the validity of PAP staining, as used for vaginal cytology, against fluorescent staining with acridine orange in order to determine the value of a negative result of Trichomonas vaginalis obtained by a PAP smear. We examined eighty vaginal-secretion samples from 18- to 45-year-old female patients of the Hospital Municipal of the city of Bahía Blanca, Province of Buenos Aires, Argentina. The samples were stained in parallel by the PAP smear technique and the fluorescent staining technique with acridine orange described by Fripp in 1975. The results of our validation tests demonstrated that, against fluorescent staining with acridine orange, the PAP smear has a 54.5% sensitivity for the detection of T. vaginalis for a 13.75% prevalence of disease among the females in the study with a 95% confidence level. In assays conducted "in parallel" for both stainings, the global value of the test was 93.8%, with a predictive negative value of 93.2%. We conclude that, although the PAP smear can detect T. vaginalis, its sensitivity is not high enough for the test to be used as the sole diagnostic means and the test must always be supplemented with fluorescent staining with acridine orange or another test of similar value. Otherwise, the diagnostic sensitivity would not be any higher than that of vaginal discharge exams in vitro.

SIXTO RAUL COSTAMAGNA

2000-07-01

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How Often to Get a Pap Test (A Minute of Health with CDC)  

Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

Cervical cancer has declined in the U.S., however every year over 12,000 women are diagnosed and 4,000 die. This podcast discusses the importance of Pap testing.  Created: 1/10/2013 by MMWR.   Date Released: 1/10/2013.

2013-01-10

23

The diagnostic value of the ThinPrep pap test in endometrial carcinoma: a prospective study with histological follow-up.  

Science.gov (United States)

Case-control studies have demonstrated that the ThinPrep Pap test may provide improved detection of endometrial carcinoma. The purpose of this study is to prospectively examine the diagnostic potential of the ThinPrep Pap test in the detection of endometrial carcinoma. ThinPrep Pap test slides were collected from high-risk patient groups. Pap-stained slides were reviewed and the cytological diagnosis was rendered independently by investigators. Each case was assigned to one of the four diagnostic categories: within normal limit (WNL); atypical glandular cells (AGC); atypical endometrial cells (AEC); or adenocarcinoma, probably endometrial origin. After cytological diagnosis was made, the histological follow-up diagnosis was obtained through the laboratory information system and the cyto-histological correlation was analyzed. Of 106 patients identified, 60 had histological follow-up. For all eight cases interpreted by cytology as positive, endometrial carcinoma was confirmed histologically. Among 25 patients with normal endometrial cells present, histological follow-up showed benign endometrium. Among 17 cases interpreted cytologically as AEC, 14 cases (82.4%) had benign histological follow-up and 3 cases (17.6%) had endometrial carcinoma. All 11 cases (100%) classified as AGC had benign histological follow-up. The sensitivity and specificity of detecting endometrial malignancy were 72.7% and 100%, respectively. The positive predictive value was 100%. In this prospective study, we demonstrated that the Thin Prep Pap test had a reasonably high sensitivity and/or specificity in detecting endometrial carcinoma. PMID:22351503

Zhou, Jianhong; Tomashefski, Joseph F; Sawady, Joram; Ferrer, Hector; Khiyami, Amer

2013-05-01

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Current approach of health employees in Turkey to pap smear test  

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Full Text Available Objective: Our primary aim was to detect how much importance is given to pap smear test by the health staff.Material and Methods: In this study inquiries including questions about age, marital status, occupation, attitude for applying to gynecology polyclinics as well as questions regarding their knowledge about and attitude to pap smear test and HPV vaccination were delivered to health staff as well as to a control group which was formed from patients applying to our polyclinics.Results: Neither of the groups applied for gynecologic control without having complaints.There was no significant difference between the groups when the rates of having smear test at least once were taken into consideration. In this study we detected that the smear test was not offered routinely to nearly half of the patients.Those patients who were offered the smear test had the test by significantly higher rates. 91,17% of the women in the study group had heard about HPV vaccination.Discussion: The awareness of health staff as well as the non-health staff population about pap smear test is far from adequate in Turkey. Furthermore, gynecologists do not offer smear tests to their patients efficiently.This situation may prevent the reduction of cervical malignancies in the near future.

Hakan Yetimalar

2009-06-01

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Factors associated with knowledge and screening of cervical cancer (PAP test in Peruvian women of childbearing age. Analysis of period 1996-2008  

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Full Text Available Objectives: To determinate the frecuency, sociodemographics characteristics and interpersonal factors associated with cervical cancer screening in Peruvian women of childbearing age. Methods: We used the database of the national Demographic and Family Health (DHS survey conducted in 1996, 2000, 2004 and 2008. We considered as dependent variable teh questions: Have you heard of the PAP smear? and Have you had a PAP smear in the last 5 years?. Sociodemographics characteristics and interpersonal factors were considered as independent variables. Dependent and independent variables were used in the bivariate and multivariate analysis in order to determinate which factors were associated. Results: The percentage of women in childbearing age with any PAP smear was 42.8%, 45.7%, 47.3% and 45.6% for 1996, 2000, 2004 and 2008 respectively. While the percentage of women in childbearing age who had heard about PAP smear was 78.3%, 85.1%, 89.8% and 91.4% for the same years. During the 4 years analyzed, living in the coast and in urban areas were associated with having heard of PAP test. While only having had a previously PAP smear was associated with living in the coast in a consistetd manner during the four years analyzed. Conclusions: The frequency of cervical cancer screening obtained in this study are representative of the national reality. The coverage in Peru is low compared with other South American countries. There are some factors associated with PAP smear that can be modified to improve its coverage, knowing that it is the screening method of choice for cervical cancer.

Paolo Wong

2010-04-01

26

[Factors associated with failure to take a Pap smear test among Quilombola women].  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of this study was to analyze factors associated with failure to take a Pap smear test among quilombola women living in Vitória da Conquista in the state of Bahia. A cross-sectional, population-based study was conducted with women aged 18 to 64. Descriptive analysis and univariate and multivariate analysis using a multinomial logistic model was applied. Women who had never performed the test or had not had one for over three years were compared separately from those who were examined within the preceding three years. Of the 348 women included in the analysis, 27.3%, reported never having a Pap smear test. The following factors were independently associated with never having taken the test: age of 18 to 29 years and 50 to 59 years; lack of education; not having a partner; seeking care in health-related units/establishments other than their place of residence; and having a clinical breast examination three or more years ago or never having one. The findings indicate a need for reflection in order to combat factors that are associated with not having a Pap smear test among quilombola women, since it is important to implement actions for the prevention of cervical cancer. PMID:25351319

Oliveira, Márcio Vasconcelos; Guimarães, Mark Drew Crosland; França, Elisabeth Barboza

2014-11-01

27

Cervical and Vaginal Cancer Screening (Pap Test and Pelvic Exam)  

Science.gov (United States)

... covers a clinical breast exam to check for breast cancer. Part B covers these screening tests: Once every 24 months for all women Once every 12 months if you’re at high risk for cervical or vaginal cancer, or if you’ ...

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Factors Related to Regular Undergoing Pap-smear Test: Application of Theory of Planned Behavior  

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Full Text Available

Background: Cervical cancer is the second most common cancer among women in the world and the most common cancer in developing countries. Pap smear is and effective tool that can prevent death due to cervical cancer. The aim of this study was to determine the factors related to doing regular Pap-smear test based on the theory of planned behavior.

Methods: In this cross-sectional study, conducted in Hamadan County, the west of Iran, during 2009, a total of 400 women's aged 20 to 70 years old, were randomly selected to participate voluntarily in the study. Participants filled out a self-administered questionnaire including the expanded theory of planned behavior components. Data were analyzed by SPSS version 13 using chi-square, t-test, and logistic regression statistical tests at 95% significant level.

Results: Almost 63.8% of the participants had already done Pap-smear test at least once. About 28.3% of volunteers had followed a regular Pap-smear program. There was a significant correlation (P < 0.002 between family history of cervical cancer and undergoing regular Pap-smear test. In addition, there was a significant correlation (P < 0.001 between age and undergoing regular Pap-smear test. The best predictor for regular Pap-smear testing was subjective norms with odds ratio estimate of 1.14 [95% CI: 1.04, 1.23].

Conclusion: Based on our findings, subjective norms may be one of the most effective factors among women for doing regular &l

Farzad Jalilian

2011-07-01

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Pap Smear Test Structures for Measuring Health Belief Model and Factors Affecting Women in Urban Centers Covered Zarandieh  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background and Objectives: Cervical cancer is one of the most common cancers in women worldwide and although pap smear is considered as an effective screening program, the level of using screening is low. The purpose of this study is pap smear test structures for measuring health belief model and factors affecting women in urban centers covered Zarandieh.Methods: This was a cross-sectional study (descriptive-analytical) which included 265 Urban Women's in Zarandieh. Data collection instrument...

Karimy M.; Shamsi M; Araban M; Gholamnia Z

2012-01-01

30

Pap Smear  

Science.gov (United States)

Pap Smear Introduction Cancer of the cervix affects more than 10,000 women in the United States every ... to be analyzed. Surface of Cervix During a Pap Smear First you will be asked to undress, at ...

31

Pap Smear  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available Pap Smear Introduction Cancer of the cervix affects more than 10,000 women in the United States every ... to be analyzed. Surface of Cervix During a Pap Smear First you will be asked to undress, at ...

32

Assessment of quality of data provided on Pap test requisitions: Implications for quality of care and patient safety  

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Full Text Available Background: The reliability of patient history and clinical information on Pap test requisitions has been questioned but not previously objectively determined. The effect of incomplete/inaccurate information on quality of patient care has not been previously quantified. Our objectives were (1 to find out how clinicians and their assistants viewed the requisition slip, and whether they understood the reasons for supplying the information requested, (2 to measure the completeness and accuracy of information on the requisition slips, and (3 to determine whether the clinical information and patient history provided on Pap test requisitions could be relied upon to accurately assign a Pap test to the laboratory?s "high-risk rescreen" pool. Methods: Clinicians and their assistants were surveyed. A total of 899 consecutive Pap test requisition slips were reviewed. Patient history and clinical information from the slips were compared to data from our laboratory information system and/or electronic patient medical records. Results: Most survey respondents felt that proper completion of requisitions was important, but only 17% of clinicians and less staff realized that negative high-risk Pap tests underwent a quality assurance rescreen. Clinicians and/or staff recorded the last menstrual period, specimen source, and clinical information on the requisition slips 96%, 97%, and 88% of the time, respectively. Of 695 Pap tests with applicable computerized records, 172 (25% qualified for high-risk rescreen based upon information provided on the requisition slip alone. An additional 52 Pap tests (7%, or 23% of the total high-risk Pap tests were discovered to be of high risk only after review of the electronic records. Conclusions: Clinicians and staff were receptive to discussions concerning the completion of requisition slips, but laboratory expectations could be better communicated. Requisition slips were properly completed with a high frequency, but the check boxes did not elicit all the information expected, so revision was necessary. The high accuracy of the completion of requisition slips permitted 77% of high-risk Pap tests to be identified via the requisition slip alone. Our findings challenge the conventional anecdotal impressions of "notoriously unreliable" information on Pap test requisition slips, but our experience may not be applicable to other settings.

Naryshkin Sonya

2009-01-01

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Pap Smear Screening Test and it’s Applications in Cervical Cancer Detection and Classification  

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Full Text Available A large group of women population, in the world is affected by the cervical cancer in their different age groups. Hence, most of the researchers, pathologists and also more number of collegiate have provided more number of solutions, to identify this cancer from the test images of pap smear screening test. But their results represent, only to an extent, whether the patient is affected by cancer or not, and do not specially identify the exact nature and severity of the cancer. In this paper, it is proposed, to identify the cancer and classify the stage of the cancer from the pap smear test images with high accuracy. The proposed work is based on segmentation, enhancement, and feature extraction and classification process. Test results show the mean and area value based classification of the normal and abnormal cell and also to identify the stage of the cervical cancer. Hence the results would be more useful for the pathologists to reduce their work load and minimize the human error while improving the accuracy of diagnosis.

S.Athinarayanan

2013-06-01

34

NIH study finds negative HPV screening test result is a better predictor of low cervical cancer risk than a negative Pap test  

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Based on a study that included more than 1 million women, investigators at NCI have determined that a negative test for HPV infection compared to a negative Pap test provides greater safety, or assurance, against future risk of cervical cancer.

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Factors Associated with Pap Smear Screening Test among Women Aged 15-49 based on Protection Motivation Theory  

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Full Text Available   Background & Aim: Cervical cancer is the fourth common cancer worldwide. Pap smear is a usual t est to screen cervical cancer. The aim of the present study was to determine factors associated with Pap smear screening among married women aged 15-49 years in Lamerd health centers based on the Protection Motivation Theory .   Methods & Materials: In this cross-sectional study, 220 married women aged 15-49 years were selected. Data were gathered using a questionnaire designed based on the Protection Motivation Theory. The questionnaires were completed via individual interviews with the participants. Validity and reliability of the questionnaire were approved. Data were analysed using the Kruskal-Wallis, U-Man Whitney test and c 2 in the SPSS-16.   Results: Most of the participants ( 40% had a high school diploma and 70% of them were housewives. Most of the participants (65.6% had used the test once at least. There were statistically significant relationships between the use of Pap smear with the protection motivation against cervical cancer (P<0.001 , perceived self-efficacy ( P =0.002 , perceived response efficacy ( P =0.007 and perceived costs ( P <0.001 .   Conclusion: Regarding the statistically significant relationships between the constructs of the Protection Motivation Theory and the use of Pap smear screening test among women , it is recommended to design educational programs based on the Protection Motivation Theory to encourage married women for using Pap smear screening test.   

Fatemeh Jowzi

2013-07-01

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HPV DNA and Pap smear test results in cases with and without cervical pathology  

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Objective: The aim of the study was to determine the HPV prevalance and its relation to Pap smear, colposcopy and colposcopy directed biopsy in our region of Eskisehir, Turkey.Material and Methods: A total of 615 women who applied to the outpatient clinic between December 2009 and December 2010 constituted our study population. All patients underwent pelvic examination and Pap smear sampling. Patients who had pathological cervical appearance or Pap smear results of ASCUS, AGUS, LSIL or HSIL ...

Sabit Sinan Özalp; Tercan Us; Emine Arslan; Tufan Öge; Nilgün Ka?ifo?lu

2012-01-01

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Pap Smear Test Structures for Measuring Health Belief Model and Factors Affecting Women in Urban Centers Covered Zarandieh  

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Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Cervical cancer is one of the most common cancers in women worldwide and although pap smear is considered as an effective screening program, the level of using screening is low. The purpose of this study is pap smear test structures for measuring health belief model and factors affecting women in urban centers covered Zarandieh.Methods: This was a cross-sectional study (descriptive-analytical which included 265 Urban Women's in Zarandieh. Data collection instrument was a questionnaire included demographic variables and knowledge and health belief model questions. Data was analyzed using chi-square tests, Descriptive statistics, independent samples t-test, at the significance level of p<0.05.Results: Significant differences were detected between those tested and not tested in mean of score knowledge and all the variables HBM (sensitivity, benefits, barriers, threat and intensity perceived, p<0.001. The HBM constructs, age, level of study and knowledge accounted for 30.8% of the variance observed for Pap test. Perceived susceptibility and benefit were the most important predicting factors.Conclusion: These findings can be used to guide the development of more effective educational programs and increase the amount of women’s participation in Pap smear.

Karimy M.

2012-09-01

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Iodamoeba butschlii in an anal pap test confirmed by iodine stain.  

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We report the finding of Iodamoeba butschlii amebic cysts on a liquid-based anal Pap smear from an HIV-positive male. Iodine staining of the smear confirmed the diagnosis. It is important to distinguish I. butschlii from pathogenic ameobae and other organisms seen on anal Pap smears. PMID:24167099

Schuetz, Audrey N; Pritt, Bobbi S; Schreiner, Andrew M

2014-09-01

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Mammography and Pap test screening among low-income foreign-born Hispanic women in the USA  

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Full Text Available Little is known about the factors influencing screening among low-income Hispanic women particularly among recent immigrants. A sample of 148 low-income, low-literate, foreign-born Hispanic women residing in the Washington DC metropolitan area participated in the study. The mean age of the sample was 46.2 (SD = 11.5, 84% reported annual household incomes<=$15,000. All women were Spanish speakers and had low acculturation levels. Ninety six percent had reported having a Pap smear, but 24% were not in compliance with recommended screening (Pap test within the last 3 years. Among women 40 and older, 62% had received a mammogram, but only 33% were compliant with age appropriate recommended mammography screening guidelines. Women in this study had more misconceptions about cancer than Hispanics in other studies. Multivariate logistic models for correlates of Pap test and mammography screening behavior indicate that factors such as fear of the screening test, embarrassment, and lack of knowledge influenced screening behavior. In conclusion, women in this study had lower rates of mammography screening than non-Hispanic women and lower rates of compliance with recommended Mammography and Pap test screening guidelines.

Fernandez Maria E.

1998-01-01

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¿Cómo afecta el tipo de seguro de salud a la realización del Papanicolaou en Perú? / How does type of health insurance affect receipt of Pap testing in Peru?  

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Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish OBJETIVO: Describir la asociación entre la realización de la citología del cuello uterino y el tipo de seguro de salud en las mujeres peruanas, y determinar el papel de las variables sociodemográficas y de salud sexual en esta relación. MÉTODOS: Se realizó un estudio transversal que utiliza la infor [...] mación de la Encuesta Demográfica y de Salud Familiar (ENDES), Perú, 2005-2008, correspondiente a una selección de 12 272 mujeres de 30 a 49 años de edad. La variable dependiente fue la realización de alguna prueba de Papanicolaou (PAP) en los últimos 5 años. Las variables independientes principales fueron el tipo de seguro de salud, el nivel educativo, el nivel socioeconómico del hogar, la etnia y el área de residencia. La asociación multivariada fue estimada a través de la razón de prevalencias, utilizando la regresión Poisson con varianza robusta. RESULTADOS: Se encontró que 62,7% de las mujeres sexualmente activas se habían realizado algún PAP en los últimos 5 años. Este porcentaje de participación variaba según el tipo de seguro de salud, donde las mujeres con seguro público tenían 1,27 (intervalo de confianza de 95% [IC95%]: 1,24-1,31) y las que tenían seguro privado 1,52 (IC95%:1,46-1,58) veces mayor probabilidad de haberse realizado un PAP que aquellas sin seguro. Esta asociación era explicada predominantemente por las variables de posición socioeconómica. Asimismo las mujeres que tenían la participación más baja eran las analfabetas o con educación primaria, de nivel socioeconómico bajo, con antecedente de lengua indígena y que vivían en la zonas rurales-siendo esta brecha aún mayor cuando además carecían de seguro de salud, llegando a ser hasta la tercera parte en relación con los grupos sociales más favorecidos. CONCLUSIONES: Se hallaron desigualdades según el tipo de seguro de salud en la realización del PAP, siendo las mujeres sin seguro las que menos lo utilizaron, lo cual supone una barrera para el acceso al cribado de cáncer de cérvix en Perú. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: Describe the association between receipt of cervical cytology and type of health insurance in Peruvian women, and determine the role of sociodemographic and sexual health variables in this relationship. METHODS: A cross-sectional study using information on a sample of 12 272 women aged 30 [...] to 49 years from the Demographic and Family Health Survey (ENDES), Peru, 2005-2008. The dependent variable was receipt of at least one Pap smear in the last five years. The primary independent variables were type of health insurance, educational level, household socioeconomic level, ethnicity, and place of residence. Prevalence ratio, obtained from Poisson regression with robust variance, was used to measure multivariate association. RESULTS: Among sexually active women, 62.7% had received at least one Pap test in the last five years. Percentage of women tested varied by type of health insurance. Women with public or private insurance had a greater probability of having received a Pap smear-1.27 (95% CI, 1.24-1.31) and 1.52 (95% CI, 1.46-1.58) times greater, respectively-than uninsured women. This association was primarily explained by socioeconomic status variables. In addition, women who participated the least in screening were characterized by illiteracy or only a primary education, low socioeconomic level, speaking an indigenous language, and living in a rural area. When they also lacked health insurance, the gap widened, rising to as much as one third compared to more advantaged social groups. CONCLUSIONS: Inequalities were found in receipt of Pap testing according to type of health insurance; women without insurance were least likely to be screened, implying existence of a barrier to cervical cancer screening in Peru.

Leslie, Barrionuevo-Rosas; Laia, Palència; Carme, Borrell.

2013-12-01

 
 
 
 
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¿Cómo afecta el tipo de seguro de salud a la realización del Papanicolaou en Perú? / How does type of health insurance affect receipt of Pap testing in Peru?  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish OBJETIVO: Describir la asociación entre la realización de la citología del cuello uterino y el tipo de seguro de salud en las mujeres peruanas, y determinar el papel de las variables sociodemográficas y de salud sexual en esta relación. MÉTODOS: Se realizó un estudio transversal que utiliza la infor [...] mación de la Encuesta Demográfica y de Salud Familiar (ENDES), Perú, 2005-2008, correspondiente a una selección de 12 272 mujeres de 30 a 49 años de edad. La variable dependiente fue la realización de alguna prueba de Papanicolaou (PAP) en los últimos 5 años. Las variables independientes principales fueron el tipo de seguro de salud, el nivel educativo, el nivel socioeconómico del hogar, la etnia y el área de residencia. La asociación multivariada fue estimada a través de la razón de prevalencias, utilizando la regresión Poisson con varianza robusta. RESULTADOS: Se encontró que 62,7% de las mujeres sexualmente activas se habían realizado algún PAP en los últimos 5 años. Este porcentaje de participación variaba según el tipo de seguro de salud, donde las mujeres con seguro público tenían 1,27 (intervalo de confianza de 95% [IC95%]: 1,24-1,31) y las que tenían seguro privado 1,52 (IC95%:1,46-1,58) veces mayor probabilidad de haberse realizado un PAP que aquellas sin seguro. Esta asociación era explicada predominantemente por las variables de posición socioeconómica. Asimismo las mujeres que tenían la participación más baja eran las analfabetas o con educación primaria, de nivel socioeconómico bajo, con antecedente de lengua indígena y que vivían en la zonas rurales-siendo esta brecha aún mayor cuando además carecían de seguro de salud, llegando a ser hasta la tercera parte en relación con los grupos sociales más favorecidos. CONCLUSIONES: Se hallaron desigualdades según el tipo de seguro de salud en la realización del PAP, siendo las mujeres sin seguro las que menos lo utilizaron, lo cual supone una barrera para el acceso al cribado de cáncer de cérvix en Perú. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: Describe the association between receipt of cervical cytology and type of health insurance in Peruvian women, and determine the role of sociodemographic and sexual health variables in this relationship. METHODS: A cross-sectional study using information on a sample of 12 272 women aged 30 [...] to 49 years from the Demographic and Family Health Survey (ENDES), Peru, 2005-2008. The dependent variable was receipt of at least one Pap smear in the last five years. The primary independent variables were type of health insurance, educational level, household socioeconomic level, ethnicity, and place of residence. Prevalence ratio, obtained from Poisson regression with robust variance, was used to measure multivariate association. RESULTS: Among sexually active women, 62.7% had received at least one Pap test in the last five years. Percentage of women tested varied by type of health insurance. Women with public or private insurance had a greater probability of having received a Pap smear-1.27 (95% CI, 1.24-1.31) and 1.52 (95% CI, 1.46-1.58) times greater, respectively-than uninsured women. This association was primarily explained by socioeconomic status variables. In addition, women who participated the least in screening were characterized by illiteracy or only a primary education, low socioeconomic level, speaking an indigenous language, and living in a rural area. When they also lacked health insurance, the gap widened, rising to as much as one third compared to more advantaged social groups. CONCLUSIONS: Inequalities were found in receipt of Pap testing according to type of health insurance; women without insurance were least likely to be screened, implying existence of a barrier to cervical cancer screening in Peru.

Leslie, Barrionuevo-Rosas; Laia, Palència; Carme, Borrell.

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Human papillomavirus testing with Pap triage for cervical cancer prevention in Canada: a cost-effectiveness analysis  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Recently published results from a large randomized trial (Canadian Cervical Cancer Screening Trial study group suggest that human papillomavirus testing followed by Pap smear-based triage for human papillomavirus positive women may be an effective way to screen women for cervical cancer. We determined the potential cost-effectiveness of including human papillomavirus tests for cervical cancer screening for Canada and three provinces: Alberta, Newfoundland and Ontario. Methods We developed four Markov decision models using data from relevant Canadian and provincial studies and databases. The models were used to determine the number of false positive test results, cancers, lifetime costs and life-expectancy for 27 different screening strategies that varied by age to begin screening (18 or 25 years, screening interval (one, two, three, or five years and whether the currently recommended strategy (screening every year from age 18 until 21 and then every three years afterwards with conventional Paps was conducted prior to age 25. Strategies were compared using incremental cost-effectiveness ratios. Results Screening strategies beginning at age 18 were associated with a substantial increase in the number of false-positive test results but only small differences in the number of cancers compared to the same strategy conducted beginning at age 25. Strategies of human papillomavirus testing first, followed by triage with Pap smears were associated with lower costs and greater increases in life-expectancy than the currently recommended screening strategy in Canada. Conclusion A strategy of human papillomavirus testing beginning at age 25, with Pap triage for women with positive human papillomavirus results may be more effective at reducing cervical cancer at a lower cost than the current recommended strategy for screening in Canada.

Atwood C Victoria

2009-11-01

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Assessment of quality of data provided on Pap test requisitions: Implications for quality of care and patient safety  

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Background: The reliability of patient history and clinical information on Pap test requisitions has been questioned but not previously objectively determined. The effect of incomplete/inaccurate information on quality of patient care has not been previously quantified. Our objectives were (1) to find out how clinicians and their assistants viewed the requisition slip, and whether they understood the reasons for supplying the information requested, (2) to measure the completeness and ...

Naryshkin Sonya; Schultz Brenda

2009-01-01

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Using the word `cancer' in communication about an abnormal pap test: Finding common ground with Patient-Provider Communication  

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Objectives To investigate provider and patient views about communication regarding cervical cancer screening follow-up. Methods Using qualitative analysis, we interviewed 20 providers and 10 patients from two urban clinics that serve low-income African American and Hispanic women. Semi-structured interviews and focus groups assessed familiarity with National Cancer Institute's Cancer Information Service (CIS) and reactions to a letter asking women with abnormal Pap test to telephone CIS. The letter suggested questions to ask prior to receiving follow-up. Results No patient or provider was familiar with CIS. Providers but not patients expressed discomfort with use of the word `cancer' in the letter and in CIS's name. Providers feared that reference to cancer would provoke fatalism and impede timely follow-up, whereas patients felt information about cancer risk was needed to prompt timely follow-up. Information providers found necessary to convey in order to accurately explain abnormal Pap tests surpassed patients' literacy levels. Conclusion Qualitative data suggest important gaps in perspective between providers and patients. There is a need to bridge the gap and overcome communication challenges to promote timely medical follow-up and have better health outcomes. Practice Implications Implications and strategies for improving patient-provider education and communication about abnormal pap test are discussed. PMID:20060255

Simon, Melissa A.; Cofta-Woerpel, Ludmila; Randhawa, Veenu; John, Priya; Makoul, Gregory; Spring, Bonnie

2009-01-01

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HPV DNA and Pap smear test results in cases with and without cervical pathology  

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Full Text Available Objective: The aim of the study was to determine the HPV prevalance and its relation to Pap smear, colposcopy and colposcopy directed biopsy in our region of Eskisehir, Turkey.Material and Methods: A total of 615 women who applied to the outpatient clinic between December 2009 and December 2010 constituted our study population. All patients underwent pelvic examination and Pap smear sampling. Patients who had pathological cervical appearance or Pap smear results of ASCUS, AGUS, LSIL or HSIL were referred to colposcopy. Cervical samples for HPV DNA were taken from the patients before Pap smear sampling during the routine examination or before the colposcopic evaluation. Results: Twenty six of 615 patients (4% were HPV positive. Of these 26 patients, 12 were positive for HPV type 16, 3 for type 18, 3 for type 51, 2 for type 6, 1 for type 52, 1 for type 33, 1 for type 16 and type 31, 1 for type 6 and 52, 1 for type 56 and 90, 1 for type 39 and 66. In 4 patients with cervical cancer, and in 3 of 4 CIN III cases both HPV DNA and Pap smear were positive. In the Pap smear examination of 615 patients, cytology revealed 35 ASCUS (5.6% 4 AGUS (0.6%, 2 CIN I (0.3% results who were negative for HPV DNA. These patients with abnormal cytology (n=41 underwent colposcopy directed biopsy, there were 3 CIN I and 1 CIN III and all the other cervical biopsy results of these patients were benign (inflammation, chronic cervicitis. Conclusion: HPV positivity in our hospital setting is low which is compatible with other studies in Turkey. In positive HPV cases there is a good correlation between HPV type and positive cervical biopsy results.

Sabit Sinan Özalp

2012-03-01

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Pap Smear  

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... girls and women should get them before becoming sexually active. ^ Back to top 3. Does an abnormal Pap ... Related Pages On This Site Conditions: Cervical Cancer , Sexually Transmitted Diseases Screening: Cervical cancer - Young Adults , Adults , Adults 50 and Up In the ...

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The frequency of having pap-smear tests among women between 15-64 years old and the evaluation of the level of their knowledge  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: To determine the frequency of Pap smear testing among women and to evaluate their level of knowledge about the test and other relevant factors. Methods: The study comprised women who presented to the Gynaecology and Obstetrics Polyclinic of Sakarya Training and Research Hospital, Turkey, between April 1 and 30, 2012. The questionnaire was developed in line with the objectives of the study. They were filled by the participants who were supervised during the process. Women who had had at least one Pap smear test in life were considered to have taken a Pap smear test, and those who had heard of the test were accepted as women who knew of the Pap smear test. Data was analysed using SPSS 15.0. Chi-square test was used for analyses, and statistical significance was set at p<0.05. Results: The age of 601 subjects ranged between 15 and 64 years, with a mean of 31.09+-10.49 years. Of the total, 115 (19.1%) had taken a Pap smear test before and 293 (48.8%) knew of the test. The proportion of the women who had had a Pap smear test was higher among those who were over 30 years of age (n=73; 63.47%), had post-high school educational degrees (n=68; 59.13%), had moderate familial income status (n=74; 64.34%), were married (n=109; 94.78%), had first sexual experience after 25 years of age(n=42; 36.52%), and were not using a contraceptive method (n=97; 84.34%) (p<0.05 for each). Besides, more women with previous knowledge of the test had taken the test (p<0.05). Conclusion: The subjects did not have sufficient information on Pap smear and the frequency of having a test was low. Raising awareness would prove beneficial. (author)

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Does total manual rescreening of negative pap tests screened by the ThinPrep imaging system add any value?  

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We compared the performance of utilizing the ThinPrep® Imaging System (TIS) according to the manufacturer's directions to screening with the TIS plus total manual rescreening in Pap tests that were initially diagnosed as NIL to determine whether manual rescreening decreases the false-negative rate for epithelial lesions. Three thousand three hundred forty cases were diagnosed as NIL on the 22 fields of view selected by the TIS and subsequently manually rescreened by the same cytotechnologist. Six hundred seventy-four cases were sent to a cytopathologist for final diagnosis based on review criteria. Biopsy follow-up and Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) test results were noted if available for cases with a diagnosis of ASCUS or above. Three thousand one hundred fifty-nine (94.6%) were confirmed NIL and 181 cases were diagnosed as abnormal on manual rescreen. There were 147 ASCUS, 6 ASCH, 9 AGC, 19 LSIL, and 0 HSIL cases. The overall false-negative rate of screening for atypia/SIL with the TIS was 5.4%. Of the 147 cases with HPV results, 43 (29%) were positive. Only 1 cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 2 was found on biopsy follow-up, in a case of ASCUS with a positive HPV. Based on our data, the TIS for screening of Pap tests is reliable in NIL cases as compared to total manual rescreening. The majority of the false-negative cases were diagnosed as ASCUS on subsequent review, with 0 HSIL cases. Our results confirm that the TIS is highly accurate in excluding HSIL, negating the need for total manual rescreening of NIL Pap tests. PMID:24554347

Martin, Erica L; Michael, Claire W; Bomeisl, Philip E; Shyu, Susan; Wasman, Jay K

2014-10-01

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Tecnologia e campos disciplinares: os citotécnicos e a implementação do teste de Papanicolaou no Brasil / Technology and disciplinary fields: cytotechnicians and implementation of the Pap test in Brazil  

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Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A apropriação e utilização do teste de Papanicolaou como tecnologia fundamental para o controle do câncer de colo do útero no Brasil foi fruto de escolhas, acordos e embates entre determinados grupos profissionais (médicos de diferentes especialidades, farmacêuticos, biólogos, biomédicos e citotécni [...] cos). Na primeira parte do trabalho apresentamos o processo de formulação das primeiras campanhas de rastreamento populacional com uso do teste Papanicolaou no país e, consequentemente, o surgimento da profissão de citotécnicos (profissionais dedicados a leitura das lâminas de Papanicolaou). Num segundo momento, partimos de algumas questões levantadas pela historiografia internacional no campo da história das ciências e das técnicas para discutimos as peculiaridades do processo de apropriação do teste Papanicolaou no contexto brasileiro. Priorizamos as questões relativas aos debates entre diferentes grupos profissionais envolvidos com a lógica desse exame e às relações entre os setores públicos e privados de saúde. Demonstramos que as visões distintas sobre essa tecnologia no campo de diferentes disciplinas e a relação destas com a dinâmica do mercado de trabalho moldam a trajetória da profissão de citotécnico e a forma como o teste de Papanicolaou foi (e está sendo) apropriado como tecnologia central para o rastreio do câncer de colo do útero no Brasil. Abstract in english The implementation of the Pap test as a primary technology in the control of cervical cancer in Brazil was the result of choices, agreements and disputes among certain professional groups, including physicians from various specialisations, pharmacists, biologists, biomedical scientists and cytotechn [...] ologists. The first part of the paper describes the process of formulating Brazil’s first screening campaigns using the Pap smear, and the subsequent emergence of the profession of cytotechnology, whose practitioners interpret this test. Second, based on questions raised by international historiography in the field of science and technology, we explore in detail how the adoption of the Pap smear transpired within the Brazilian context, focussing on the debates among the various professional groups with an interest in the suitability of the test and on the relationships between the public and private healthcare sectors. We show that the professional career of cytotechnologists and the way in which the Pap smear has been implemented as a central technology for cervical cancer screening in Brazil have been shaped by the conflicting views of this technology held by different disciplines as well as by the relationship between these disciplines and labour market dynamics.

Luiz Antonio, Teixeira; Leticia, Pumar.

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Pap smear (image)  

Science.gov (United States)

During a Pap smear, cells from the outside and the canal of the cervix are retrieved by gently scraping the outside of the cervix. The Pap smear is performed to detect cancerous or precancerous conditions ...

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Knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding the Pap test among women in northeastern Brazil / Conhecimentos, atitudes e praticas sobre o exame de Papanicolaou em mulheres do nordeste brasileiro  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese CONTEXTO E OBJETIVO: O exame de Papanicolaou já mostrou efetividade na prevenção de câncer do colo do útero. A literatura nacional e internacional tem mostrado que o exame de Papanicolaou não tem alcançado o índice de cobertura desejado. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar os conhecimentos, atitud [...] es e práticas entre mulheres em relação ao exame de Papanicolaou e verificar se existe associação entre esses comportamentos e as características sociodemográficas. TIPO DE ESTUDO E LOCAL: Estudo descritivo e transversal realizado em Floriano, Piauí. MÉTODOS: O estudo foi conduzido com 493 mulheres no período de novembro de 2009 a dezembro de 2010. Utilizou-se m questionário com perguntas precodificadas, cujas respostas foram analisadas quanto à adequação dos comportamentos em relação ao exame. RESULTADOS: Os graus de adequação dos conhecimentos, atitudes e práticas em relação ao exame foram de 36,7%, 67,2% e 69,6%, respectivamente. Dentre as principais barreiras para a sua realização, destacaram-se a ausência de sintomas e a vergonha. CONCLUSÃO: As mulheres que realizam consultas periodicamente apresentam prática mais adequada, porém com baixa adequação de conhecimentos frente ao procedimento, sugerindo que não estejam recebendo as informações adequadas sobre os benefícios da realização periódica do exame de Papanicolaou. Abstract in english CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: The Papanicolaou (Pap) test has been shown to be effective in preventing cervical cancer. However, both the national and international literature shows that Pap testing has not reached the level of coverage desired. The objective of this study was to assess women's knowledge [...] , attitudes and practices regarding the Pap test and to investigate whether there are any associations between these three factors and the women's sociodemographic characteristics. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional descriptive study conducted in Floriano, Piauí. METHODS : The study was conducted among 493 women between November 2009 and December 2010. A questionnaire with precoded questions was sed, and the responses were analyzed in terms of appropriateness in relation to the Pap test. RESULTS : The degrees of adequacy of knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding the Pap test were 36.7%, 67.2% and 69.6%, respectively. Among the main barriers against testing, absence of symptoms and a sense of embarrassment were the most notable. CONCLUSIONS: Women who visit doctors periodically had the most appropriate practices regarding the Pap test, but their knowledge of the procedure was poor. This suggests that these women were not receiving adequate information about the benefits of periodic testing.

Carla Lorenna Ferreira de, Albuquerque; Marla da Paschoa, Costa; Felipe Moreira, Nunes; Roberto Wagner Junior Freire de, Freitas; Paulo Roberto Medeiros de, Azevedo; Jose Verissimo, Fernandes; Juciane Vaz, Rego; Humberto Medeiros, Barreto.

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Prevalence of various Human Papillomavirus (HPV genotypes among women who subjected to routine Pap smear test in Bushehr city (South west of Iran2008-2009  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Some genotypes of human papillomaviruses can infect the genital tract and they are important infectious agents which their oncogenicity is regardable. Thus the aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of various genital human papillomaviruses (HPV among women being subjected to routine pap smear test in Bushehr city of Iran. Results Based on the collected data, 11(5.5% samples were detected positive for HPV DNA and 189(94.5% samples out of 200 samples were detected negative for HPV DNA. Meanwhile 4(2% samples detected positive for HPV DNA by PCR were detected positive for HPV by pap smear test as well. On the other hand 5 samples which were detected positive for HPV by pap smear test didn't have HPV DNA after being tested by PCR method. Among the 11 positive samples 7 samples were identified as HPV-16, 3 samples were HPV-18 and one was HPV-53. Conclusion Regarding the prevalence of highly carcinogen genotypes of HPV in our study determination of genital HPV prevalence among the normal population of women of Bushehr city is recommended.

Nejad Heidar

2010-03-01

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Prevalence of various Human Papillomavirus (HPV) genotypes among women who subjected to routine Pap smear test in Bushehr city (South west of Iran)2008-2009  

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Abstract Background Some genotypes of human papillomaviruses can infect the genital tract and they are important infectious agents which their oncogenicity is regardable. Thus the aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of various genital human papillomaviruses (HPV) among women being subjected to routine pap smear test in Bushehr city of Iran. Results Based on the collected data, 11(5.5%) samples were detected positive for HPV DNA and 189(94.5%) sampl...

Nejad Heidar; Deilami Iman; ramedani Elissa; Ahmadi Shahnaz; Hamkar Rasool; Eghbali Seyed; Zandi Keivan; Farshadpour Fatemeh; Rastian Zahra

2010-01-01

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Automated detection of dual p16/Ki67 nuclear immunoreactivity in liquid-based Pap tests for improved cervical cancer risk stratification  

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The Papanicolau (Pap) test is a routine cytological procedure for early detection of dysplastic lesions in cervical epithelium. A reliable screening method is crucial for triage of women at risk; however manual screening and interpretation are associated with relatively low sensitivity and substantial interobserver diagnostic variability. P16 and Ki67 biomarkers have been recently proposed as adjunctive tools in the diagnosis of high-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV) associated dysplasias to ...

Gertych, Arkadiusz; Joseph, Anika O.; Walts, Ann E.; Bose, Shikha

2012-01-01

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The unsatisfactory ThinPrep® Pap Test™: analysis of technical aspects, most common causes, and recommendations for improvement.  

Science.gov (United States)

ThinPrep® preparation is a widely-used method for processing gynecologic specimens due to the many advantages of the technique. However, the presence of blood, inflammation, and lubricant, among other factors, can significantly interfere with specimen adequacy. The aim of this study was to identify and overcome the most common reasons for unsatisfactory ThinPrep® Pap Test™ results in our laboratory. From October 2010 to January 2011, we reprocessed cases categorized as "unsatisfactory for evaluation" to determine whether reprocessing these specimens would impact the unsatisfactory rate. Reasons for unsatisfactory results were classified as: technical reasons, scant cellularity, and complete obscuring factors. Two hundred fifty-three cases were initially classified as unsatisfactory. Of these, 226 cases were reprocessed. Ninety cases became satisfactory after reprocessing with an overall improvement of 40%. The most common reasons for unsatisfactory results were the presence of lubricant (96 cases), presence of blood (64 cases), and technical problems (33 cases). Cases affected by blood or technical issues showed a significant improvement after reprocessing (56.2% and 90.9%, respectively). However, unsatisfactory cases owed to the presence of lubricant showed a relatively low percentage of improvement (16.6%). The main reasons for unsatisfactory results, the presence of blood and lubricant, can be avoided in many cases if sampling is not performed during bleeding and if the use of lubricants is limited during sample collection. Our study showed that reprocessing of selected cases can improve the overall unsatisfactory rate and can potentially reduce the risk of missing significant lesions. PMID:22833404

Rosa, Marilin; Pragasam, Premila; Saremian, Jinous; Aoalin, Ana; Graf, William; Mohammadi, Amir

2013-07-01

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Compreensão de usuárias de uma Unidade de Saúde da Família sobre o exame Papanicolaou / The understanding of users of a Family Health Unit about the pap smear test  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Na tentativa de prevenir o câncer de colo uterino, foram instituídas várias ações de prevenção, dentre as quais, o Exame Papanicolaou que cumpre com a função de detecção precoce de células cancerosas ou de seus precursores. Portanto, objetivou-se investigar o discurso sobre a compreensão, os sentime [...] ntos e as expectativas de mulheres em relação ao Exame Papanicolaou. Trata-se de um estudo do tipo exploratório com abordagem qualitativa, realizado junto a dez usuárias de uma Unidade Integrada de Saúde da Família, no município de João Pessoa (PB). A coleta de dados se deu em abril de 2011, através de entrevista gravada. Foram identificadas oito ideias centrais: prevenção de doenças; busca por conta própria; busca por estímulo de outra pessoa; sentimento de vergonha e constrangimento; sensação de dor; sentimento de satisfação; conversas durante o exame e troca de conhecimentos acerca da saúde da mulher. Frente aos relatos, muitas são as dificuldades a serem vencidas para proporcionar melhor adesão das mulheres ao exame Papanicolaou. Abstract in english In the attempt to prevent cervical cancer, various preventive measures have been instituted, notable among which is the pap smear test, which fulfills the function of early detection of cancer cells or their precursors. Therefore, the objective was to investigate the discourse on the knowledge, feel [...] ings and expectations of women regarding the pap smear test. This is an exploratory qualitative approach, conducted with ten users of a Integrated Family Health Unit in the city of João Pessoa in the State of Paraíba. Data collection was conducted through recorded interviews in April 2011. Eight core ideas were identified: prevention of disease; self-motivated search, search recommended by another person; sense of shame and embarrassment, sensation of pain, feeling of satisfaction; conversations during the examination and exchange of knowledge about women's health. Based on the reports, there are many difficulties to be overcome to ensure greater adherence of women to the pap smear test.

Smalyanna Sgren da Costa, Andrade; Fernanda Maria Chianca da, Silva; Maria do Socorro Sousa e, Silva; Simone Helena dos Santos, Oliveira; Kamila Nethielly Souza, Leite; Merifane Januário de, Sousa.

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Cobertura e motivos para a realização ou não do teste de Papanicolaou no Município de São Paulo Cervical cancer screening in the Municipality of São Paulo: coverage and factors involved in submitting to the Pap test  

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Full Text Available Investigou-se a prevalência da realização do teste de Papanicolaou alguma vez na vida e nos últimos três anos entre mulheres de 15 a 49 anos, o recebimento do resultado do último teste realizado e os motivos relatados para a realização ou não do exame. Um inquérito domiciliar foi realizado no Município de São Paulo em 2000, com uma amostra representativa de 1.172 mulheres selecionadas aleatoriamente em seus domicílios. Das mulheres que já tinham iniciado a vida sexual (n = 1.050, 86,1% (932 realizaram o teste alguma vez na vida e 77,3 % (839 nos últimos três anos. Das que já realizaram o teste, 806 (87,0% receberam o resultado do último exame. Os principais motivos para a realização do último teste foram: demanda espontânea (55,5%, recomendação médica (25% e presença de queixas ginecológicas (18,2%. As principais razões para a não realização do exame foram: ausência de problemas ginecológicos, vergonha ou medo e dificuldades de acesso. A despeito do relativo aumento na cobertura do teste de Papanicolaou e de mais da metade das mulheres demandarem espontaneamente pelo exame, sua realização foi menor entre aquelas com as piores condições sócio-econômicas e, portanto, de maior risco para o câncer cervical.This study estimated Pap smear coverage (at least one test in the lifetime and one in the last three years among women aged 15 to 49 years old. The study also discusses whether the women received the results of their last test, as well as self-reported reasons for and against submitting to the test. A population-based survey was conducted in the city of São Paulo in 2000 with a randomly selected representative sample of 1,172 women. Among the women who were already sexually active (n = 1,050, 86.1% reported having had at least one Pap smear during their lifetime, and 77.3% had undergone the test in the previous 3 years. Among those who reported having had at least one Pap smear, 87.0% had received the result of the last test. The main reasons reported for having had the last test were: spontaneous demand (55.5%, medical referral (25%, and gynecological complaints (18.2%. The main reasons for never having had a Pap test were: no gynecological problems, embarrassment or fear, and difficulties in accessing health services. Despite high coverage of the Pap test and the fact that the majority of the women had self-reported a spontaneous demand, use of the Pap test was less prevalent among women with the lowest socioeconomic level (and consequently at greater risk of cervical cancer.

Adriana de Araujo Pinho

2003-01-01

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Cobertura do exame citopatológico na cidade de Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil Pap test coverage in the city of Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil  

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Full Text Available No Brasil, a avaliação da efetividade de programas de prevenção e ações de saúde pública ainda são incipientes. Dessa forma, realizou-se um estudo transversal de base populacional envolvendo a saúde da população adulta residente na zona urbana da cidade de Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil, com o objetivo de verificar a evolução nos níveis de cobertura do exame citopatológico. Investigaram-se fatores associados com a não realização do procedimento. Considerou-se exame citopatológico atualizado aquele realizado nos últimos três anos. A amostra foi constituída por 1.122 mulheres entre 20 e 69 anos, sendo que 72,2% apresentavam exame citopatológico atualizado, 16,6% atrasado e 11,2% nunca o haviam realizado. A não realização do procedimento esteve associada com baixa inserção social e idade avançada. A regressão logística destacou o efeito independente de classe social, baixa renda familiar, idade, cor da pele, estado civil e ausência de consultas médicas no último ano. Contudo, desapareceu o efeito detectado em mulheres com doenças crônicas. Comparando-se os resultados do estudo realizado em 1992 com o atual, observa-se que a cobertura do exame aumentou de 65,0% para 72,2% (1992 para 1999/2000, entretanto, não atingiu os níveis efetivos para evitar câncer de colo uterino.In Brazil, the effectiveness of preventive public heath programs and actions is rarely evaluated. A cross-sectional study was thus performed in a population-based sample focused on several health characteristics of adults living in Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The study aimed to measure temporal trends in coverage of Pap smear testing in the city. The authors studied the factors associated with failure of women to submit to a Pap smear. An updated Pap smear was defined as one performed in the previous 3 years. The sample consisted of 1,122 women ages 20 to 69 years, 72.2% of whom had an updated Pap smear, 16.6% of whom were behind schedule for testing, and 11.2% of whom had never had a Pap smear. Risk factors for never having a test were low socioeconomic status and old age. Logistic regression showed an independent effect of social class, low family income, age, skin color, marital status, and no medical appointment in the previous year. However, the effect of chronic diseases disappeared in logistic regression. The authors compare the results of the study conducted in 1992 with the present. Pap smear coverage increased from 65.0% to 72.2% (1992 to 1999/2000 in the city, yet such figures had still not ensured the effectiveness of the program for uterine cervical cancer prevention.

Juvenal Soares Dias-da-Costa

2003-02-01

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Effect of educational intervention based on Health Belief Model on knowledge and attitude about pap smear test among female secondary school teachers in district 11 of Tehran  

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Full Text Available Background and Aim: Cervical cancer is the second most common cancer in women with incidence of more than 500000 cases per year. It is preventable because of its long pre-cancerous period, suitable screening programs and effective treatments. Since the social and cultural barriers alongside the lack of knowledge are deterrents to participation in screening programs, the current study was performed to assess the effect of educational intervention through the Health Belief Model on knowledge and attitude of teachers about pap smear, considering their role in making people aware. Materials and Methods: This was a controlled before-after interventional study conducted on 72 individuals selected through simple sampling, assigned to two groups. Data collection tool was a questionnaire used and compared before training and one month after that. Training methods (intervention included lectures with questions and answers. Data were analyzed with SPSS, version 11.5. Results: 47.2% of intervention and 45.8% of control group were 40 to 50 years old and majority of them (47.2% and 50% respectively had undergraduate educational level and 86.1% were married. Respectively, 67.2% and 74.2% have experience of being examined via Pap smear, while the knowledge of women in both groups was moderate about the disease. Study results revealed significant differences in knowledge, attitude and Health Belief Model constructs within intervention group (before and after training as well as between groups (p<0.05. Conclusion: Using Pap smear test among the participants was lower compared with healthy people aims targeted by 2010. Therefore, necessity of education and knowledge promotions are obvious.

Mahmoud Mahmoudi

2012-10-01

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Compreensão de usuárias de uma Unidade de Saúde da Família sobre o exame Papanicolaou / The understanding of users of a Family Health Unit about the pap smear test  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Na tentativa de prevenir o câncer de colo uterino, foram instituídas várias ações de prevenção, dentre as quais, o Exame Papanicolaou que cumpre com a função de detecção precoce de células cancerosas ou de seus precursores. Portanto, objetivou-se investigar o discurso sobre a compreensão, os sentime [...] ntos e as expectativas de mulheres em relação ao Exame Papanicolaou. Trata-se de um estudo do tipo exploratório com abordagem qualitativa, realizado junto a dez usuárias de uma Unidade Integrada de Saúde da Família, no município de João Pessoa (PB). A coleta de dados se deu em abril de 2011, através de entrevista gravada. Foram identificadas oito ideias centrais: prevenção de doenças; busca por conta própria; busca por estímulo de outra pessoa; sentimento de vergonha e constrangimento; sensação de dor; sentimento de satisfação; conversas durante o exame e troca de conhecimentos acerca da saúde da mulher. Frente aos relatos, muitas são as dificuldades a serem vencidas para proporcionar melhor adesão das mulheres ao exame Papanicolaou. Abstract in english In the attempt to prevent cervical cancer, various preventive measures have been instituted, notable among which is the pap smear test, which fulfills the function of early detection of cancer cells or their precursors. Therefore, the objective was to investigate the discourse on the knowledge, feel [...] ings and expectations of women regarding the pap smear test. This is an exploratory qualitative approach, conducted with ten users of a Integrated Family Health Unit in the city of João Pessoa in the State of Paraíba. Data collection was conducted through recorded interviews in April 2011. Eight core ideas were identified: prevention of disease; self-motivated search, search recommended by another person; sense of shame and embarrassment, sensation of pain, feeling of satisfaction; conversations during the examination and exchange of knowledge about women's health. Based on the reports, there are many difficulties to be overcome to ensure greater adherence of women to the pap smear test.

Smalyanna Sgren da Costa, Andrade; Fernanda Maria Chianca da, Silva; Maria do Socorro Sousa e, Silva; Simone Helena dos Santos, Oliveira; Kamila Nethielly Souza, Leite; Merifane Januário de, Sousa.

 
 
 
 
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Cobertura do exame citopatológico na cidade de Pelotas, Brasil Pap smear test coverage in the city of Pelotas (Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil  

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Full Text Available Em 1995, o câncer de colo de útero foi a quarta causa de morte mais prevalente para o sexo feminino no estado do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. Tendo em vista que não existem estudos disponíveis sobre a cobertura do exame citopatológico na cidade de Pelotas -- a principal cidade da região sul do estado do Rio Grande do Sul -- , em 1992 realizou-se uma pesquisa transversal, de base populacional, entre mulheres de 20 a 69 anos residentes na zona urbana da cidade de Pelotas. O objetivo do estudo foi verificar a realização do exame citopatológico nos 3 anos anteriores à pesquisa; determinar o índice de cobertura deste exame na cidade de Pelotas; e identificar fatores associados à realização do exame. A classe social foi definida como variável sobredeterminante. Na operacionalização de classe social duas classificações foram utilizadas: a classificação de Bronfman e a classificação preconizada pela Associação Brasileira de Institutos de Pesquisa de Mercado. Das 934 mulheres entrevistadas, 606 (65% haviam feito o exame citopatológico nos 3 anos que antecederam a pesquisa. A análise multivariada revelou diferenças quanto à realização do exame citopatológico em relação à classe social, idade e freqüência anual de consultas. Não foram encontradas diferenças em relação à escolaridade, tipo de serviço de saúde utilizado e hospitalizações no ano anterior à pesquisa. O estudo conclui que a cobertura do exame citopatológico para mulheres entre 20 e 69 anos em Pelotas é superior à cobertura encontrada em outras partes do país e do mundo. No entanto, nas classes mais baixas, o índice de cobertura ficou entre 52 e 56%. Estes dados podem contribuir para a elaboração de medidas que visem ao aumento da cobertura para setores específicos.In 1995, cervical cancer was the fourth most important cause of death among women in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. There are no available studies on Pap smear examination coverage in Pelotas, which is the largest city in the southern part of Rio Grande do Sul. Accordingly, in 1992 a population-based, cross-sectional study was carried out among 20 to 69 year-old women residing in urban areas of the city. The objectives of the study were to ascertain any Pap smear testing in the 3 years prior to the study, to determine the coverage of cervical cancer screening, and to identify any factors associated with the performance of Pap tests in Pelotas. Social class was chosen as the determining variable. To categorize social class, two classifications were used: Bronfman's classification and the classification used by the Brazilian Association of Market Research Institutes. Among the 934 women interviewed, 606 (65% had had a Pap smear test in the 3 years before the study. The multivariate analysis revealed significant differences regarding performance of such tests in terms of social class, age, and frequency of medical consultations per year. No significant differences were found in terms of education, type of health service used, or hospitalizations during the year prior to the study. This study reveals that coverage of cervical cancer screening for women between 20 and 69 years of age in Pelotas is higher than the coverage found in other parts of the country or even of the world. However, for women in lower social classes, coverage was found to be between 52 and 56%. These data can contribute to the development of measures aimed at increasing cervical cancer screening among specific sectors of the population.

Juvenal Soares Dias da Costa

1998-05-01

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Synthetic 3D Pap Smear Nucleus Generation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this project we present a 3D Pap smear cell nucleus generator. The shape and the texture are the important features for a realistic synthetic nucleus. For the first one, the shape, a deformed distance transform is used in order to generate deformed spheres. For the second one, the texture, a pseudo random noise algorithm, Perlin noise, is applied to the shape in order to generate the most realistic texture of a cell. As a result, we obtain synthetic 3D cell nuclei as they appear in Pap sme...

Go?mez, Sandra

2010-01-01

63

Performance of HPV E6/E7 mRNA RT-qPCR for screening and diagnosis of cervical cancer with ThinPrep Pap test samples.  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent research has shown that oncogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA, which is currently used in the screening and diagnosis of cervical cancer, can be detected not only in high-grade cervical lesions, but also in low-grade cervical lesions and normal tissues. For this reason, HPV tests targeting the E6 and E7 mRNA of five oncogenic HPV strains (HPV genotypes 16, 18, 31, 33, and 45), which are known to be responsible for the oncogenesis of cervical cancer, have been commercialized using a real-time nucleic acid sequence based amplification (NASBA) assay. Previous data has shown that the real-time NASBA assay has higher clinical specificity than HPV DNA testing (97.1% vs. 53.7%). However, the sensitivity of the real-time NASBA assay was lower than that of HPV DNA testing (41.1% vs. 100%). Despite the fact that there are more than 16 oncogenic HPV genotypes known to cause cervical cancer (HPV genotypes 16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 39, 45, 51, 52, 53, 56, 58, 59, 66, 68, and 69), the commercialized real-time NASBA kit was designed to detect only five genotypes (16, 18, 31, 33, and 45). Therefore, in the present study, CervicGen HPV RT-qDX (Optipharm), a commercial diagnostic kit targeting a HPV E6/E7 mRNA based on RT-qPCR assay was evaluated with RNA extracted from ThinPrep Pap samples, and the results were compared to real-time NASBA data. The sensitivity and specificity of the RT-qPCR assay were 91% and 98.6%, respectively, for the detection of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia CIN2(+) high-grade cervical lesions. Therefore, the CervicGen HPV RT-qDX assay showed a significantly higher sensitivity (91.1%) compared to the real-time NASBA assay (41.1%). In normal cytohistology cases, the specificity was 98.6% and 53.7% for HPV mRNA RT-qPCR and HPV DNA testing, respectively. These results demonstrate that HPV mRNA RT-qPCR better reflects clinical diagnosis. In conclusion, it is suggested that HPV mRNA RT-qPCR overcomes the shortcomings of lower specificity seen in the DNA assay and the lower sensitivity of the commercialized HPV mRNA real-time NASBA assay when testing from ThinPrep Pap samples. PMID:25102300

Munkhdelger, Jijgee; Kim, Geehyuk; Wang, Hye-young; Lee, Dongsup; Kim, Sunghyun; Choi, Yeonim; Choi, Eunhee; Park, Sunyoung; Jin, Hyunwoo; Park, Kwang Hwa; Lee, Hyeyoung

2014-10-01

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Diagnostic sensitivity for invasive cervical carcinoma of high risk HPV tests performed on SurePath™ liquid-based pap specimens  

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Full Text Available Keith V NanceDepartment of Cytology, Rex Hospital, Raleigh, and Department of Pathology, The University of North Carolina School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, NC, USARecently I communicated with the Editor regarding Drs Naryshkin and Austins’ article entitled "Limitations of widely used high-risk human papillomavirus laboratory-developed testing in cervical carcinoma screening."1,2 As noted previously, this article is based on a single case report of squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix diagnosed in a patient who had abnormal Pap results but had negative Hybrid Capture 2 (HC2(Qiagen NV, Hilden, Germany high risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV testing from SurePath™ (Becton-Dickinson, Franklin Lakes, NJ, USA samples. The authors concluded that such testing should not be done using this collection medium. Interestingly, they also mentioned a 10% false negative rate for similar testing performed on FDA-approved Preservcyt® media on three of 31 invasive cervical carcinoma patients at Dr Austin’s own laboratory.View original paper by Naryshkin and Austin

Nance KV

2013-03-01

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Cobertura do exame citopatológico do colo do útero na cidade de São Leopoldo, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil Coverage of Pap smear tests in the city of São Leopoldo, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil  

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Full Text Available Este estudo transversal teve por objetivos verificar a cobertura de realização do exame preventivo de câncer do colo do útero e os fatores associados na população de mulheres de 20 a 60 anos residentes na zona urbana de São Leopoldo, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil, durante o ano de 2003. A amostra foi por conglomerados. Foram analisados dois desfechos, a realização de exame preventivo do câncer do colo do útero nos últimos três anos e exame preventivo de Papanicolaou nunca realizado. Entre as 867 mulheres entrevistadas, 741 (85,5%; IC95%: 83,1-87,8 tinham realizado o exame citopatológico do colo uterino nos últimos três anos, 60 (6,9%; IC95%: 5,2-8,6 estavam com o procedimento atrasado e 66 (7,6%; IC95%: 5,8-9,4 nunca o haviam realizado. Na regressão de Poisson foi observada significância para as variáveis: classe econômica, idade, cor da pele, estado civil. Observou-se que apesar da cobertura elevada, os fatores de risco para o câncer de colo uterino não motivaram a realização do exame.This cross-sectional study aimed to verify the coverage of Pap smear tests and associated factors in a cluster sample of women 20 to 60 years of age in the city of São Leopoldo, Rio Grande Sul State, Brazil, in 2003. Two outcomes were analyzed: Pap smear in the previous three years and Pap smear never performed. Among 867 women, 741 (85.5%; 95%CI: 83.1-87.8 had a Pap smear in the previous three years, 60 (6.9%; 95%CI: 5.2-8.6 were late with the test, and 66 (7.6%; 95%CI: 5.8-9.4 had never done a Pap smear. Poisson regression showed significant association with: income, age, skin color, and marital status. Although coverage was high, risk factors for uterine cervical cancer were not associated with performing the test.

Deise Karine Muller

2008-11-01

66

Factors associated with knowledge and screening of cervical cancer (PAP test) in Peruvian women of childbearing age. Analysis of period 1996-2008  

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Objectives: To determinate the frecuency, sociodemographics characteristics and interpersonal factors associated with cervical cancer screening in Peruvian women of childbearing age. Methods: We used the database of the national Demographic and Family Health (DHS) survey conducted in 1996, 2000, 2004 and 2008. We considered as dependent variable teh questions: Have you heard of the PAP smear? and Have you had a PAP smear in the last 5 years?. Sociodemographics characteristics and interpersona...

Paolo Wong; José Ramos; Edith Alarcón; Franco Romaní; César Gutiérrez

2010-01-01

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The MonoPrep Pap test for the detection of cervical cancer and its precursors. Part I: results of a multicenter clinical trial.  

Science.gov (United States)

The MonoPrep Pap Test (MPPT; MonoGen, Lincolnshire, IL) is a novel, liquid-based specimen collection and processing technology for cytologic and molecular testing. Its usefulness in the detection of cervical cancer and its precursors was evaluated in a multicenter, masked, adjudicated, split-sample study of 10,739 samples. After preparation of a conventional smear, the residuum on the collection device was rinsed into a collection vial from which an MPPT slide was prepared. Accuracy was assessed by masked reference interpretation by an independent pathologist. Slides prepared by MPPT, compared with smears, yielded statistically significant increases in relative sensitivity for atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance and worse, atypical squamous cells, cannot exclude high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion/atypical glandular cells and worse, and low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion and worse. There was no significant difference in relative specificity. MPPT provided a 58% reduction in unsatisfactory slides. There was no significant difference in the presentation of endocervical/transformation zone component or the detection of benign conditions. The MPPT is a promising new liquid-based technology for cervical cancer screening. PMID:18208798

Cibas, Edmund S; Alonzo, Todd A; Austin, R Marshall; Bolick, David R; Glant, Michael D; Henry, Michael R; Moriarty, Ann T; Molina, J Thomas; Rushing, Lynda; Slowman, Sally D; Torno, Roosevelt; Eisenhut, Carol C

2008-02-01

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Exame Papanicolaou: sentimentos relatados por profissionais de enfermagem ao se submeterem a esse exame / Pap smear screening: sensations reported by nursing professionals when submitted to this test  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Objetivou-se conhecer os sentimentos de auxiliares e técnicas de enfermagem ao se submeterem ao exame Papanicolaou. Trata-se de um estudo descritivo com abordagem qualitativa realizado nos meses de setembro a outubro de 2006, com 35 servidoras de uma instituição governamental referência em ginecolog [...] ia na cidade de Fortaleza (CE). Os dados foram coletados através de entrevista semiestruturada, contendo uma questão norteadora gravada e analisada de acordo com referencial teórico metodológico da fenomenologia social. Os relatos foram agrupados em três temáticas: um exame que causa incômodo, medo e vergonha; um exame que gera ansiedade quanto aos resultados; e um exame que "me deixa calma e tranquila". Apesar de as entrevistadas pertencerem a uma instituição que cuida de mulheres na prevenção do câncer cérvico-uterino, elas não deixaram de emitir sentimentos negativos relacionados ao exame. Concluiu-se a importância de realizar projetos educativos, enfatizando a importância do empoderamento das usuárias a fim de minimizar essas questões. Abstract in english This work sought to record the impressions of nursing assistants and technicians after submitting to Pap smear screening. This is a descriptive study using a qualitative approach conducted in September and October of 2006 with 35 employees of a public institution, which is a benchmark in gynecology [...] in Fortaleza in the State of Ceará (Brazil). The data was collected through semi-structured interviews containing a recorded leading question and analyzed according to the methodological-theoretical reference of social phenomenology. The testimonials were separated in three groups: an exam that causes discomfort, fear and shame; an exam that causes anxiety about the results; and an exam that "makes me calm and relaxed". Despite the interviewees being part of an institution that cares for the prevention of cervical-uterine cancer in women, negative feelings about the Pap smear test were nonetheless reported. The conclusion reached is that it is important to stage educational campaigns emphasizing the importance of empowerment of patients in order to minimize these aspects.

Roberta Jeane Bezerra, Jorge; Maria Albertina Rocha, Diógenes; Francisco Antonio da Cruz, Mendonça; Luís Rafael Leite, Sampaio; Roberto, Jorge Júnior.

69

Exame Papanicolaou: sentimentos relatados por profissionais de enfermagem ao se submeterem a esse exame / Pap smear screening: sensations reported by nursing professionals when submitted to this test  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Objetivou-se conhecer os sentimentos de auxiliares e técnicas de enfermagem ao se submeterem ao exame Papanicolaou. Trata-se de um estudo descritivo com abordagem qualitativa realizado nos meses de setembro a outubro de 2006, com 35 servidoras de uma instituição governamental referência em ginecolog [...] ia na cidade de Fortaleza (CE). Os dados foram coletados através de entrevista semiestruturada, contendo uma questão norteadora gravada e analisada de acordo com referencial teórico metodológico da fenomenologia social. Os relatos foram agrupados em três temáticas: um exame que causa incômodo, medo e vergonha; um exame que gera ansiedade quanto aos resultados; e um exame que "me deixa calma e tranquila". Apesar de as entrevistadas pertencerem a uma instituição que cuida de mulheres na prevenção do câncer cérvico-uterino, elas não deixaram de emitir sentimentos negativos relacionados ao exame. Concluiu-se a importância de realizar projetos educativos, enfatizando a importância do empoderamento das usuárias a fim de minimizar essas questões. Abstract in english This work sought to record the impressions of nursing assistants and technicians after submitting to Pap smear screening. This is a descriptive study using a qualitative approach conducted in September and October of 2006 with 35 employees of a public institution, which is a benchmark in gynecology [...] in Fortaleza in the State of Ceará (Brazil). The data was collected through semi-structured interviews containing a recorded leading question and analyzed according to the methodological-theoretical reference of social phenomenology. The testimonials were separated in three groups: an exam that causes discomfort, fear and shame; an exam that causes anxiety about the results; and an exam that "makes me calm and relaxed". Despite the interviewees being part of an institution that cares for the prevention of cervical-uterine cancer in women, negative feelings about the Pap smear test were nonetheless reported. The conclusion reached is that it is important to stage educational campaigns emphasizing the importance of empowerment of patients in order to minimize these aspects.

Roberta Jeane Bezerra, Jorge; Maria Albertina Rocha, Diógenes; Francisco Antonio da Cruz, Mendonça; Luís Rafael Leite, Sampaio; Roberto, Jorge Júnior.

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Diagnostic value of the combination of TruScreen and Pap smear in screening cervical epithelial lesions: Does it add advantages over the Pap smear alone?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Introduction: Pap smear is a well known test in screening of epithelial cell abnormalities of the cervix. However, adding other screening methods to this test may increase the sensitivity and specificity of case finding. Current study has been designed to assess the sensitivity and specificity of the combination of Tru-Screen and Pap tests in comparison to Pap smear alone in women referred for annual screening. Methods: This case-control study was conducted...

Elaheh Refaei; Somayeh Khanjani; Fereshteh Mohammadizadeh; Tajossadat Allameh

2013-01-01

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Frequência da colpocitologia oncótica em jovens com antecedentes obstétricos em Teresina, Piauí, Brasil / Frequency of Pap smear testing in young women with an obstetric history in Teresina, Piauí, Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: Analisar a frequência da colpocitologia oncótica em jovens com pelo menos uma gravidez completa em Teresina, capital do Estado do Piauí, Brasil. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal realizado de maio a dezembro de 2008. Foram coletados dados de 464 jovens, selecionadas por amostragem acidental, que [...] finalizaram uma gravidez no primeiro quadrimestre de 2006 em seis maternidades da Cidade de Teresina. Investigou-se a frequência da coleta de colpocitologia oncótica. A frequência inadequada foi definida como coleta em intervalos maiores do que 1 ano. RESULTADOS: A média de idade das participantes foi de 20 anos. A frequência da colpocitologia foi semestral em 180 jovens (39,0%) e anual em 160 (34,5%). Quinze jovens (3,2%) nunca haviam feito a colpocitologia. A regressão logística simples mostrou que o não uso de contraceptivo na primeira relação sexual e não poder optar por atendimento ginecológico por homem ou mulher aumentou o risco em 48,0% (P = 0,049) e 49,0% (P = 0,044), respectivamente, para frequência inadequada de coleta do exame. A regressão logística múltipla mostrou que ter tido mais de uma gravidez elevou em 71,4% a chance de inadequação da frequência de coleta em comparação com ter somente uma gestação (P = 0,011). CONCLUSÕES: O fato de muitas jovens realizarem o exame de colpocitologia oncótica em intervalos menores do que 1 ano não melhora o rastreamento do câncer de colo uterino e pode onerar o serviço público de saúde. A multiparidade foi fator de risco para a frequência inadequada de coleta do exame, devendo esse aspecto ser considerado na assistência à saúde ginecológica de jovens. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To analyze the frequency of Pap smear testing in young women with at least one pregnancy in Teresina, capital of the state of Piauí, Brazil. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was undertaken from May to December 2008. A convenience sample of 464 young women was selected, and data were colle [...] cted using a pre-tested questionnaire. Women giving birth in the first four months of 2006, in six hospitals in Teresina, were included. Inadequate Pap smear frequency was defined as an interval of more than 1 year between tests. RESULTS: Mean age was 20 years. The frequency of Pap smear testing was every 6 months in 180 women (39.0%) and yearly in 160 (34.5%). Fifteen women (3.2%) had never had a Pap smear test. Simple logistic regression showed an increase of 48.0% in the risk of inadequate Pap smear frequency (P = 0.049) in women who did not use any contraceptive method at their first sexual intercourse, and 49.0% (P = 0.044) in those who were not able to choose between a male or female gynecologist when seeking health care services. On multivariate logistic regression, having more than one pregnancy increased the risk of inadequate Pap smear frequency by 71.4% in comparison to having only one pregnancy (P = 0.011). CONCLUSIONS: The fact that many young women had Pap smear testing at intervals shorter than 1 year does not improve cervical cancer screening and may burden the health care system. Multiparity was a risk factor for inadequate Pap smear frequency, an aspect that must be taken into account when providing gynecological care to young women.

Michelina F., Barroso; Keila R. O., Gomes; Jesusmar Ximenes, Andrade.

2011-03-01

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Frequência da colpocitologia oncótica em jovens com antecedentes obstétricos em Teresina, Piauí, Brasil Frequency of Pap smear testing in young women with an obstetric history in Teresina, Piauí, Brazil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar a frequência da colpocitologia oncótica em jovens com pelo menos uma gravidez completa em Teresina, capital do Estado do Piauí, Brasil. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal realizado de maio a dezembro de 2008. Foram coletados dados de 464 jovens, selecionadas por amostragem acidental, que finalizaram uma gravidez no primeiro quadrimestre de 2006 em seis maternidades da Cidade de Teresina. Investigou-se a frequência da coleta de colpocitologia oncótica. A frequência inadequada foi definida como coleta em intervalos maiores do que 1 ano. RESULTADOS: A média de idade das participantes foi de 20 anos. A frequência da colpocitologia foi semestral em 180 jovens (39,0% e anual em 160 (34,5%. Quinze jovens (3,2% nunca haviam feito a colpocitologia. A regressão logística simples mostrou que o não uso de contraceptivo na primeira relação sexual e não poder optar por atendimento ginecológico por homem ou mulher aumentou o risco em 48,0% (P = 0,049 e 49,0% (P = 0,044, respectivamente, para frequência inadequada de coleta do exame. A regressão logística múltipla mostrou que ter tido mais de uma gravidez elevou em 71,4% a chance de inadequação da frequência de coleta em comparação com ter somente uma gestação (P = 0,011. CONCLUSÕES: O fato de muitas jovens realizarem o exame de colpocitologia oncótica em intervalos menores do que 1 ano não melhora o rastreamento do câncer de colo uterino e pode onerar o serviço público de saúde. A multiparidade foi fator de risco para a frequência inadequada de coleta do exame, devendo esse aspecto ser considerado na assistência à saúde ginecológica de jovens.OBJECTIVE: To analyze the frequency of Pap smear testing in young women with at least one pregnancy in Teresina, capital of the state of Piauí, Brazil. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was undertaken from May to December 2008. A convenience sample of 464 young women was selected, and data were collected using a pre-tested questionnaire. Women giving birth in the first four months of 2006, in six hospitals in Teresina, were included. Inadequate Pap smear frequency was defined as an interval of more than 1 year between tests. RESULTS: Mean age was 20 years. The frequency of Pap smear testing was every 6 months in 180 women (39.0% and yearly in 160 (34.5%. Fifteen women (3.2% had never had a Pap smear test. Simple logistic regression showed an increase of 48.0% in the risk of inadequate Pap smear frequency (P = 0.049 in women who did not use any contraceptive method at their first sexual intercourse, and 49.0% (P = 0.044 in those who were not able to choose between a male or female gynecologist when seeking health care services. On multivariate logistic regression, having more than one pregnancy increased the risk of inadequate Pap smear frequency by 71.4% in comparison to having only one pregnancy (P = 0.011. CONCLUSIONS: The fact that many young women had Pap smear testing at intervals shorter than 1 year does not improve cervical cancer screening and may burden the health care system. Multiparity was a risk factor for inadequate Pap smear frequency, an aspect that must be taken into account when providing gynecological care to young women.

Michelina F. Barroso

2011-03-01

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Cobertura do exame citopatológico do colo do útero na cidade de São Leopoldo, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil / Coverage of Pap smear tests in the city of São Leopoldo, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este estudo transversal teve por objetivos verificar a cobertura de realização do exame preventivo de câncer do colo do útero e os fatores associados na população de mulheres de 20 a 60 anos residentes na zona urbana de São Leopoldo, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil, durante o ano de 2003. A amostra foi po [...] r conglomerados. Foram analisados dois desfechos, a realização de exame preventivo do câncer do colo do útero nos últimos três anos e exame preventivo de Papanicolaou nunca realizado. Entre as 867 mulheres entrevistadas, 741 (85,5%; IC95%: 83,1-87,8) tinham realizado o exame citopatológico do colo uterino nos últimos três anos, 60 (6,9%; IC95%: 5,2-8,6) estavam com o procedimento atrasado e 66 (7,6%; IC95%: 5,8-9,4) nunca o haviam realizado. Na regressão de Poisson foi observada significância para as variáveis: classe econômica, idade, cor da pele, estado civil. Observou-se que apesar da cobertura elevada, os fatores de risco para o câncer de colo uterino não motivaram a realização do exame. Abstract in english This cross-sectional study aimed to verify the coverage of Pap smear tests and associated factors in a cluster sample of women 20 to 60 years of age in the city of São Leopoldo, Rio Grande Sul State, Brazil, in 2003. Two outcomes were analyzed: Pap smear in the previous three years and Pap smear nev [...] er performed. Among 867 women, 741 (85.5%; 95%CI: 83.1-87.8) had a Pap smear in the previous three years, 60 (6.9%; 95%CI: 5.2-8.6) were late with the test, and 66 (7.6%; 95%CI: 5.8-9.4) had never done a Pap smear. Poisson regression showed significant association with: income, age, skin color, and marital status. Although coverage was high, risk factors for uterine cervical cancer were not associated with performing the test.

Deise Karine, Muller; Juvenal Soares, Dias-da-Costa; Anna Maria Hecker, Luz; Maria Teresa Anselmo, Olinto.

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Cobertura do exame citopatológico do colo do útero na cidade de São Leopoldo, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil / Coverage of Pap smear tests in the city of São Leopoldo, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este estudo transversal teve por objetivos verificar a cobertura de realização do exame preventivo de câncer do colo do útero e os fatores associados na população de mulheres de 20 a 60 anos residentes na zona urbana de São Leopoldo, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil, durante o ano de 2003. A amostra foi po [...] r conglomerados. Foram analisados dois desfechos, a realização de exame preventivo do câncer do colo do útero nos últimos três anos e exame preventivo de Papanicolaou nunca realizado. Entre as 867 mulheres entrevistadas, 741 (85,5%; IC95%: 83,1-87,8) tinham realizado o exame citopatológico do colo uterino nos últimos três anos, 60 (6,9%; IC95%: 5,2-8,6) estavam com o procedimento atrasado e 66 (7,6%; IC95%: 5,8-9,4) nunca o haviam realizado. Na regressão de Poisson foi observada significância para as variáveis: classe econômica, idade, cor da pele, estado civil. Observou-se que apesar da cobertura elevada, os fatores de risco para o câncer de colo uterino não motivaram a realização do exame. Abstract in english This cross-sectional study aimed to verify the coverage of Pap smear tests and associated factors in a cluster sample of women 20 to 60 years of age in the city of São Leopoldo, Rio Grande Sul State, Brazil, in 2003. Two outcomes were analyzed: Pap smear in the previous three years and Pap smear nev [...] er performed. Among 867 women, 741 (85.5%; 95%CI: 83.1-87.8) had a Pap smear in the previous three years, 60 (6.9%; 95%CI: 5.2-8.6) were late with the test, and 66 (7.6%; 95%CI: 5.8-9.4) had never done a Pap smear. Poisson regression showed significant association with: income, age, skin color, and marital status. Although coverage was high, risk factors for uterine cervical cancer were not associated with performing the test.

Deise Karine, Muller; Juvenal Soares, Dias-da-Costa; Anna Maria Hecker, Luz; Maria Teresa Anselmo, Olinto.

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Cobertura e fatores associados à não realização do exame preventivo de Papanicolaou em São Luís, Maranhão Coverage and factors associated with not performing Pap smear screening tests in São Luís, Maranhão, Brazil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Com o objetivo de estimar a cobertura, a periodicidade, e identificar fatores associados à não realização do exame preventivo de Papanicolau, 465 mulheres de 25 a 49 anos residentes no município de São Luís foram entrevistadas em 1998. Foi realizado inquérito domiciliar pelo método de amostragem por conglomerados em três estágios. Na análise estatística foram calculados intervalos de confiança de 95% corrigidos pelo desenho do estudo, e os "odds ratio" brutos e ajustados por regressão logística. A cobertura do Papanicolaou pelo menos uma vez na vida foi de 82,4% (Intervalo de Confiança 95%, 76,6 - 87,0%, praticamente atingindo a cobertura mínima necessária de 85% para causar impacto epidemiológico na incidência e mortalidade por câncer cérvico-uterino. O intervalo entre a realização dos exames foi curto, pois 65,8% das mulheres repetiram o exame com até um ano. Após o ajuste para fatores de confundimento foram associados à não realização do Papanicolaou: não ter companheiro, ter cinco a oito anos de escolaridade, não ter realizado consulta médica nos três últimos meses e morar em domicílio cujo chefe de família tem ocupação manual não especializada. Ter tido de dois a quatro parceiros sexuais nos três últimos meses foi associado a menor risco de não realização do preventivo. Em capital do Nordeste, a cobertura do exame preventivo de Papanicolaou foi semelhante à relatada em outros estudos nacionais. Entretanto, algumas mulheres realizaram citologias desnecessárias a intervalos curtos, implicando em desperdício de recursos e dificultando o acesso aos grupos mais vulneráveis que apresentaram maiores riscos de não testagem.In 1998, 465 women from 25 to 49 years of age, inhabitants of the municipality of São Luís, Maranhão, Brazil were interviewed to estimate Pap smear coverage, interval between tests and to identify factors associated with not performing Pap smears. A three-stage household cluster survey was performed; 95% confidence intervals corrected by design effect, and crude and adjusted odds ratio estimates were calculated by logistic regression. Pap smear coverage at least once in a lifetime was 82.4% (95% CI 76.6% - 87.0% and nearly reached the minimum value of the 85% needed to impact the incidence and mortality of cervical cancer. The interval between tests was low, given that 65.8% of women repeated the test within one year. After adjustment for confounding factors, the risks of not having performed a Pap smear test at least once in a lifetime were higher for women who did not live with a companion, who had five to eight years of schooling, who had not been to a medical appointment in the past three months and who lived in households whose head of family was engaged in a manual and non-qualified occupation. Women who had two to four sexual partners in the past three months were at a lower risk of not having a cervical smear. In this Northeastern state capital, Pap smear coverage was similar to other national studies. However, some women were unnecessarily tested at short intervals, wasting resources and contributing to reduce the access of more vulnerable groups who presented higher risks for not having had a Pap smear test.

Márcia Maria Hiluy Nicolau de Oliveira

2006-09-01

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Pap-smear Classification Using Efficient Second Order Neural Network Training Algorithms  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In this paper we make use of two highly efficient second order neural network training algorithms, namely the LMAM (Levenberg-Marquardt with Adaptive Momentum) and OLMAM (Optimized Levenberg-Marquardt with Adaptive Momentum), for the construction of an efficient pap-smear test classifier. The algorithms are methodologically similar, and are based on iterations of the form employed in the Levenberg-Marquardt (LM) method for non-linear least squares problems with the inclusion of an additional adaptive momentum term arising from the formulation of the training task as a constrained optimization problem. The classification results obtained from the application of the algorithms on a standard benchmark pap-smear data set reveal the power of the two methods to obtain excellent solutions in difficult classification problems whereas other standard computational intelligence techniques achieve inferior performances.

Jantzen, Jan

2004-01-01

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The probability for a Pap test to be abnormal is directly proportional to HPV viral load: results from a Swiss study comparing HPV testing and liquid-based cytology to detect cervical cancer precursors in 13,842 women.  

Science.gov (United States)

In a study involving 13,842 women and 113 gynaecologists, liquid-based cytology and HPV testing for detecting cervical cancer were compared. A total of 1334 women were found to be positive for one or both tests and were invited for colposcopy with biopsy. A total of 1031 satisfactory biopsies on 1031 women were thereafter collected using a systematic biopsy protocol, which was random in the colposcopically normal-appearing cervix or directed in the abnormal one. In all, 502 women with negative tests were also biopsied. A total of 82 histologic high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) were reported in biopsies, all from the group with one or both tests positive. Sensitivity and specificity to detect histologic HSIL were 59 and 97% for cytology, and 97 and 92% for HPV. In total, 14% of reviewed negative cytological preparations associated with histologic HSIL contained no morphologically abnormal cells despite a positive HPV test. This suggested a theoretical limit for cytology sensitivity. HPV viral load analysis of the 1143 HPV-positive samples showed a direct relationship between abnormal Pap test frequency and HPV viral load. Thus, not only does the HPV testing have a greater sensitivity than cytology but the probability of the latter being positive can also be defined as a function of the associated HPV viral load. PMID:16136031

Bigras, G; de Marval, F

2005-09-01

78

Pattern of epithelial cell abnormality in Pap smear: A clinicopathological and demographic correlation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background: In the low resource settings of a developing country, a conventional Papanicolaou (Pap) test is the mainstay screening system for cervical cancer. In order to counsel women and to organize a public health system for cervical cancer screening by Pap smear examination, it is imperative to know the pattern of premalignant and malignant lesions. This study was undertaken to find out the prevalence of an abnormal Pap smear, in a tertiary hospital of a developing country, and to ...

Banik Urmila; Bhattacharjee Pradip; Ahamad Shahab; Rahman Zillur

2011-01-01

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Test beam results obtained with the Q4 prototype  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A prototype of the CMS Barrel Muon Detector incorporating all the features of the final chambers was built at CIEMAT using the mass production assembly procedures and tools. The performance of this prototype was studied in a muon test beam at CERN and the results obtained are presented here. (Author)

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Fractal analysis of weld defect patterns obtained by radiographic tests  

CERN Document Server

This paper presents a fractal analysis of radiographic patterns obtained from specimens with three types of inserted welding defects: lack of fusion, lack of penetration, and porosity. The study focused on patterns of carbon steel beads from radiographs of the International Institute of Welding (IIW). The radiographs were scanned using a greyscale with 256 levels, and the fractal features of the surfaces constructed from the radiographic images were characterized by means of Hurst, detrended-fluctuation, and minimal-cover analyses. A Karhunen-Loeve transformation was then used to classify the curves obtained from the fractal analyses of the various images, and a study of the classification errors was performed. The obtained results indicate that fractal analyses can be an effective additional tool for pattern recognition of weld defects in radiographic tests.

Tesser, J A; Vieira, A P; Gonçalves, L L; Rebello, J M A

2006-01-01

 
 
 
 
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Significance of a diagnosis of microorganisms on pap smear.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Pap smear has been in use for more than half a century as the primary screening test for preinvasive and invasive lesions of the uterine cervix. Although not the primary use and an imperfect test, it can be extremely useful in the diagnosis of some microorganisms. This review focuses on the use of the Pap smear in the diagnosis of several microorganisms including Actinomyces, Chlamydia trachomatis, Candida, Trichomonas vaginalis, Leptothrix vaginalis, Herpes Simplex Virus, the causative agents of bacterial vaginosis, and other rarer organisms. The accuracy of diagnosis using the smear varies among the different organisms in question. PMID:18162813

Fitzhugh, Valerie A; Heller, Debra S

2008-01-01

82

TsPAP1 encodes a novel plant prolyl aminopeptidase whose expression is induced in response to suboptimal growth conditions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A cDNA encoding a novel plant prolyl aminopeptidase, TsPAP1, was obtained from triticale. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The cloned TsPAP1 cDNA is 1387 bp long and encodes a protein of 390 amino acids. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The deduced TsPAP1 protein revealed characteristics of the monomeric bacterial PAPs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The TsPAP1 mRNA level increased under drought, salinity and in the presence of metal ions. -- Abstract: A triticale cDNA encoding a prolyl aminopeptidase (PAP) was obtained by RT-PCR and has been designated as TsPAP1. The cloned cDNA is 1387 bp long and encodes a protein of 390 amino acids with a calculated molecular mass of 43.9 kDa. The deduced TsPAP1 protein exhibits a considerable sequence identity with the biochemically characterized bacterial and fungal PAP proteins of small molecular masses ({approx}35 kDa). Moreover, the presence of conserved regions that are characteristic for bacterial monomeric PAP enzymes (the GGSWG motif, the localization of the catalytic triad residues and the segment involved in substrate binding) has also been noted. Primary structure analysis and phylogenetic analysis revealed that TsPAP1 encodes a novel plant PAP protein that is distinct from the multimeric proteins that have thus far been characterized in plants and whose counterparts have been recognized only in bacteria and fungi. A significant increase in the TsPAP1 transcript level in the shoots of triticale plants was observed under drought and saline conditions as well as in the presence of cadmium and aluminium ions in the nutrient medium. This paper is the first report describing changes in the transcript levels of any plant PAP in response to suboptimal growth conditions.

Szawlowska, Urszula; Grabowska, Agnieszka [Department of Biochemistry, Warsaw University of Life Sciences - SGGW, Nowoursynowska 159, 02-776 Warsaw (Poland); Zdunek-Zastocka, Edyta, E-mail: edyta_zdunek_zastocka@sggw.pl [Department of Biochemistry, Warsaw University of Life Sciences - SGGW, Nowoursynowska 159, 02-776 Warsaw (Poland); Bielawski, Wieslaw [Department of Biochemistry, Warsaw University of Life Sciences - SGGW, Nowoursynowska 159, 02-776 Warsaw (Poland)

2012-03-02

83

Knowledge of Pap screening and human papillomavirus among women attending clinics in Medellín, Colombia.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study evaluated Pap screening and human papillomavirus (HPV) knowledge in a population of Colombian women as a possible contributing factor of low cervical cancer screening success. This is a descriptive, cross-sectional analysis of 454 women who were approached in five different hospitals and clinics throughout Medellín, Colombia. Of them, 449 females agreed to participate and answered a standardized face-to-face questionnaire regarding Pap screening and HPV knowledge. Using logistic regression, predictors of both Pap and HPV knowledge were examined. Overall, 76.3% of the participants exhibited a high level of Pap screening knowledge, while only 7.8% showed high level of HPV knowledge. Of the 449 women, 71.5% reported that it had been 1 year or less since their last Pap test, while 7.8% reported never having had a Pap test or not having had a recent test. Factors influencing Pap screening knowledge included education level and insurance; factors influencing HPV knowledge included education level and age. The high level of Pap screening knowledge and use do not explain the high cervical cancer rates in Colombia. The results of this study suggest that educational efforts should be focused on increasing women's knowledge and awareness of HPV in anticipation of the availability of HPV vaccines and HPV tests for screening. PMID:18021221

Hanisch, R; Gustat, J; Hagensee, M E; Baena, A; Salazar, J E; Castro, M V; Gaviria, A M; Sánchez, G I

2008-01-01

84

Cobertura e adequação do exame citopatológico de colo uterino em estados das regiões Sul e Nordeste do Brasil / Pap test coverage and adequacy in the South and Northeast of Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O câncer de colo do útero é o segundo mais comum em mulheres no Brasil e no mundo e pode ser evitado através da detecção precoce de lesões precursoras. O exame citopatológico de colo uterino ainda é o mais efetivo e eficiente para realizar este rastreamento. O objetivo do estudo foi investigar a cob [...] ertura e a adequação do exame citopatológico e fatores associados. Foi realizado um estudo transversal com 3.939 mulheres que tiveram filho nos últimos dois anos anteriores à pesquisa, distribuídas em 41 municípios brasileiros. A cobertura do exame na vida foi de 75,3% (IC95%: 74,0-76,7) e a adequação foi de 70,7% (IC95%: 69,3-72,1). A adequação associou-se positivamente com idade maior de 25 anos, maior escolaridade, fazer pré-natal na última gestação e consultar para exame ginecológico no último ano. Foi menos frequente entre mulheres do estrato socioeconômico mais baixo e primíparas. Portanto, faz-se necessário fortalecer as ações preventivas para os subgrupos de mulheres mais vulneráveis, assim como potencializar as situações de utilização dos serviços de saúde. Abstract in english Cervical cancer is the second most common cancer among women both in Brazil and elsewhere in the world and can be averted through early detection of precursor lesions. Pap smear is still the most effective and efficient screening test. This study focused on the coverage and adequacy of Pap test and [...] associated factors. The authors adopted a cross-sectional design with a sample of 3,939 women who had given birth in the two previous years in 41 municipalities (counties) of Brazil. Lifetime Pap test coverage was 75.3% (95%CI: 74.0-76.7), and prevalence of adequacy was 70.7% (95%CI: 69.3-72.1). Adequacy was positively associated with age over 25 years, schooling, prenatal care in the last pregnancy, and gynecological visit in the previous year, and was less frequent among primiparous women and those with lower socioeconomic status. It is thus necessary to strengthen preventive measures in vulnerable subgroups and maximize situations for use of health services.

Michele da Silva, Correa; Denise Silva da, Silveira; Fernando Vinholes, Siqueira; Luiz Augusto, Facchini; Roberto Xavier, Piccini; Elaine, Thumé; Elaine, Tomasi.

85

Cobertura e adequação do exame citopatológico de colo uterino em estados das regiões Sul e Nordeste do Brasil Pap test coverage and adequacy in the South and Northeast of Brazil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O câncer de colo do útero é o segundo mais comum em mulheres no Brasil e no mundo e pode ser evitado através da detecção precoce de lesões precursoras. O exame citopatológico de colo uterino ainda é o mais efetivo e eficiente para realizar este rastreamento. O objetivo do estudo foi investigar a cobertura e a adequação do exame citopatológico e fatores associados. Foi realizado um estudo transversal com 3.939 mulheres que tiveram filho nos últimos dois anos anteriores à pesquisa, distribuídas em 41 municípios brasileiros. A cobertura do exame na vida foi de 75,3% (IC95%: 74,0-76,7 e a adequação foi de 70,7% (IC95%: 69,3-72,1. A adequação associou-se positivamente com idade maior de 25 anos, maior escolaridade, fazer pré-natal na última gestação e consultar para exame ginecológico no último ano. Foi menos frequente entre mulheres do estrato socioeconômico mais baixo e primíparas. Portanto, faz-se necessário fortalecer as ações preventivas para os subgrupos de mulheres mais vulneráveis, assim como potencializar as situações de utilização dos serviços de saúde.Cervical cancer is the second most common cancer among women both in Brazil and elsewhere in the world and can be averted through early detection of precursor lesions. Pap smear is still the most effective and efficient screening test. This study focused on the coverage and adequacy of Pap test and associated factors. The authors adopted a cross-sectional design with a sample of 3,939 women who had given birth in the two previous years in 41 municipalities (counties of Brazil. Lifetime Pap test coverage was 75.3% (95%CI: 74.0-76.7, and prevalence of adequacy was 70.7% (95%CI: 69.3-72.1. Adequacy was positively associated with age over 25 years, schooling, prenatal care in the last pregnancy, and gynecological visit in the previous year, and was less frequent among primiparous women and those with lower socioeconomic status. It is thus necessary to strengthen preventive measures in vulnerable subgroups and maximize situations for use of health services.

Michele da Silva Correa

2012-12-01

86

Cobertura e adequação do exame citopatológico de colo uterino em estados das regiões Sul e Nordeste do Brasil / Pap test coverage and adequacy in the South and Northeast of Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O câncer de colo do útero é o segundo mais comum em mulheres no Brasil e no mundo e pode ser evitado através da detecção precoce de lesões precursoras. O exame citopatológico de colo uterino ainda é o mais efetivo e eficiente para realizar este rastreamento. O objetivo do estudo foi investigar a cob [...] ertura e a adequação do exame citopatológico e fatores associados. Foi realizado um estudo transversal com 3.939 mulheres que tiveram filho nos últimos dois anos anteriores à pesquisa, distribuídas em 41 municípios brasileiros. A cobertura do exame na vida foi de 75,3% (IC95%: 74,0-76,7) e a adequação foi de 70,7% (IC95%: 69,3-72,1). A adequação associou-se positivamente com idade maior de 25 anos, maior escolaridade, fazer pré-natal na última gestação e consultar para exame ginecológico no último ano. Foi menos frequente entre mulheres do estrato socioeconômico mais baixo e primíparas. Portanto, faz-se necessário fortalecer as ações preventivas para os subgrupos de mulheres mais vulneráveis, assim como potencializar as situações de utilização dos serviços de saúde. Abstract in english Cervical cancer is the second most common cancer among women both in Brazil and elsewhere in the world and can be averted through early detection of precursor lesions. Pap smear is still the most effective and efficient screening test. This study focused on the coverage and adequacy of Pap test and [...] associated factors. The authors adopted a cross-sectional design with a sample of 3,939 women who had given birth in the two previous years in 41 municipalities (counties) of Brazil. Lifetime Pap test coverage was 75.3% (95%CI: 74.0-76.7), and prevalence of adequacy was 70.7% (95%CI: 69.3-72.1). Adequacy was positively associated with age over 25 years, schooling, prenatal care in the last pregnancy, and gynecological visit in the previous year, and was less frequent among primiparous women and those with lower socioeconomic status. It is thus necessary to strengthen preventive measures in vulnerable subgroups and maximize situations for use of health services.

Michele da Silva, Correa; Denise Silva da, Silveira; Fernando Vinholes, Siqueira; Luiz Augusto, Facchini; Roberto Xavier, Piccini; Elaine, Thumé; Elaine, Tomasi.

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Shape-based nuclei area of digitized pap smear images  

Science.gov (United States)

Nuclei of the epithelial of Pap smear cells are important risk indicator of cervical cancers. Pathologist uses the changing of the area of the nuclei to determine whether cells are normal or abnormal. It means that having correct measurement of the area of nuclei is important on the pap smears assessment. Our paper present a novel approach to analyze the shape of nuclei in pap smear images and measuring the area of nuclei. We conducted a study to measure the area of nuclei automatically by calculating the number of pixels contained in each of the segmented nuclei. For comparison, we performed measurements of nuclei area using the ellipse area approximation. The result of the t-test confirmed that there were similarity between elliptical area approximation and automatic segmented nuclei-area at 0.5% level of significance.

Muhimmah, Izzati; Kurniawan, Rahadian

2012-04-01

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Study of Pap smear and other feasible tests among self reported symptomatic married women in reproductive age group (15-49 yrs regarding reproductive tract infections in a rural community of Maharashtra  

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Full Text Available Background: Reproductive tract infections (RTIs represent a major public health problem in developing countries. Integrating RTIs/STIs management and early detection of cervical dysplasia in broader reproductive health services can improve women?s health. The objectives of the study were 1. To study the association of socio-demographic & reproductive factors among self-reported symptomatic women for reproductive tract infections. 2. To carry out clinical examination & feasible tests like PH, gram staining, VDRL for reproductive tract infections. 3. To study Pap smear among study subjects. Methods: A cross sectional study community based study was carried out in villages under ?Parol? Primary Health Centre of Thane district, Maharashtra, India. A total of 415 married women in reproductive age group were interviewed and examined. Pre-structured, pre-designed questionnaire was used. Clinical examination & feasible laboratory tests were done. Results were analyzed with the help of Microsoft Excel & SPSS 15. Results: A total of 415 women were interviewed, of them 263(63.4% had one or more symptoms of reproductive tract infections. On examination, 69(35% had cervicitis and 30(15.2% pelvic inflammatory disease, 39(19.8% bacterial vaginosis and candidiasis in 61(31%. Cervical erosion was present in 147(74.6% women. On Pap smear, 20(10.2% women had ASCUS (Atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance. Only 2(1% women found HIV positive. No woman was found VDRL reactive. Conclusion: Routine RTI/STI screening and periodic surveys to detect the infection patterns which will helps to control HIV infections in the community is needed in the remote tribal area as the current study shows high prevalence of reproductive tract infection. [Int J Res Med Sci 2013; 1(4.000: 545-551

Smita S. Chavan

2013-08-01

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Diagnostic value of the combination of TruScreen and Pap smear in screening cervical epithelial lesions: Does it add advantages over the Pap smear alone?  

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Full Text Available Introduction: Pap smear is a well known test in screening of epithelial cell abnormalities of the cervix. However, adding other screening methods to this test may increase the sensitivity and specificity of case finding. Current study has been designed to assess the sensitivity and specificity of the combination of Tru-Screen and Pap tests in comparison to Pap smear alone in women referred for annual screening. Methods: This case-control study was conducted in two groups of 66 and 73 women with epithelial cell abnormality and normal results on Pap smear, respectively. Both groups were subsequently tested with Tru-Screen and colposcopy. Positive finding in any of the three studies made the patient candidate for biopsy as the standard diagnostic test. SPSS software was used to analyze sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of TruScreen, Pap smear, colposcopy and the combination of TruScreen and Pap tests. Results: 105 out of 139 women underwent biopsy. Of these, 32 (30.5% had abnormal result in biopsy. Combination of True screen and Pap smear led to a sensitivity of 93.8% and specificity of 79.5% which means an improvement in both parameters. False negative rate decreased to 6.3% but false positive rate increased to 82.2%. Positive and negative predictive values of the combined tests were 33.3% and 86.7%, respectively. Conclusion: Combination of TruScreen and Pap smear is associated with a significant improvement in both sensitivity and specificity for early screening of preneoplastic and neoplastic cervical epithelial lesions.

Elaheh Refaei

2013-05-01

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Comparison of Visual Inspection with acetic acid and Pap smear in cervical cancer screening at a tertiary care hospital  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

th values of combined test were significantly higher than either of the two tests alone (p<0.01). Conclusion: Visual inspection with acetic acid has significantly higher sensitivity than Pap smear and may replace pap smear as a primary screening tool for universal screening. Combined test with higher predictive accuracy may be used for opportunistic screening. (author)

91

Health Screening: What Tests You Need and When  

Science.gov (United States)

... turn Javascript on. Screening tests, such as mammograms, Pap smears, and colorectal cancer tests, can find diseases and ... your doctor about whether you should be tested. Pap Smears (Women): Have a Pap smear every 1 to ...

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Association of Pap Smear Abnormalities with Autoimmune Disorders  

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Full Text Available Recently, it is hypothesized that there might be an association between immunological disorders and cervical premalignant and malignant abnormalities. Related studies have been generally focused on some particular autoimmune disease, specially the Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE. This study aimed at comparing the rate of Pap smear abnormalities in female patients with autoimmune diseases and normal counterparts. In a case-control setting, 118 female patients with various autoimmune diseases (the case group and 118 healthy female counterparts (the control group were recruited in Tabriz Imam Reza Teaching Centre in a 24 months period of time. The two groups were matched for demographics and known risk factors of cervical malignancy. Frequencies of abnormal Pap smear testing were compared between the two groups. The autoimmune disorders were SLE (74 patients, rheumatoid arthritis or RA (32 patients, systemic sclerosis or SS (7 patients and ankylosing spondylitis or AS (5 patients in the case group. Frequency of abnormal Pap smear testing was significantly higher in the case group comparing with that in the controls (7.6% vs. 1.7%; p = 0.03. Frequency of abnormal Pap smear testing was higher in the patients with SLE (8.1% and RA (9.3% comparing with that in the controls; However, these differences were marginally nonsignificant (p = 0.06 and p = 0.07, respectively. Frequency of cases with abnormal Pap smear testing was not statistically different between the autoimmune disorders (p = 0.99. Based on these findings and in conclusion, there might be an association between the autoimmune disorders and occurrence of premalignant or malignant lesions in cervix. Further studies with larger samples sizes are recommended.

Kazem Ghahremanzadeh

2011-01-01

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Awareness and uptake of the Pap smear among market women in Lagos, Nigeria  

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Our study evaluates the effect of an educational programme on awareness and uptake of the cervical cancer screening test (Pap smear) by women in a model market in Lagos Nigeria. This was a quasi-experimental study using a multistage sampling technique. A total of 350 women were divided into two groups. A baseline survey on awareness of the Pap test and screening practices was carried out using pre-tested, interviewer administered, structured questionnaires. Participants in the intervention gr...

Faduyile, Francis A.; Kuyinu, Yetunde A.; Babalola Faseru; Wright, Kikelomo O.

2011-01-01

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Comparison of PapType to Digene Hybrid Capture 2, Roche Linear Array, and Amplicor for Detection of High-Risk Human Papillomavirus Genotypes in Women with Previous Abnormal Pap Smears  

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PapType human papillomavirus (HPV) assay was compared to Hybrid Capture 2 (HC2), Amplicor (Amp), and Linear Array (LA) HPV tests in 894 women undergoing management for a high-grade Pap smear abnormality. The sensitivity in detection of underlying high-grade histological diagnosis by PapType was 90.3% and by HC2 was 79.8%, while by Amp and LA it was 92.4% and 91.6%, respectively. The specificities were 52.5%, 55.3%, 49.4%, and 51.7% for PapType, HC2, Amp, and LA, respectively.

Tabrizi, Sepehr N.; Stevens, Matthew P.; Khan, Zaheer A.; Chow, Conan; Devitt, Martin A.; Garland, Suzanne M.

2012-01-01

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Factors related to failure to attend the consultation to receive the results of the Pap smear test / Fatores relacionados ao não comparecimento à consulta para receber o resultado do exame colpocitológico  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: identificar os fatores relacionados ao não comparecimento das mulheres à consulta de retorno para receber o resultado do exame colpocitológico. MÉTODO: estudo transversal, realizado com 775 pacientes que se submeteram ao exame colpocitológico no Centro de Saúde da Família de Fortalez [...] a, Ceará, entre setembro de 2010 e fevereiro de 2011. RESULTADOS: a maioria das pesquisadas era jovem (?35 anos), de baixa escolaridade (?7 anos de estudo), com início da vida sexual precoce (?20 anos) e 17,0% delas não retornaram para receber o resultado do exame. Resultados estatisticamente significantes para o não comparecimento ao retorno estiveram relacionados a: mulheres jovens (p=0,001), início precoce da atividade sexual (p=0,047) e conhecimento inadequado sobre o exame colpocitológico (p=0,029). CONCLUSÃO: o fato de a mulher não retornar para receber o resultado é um problema para o controle do câncer cervicouterino e deve ser combatido por meio de estratégias educativas que reforcem a importância do retorno para a detecção precoce desse câncer. Abstract in spanish OBJETIVO: identificar los factores relacionados a la no asistencia de las mujeres a la consulta de retorno para recibir el resultado de la prueba de Papanicolaou. MÉTODO: se trata de un estudio transversal, realizado con 775 pacientes que se sometieron a la prueba de Papanicolaou en el Centro [...] de Salud de la Familia de Fortaleza-CE, entre septiembre de 2010 y febrero de 2011. RESULTADOS: la mayoría de las encuestadas eran jóvenes (?35 años), de baja escolaridad (?7 años de estudio), iniciaron la vida sexual muy temprano (?20 años) y 17,0% de ellas no retornaron para recibir el resultado del examen. Los resultados estadísticamente significativos por no retornar estuvieron relacionados a: mujeres jóvenes (p=0,001); inicio precoz de la actividad sexual (p=0,047); y conocimiento inadecuado sobre la prueba de Papanicolaou (p=0,029). CONCLUSIÓN: el hecho de la mujer no retornar para recibir el resultado es un problema para el control del cáncer de cuello uterino y debe ser combatido por medio de estrategias educativas que refuercen la importancia del retorno para la detección precoz de ese cáncer. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: to identify the factors related to the failure of women to attend the follow-up consultation to receive the results of the Pap smear test. METHOD: a cross-sectional study, carried out with 775 patients who underwent the Pap smear test in the Centro de Saúde da Família of Fortaleza, [...] between September 2010 and February 2011. RESULTS: the majority of the women studied were young (?35 years), had low levels of education (?7 years of study), and commenced sexual activity early (?20 years), with 17.0% of them failing to return to receive the test results. Statistically significant results for the failure to return were related to: young women (p=0.001); early onset of sexual activity (p=0.047); and inadequate knowledge about the Pap smear test (p=0.029). Conclusion the fact that the women failed to return for the result is a problem for the control of cervical cancer and must be addressed through educational strategies that reinforce the importance of the return for the early detection of this cancer.

Camila Teixeira Moreira, Vasconcelos; Denise de Fátima Fernandes, Cunha; Cássia Fernandes, Coelho; Ana Karina Bezerra, Pinheiro; Namie Okino, Sawada.

2014-06-01

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Uncertainty of data obtained in SRF cavity vertical test  

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Vertical test is a commonly used experimental method to qualify Superconducting Radio Frequency (SRF) cavities. Taking the experiences at Jefferson Lab (JLab) in US for example, over thousand of vertical tests have been performed on over 500 different cavities up to now [1]. Most of the tests at JLab followed the method as described in [1], but all the uncertainties of the calculated quality factors as well as the gradients were in-accurate due to the wrong algorithm used. I...

He, Feisi

2013-01-01

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Evaluation and significance of hyperchromatic crowded groups (HCG) in liquid-based paps  

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Abstract Objective Hyperchromatic crowded groups (HCG), a term first introduced into the cytology literature by DeMay in 1995, are commonly observed in Pap tests and may rarely be associated with serious but difficult to interpret lesions. In this study, we specifically defined HCG as dark crowded cell groups with more than 15 cells which can be identified at 10× screening magnification. Methods We evaluated consecutive liquid-based (Surepath) Pap tests fro...

Shidham Vinod; Chivukula Mamatha; Marshall, Austin R.

2007-01-01

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Uncertainty of data obtained in SRF cavity vertical test  

CERN Document Server

Vertical test is a commonly used experimental method to qualify Superconducting Radio Frequency (SRF) cavities. Taking the experiences at Jefferson Lab (JLab) in US for example, over thousand of vertical tests have been performed on over 500 different cavities up to now [1]. Most of the tests at JLab followed the method as described in [1], but all the uncertainties of the calculated quality factors as well as the gradients were in-accurate due to the wrong algorithm used. In this paper, a first-principle method was applied to analyze the uncertainty of the data, and the results were compared with those in [1] under typical experiment conditions.

He, Feisi

2013-01-01

99

Obtaining reliable Likelihood Ratio tests from simulated likelihood functions  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

It is standard practice by researchers and the default option in many statistical programs to base test statistics for mixed models on simulations using asymmetric draws (e.g. Halton draws). This paper shows that when the estimated likelihood functions depend on standard deviations of mixed parameters this practice is very likely to cause misleading test results for the number of draws usually used today. The paper shows that increasing the number of draws is a very inefficient solution strategy requiring very large numbers of draws to ensure against misleading test statistics. The paper shows that using one dimensionally antithetic draws does not solve the problem but that the problem can be solved completely by using fully antithetic draws. The paper also shows that even when fully antithetic draws are used, models testing away mixing dimensions must replicate the relevant dimensions of the quasirandom draws in the simulation of the restricted likelihood. Again this is not standard in research or statistical programs. The paper therefore recommends using fully antithetic draws replicating the relevant dimensions of the quasi-random draws in the simulation of the restricted likelihood and that this should become the default option in statistical programs.

Andersen, Laura MØrch

2013-01-01

100

Obtaining Reliable Likelihood Ratio Tests from Simulated Likelihood Functions  

Science.gov (United States)

Mixed models Models allowing for continuous heterogeneity by assuming that value of one or more parameters follow a specified distribution have become increasingly popular. This is known as ‘mixing’ parameters, and it is standard practice by researchers - and the default option in many statistical programs - to base test statistics for mixed models on simulations using asymmetric draws (e.g. Halton draws). Problem 1: Inconsistent LR tests due to asymmetric draws: This paper shows that when the estimated likelihood functions depend on standard deviations of mixed parameters this practice is very likely to cause misleading test results for the number of draws usually used today. The paper illustrates that increasing the number of draws is a very inefficient solution strategy requiring very large numbers of draws to ensure against misleading test statistics. The main conclusion of this paper is that the problem can be solved completely by using fully antithetic draws, and that using one dimensionally antithetic draws is not enough to solve the problem. Problem 2: Maintaining the correct dimensions when reducing the mixing distribution: A second point of the paper is that even when fully antithetic draws are used, models reducing the dimension of the mixing distribution must replicate the relevant dimensions of the quasi-random draws in the simulation of the restricted likelihood. Again this is not standard in research or statistical programs. The paper therefore recommends using fully antithetic draws replicating the relevant dimensions of the quasi-random draws in the simulation of the restricted likelihood and that this should become the default option in statistical programs. JEL classification: C15; C25. PMID:25329712

Andersen, Laura M?rch

2014-01-01

 
 
 
 
101

Pattern of epithelial cell abnormality in Pap smear: A clinicopathological and demographic correlation  

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Full Text Available Background: In the low resource settings of a developing country, a conventional Papanicolaou (Pap test is the mainstay screening system for cervical cancer. In order to counsel women and to organize a public health system for cervical cancer screening by Pap smear examination, it is imperative to know the pattern of premalignant and malignant lesions. This study was undertaken to find out the prevalence of an abnormal Pap smear, in a tertiary hospital of a developing country, and to carry out a clinicopathological and demographical analysis for establishing the pattern of epithelial cell abnormality in a Pap smear. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out in a total of 1699 patients who underwent Pap smear examination. The prevalence of epithelial cell abnormality in the Pap smear was calculated in proportions / percentages. Specimen adequacy and reporting was assessed according to the revised Bethesda system. Results: Among the total of 1699 patients who had their Pap smear done, 139 (8.18% revealed epithelial cell abnormality. Altogether 26 smears revealed high-grade lesions and malignancy, most of which were found to be in women belonging to the 30 - 39 and ? 45 age group. A total of 75 (53.96% women were in the 20 - 44 age group and 64 (46.04% were in the ? 45 age group. A bimodal age distribution was detected in the epithelial cell abnormality, with the bulk being diagnosed in patients aged 45 or above. Overall one-third of the patients with an abnormal Pap smear result showed healthy cervix in per vaginal examination. Conclusions: A raised prevalence of epithelial cell abnormality reflects the lack of awareness about cervical cancer screening. Women aged 45 or above harbor the bulk of premalignant and malignant lesions in the Pap smear, signifying that these women are among the under users of cytological screening.

Banik Urmila

2011-01-01

102

Knowledge Attitudes and Practice about Pap Smear among Women Reffering to A Public Hospital  

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Full Text Available Objective: The Pap smear is a reliable, inexpensive and effective screening test for cervical cancer; the second most common cancer among women worldwide. We aimed to determine women’s knowledge, attitudes and practice towards Pap smear and barriers for the screening in a public hospital.Materials and methods: This study, was carried out on 350 outpatient married women reffering for a visit at the clinics of the Alzahra educational hospital, Rasht- Iran, 2011. A questionnaire including demographic characteristics (24 questions, knowledge (14 questions, attitudes (11 statments and practice (10 questions towards Pap smear was completed by interview with the women. The data were analyzed using SPSS ver.13.Results: Mean age of participants was 32 (SD 12 years. Of the respondents, only 44.3% were aware of the Pap smear and 27.1% had had it at least once in their life. The most common reason for having the test was physicians’ or other health workers’ advise and for not having the test was no recommendation by health providers and lack of knowledge about Pap smear. Embarrassing, fear of the test result or economic problems mentioned by only 12 (4.2% as the main barrier. Mean (±SD knowledge score of the women who had heard about the Pap smear was 59.4 (24.3 and attitudes score of all participants was 48.5 (11.6 from possible range score of 0-100. Women with a history of Pap smear had had higher awareness and attitudes score.Conclusion: The knowledge and practice of the women was inadequate and need to be promoted. Considering the main reason mentioned by the participants for not having the test, all health providers should educate and encourage women to do regular Pap smear.

Sakineh Mohammad-Alizadeh- Charandabi

2012-12-01

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Cervical cancer: developments in screening and evaluation of the abnormal Pap smear.  

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Of the more than 50 million Pap smears performed annually in the United States, about 5% of them are abnormal. Although the need for treatment of high-grade lesions is clear, the appropriate management of low-grade lesions remains controversial. New methods of screening for cervical cancer have become available, including testing for the human papilloma virus and improved methods of administering and evaluating the Pap smear. This review addresses new developments in cervical cancer screening...

Walsh, J. M.

1998-01-01

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Knowledge Attitudes and Practice about Pap Smear among Women Reffering to A Public Hospital  

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Objective: The Pap smear is a reliable, inexpensive and effective screening test for cervical cancer; the second most common cancer among women worldwide. We aimed to determine women’s knowledge, attitudes and practice towards Pap smear and barriers for the screening in a public hospital.Materials and methods: This study, was carried out on 350 outpatient married women reffering for a visit at the clinics of the Alzahra educational hospital, Rasht- Iran, 2011. A questionnaire including demo...

Sakineh Mohammad-Alizadeh- Charandabi; Sedighe Rezaie-Chamani; Mahin Kamalifard

2012-01-01

105

An autoregulatory feedback loop involving PAP1 and TAS4 in response to sugars in Arabidopsis.  

Science.gov (United States)

miR828 in Arabidopsis triggers the cleavage of Trans-Acting SiRNA Gene 4 (TAS4) transcripts and production of small interfering RNAs (ta-siRNAs). One siRNA, TAS4-siRNA81(-), targets a set of MYB transcription factors including PAP1, PAP2, and MYB113 which regulate the anthocyanin biosynthesis pathway. Interestingly, miR828 also targets MYB113, suggesting a close relationship between these MYBs, miR828, and TAS4, but their evolutionary origins are unknown. We found that PAP1, PAP2, and TAS4 expression is induced specifically by exogenous treatment with sucrose and glucose in seedlings. The induction is attenuated in abscisic acid (ABA) pathway mutants, especially in abi3-1 and abi5-1 for PAP1 or PAP2, while no such effect is observed for TAS4. PAP1 is under regulation by TAS4, demonstrated by the accumulation of PAP1 transcripts and anthocyanin in ta-siRNA biogenesis pathway mutants. TAS4-siR81(-) expression is induced by physiological concentrations of Suc and Glc and in pap1-D, an activation-tagged line, indicating a feedback regulatory loop exists between PAP1 and TAS4. Bioinformatic analysis revealed MIR828 homologues in dicots and gymnosperms, but only in one basal monocot, whereas TAS4 is only found in dicots. Consistent with this observation, PAP1, PAP2, and MYB113 dicot paralogs show peptide and nucleotide footprints for the TAS4-siR81(-) binding site, providing evidence for purifying selection in contrast to monocots. Extended sequence similarities between MIR828, MYBs, and TAS4 support an inverted duplication model for the evolution of MIR828 from an ancestral gymnosperm MYB gene and subsequent formation of TAS4 by duplication of the miR828* arm. We obtained evidence by modified 5'-RACE for a MYB mRNA cleavage product guided by miR828 in Pinus resinosa. Taken together, our results suggest that regulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis by TAS4 and miR828 in higher plants is evolutionarily significant and consistent with the evolution of TAS4 since the dicot-monocot divergence. PMID:21533841

Luo, Qing-Jun; Mittal, Amandeep; Jia, Fan; Rock, Christopher D

2012-09-01

106

Awareness and uptake of the Pap smear among market women in Lagos, Nigeria  

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Full Text Available Our study evaluates the effect of an educational programme on awareness and uptake of the cervical cancer screening test (Pap smear by women in a model market in Lagos Nigeria. This was a quasi-experimental study using a multistage sampling technique. A total of 350 women were divided into two groups. A baseline survey on awareness of the Pap test and screening practices was carried out using pre-tested, interviewer administered, structured questionnaires. Participants in the intervention group received sessions of community based health information on cervical cancer screening tests while participants in the control group received health information on hypertension. Subsequently, participants in both groups were reassessed to evaluate the effect of the educational programme on the Pap test and cervical screening uptake. Data were analysed with the Epi-info version 6.04. Awareness about the Pap test was low at baseline; only 6.9% and 12.0% of participants in the intervention and control groups, respectively, had heard of Pap smears. Furthermore, less than 10% had correct information on the use of the Pap test. Post-intervention, there was a significant and proportional increase in the knowledge of the Pap test in the intervention group (p<0.05. However, uptake of the test was quite low in the intervention and control groups both pre- and post-intervention and there was no significant change in uptake. We concluded that essential schemes are required to enhance access to screening, as knowledge alone is insufficient to promote acceptance and use of cervical cytological screening tests.

Francis A. Faduyile

2011-03-01

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MIB-1 and PCNA immunostaining as a diagnostic adjunct to cervical Pap smear.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study was done to determine the role of MIB-1 (Molecular Immunology Borstel) and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) proliferative index as a diagnostic adjunct to cervical Papanicolaou (Pap) smear for the identification of ascending grades of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) developing into cancer in the human uterine cervix. A total of 49 adequate Pap smears with consensus diagnosis were destained for immunocytochemical staining (MIB-1 and PC10). Staining was done by streptavidin-biotin method after antigen retrieval. MIB-1 and PC10 labeling index (LI) were calculated in each case and divided into three groups, i.e., 20%, respectively. Statistical analysis was done by using the SPSS 10.0 package. The comparisons were made using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and independent sample t-test. Bivariate and Pearson's correlation coefficient were used to obtain correlations between different groups. Out of 49 cases, 40 cases (81.6%) showed positive immunostaining with MIB-1 and PCNA. Proliferative LI of MIB-1 and PCNA increased with the ascending grades of CIN lesions to carcinoma. The highest proliferative index (mean +/- SD) for PCNA and MIB-1 were observed for the carcinoma group (PCNA LI, 39.200 +/- 1.6865; MIB-1LI, 35.300 +/- 1.8886). A significant positive correlation between ascending grades of squamous intraepithelial lesion (SIL) and labeling indices of markers (r = 0.87 for MIB-1 and r = 0.88 for PCNA) suggests that MIB-1/PCNA proliferative markers can be used as an adjunct to cytomorphological interpretation of conventional cervical Pap smear. PMID:15945082

Goel, M M; Mehrotra, Anju; Singh, Uma; Gupta, H P; Misra, J S

2005-07-01

108

Comparison Between Pap Smear and Via As Screening For Cervical Lesions  

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Full Text Available Introduction: An important reason for higher cervical cancer incidence in developing countries is lack of effectivescreening programs like pap smear, aimed at detecting precancerous conditions before they progress to invasivecancer. The potential difficulties in implementing cervical cytology based screening in low-resource settings haveprompted the investigation of accuracy of alternative low technology tests such as Visual inspection with acetic acidapplication [VIA], Visual inspection with acetic acid application with magnification [VIAM], visual inspection onLugol’s Iodine application [VILI] in early detection of cervical neoplasia .In our study we compared pap smear withVIA to study the accurarcy of VIA as it is simpler and easier technique to be used as screening in low resourcesettings. Aim: This is a hospital based descriptive, prospective study to evaluate validity of pap smear and VIAtechniques as screening tests in identifying cervical lesions. Materials And Methods: After general and systemicexamination as a routine,visual local pelvic examination including visualisation of cervix and vagina per speculumand the findings are documented in the proforma .Then VIA and pap smear are done in that order, if any of thesetests are positive then cervical biopsy will be taken and further advise to the subject is given. Results: A total of 313women were involved in the study. The sensitivity of pap smear is 54.5% specificity is 98.9% while that of VIA95.4% and 97.9%respectively. We found that VIA accuracy was comparatively more than that of pap smear.Conclusion: In low resource settings, usefulness of VIA is more than that of pap smear. We suggest to perform VIAin all the women inspite of having pap smear facility to improve detection rate of cervical lesions and provide betterpatient councelling and treatment.

Harshini V 1, Amritha Bhandary 2, Suchithra Thunga 3

2013-09-01

109

Comparison of visual inspection of cervix and pap smear for cervical cancer screening  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: To evaluate the performance of visual inspection of cervix (VIA) after application of 3% acetic acid in cervical cancer screening in comparison with PAP smear. Results: Out of 540 subjects, 356 were negative with both screening techniques. One hundred and fifty-six subjects were positive with VIA (28.9%) while PAP smear was positive in seventy-eight subjects (14.4%). The sensitivity of VIA was 93.9% and of PAP smear was 46.9%. Corresponding specificities were 30.4% and 69.5%. There was no significant difference between the positive predictive value (PPV) of both test (p<0.05). The accuracy of VIA was 77.5% compared to 52.8% of PAP smear. The difference was highly significant (p < 0.01). Conclusion: These results indicate that VIA is more sensitive and has a higher accuracy as compared to PAP smear. It could, therefore, be valuable in detection of precancerous lesions of cervix. Low cost, easy applicability and immediate results make VIA a useful screening test in developing countries like Pakistan as compared to PAP smear. (author)

110

Self-reports of Pap smear screening in women with physical disabilities.  

Science.gov (United States)

We collected self reported rate of cervical smear testing and to examine the affecting factors in women with physical disabilities in the study, to define the reproductive health care for this group of people. The study population recruited 521 women with physical disabilities aged more than 15 years who were officially registered as having physical disabilities in Taipei County, Taiwan. Those people with physical disabilities include following: upper and low limb, spinal cord injury and other nervous system impairments. Results found that there were 71.5% participants had ever used the Pap smear tests in their life time and mean age of the first screening was 39.21±10.16 years (range=20-85 years). Nearly 41% of participants expressed that they had accepted the screening within 1 year and 28.1% reported they used the Pap smear screening regularly. Our study also found women with physical disabilities have higher use of Pap smear tests than does the general population in Taiwan (74% vs. 64% in aged?30 years). Logistic regression model for the use of Pap smear test indicated that those married women (OR=12.06, 95% CI=6.85-21.22), with mild level of disability (OR=2.10, 95% CI=1.05-4.21) and high cognitive level toward Pap smear information were factors to affect the use of Pap smear in the study participants. We suggest the further study should conduct to examine the quality perception and follow-up service of Pap smear test for women with physical disabilities, to ensure the health care right for this group of women. PMID:21273042

Lin, Jin-Ding; Chen, Shih-Fan; Lin, Lan-Ping; Sung, Chang-Lin

2011-01-01

111

Comparison of PWR fuel assembly CHF tests obtained at three different test facilities  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Full text of publication follows: Critical Heat Flux (CHF) is a key phenomenon in the heat transfer process in the nuclear core of pressurized water reactors (PWR). CHF limits the power capability of the nuclear plant and also the core design fuel management. Framatome Cogema Fuels (formerly Babcock and Wilcox), Siemens Power Corporation (SPC) in the US, Kraftwerk Union (KWU/Siemens) in Germany and Framatome in France have all been carrying out CHF tests for qualifying the thermal-hydraulic performance of their fuel assemblies in several test loops. With the merging of these companies within Framatome-ANP and the AREVA group, it was decided to utilize the same test facility for all regions. The Karlstein Thermal Hydraulic facility (KATHY) loop located at Karlstein, Germany has been selected to be the reference loop of Framatome ANP. The other loops previously used were the OMEGA loop of the French CEA and the Heat Transfer Research Facility (HTRF) loop of Columbia University. In order to be able to use results from tests obtained at any of the facilities interchangeably, a comparison of experimental measurements was necessary to demonstrate the equivalence of these loops. These experiments have been performed both using an axially uniform flux shape and using an axially nonuniform flux shape. In this paper a short description of the test facilities is presented after which the results of this comparison between KATHY, OMEGA and the HTRF are described. The method used in the comparison is presented in detail. The results obtained using only experimental conditions do not account for small differences in the rod bundle radial peaking and axial flux shape. Theses differences can be modeled using a subchannel thermal-hydraulic analysis code and a CHF correlation. Such a technique permits a much more precise comparison of the results. This comparison demonstrates an excellent consistency of the results between the different loops. This conclusion is valid over a large range of thermal hydraulic parameters (pressure, mass flow rate and local quality).. Therefore the continuity of the CHF test results used in within the AREVA group for product performance demonstrations is completely ensured. (authors)

Christophe Herer [FRAMATOME-ANP SAS Tour AREVA - F-92084 Paris La Defense Cedex (France); Achim Beisiegel [FRAMATOME-ANP GmbH - Postfach 12 40 - D-63787 Karlstein am Main (Germany); Pierre Imbert [FRAMATOME-ANP SAS Tour AREVA - F-69456 LYON CEDEX 06 (France); David A Farnsworth [FRAMATOME ANP Inc. 3315 Old Forest Rd. - Lynchburg, VA 24501 (United States); Friedrich Burtak [FRAMATOME-ANP GmbH - D-91050 Erlangen, P.O. 32 20 (Germany)

2005-07-01

112

XMLComparison of Molecular (PCR and Pap Smear Methods in Diagnosis of Human Papiloma Virus (HPV in Women with Genital Warts  

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Full Text Available Background and Objective: Much research has shown that Human Papiloma Virus (HPV plays an important role in cervix cancer and it is the cause of 99% of cervix cancer worldwide. Lots of research has been done to find a proper method for HPV diagnosis and screening in patients with genital warts. This study aimed at comparing PCR method with Pap smear test in HPV screening. Material and Methods: Considering the presence of DNA of HPV, 45 vaginal and cervix swap samples of women with genital warts were tested by means of specific PCR and Pap smear from September 2010 to April 2011. Results: Out of 45 vaginal and cervix swap samples of women suffering genital warts, 37 samples (82.2% are positive. Of 45 Pap smear samples, 13 (29% are neoplasia and 32 (71% normal. Conclusion: The difference between the results of PCR and Pap smear is due to low specification and sensitivity of Pap smear. Thus it is recommended using diagnostic PCR method in addition to Pap smear in order to promote the quality of screening in individuals with genital warts. Keywords: Human Papiloma Virus (HPV; Genital Warts; Molecular (PCR; Pap Smear

Bashi zadeh Fakhar, H. (MSc

2013-01-01

113

Associations of demographic variables and the Health Belief Model constructs with Pap smear screening among urban women in Botswana  

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Full Text Available Ditsapelo M McFarland College of Nursing and Public Health, Adelphi University, Garden City, NY, USA Purpose: Papanicolaou (Pap smear services are available in most urban areas in Botswana. Yet most women in such areas do not screen regularly for cancer of the cervix. The purpose of this article is to present findings on the associations of demographic variables and Health Belief Model constructs with Pap smear screening among urban women in Botswana. Sample and methods: The study included a convenience sample of 353 asymptomatic women aged 30 years and older who were living in Gaborone, Botswana. Data were collected using a demographic questionnaire and items of the Health Belief Model. Data analysis included descriptive statistics for demographic variables and bivariate and ordinal (logit regression to determine the associations of demographic variables. Results: Having health insurance and having a regular health care provider were significant predictors of whether or not women had a Pap smear. Women with health insurance were more likely to have had a Pap smear test than women without health insurance (91% vs 36%. Similarly, women who had a regular health care provider were more likely to have had a Pap smear test than women without a regular health care provider (94% vs 42%. Major barriers to screening included what was described as "laziness" for women who had ever had a Pap smear (57% and limited information about Pap smear screening for women who had never had a Pap smear (44%. Conclusion: There is a need for more information about the importance of the Pap smear test and for increased access to screening services in Botswana. Keywords: cervical, screening, barriers, access, beliefs

McFarl

2013-10-01

114

Van Mother-Child Health and Family Planning Center Pap Smear Clinics of Information, Evaluation of Applicants  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective: In this study of women admitted to our center with information on pap smear test, to evaluate the attitudes and behavior. Materials and Methods: This descriptive study of Van Mother-Child Health and Family Planning Center on a voluntary basis, women aged 15-49 were admitted to the control. The education level of participants, age at first marriage, before the presence of vaginal infection, the story, and motivations pap smear level of information availability, and a family history of cancer, administered a questionnaire asking the state to have a regular income. Results: The study included 362 women with age and hear the pap smear test was significantly increased (p = 0.01. Working women and pap smear level of knowledge (p = 0.04 and pap smears than women not working for International rates significantly higher (p = 0.02. Treatment of vaginal infection at least once before to get there was a significant relationship between the pap smear motivations (p>0.05. Family history of gynecologic cancer or non-gynecologic cancer smears have significantly increased the level of motivations (p = 0.0001. Pap smear information, regular the economic income of those levels, significantly higher than those without regular income (p = 0.0001. Conclusion: We serve the region, with low socio-economic characteristics that are considered, gynecological examination by health workers or women from the home visits, pap smear test for what purpose and how often you get the work done and the importance of explaining and giving more space to this issue suggest that the written and visual media. Keywords: Pap smears, health care, education [TAF Prev Med Bull 2011; 10(5.000: 527-532

Sebahat Gucuk

2011-10-01

115

Comparison of PWR fuel assembly CHF tests obtained at three different test facilities  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

d the HTRF are described. The method used in the comparison is presented in detail. The results obtained using only experimental conditions do not account for small differences in the rod bundle radial peaking and axial flux shape. Theses differences can be modeled using a subchannel thermal-hydraulic analysis code and a CHF correlation. Such a technique permits a much more precise comparison of the results. This comparison demonstrates an excellent consistency of the results between the different loops. This conclusion is valid over a large range of thermal hydraulic parameters (pressure, mass flow rate and local quality).. Therefore the continuity of the CHF test results used in within the AREVA group for product performance demonstrations is completely ensured. (authors)

116

Pengaruh Media Sosialisasi Terhadap Pengetahuan dan Sikap Mahasiswi Tentang Pentingnya Pap Smear di Fakultas Kesehatan Masyarakat USU Tahun 2011  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Cervical cancer is still threatening all women across the world particularly in developing countries. In Indonesia, nowadays cervical cancer is the second most common cancer that affects women after breast cancer. This cancer is a potential killer, since there is no appearance of physical symptom at early stage. One of the efforts for diminishing the mortality caused by this disease is screening. The most suggested screening method for cervical cancer is Pap Smear Test. Pap smear test has ...

Pakpahan, Peranika R.

2012-01-01

117

Regulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis in Arabidopsis thaliana red pap1-D cells metabolically programmed by auxins.  

Science.gov (United States)

Red pap1-D cells of Arabidopsis thaliana have been cloned from production of anthocyanin pigmentation 1-Dominant (pap1-D) plants. The red cells are metabolically programmed to produce high levels of anthocyanins by a WD40-bHLH-MYB complex that is composed of the TTG1, TT8/GL3 and PAP1 transcription factors. Here, we report that indole 3-acetic acid (IAA), naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) regulate anthocyanin biosynthesis in these red cells. Seven concentrations (0, 0.2, 0.4, 2.2, 9, 18 and 27 ?M) were tested for the three auxins. IAA and 2,4-D at 2.2-27 ?M reduced anthocyanin levels. NAA at 0-0.2 ?M or above 9 ?M also decreased anthocyanin levels, but from 0.4 to 9 ?M, it increased them. HPLC-ESI-MS analysis identified seven cyanin molecules that were produced in red pap1-D cells, and their levels were affected by auxins. The expression levels of ten genes, including six transcription factors (TTG1, EGL3, MYBL2, TT8, GL3 and PAP1) and four pathway genes (PAL1, CHS, DFR and ANS) involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis were analyzed upon various auxin treatments. The resulting data showed that 2,4-D, NAA and IAA control anthocyanin biosynthesis by regulating the expression of TT8, GL3 and PAP1 as well as genes in the anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway, such as DFR and ANS. In addition, the expression of MYBL2, PAL1 and CHS in red pap1-D and wild-type cells differentially respond to the three auxins. Our data demonstrate that the three auxins regulate anthocyanin biosynthesis in metabolically programmed red cells via altering the expression of transcription factor genes and pathway genes. PMID:24370633

Liu, Zhong; Shi, Ming-Zhu; Xie, De-Yu

2014-04-01

118

The specimen adequacy and Atypical Squamous Cell frequency: conventional versus liquid-based cytology pap smears  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available "nBackground: The papanicolaou (pap smear has been used to screen cervical cancer since 1940. Recently, a number of new technologies have been developed to improve the detection of cervical cancer and its precursors. However, there is substantial controversy about whether the new tests offer meaningful advantages over the conventional pap smear. Ideally, these new tests will increase the early detection of meaningful pap smear abnormalities, reduce the number of unsatisfactory smears and provide fewer ambiguous results. "nMethods: In this prospective study the result of Liquid- based cytology smears (Liquid prep method compared with conventional pap smears in terms of adequacy and ASC diagnosis in 289 patients in pathology department of mirza kochak khan hospital (Tehran, 2005- 2006. The smears were interpreted based on Bethesda system 2001. "nResults: In conventional pap smear method, the number of occasions of unsatisfactory smear was 24(5%. In Liquid- based cytology method 66(22.8% smears were unsatisfactory, In which difference between unsatisfactory groups were statistically significant (p<0.05, Also ASC diagnosis in conventional method 5(1.8% as compared with Liquid- based cytology 6(2.1%, was not statistically significant (p>0.05. "nConclusions: There was no significant difference between two methods in term of ASC diagnosis but in conventional method adequacy of specimen was significantly better as compared with this Liquid- based cytology method.

Izadi Mood N

2009-03-01

119

Pap-smear Benchmark Data For Pattern Classification  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This case study provides data and a baseline for comparing classification methods. The data consists of 917 images of Pap-smear cells, classified carefully by cyto-technicians and doctors. Each cell is described by 20 numerical features, and the cells fall into 7 classes. A basic data analysis includes scatter plots and linear classification results, in order to provide domain knowledge and lower bounds on the acceptable performance of future classifiers. Students and researchers can access the database on the Internet, and use it to test and compare their own classification methods.

Jantzen, Jan

2005-01-01

120

A comparison of estimated achivement scores obtained from student achievement assessment test utilizing classical test theory, unidimensional and multidimensional IRT  

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Full Text Available The focus of this research is to test the estimation of achievement measurements in the test battery and to empirically compare the results after applying classical test theory, unidimensional and multidimensional item response theory models to Student Achievement Assessment Test (ÖBBS-2008 subtests of Turkish and Mathematics. It also tries to put forward the best model that estimates students’ achievement with less error as the comparison is being made. From the analysis of Turkish test's data results, it is identified that the ability parameters estimated obtained from the whole test under multidimensional IRT, have partially less error scores and reached more precise measurement than ability parameters estimated obtained from unidimensional IRT on the basis of sub dimensions and test scores obtained from CTT. Similar results were obtained in mathematics test results. Finally, it is found that parameters, obtained within the scope of multidimensional IRT, have partially less error scores.

Ye?im Özer Özkan

2014-01-01

 
 
 
 
121

Competency-based Learning: The Impact of Targeted Resident Education and Feedback on Pap Smear Adequacy Rates  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Little is known about assessing or improving competency in Papanicolau (Pap) smear sampling among internal medicine residents. We hypothesized that a 3-part targeted resident physician educational program (educational presentation by a knowledgeable instructor, skills workshop, and peer comparison feedback) would be effective in increasing the quality of Pap smears obtained by internal medicine residents. We conducted a randomized, pre-post comparison study over a 16-month period to assess th...

Watkins, Raquel S.; Moran, William P.

2004-01-01

122

Caerulein-induced acute pancreatitis in mice that constitutively overexpress Reg/PAP genes  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The cystic fibrosis (CF mouse pancreas has constitutively elevated expression of the Reg/PAP cell stress genes (60-fold greater Reg3?, and 10-fold greater PAP/Reg3? and Reg3?. These genes are suggested to be involved in protection or recovery from pancreatic injury. Methods To test this idea the supramaximal caerulein model was used to induce acute pancreatitis in wild type and CF mice. Serum amylase, pancreatic water content (as a measure of edema, pancreatic myeloperoxidase activity, and Reg/PAP expression were quantified. Results In both wild type and CF mice caerulein induced similar elevations in serum amylase (maximal at 12 h, pancreatic edema (maximal at 7 h, and pancreatic myeloperoxidase activity (MPO, a marker of neutrophil infiltration; maximal at 7 h. By immunohistochemistry, Reg3? was strongly expressed in the untreated CF pancreas but not in wild type. During pancreatitis, Reg3? was intensely expressed in foci of inflamed tissue in both wild type and CF. Conclusion These data demonstrate that the severity of caerulein-induced pancreatitis is not ameliorated in the CF mouse even though the Reg/PAP stress genes are already highly upregulated. While Reg/PAP may be protective they may also have a negative effect during pancreatitis due to their anti-apoptotic activity, which has been shown to increase the severity of pancreatitis.

Appenzeller Philippe

2006-05-01

123

Overexpressing AtPAP15 enhances phosphorus efficiency in soybean.  

Science.gov (United States)

Low phosphorus (P) availability is a major constraint to crop growth and production, including soybean (Glycine max), on a global scale. However, 50% to 80% of the total P in agricultural soils exists as organic phosphate, which is unavailable to plants unless hydrolyzed to release inorganic phosphate. One strategy for improving crop P nutrition is the enhanced activity of acid phosphatases (APases) to obtain or remobilize inorganic phosphate from organic P sources. In this study, we overexpressed an Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) purple APase gene (AtPAP15) containing a carrot (Daucus carota) extracellular targeting peptide in soybean hairy roots and found that the APase activity was increased by 1.5-fold in transgenic hairy roots. We subsequently transformed soybean plants with AtPAP15 and studied three homozygous overexpression lines of AtPAP15. The three transgenic lines exhibited significantly improved P efficiency with 117.8%, 56.5%, and 57.8% increases in plant dry weight, and 90.1%, 18.2%, and 62.6% increases in plant P content, respectively, as compared with wild-type plants grown on sand culture containing phytate as the sole P source. The transgenic soybean lines also exhibited a significant level of APase and phytase activity in leaves and root exudates, respectively. Furthermore, the transgenic lines exhibited improved yields when grown on acid soils, with 35.9%, 41.0%, and 59.0% increases in pod number per plant, and 46.0%, 48.3%, and 66.7% increases in seed number per plant. Taken together, to our knowledge, our study is the first report on the improvement of P efficiency in soybean through constitutive expression of a plant APase gene. These findings could have significant implications for improving crop yield on soils low in available P, which is a serious agricultural limitation worldwide. PMID:19587103

Wang, Xiurong; Wang, Yingxiang; Tian, Jiang; Lim, Boon Leong; Yan, Xiaolong; Liao, Hong

2009-09-01

124

Isolation and cloning of the Phytolacca americana anti-viral protein PAP-I gene  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: English Abstract in spanish La proteína antiviral del ginseng (PAP), aislada de plantas de Phytolacca americana y Phytolacca acinosa, inhibe la traducción proteica mediante la remoción catalítica de un residuo de adenina específico, en la cadena mayor de la subunidad 60S del ARN ribosomal eucariótico. En este estudio se aisló [...] y secuenció el gen PAP-I de P. americana, y posteriormente se comparó con los genes de otras proteínas inactivadoras de ribosomas (RIP), reportadas en GenBank(r). Se extrajo el ADN total de las hojas tardías del verano de las plantas de P. americana y el fragmento de 868 pb correspondiente al ADN del gen se amplificó con el uso de cebadores específicos, mediante reacción en cadena de la polimerasa (PCR). El producto de la PCR eluido se purificó, se clonó en el vector pTZ57R/T, y se movilizó en células de Escherichia coli cepa DH5a. Tras la secuenciación del producto de la PCR del gen PAP-I, la secuencia mostró una homología nucleotídica de 98 a 82 % y aminoacídica de 94 a 26 %, con las RIP reportadas. El análisis filogenético confirmó que el gen amplificado corresponde a la RIP tipo I de simple cadena (PAP-I). Abstract in english The pokeweed antiviral protein (PAP) isolated from Phytolacca americana and Phytolacca acinosa plants, inhibits protein translation by catalytically removing a specific adenine residue from the large rRNA of the 60S subunit of eukaryotic ribosomes. In this study, the P. americana PAP-I gene was isol [...] ated and sequenced, and further compared to other ribosome-inactivating proteins (RIPs) genes previously reported in GenBank(r). Total DNA was extracted from the late summer leaves of P. americana. A polymerase chain reaction (PCR) 868 bp-long DNA product was obtained, using gene specific primers, based on the expected gene size. The eluted product was purified and cloned into the pTZ57R/T vector, and mobilized into the Escherichia coli strain DH5a. After sequencing, the analysis of the PAP-I PCR product showed 98 to 82 % nucleotide and amino acid 94 to 26 % homologies, respectively, compared to previously reported RIPs. A phylogenetic analysis confirmed that the amplified PAP-I gene corresponds to the single chain Type-I RIP (PAP-I).

Heba A, Mahfouze; Khalid A, El-Dougdoug; Badawi A, Othman; Mostafa A, Gomaa.

2014-03-01

125

Comparative study of visual inspection of the cervix using acetic acid (VIA) and Papanicolaou (Pap) smears for cervical cancer screening  

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This article is a comparative study of two screening methods for pre-invasive lesions of the cervix. The Papanicolaou (Pap) smear, an old and tested screening method, is compared with the findings from visual inspection of the cervix following acetic acid (VIA) wash. VIA is a new screening method being advocated by the World Health Organization as an alternative to Pap smear in low-resource settings.

Albert, So; Oguntayo, Oa; Samaila, Moa

2012-01-01

126

Van Mother-Child Health and Family Planning Center Pap Smear Clinics of Information, Evaluation of Applicants  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Objective: In this study of women admitted to our center with information on pap smear test, to evaluate the attitudes and behavior. Materials and Methods: This descriptive study of Van Mother-Child Health and Family Planning Center on a voluntary basis, women aged 15-49 were admitted to the control. The education level of participants, age at first marriage, before the presence of vaginal infection, the story, and motivations pap smear level of information availability, and a family history ...

Sebahat Gucuk; Servet Alkan; Secil Arica; Aysegul Ates

2011-01-01

127

Cobertura do teste de Papanicolaou e fatores associados à não-realização: um olhar sobre o Programa de Prevenção do Câncer do Colo do Útero em Pernambuco, Brasil Pap smear coverage and factors associated with non-participation in cervical cancer screening: an analysis of the Cervical Cancer Prevention Program in Pernambuco State, Brazil  

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Full Text Available Buscou-se avaliar a cobertura do teste Papanicolaou no Estado de Pernambuco, Brasil, nos três anos anteriores à pesquisa, entre mulheres de 18-69 anos, e identificar fatores associados à sua não-realização. Trata-se de um estudo transversal, de base populacional, utilizando-se dados de inquérito realizado no período 2005-2006 com 640 indivíduos, selecionados por amostragem por conglomerados em três estágios de seleção. Foram analisadas informações sobre 258 mulheres. A cobertura do Papanicolaou entre mulheres de 18-69 anos foi de 58,7% e de 25-59 anos de 66,2%. Viver sem companheiro, não ter dado à luz e não ter realizado consulta médica no último ano mostraram associação com a não-realização do teste. Na análise multivariada, o baixo grau de escolaridade mostrou também efeito significativo. A cobertura do Papani-colaou em Pernambuco foi satisfatória, porém insuficiente para impactar no perfil epidemiológico do câncer do colo uterino. É preciso fortalecer e qualificar as ações de promoção da saúde, visando reduzir as desigualdades e estimular o protagonismo das mulheres nas ações de prevenção do câncer do colo uterino.This research aimed to assess coverage of Pap smear screening in the State of Pernambuco, Brazil, during the three years prior to the study, among women 18 to 69 years of age, and to identify factors associated with women's lack of participation in screening. This was a cross-sectional, population-based study, using data from a survey in 2005-2006 with 640 women, selected by three-stage cluster sampling. Information on 258 women was analyzed. Pap smear coverage was 58.7% for women 18 to 69 years of age and 66.2% for those 25 to 59. Single marital status, no history of childbirth, and not having consulted a physician in the previous year were associated with lack of Pap smear screening. In the multivariate analysis, low schooling also showed a significant effect. Pap smear coverage in Pernambuco was satisfactory, but insufficient to impact the epidemiological profile of cervical cancer. It is necessary to strengthen and upgrade health promotion activities in order to reduce the inequalities and encourage women's active participation in cervical cancer prevention.

Kamila Matos de Albuquerque

2009-01-01

128

Cobertura do teste de Papanicolaou e fatores associados à não-realização: um olhar sobre o Programa de Prevenção do Câncer do Colo do Útero em Pernambuco, Brasil / Pap smear coverage and factors associated with non-participation in cervical cancer screening: an analysis of the Cervical Cancer Prevention Program in Pernambuco State, Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Buscou-se avaliar a cobertura do teste Papanicolaou no Estado de Pernambuco, Brasil, nos três anos anteriores à pesquisa, entre mulheres de 18-69 anos, e identificar fatores associados à sua não-realização. Trata-se de um estudo transversal, de base populacional, utilizando-se dados de inquérito rea [...] lizado no período 2005-2006 com 640 indivíduos, selecionados por amostragem por conglomerados em três estágios de seleção. Foram analisadas informações sobre 258 mulheres. A cobertura do Papanicolaou entre mulheres de 18-69 anos foi de 58,7% e de 25-59 anos de 66,2%. Viver sem companheiro, não ter dado à luz e não ter realizado consulta médica no último ano mostraram associação com a não-realização do teste. Na análise multivariada, o baixo grau de escolaridade mostrou também efeito significativo. A cobertura do Papani-colaou em Pernambuco foi satisfatória, porém insuficiente para impactar no perfil epidemiológico do câncer do colo uterino. É preciso fortalecer e qualificar as ações de promoção da saúde, visando reduzir as desigualdades e estimular o protagonismo das mulheres nas ações de prevenção do câncer do colo uterino. Abstract in english This research aimed to assess coverage of Pap smear screening in the State of Pernambuco, Brazil, during the three years prior to the study, among women 18 to 69 years of age, and to identify factors associated with women's lack of participation in screening. This was a cross-sectional, population-b [...] ased study, using data from a survey in 2005-2006 with 640 women, selected by three-stage cluster sampling. Information on 258 women was analyzed. Pap smear coverage was 58.7% for women 18 to 69 years of age and 66.2% for those 25 to 59. Single marital status, no history of childbirth, and not having consulted a physician in the previous year were associated with lack of Pap smear screening. In the multivariate analysis, low schooling also showed a significant effect. Pap smear coverage in Pernambuco was satisfactory, but insufficient to impact the epidemiological profile of cervical cancer. It is necessary to strengthen and upgrade health promotion activities in order to reduce the inequalities and encourage women's active participation in cervical cancer prevention.

Kamila Matos de, Albuquerque; Paulo Germano, Frias; Carla Lourenço Tavares de, Andrade; Estela M. L., Aquino; Greice, Menezes; Célia Landmann, Szwarcwald.

129

Cobertura do teste de Papanicolaou e fatores associados à não-realização: um olhar sobre o Programa de Prevenção do Câncer do Colo do Útero em Pernambuco, Brasil / Pap smear coverage and factors associated with non-participation in cervical cancer screening: an analysis of the Cervical Cancer Prevention Program in Pernambuco State, Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Buscou-se avaliar a cobertura do teste Papanicolaou no Estado de Pernambuco, Brasil, nos três anos anteriores à pesquisa, entre mulheres de 18-69 anos, e identificar fatores associados à sua não-realização. Trata-se de um estudo transversal, de base populacional, utilizando-se dados de inquérito rea [...] lizado no período 2005-2006 com 640 indivíduos, selecionados por amostragem por conglomerados em três estágios de seleção. Foram analisadas informações sobre 258 mulheres. A cobertura do Papanicolaou entre mulheres de 18-69 anos foi de 58,7% e de 25-59 anos de 66,2%. Viver sem companheiro, não ter dado à luz e não ter realizado consulta médica no último ano mostraram associação com a não-realização do teste. Na análise multivariada, o baixo grau de escolaridade mostrou também efeito significativo. A cobertura do Papani-colaou em Pernambuco foi satisfatória, porém insuficiente para impactar no perfil epidemiológico do câncer do colo uterino. É preciso fortalecer e qualificar as ações de promoção da saúde, visando reduzir as desigualdades e estimular o protagonismo das mulheres nas ações de prevenção do câncer do colo uterino. Abstract in english This research aimed to assess coverage of Pap smear screening in the State of Pernambuco, Brazil, during the three years prior to the study, among women 18 to 69 years of age, and to identify factors associated with women's lack of participation in screening. This was a cross-sectional, population-b [...] ased study, using data from a survey in 2005-2006 with 640 women, selected by three-stage cluster sampling. Information on 258 women was analyzed. Pap smear coverage was 58.7% for women 18 to 69 years of age and 66.2% for those 25 to 59. Single marital status, no history of childbirth, and not having consulted a physician in the previous year were associated with lack of Pap smear screening. In the multivariate analysis, low schooling also showed a significant effect. Pap smear coverage in Pernambuco was satisfactory, but insufficient to impact the epidemiological profile of cervical cancer. It is necessary to strengthen and upgrade health promotion activities in order to reduce the inequalities and encourage women's active participation in cervical cancer prevention.

Kamila Matos de, Albuquerque; Paulo Germano, Frias; Carla Lourenço Tavares de, Andrade; Estela M. L., Aquino; Greice, Menezes; Célia Landmann, Szwarcwald.

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Conhecimentos, atitudes e prática do exame de Papanicolaou por mulheres, Nordeste do Brasil / Knowledge, attitudes, and practices related to Pap test by women, Northeastern Brazil / Conocimientos, actitudes y práctica del examen de Papanicolaou en Noreste  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: Analisar conhecimentos, atitudes e práticas das mulheres em relação ao exame citológico de Papanicolaou e a associação entre esses comportamentos e características sociodemográficas MÉTODOS: Inquérito domiciliar com abordagem quantitativa. Foram entrevistadas 267 mulheres com idade de 15 a [...] 69 anos, selecionadas de forma estratificada aleatória, residentes no município de São José do Mipibu, RN, em 2007. Utilizou-se questionário com perguntas pré-codificadas e abertas, cujas respostas foram descritas e analisadas quanto à adequação dos conhecimentos, atitudes e prática das mulheres em relação ao exame preventivo de Papanicolaou. Foram realizados testes de associação entre as características sociodemográficas e os comportamentos estudados, com nível de significância de 5%. RESULTADOS: Apesar de 46,1% das mulheres entrevistadas terem mostrado conhecimento adequado, proporções de adequação significativamente maiores foram observadas em relação às atitudes e prática quanto ao exame: 63,3% e 64,4%, respectivamente. O maior grau de escolaridade apresentou associação com adequação dos conhecimentos, atitudes e prática, enquanto as principais barreiras para a realização do exame relatadas foram descuido, falta de solicitação do exame pelo médico e vergonha. CONCLUSÕES: O médico é a principal fonte de informação sobre o exame de Papanicolau. Entretanto, mulheres que vão a consultas com maior freqüência, embora apresentem prática mais adequada do exame, possuem baixa adequação de conhecimento e atitude frente ao procedimento, sugerindo que não estejam recebendo as informações adequadas sobre o objetivo do exame, suas vantagens e benefícios para sua saúde. Abstract in spanish OBJETIVO: Analizar conocimientos, actitudes y prácticas de las mujeres con relación al examen citológico de Papanicolaou y su asociación entre comportamientos y características sociodemográficas. MÉTODOS: Pesquisa domiciliar con abordaje cuantitativo. Fueron entrevistadas 267 mujeres con edad de 15 [...] a 69 años, seleccionadas de forma estratificada aleatoria, residentes en el municipio de São José do Mipibu, Noreste de Brasil, en 2007. Se utilizó cuestionario con preguntas pre-codificadas y abiertas, cuyas respuestas fueron descritas y analizadas con relación a la adecuación de los conocimientos, actitudes y práctica de las mujeres con relación al examen preventivo de Papanicolaou. Fueron realizadas exámenes de asociación entre las características sociodemográficas y los comportamientos estudiados, con nivel de significancia de 5%. RESULTADOS: A pesar de 46,1% de las mujeres entrevistadas haber mostrado conocimiento adecuado, proporciones de adecuación significativamente mayores fueron observadas con relación a las actitudes y práctica con respecto al examen: 63,3% y 64,4%, respectivamente. El mayor grado de escolaridad presentó asociación con adecuación de los conocimientos, actitudes y práctica, con relación a las principales barreras para la realización del examen relatadas fueron descuido, falta de solicitud del examen por el médico y vergüenza. CONCLUSIONES: El médico es la principal fuente de información sobre el examen de Papanicolaou. Mientras tanto, mujeres que van a consultas con mayor frecuencia, a pesar de presentar práctica más adecuada del examen, poseen baja adecuación del conocimiento y actitud frente al procedimiento, sugiriendo que no están recibiendo las informaciones adecuadas sobre el objetivo del examen, sus ventajas y beneficios para su salud. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To assess the knowledge, attitudes and practices of women related to the Pap test and the association between these behaviors and sociodemographic characteristics. METHODS: A household survey with quantitative approach was conducted. A total of 267 women aged 15 to 69 years, randomly sele [...] cted in a stratified manner, living in the city of São José de Mipibu, Northeast

José Veríssimo, Fernandes; Silvia Helena Lacerda, Rodrigues; Yuri Guilherme Alexandre Silva da, Costa; Luiz Cláudio Moura da, Silva; Alípio Maciel Lima de, Brito; Judson Welber Veríssimo de, Azevedo; Ermeton Duarte do, Nascimento; Paulo Roberto Medeiros de, Azevedo; Thales Allyrio Araújo de Medeiros, Fernandes.

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Conhecimentos, atitudes e prática do exame de Papanicolaou por mulheres, Nordeste do Brasil / Knowledge, attitudes, and practices related to Pap test by women, Northeastern Brazil / Conocimientos, actitudes y práctica del examen de Papanicolaou en Noreste  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: Analisar conhecimentos, atitudes e práticas das mulheres em relação ao exame citológico de Papanicolaou e a associação entre esses comportamentos e características sociodemográficas MÉTODOS: Inquérito domiciliar com abordagem quantitativa. Foram entrevistadas 267 mulheres com idade de 15 a [...] 69 anos, selecionadas de forma estratificada aleatória, residentes no município de São José do Mipibu, RN, em 2007. Utilizou-se questionário com perguntas pré-codificadas e abertas, cujas respostas foram descritas e analisadas quanto à adequação dos conhecimentos, atitudes e prática das mulheres em relação ao exame preventivo de Papanicolaou. Foram realizados testes de associação entre as características sociodemográficas e os comportamentos estudados, com nível de significância de 5%. RESULTADOS: Apesar de 46,1% das mulheres entrevistadas terem mostrado conhecimento adequado, proporções de adequação significativamente maiores foram observadas em relação às atitudes e prática quanto ao exame: 63,3% e 64,4%, respectivamente. O maior grau de escolaridade apresentou associação com adequação dos conhecimentos, atitudes e prática, enquanto as principais barreiras para a realização do exame relatadas foram descuido, falta de solicitação do exame pelo médico e vergonha. CONCLUSÕES: O médico é a principal fonte de informação sobre o exame de Papanicolau. Entretanto, mulheres que vão a consultas com maior freqüência, embora apresentem prática mais adequada do exame, possuem baixa adequação de conhecimento e atitude frente ao procedimento, sugerindo que não estejam recebendo as informações adequadas sobre o objetivo do exame, suas vantagens e benefícios para sua saúde. Abstract in spanish OBJETIVO: Analizar conocimientos, actitudes y prácticas de las mujeres con relación al examen citológico de Papanicolaou y su asociación entre comportamientos y características sociodemográficas. MÉTODOS: Pesquisa domiciliar con abordaje cuantitativo. Fueron entrevistadas 267 mujeres con edad de 15 [...] a 69 años, seleccionadas de forma estratificada aleatoria, residentes en el municipio de São José do Mipibu, Noreste de Brasil, en 2007. Se utilizó cuestionario con preguntas pre-codificadas y abiertas, cuyas respuestas fueron descritas y analizadas con relación a la adecuación de los conocimientos, actitudes y práctica de las mujeres con relación al examen preventivo de Papanicolaou. Fueron realizadas exámenes de asociación entre las características sociodemográficas y los comportamientos estudiados, con nivel de significancia de 5%. RESULTADOS: A pesar de 46,1% de las mujeres entrevistadas haber mostrado conocimiento adecuado, proporciones de adecuación significativamente mayores fueron observadas con relación a las actitudes y práctica con respecto al examen: 63,3% y 64,4%, respectivamente. El mayor grado de escolaridad presentó asociación con adecuación de los conocimientos, actitudes y práctica, con relación a las principales barreras para la realización del examen relatadas fueron descuido, falta de solicitud del examen por el médico y vergüenza. CONCLUSIONES: El médico es la principal fuente de información sobre el examen de Papanicolaou. Mientras tanto, mujeres que van a consultas con mayor frecuencia, a pesar de presentar práctica más adecuada del examen, poseen baja adecuación del conocimiento y actitud frente al procedimiento, sugiriendo que no están recibiendo las informaciones adecuadas sobre el objetivo del examen, sus ventajas y beneficios para su salud. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To assess the knowledge, attitudes and practices of women related to the Pap test and the association between these behaviors and sociodemographic characteristics. METHODS: A household survey with quantitative approach was conducted. A total of 267 women aged 15 to 69 years, randomly sele [...] cted in a stratified manner, living in the city of São José de Mipibu, No

José Veríssimo, Fernandes; Silvia Helena Lacerda, Rodrigues; Yuri Guilherme Alexandre Silva da, Costa; Luiz Cláudio Moura da, Silva; Alípio Maciel Lima de, Brito; Judson Welber Veríssimo de, Azevedo; Ermeton Duarte do, Nascimento; Paulo Roberto Medeiros de, Azevedo; Thales Allyrio Araújo de Medeiros, Fernandes.

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CIEMAT interlaboratories comparison of the results obtained in the proficiency test run by IAEA  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report contains the results obtained by two different laboratories from CIEMAT after participating in the Proficiency Test organised by IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency) in 1999. This test involves the analysis of fly ashes containing natural radionuclides and different amounts of added transuranics. The extraction techniques, counting methods and results obtained are detailed. This type of test are used for the labs to achieve their accreditation and check the reliability of the procedures routinely employed. (Author) 4 refs

133

Pap smear screening in the primary health care setting: A study from Turkey  

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Full Text Available Background: Cervical cancer is one of the ten most frequent cancers in Turkey. It is well known that cervical cancer morbidity and mortality could be significantly reduced with an active cervical smear screening (Pap smear program. Aims: The aims of this study were: 1 to evaluate the knowledge and attitudes of women about cervical smear testing; 2 to establish a cervical smear screening program and to evaluate the cervical cytological abnormalities that were found; 3 to determine the applicability, limitations and effectiveness of this screening in a primary health care unit. Patients and Methods: A total of 332 married women were included in our study. We collected data concerning socio-demographic and fertility characteristics, and knowledge about Pap smear testing was determined through printed questionnaires. A gynecological examination and Pap smear screening was performed on every woman in our study group. Results: Over ninety percent of our study group had never heard of and had not undergone Pap smear screening before. Of the 332 smears evaluated, 328 (98.8% were accepted as normal, whereas epithelial cell anomalies were seen in 4 (1.2%, infection in 59 (17.7%, and reactive cell differences in 223 (67.2% of the smears. Conclusions: The frequency of epithelial cell anomalies in our study group was less than the frequencies reported from Western countries. Knowledge regarding cervical cancer and Pap smear screening was very low. Pap smears can be easily taken and evaluated through a chain built between the primary health care unit and laboratory, and this kind of screening intervention is easily accepted by the population served.

Hande Celik Mehmetoglu

2010-10-01

134

Recency of Pap smear screening: a multivariate model.  

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Most descriptive reports of women who have not received recent Pap smear screening have been limited to bivariate descriptions. The purpose of this study was to develop a multivariate model to predict the recency of Pap smear screening. A systematic sample of women residents, aged 25 to 74 years, in upstate New York was selected. The women were asked to report use of Pap smear screening during several time periods, their congruence with recommended medical practice, general use of medical ser...

Howe, H. L.; Bzduch, H.

1987-01-01

135

Significant pathologic findings in 41 Atypical Glandular Cell pap smears  

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Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between atypical glandular cell (AGC) on Pap smear and significant pathologic finding to tailor management protocols. Methods: Between 2002 and 2005, Among 26893 Pap smears 122 women with AGC Pap smears (prevalence=0.45%) were referred to our colposcopy clinic. Forty one women underwent colposcopy directed biopsy, endocervical curettage, endometrial sampling and cervical conization to determine the cytologic and histologic corr...

Behtash N; Fakhrejahani F; Khafaf A; Ghayouri Azar E

2007-01-01

136

Get Tested for Cervical Cancer  

Science.gov (United States)

... up care. A Pap test (sometimes called a Pap smear) is done in a doctor’s office or clinic. ... age 66 or older, ask your doctor if cervical cancer screening is recommended for you. What happens during a ...

137

Anti-DNA antibodies in the primary antiphospholipid syndrome (PAPS)  

Science.gov (United States)

Primary antiphospholipid syndrome (PAPS) is considered a distinct entity from SLE and patients with PAPS are generally regarded as being dsDNA antibody negative. Levels of IgG and IgM ss and ds DNA antibodies were measured by ELISA in 30 patients who fulfilled the criteria for the diagnosis of PAPS. We compared these patients with 20 normal controls and seven patients with idiopathic SLE. We also examined all the sera for anti-nuclear antibodies by Hep-2 cells and for dsDNA antibodies by Crithidia. We found that 16 patients with PAPS had antibodies to ss and/or dsDNA. Only three of the 16 positive patients had both IgG and IgM anti-DNA antibodies. Twelve patients had anti-nuclear antibodies, but only two were weakly positive for dsDNA antibodies by Crithidia immunofluorescence. Eleven out of 30 patients with PAPS had IgM anti-dsDNA antibodies compared to two out of the seven SLE patients. The PAPS patients with anti-DNA antibodies were clinically indistinguishable from the PAPS patients without antibodies against DNA. Our results show that 53% of patients with PAPS had antibodies to DNA which supports the view that PAPS and SLE are probably overlapping disorders. PMID:8495254

Ehrenstein, M R; Swana, M; Keeling, D; Asherson, R; Hughes, G R; Isenberg, D A

1993-05-01

138

Chest radiographs obtained with shaped filters: evaluation by observer performance tests  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effectiveness of a shaped filter in improving nodule and infiltrate detection was measured by observer performance testing. Seven observers read 152 test radiographs of the chest obtained from human volunteers. Half the test radiographs had target image observer performance in detecting nodule or infiltrate images was compared with the shaped-filter system and with a conventional chest imaging system. The results were analyzed using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) techniques and indicate that the filter technique was not significantly different from the conventional technique in infiltrate depiction. Observer performance in detecting nodules was slightly worse on images obtained with the shaped-filter system

139

Evaluating inhibition of angiogenesis by GST-PAP fusion protein  

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Full Text Available "nBackground: Tumor cells need food and oxygen supply for growth and division. Therefore one of the most promising areas of cancer therapy focuses on using agents that inhibit tumor angiogenesis. Inhibition of angiogenesis prevents cell growth, division and metastasis. Previous studies showed that plasminogen related Protein-B has an anti-tumor activity in mice. This protein has a high level of homology with preactivation Peptide (PAP of human plasminogen. According to this high homology, antiangiogeneic activity of PAP was investigated in an in vitro angiogenesis model. "nMethods: PAP encoding region of human plasminogen gene was isolated by Polymerase Chain Reaction and ?cloned in pGEX-2T vector. This plasmid was expressed in Escherichia coli as a fusion protein (GST-PAP. ?GST-PAP was expressed as inclusion body and purified by affinity chromatography on GSH-sepharose ?resin after refolding. antiangiogenic effects of purified protein were surveyed with Matrigel assay?.?? ? "nResults: The GST-PAP was expressed and purified and its accuracy was confirmed by SDS-PAGE analysis ?and immunoblotting. Microscopic studies showed that GST-PAP inhibited angiogenesis in Matrigel system ?which is shown by shrinking the length of capillary like structures and a decrease in the number of tubule. ?While applying concentarations of 25?g/ml of GST-PAP and concentrations above that, antiangiogenic ?activity of GST-PAP was significant comparing to the controls. ? "nConclusion: Finding shows that GST-PAP can inhibit network formation in Matrigel system. This findings ?support the theory that PAP is a potent angiogenesis inhibitor.?

Sadeghi-Zadeh M

2009-01-01

140

STUDY OF HIGH RISK CASES FOR EARLY DETECTION OF CERVICAL CANCER BY PAP’S SMEAR AND VISUAL INSPECTION BY LUGOL’S IODINE METHOD.  

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Full Text Available INTRODUCTION:Cervical cancer is the commonest genital tract cancer among Indian women. Screening programmes have claimed to reduce incidence and mortality of cervical carcinoma significantly, for which sensitization of women is required through community based approach.OBJECTIVES: Comparison of VILI and cytology by PAP smear for detection of low grade squamous intraepithelial lesion, high grade squamous intraepithelial lesion, carcinoma of cervix and correlation of results with the reference standards(colposcopy and biopsyMATERIAL & METHODS:Study was carried out in 50 women of high risk group, aged 20 to 65 years in the year of May 2008 to May 2010 in our hospital. All women were investigated with colposcopy and biopsy were taken who had abnormal colposcopy.RESULT:Sensitivity, Specificity, Positive predictive value, Negative predictive value of PAP test was 80%, 97%, 80%, 97% respectively, compared with reference standards.Sensitivity, Specificity, Positive predictive value, Negative predictive value of VILI test was 80%, 91.11%,50%,97.6% respectively, compared with reference standards.CONCLUSION:VILI and PAP test can be used effectively for detection of precancerous lesion of cervix at hospital set up as well as community level.

Harshad Ladola

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
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A STUDY ON CERVICAL PAP SMEAR EXAMINATION IN PATIENT LIVING WITH HIV  

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Full Text Available Background: Decline in morbidity & mortality due to cervical cancer in developed countries can be mainly attributed to early detection of precancerous & cancerous lesions due to extensive screening programmeof cervical Pap smear examination. HPV infection is a known etiological agent for cervical cancer. HIV infected women are at higher risk of contracting HPV infection due to immune compromised status. Objective: Present study has been undertaken mainly to detect precancerous & cancerous lesions as well as inflammatory lesions in female patients living with HIV & to emphasize the fact that Pap smear examination should be established as a part of routine protocol for examination in these women. Methods: The study was carried out on 407 HIV infected females attending Integrated Counseling &Testing Centre of government institute. As controls, 200 females (not falling under high risk category, attending the Obstetrics& Gynecology OPD with various gynecological complaints were taken & results were compared. Results: Squamous cell abnormalities were found about four times high as compared to control group(Pvalue <0.05. High incidences of squamous cell abnormalities were noted in patients with high parity (parity three or more. Conlcusion: Regular gynecological examination including Pap smear examinations is highly recommended for HIV infected females.Pap smear examination is a simple, cheap, safe & practical diagnostic tool for early detection of cervical cancer in high risk population. [National J of Med Res 2012; 2(1.000: 81-84

B M Jha

2012-02-01

142

Who is getting Pap smears in urban Peru?  

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Background Cervical cancer, although usually preventable by Pap smear screening, remains the leading cause of cancer-related deaths among women in Peru. The percentages and characteristics of women in Peru who have or have not had a Pap smear have not been defined.

Paz Soldan, Valerie A.; Lee, Frank H.; Carcamo, Cesar; Holmes, King K.; Garnett, Geoff P.; Garcia, Patricia

2008-01-01

143

Comparison of Molecular (PCR and Pap Smear Methods in Diagnosis of Human Papiloma Virus (HPV in Women with Genit al Warts  

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Full Text Available Background and Objective: Much research has shown that Human Papiloma Virus (HPV plays an important role in cervix cancer and it is the cause of 99% of cervix cancer worldwide. Lots of research has been done to find a proper method for HPV diagnosis and screening in patients with genital warts. This study aimed at comparing PCR method with Pap smear test in HPV screening. Material and Methods: Considering the presence of DNA of HPV, 45 vaginal and cervix swap samples of women with genital warts were tested by means of specific PCR and Pap smear from September 2010 to April 2011. Results: Out of 45 vaginal and cervix swap samples of women suffering genital warts, 37 samples (82.2% are positive. Of 45 Pap smear samples, 13 (29% are neoplasia and 32 (71% normal. Conclusion: The difference between the results of PCR and Pap smear is due to low specification and sensitivity of Pap smear. Thus it is recommended using diagnostic PCR method in addition to Pap smear in order to promote the quality of screening in individuals with genital warts. Keywords: Human Papiloma Virus (HPV; Genital Warts; Molecular (PCR; Pap Smear

Bashi zadeh Fakhar, H . (M S c

2013-09-01

144

Summary of results obtained from the testing of reinforced concrete shear walls  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper summarizes the experimental results that have been obtained from the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Seismic Category 1 Structures program over the past eight years. As part of the program, we have been investigating the seismic response of noncontainment Category 1 structures (diesel generator buildings, auxiliary buildings, etc.) subjected to beyond-design-basis seismic events. The low-aspect-ratio (height/length), reinforced concrete shear wall is the primary lateral-load-carrying structural element in noncontainment Category 1 structures. Numerous static, monotonic, and cyclic tests have been performed on these types of structural elements and reported in the open literature. However, these tests have primarily been concerned with the walls' ultimate strength rather than with their dynamic properties, such as stiffness and damping. This program has extended the knowledge of low-aspect-ratio shear walls' dynamic properties by performing simulated seismic shake-table tests on scale-model Category 1 structures and scale-model shear wall elements. Scale models were employed because the enormous size of a prototype structure and the need to test into the nonlinear response region precluded the testing of an actual building. First, the paper briefly reviews the testing performed between FY1982 and FY1986. During this phase of the program, tests were performed almost exclusively on microconcrete scale-model structures. Included in this review is a summary of the types of structural geometries that were investigated and the results obtained concerning stiffness, damping and similitude

145

Effect of test procedure on shear strength obtained using the Newcastle dilatometer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A new dilatometer for in-situ soil testing has been developed which uses a rigid piston to load the soil. The new dilatometer 'called the Newcastle Dilatometer (NDMT)' uses a Hall effect transducer and a magnet system to measure the penetration of the piston during loading of the soil. The pressure required to penetrate the piston is recorded using a pressure transducer. The two transducers together can produce applied pressure-displacement curves for obtaining soil parameters which can be more reliable than those obtained based on just one or two contact pressures values as in the Marchetti dilatometer. Since the NDMT allows more control during in-situ testing, the same was carried out employing two test procedures, 'the stress increment controlled' and 'the constant rate of stress' at a site consisting of firm to stiff clay. This paper presents a comparison of the data obtained from the two test procedures and the effect the test procedure has on the various soil properties, in general and the shear strength, in particular. (author)

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A real time optoelectronic device as an adjunct to the Pap smear for cervical screening: a multicenter evaluation.  

Science.gov (United States)

We report on the results from a multicenter trial for a real time optoelectronic device as an adjunct to the Pap smear for cervical screening. TruScreen (Polartechnics Limited, Sydney, Australia) is an automated device which measures the response to optical and electrical stimulation of the cervix and returns a screening result in real time. Analysis was performed on a group of 651 subjects recruited at 10 centers. Cytology and histology analyses were performed by centralized laboratories, with the cytology classification performed according to the Bethesda 2001 system. The sensitivities for histologically confirmed CIN 2/3 lesions by TruScreen, Pap, and TruScreen/Pap combined were 70% (95% CI: 67-74), 69% (CI: 65-72), and 93% (CI: 91-95), respectively. For histologically reported CIN 1, the sensitivities of the TruScreen, Pap, and combined test were 67% (CI: 63-70), 45% (CI: 41-49), and 87% (CI: 84-89). The improvement in sensitivity for the combined test compared to the Pap smear alone was significant (P = 0.002). Because TruScreen and cytology detect partly different but overlapping groups of CIN cases, the adjunctive combination provides very high CIN detection rates. PMID:14675317

Singer, A; Coppleson, M; Canfell, K; Skladnev, V; Mackellar, G; Pisal, N; Deery, A

2003-01-01

147

Mammography and Pap test screening among low-income foreign-born Hispanic women in the USA Mamografia e teste Papanicolau em mulheres latinas de baixa renda nos Estados Unidos  

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Full Text Available Little is known about the factors influencing screening among low-income Hispanic women particularly among recent immigrants. A sample of 148 low-income, low-literate, foreign-born Hispanic women residing in the Washington DC metropolitan area participated in the study. The mean age of the sample was 46.2 (SD = 11.5, 84% reported annual household incomesEste estudo determinou os fatores que influenciam a conduta de mulheres latinas de baixa renda nos EUA, em face do monitoramento pela mamografia (MM e por meio do teste de Papanicolau (TP, em uma amostra de 148 mulheres latinas, residentes na região metropolitana de Washington DC. A idade média na amostra foi de 46,2 anos (desvio padrão 11,5, e 84% relatavam renda familiar anual menor que quinze mil dólares. Todas as mulheres falavam espanhol e apresentavam níveis reduzidos de aculturação; 96% destas informavam ter realizado TP, mas 24% não relatavam adesão às normas recomendadas de rastreamento. Entre aquelas com quarenta anos ou mais, 62% haviam realizado MM, mas somente 33% de acordo com as normas de rotina. A freqüência de conceitos equivocados sobre o câncer neste grupo de mulheres foi maior que a observada para mulheres latinas em outros estudos. Modelos logísticos multivariados para variáveis correlacionadas à conduta no rastreamento pelo TP e MM indicam que fatores como o medo do teste, vergonha e desconhecimento tiveram influência. Concluiu-se que as mulheres nesse estudo apresentaram menor freqüência de rastreamento por MM que mulheres não latinas, além de apresentarem também níveis mais reduzidos de adesão às normas de rastreamento por TP e MM.

Maria E. Fernandez

1998-01-01

148

Mammography and Pap test screening among low-income foreign-born Hispanic women in the USA / Mamografia e teste Papanicolau em mulheres latinas de baixa renda nos Estados Unidos  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Este estudo determinou os fatores que influenciam a conduta de mulheres latinas de baixa renda nos EUA, em face do monitoramento pela mamografia (MM) e por meio do teste de Papanicolau (TP), em uma amostra de 148 mulheres latinas, residentes na região metropolitana de Washington DC. A idade média na [...] amostra foi de 46,2 anos (desvio padrão 11,5), e 84% relatavam renda familiar anual menor que quinze mil dólares. Todas as mulheres falavam espanhol e apresentavam níveis reduzidos de aculturação; 96% destas informavam ter realizado TP, mas 24% não relatavam adesão às normas recomendadas de rastreamento. Entre aquelas com quarenta anos ou mais, 62% haviam realizado MM, mas somente 33% de acordo com as normas de rotina. A freqüência de conceitos equivocados sobre o câncer neste grupo de mulheres foi maior que a observada para mulheres latinas em outros estudos. Modelos logísticos multivariados para variáveis correlacionadas à conduta no rastreamento pelo TP e MM indicam que fatores como o medo do teste, vergonha e desconhecimento tiveram influência. Concluiu-se que as mulheres nesse estudo apresentaram menor freqüência de rastreamento por MM que mulheres não latinas, além de apresentarem também níveis mais reduzidos de adesão às normas de rastreamento por TP e MM. Abstract in english Little is known about the factors influencing screening among low-income Hispanic women particularly among recent immigrants. A sample of 148 low-income, low-literate, foreign-born Hispanic women residing in the Washington DC metropolitan area participated in the study. The mean age of the sample wa [...] s 46.2 (SD = 11.5), 84% reported annual household incomes

Maria E., Fernandez; Guillermo, Tortolero-Luna; Robert S., Gold.

149

Mammography and Pap test screening among low-income foreign-born Hispanic women in the USA / Mamografia e teste Papanicolau em mulheres latinas de baixa renda nos Estados Unidos  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Este estudo determinou os fatores que influenciam a conduta de mulheres latinas de baixa renda nos EUA, em face do monitoramento pela mamografia (MM) e por meio do teste de Papanicolau (TP), em uma amostra de 148 mulheres latinas, residentes na região metropolitana de Washington DC. A idade média na [...] amostra foi de 46,2 anos (desvio padrão 11,5), e 84% relatavam renda familiar anual menor que quinze mil dólares. Todas as mulheres falavam espanhol e apresentavam níveis reduzidos de aculturação; 96% destas informavam ter realizado TP, mas 24% não relatavam adesão às normas recomendadas de rastreamento. Entre aquelas com quarenta anos ou mais, 62% haviam realizado MM, mas somente 33% de acordo com as normas de rotina. A freqüência de conceitos equivocados sobre o câncer neste grupo de mulheres foi maior que a observada para mulheres latinas em outros estudos. Modelos logísticos multivariados para variáveis correlacionadas à conduta no rastreamento pelo TP e MM indicam que fatores como o medo do teste, vergonha e desconhecimento tiveram influência. Concluiu-se que as mulheres nesse estudo apresentaram menor freqüência de rastreamento por MM que mulheres não latinas, além de apresentarem também níveis mais reduzidos de adesão às normas de rastreamento por TP e MM. Abstract in english Little is known about the factors influencing screening among low-income Hispanic women particularly among recent immigrants. A sample of 148 low-income, low-literate, foreign-born Hispanic women residing in the Washington DC metropolitan area participated in the study. The mean age of the sample wa [...] s 46.2 (SD = 11.5), 84% reported annual household incomes

Maria E., Fernandez; Guillermo, Tortolero-Luna; Robert S., Gold.

150

COMPARISON OF MAXIMUM HEART RATE OBTAINED IN TESTS TREADMILL AND FIELD IN HEALTHY MEN  

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Full Text Available CERQUEIRA, M.S. ; PRIMO, P.G. ; FERNANDES, S.A.T. ; MARINS, J.C.B. Comparison of maximum heart rate obtained in tests treadmill and field in healthy men. Brazilian Journal of Biomotricity. v. 6, n. 1, p. 18-24, 2012. The aim of this study were to compare the response of maximum heart rate (MHR to two treadmill protocols (Bruce et al.; Balke and Ware and one of field (2,400 m. of the Cooper. The sample was composed by thirty subjects of masculine gender (22,9 ± 2,45 years old university students. To determine the differences between MHR was chosen for the test of analysis Anova One Way, followed by verification of post-hot Tukey. The results of MHR protocols were Balke and Ware 186.8 ± 7.7 bpm, Bruce et al. 190.9 ± 7.6 bpm, 194.2 ± 8.6 bpm Cooper. The values of the MHR test of Bruce et al. and Cooper showed no statistically significant difference, while the MHR test of Balke and Ware was significantly lower than that of the Cooper test. We conclude that both the Cooper and the protocol of Bruce et al. are adequate to determine the FCM in the sample, while the Balke and Ware test underestimates the FCM, and is not suitable for its determination.

Sílvio Anderson Toledo Fernandes

2012-03-01

151

Testing for HPV  

Science.gov (United States)

... HPV test, what does it mean? Testing for HPV What’s the difference between a Pap test and an HPV test? A Pap test is used to find ... HPV is found. Should I be tested for HPV? If you are a woman under age 30 ...

152

Psychological impact, support and information needs for women with an abnormal Pap smear: comparative results of a questionnaire in three European countries  

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Abstract Background Extensive information on cervical cancer is currently available. Its effectiveness in reducing anxiety in women receiving abnormal Pap tests is not clear. We investigated current practices of communicating abnormal Pap results to evaluate women's reactions and determine the sources of information they use subsequently. Methods A self-administered questionnaire-based study was performed in 1475 women in France, Spain and Portugal who had recei...

Jorge Anna; da Silva Daniel; Cortes Javier; Monsonego Joseph; Klein Patrick

2011-01-01

153

Pap smear screening in the primary health care setting: A study from Turkey  

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Background: Cervical cancer is one of the ten most frequent cancers in Turkey. It is well known that cervical cancer morbidity and mortality could be significantly reduced with an active cervical smear screening (Pap smear) program. Aims: The aims of this study were: 1) to evaluate the knowledge and attitudes of women about cervical smear testing; 2) to establish a cervical smear screening program and to evaluate the cervical cytological abnormalities that were found; 3) to determine the appl...

Hande Celik Mehmetoglu; Ganime Sadikoglu; Alis Ozcakir; Nazan Bilgel

2010-01-01

154

Comparison Between Pap Smear and Via As Screening For Cervical Lesions  

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Introduction: An important reason for higher cervical cancer incidence in developing countries is lack of effectivescreening programs like pap smear, aimed at detecting precancerous conditions before they progress to invasivecancer. The potential difficulties in implementing cervical cytology based screening in low-resource settings haveprompted the investigation of accuracy of alternative low technology tests such as Visual inspection with acetic acidapplication [VIA], Visual inspection with...

Harshini V, Amritha Bhandary

2013-01-01

155

Obtaining Constitutive Relationship for Rate-Dependent Rock in SHPB Tests  

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A large number of tests have recently been conducted with the Split Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB) method to determine the characteristics of rock dynamics. However, it is still impossible to get test results at a perfect constant strain rate from this set-up owing to the rate dependency of rock materials. For instance in most cases, dynamic behavior of rock can only be described with an average strain rate. The results from these methods, including rich strain rate information, frequently tend to be inexplicable or self-contradictory. The obtained stress-strain curves can then never be directly treated as constitutive curves as in static tests. In this paper, the reasons behind the controversial stress-strain results with current methods are analyzed. In addition, the requirement for the rock specimen to deform at a constant strain rate is demonstrated after theoretical analysis of correlations among specimen, deforming stress, incident stress, reflected stress and transmitted stress. With test results from SHPB by pulse shaper and special shape striker methods, the requirement is verified. Finally, the method of 3D scattergram considering stress-strain-strain rate simultaneously is brought up to get constitutive relationships of rate-dependent rock. The new method gives reasonable predictions for constitutive relationships of rock at different strain rates. At the same time, the new method has fewer requirements and has a wider application scope for SHPB tests.

Zhou, Zilong; Li, Xibing; Ye, Zhouyuan; Liu, Kewei

2010-11-01

156

Report of test and research results on atomic energy obtained in national institutes in fiscal 1981  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Since the budget was appropriated in 1954 fiscal year for the first time, many valuable results of research have been obtained regarding the peaceful use of atomic energy, and these have played important role for the promotion of the peaceful use of atomic energy in Japan. In this report, the outline of the test and research results on the peaceful use of atomic energy obtained in national institutes in fiscal 1981 is summarized. The first volume of this report was published in 1961, and this report is Volume 22. With this report, it is hoped to advance the understanding more about the recent trend and the accomplishment of the test and research on atomic energy utilization. 7 reports on nuclear fusion, 11 reports on technological safety, 6 reports on environmental radioactivity safety, 5 reports on food irradiation, 4 reports on the countermeasures against cancer, 31 reports on agriculture, forestry and fishery, 36 reports on medicine, 6 reports on mining and industry, 5 reports on power utilization, 1 report on construction engineering, 3 reports on radioactivation analysis and 1 report on injury prevention by about 60 national institutes are collected. Also the subjects of the test and research carried out in four other institutes are shown. (Kako, I.)

157

Analysis of data obtained in two-phase flow tests of primary heat transport pumps  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report analyzes data obtained in two-phase flow tests of primary heat transport pumps performed during the period 1980-1983. Phenomena which have been known to cause pump-induced flow oscillations in pressurized piping systems under two-phase conditions are reviewed and the data analyzed to determine whether any of the identified phenomena could have been responsible for the instabilities observed in those tests. Tentative explanations for the most severe instabilities are given based on those analyses. It is shown that suction pipe geometry probably plays an important role in promoting instabilities, so additional experiments to investigate the effect of suction pipe geometry on the stability of flow in a closed pipe loop under two-phase conditions are recommended

158

DIAGNOSTIC VALUE OF COLPOSCOPY IN PATIENTS WITH ABNORMAL PAP SMEAR  

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Introduction: In order to reduce invasive cervical cancer, it is necessary to follow presisly the patients with abnormal pap smear. Simply, repeating the cytologic assessment in patints with atypical pap smear will result in missing 26-83 percent of squamous intraepithelial lesions and most alarming 50 percent of invasive cancers. Consi...

Allameh, T.

2001-01-01

159

Report of test and research results on atomic energy obtained in national institutes in fiscal 1985  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As for the test and research on the utilization of atomic energy in national institutes, the budget was appropriated for the first time in fiscal year 1956, and since then, the many valuable results of research have been obtained so far in the diversified fields of nuclear fusion, safety research, the irradiation of foods, medicine and others, thus the test and research accomplished the large role for promoting the utilization of atomic energy in Japan. In this report, the gists of the results of the test and research on the utilization of atomic energy carried out by national institutes in fiscal year 1985 are collected. No.1 of this report was published in 1960, and this is No.26. It is desired to increase the understanding about the recent trend and the results of the test and research on atomic energy utilization with this book. The researches on nuclear fusion, engineering safety and environmental radioactivity safety, the irradiation of foods, the countermeasures against cancer, fertilized soil, the quality improvement of brewing and farm products, the protection of farm products and the improvement of breeding, diagnosis and medical treatment, pharmaceuticals, environmental hygiene, the application to physiology and pathology, radiochemistry, radiation measurement, process analysis, nuclear reactor materials, nuclear powered ships, civil engineering, radioactivation analysis and injury prevention are reported. (Kako, I.)

160

Perception and Experience of Primary Care Physicians on Pap Smear Screening for Women with Intellectual Disabilities: A Preliminary Finding  

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This study aims to establish evidence-based data to explore the perceptions and experience of primary care physicians in the Pap smear screening provision for women with intellectual disabilities (ID), and to analyze the associated factors in the delivery of screening services to women with ID in Taiwan. Data obtained by a cross-sectional survey…

Lin, Jin-Ding; Sung, Chang-Lin; Lin, Lan-Ping; Liu, Ta-Wen; Lin, Pei-Ying; Chen, Li-Mei; Chu, Cordia M.; Wu, Jia-Ling

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
161

Cervix Cancer Diagnosis from Pap Smear Images Using Structure Based Segmentation and Shape Analysis  

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Full Text Available his work presents an approach for analysis of P AP s mear images of cervical region based on cell nuclei distribution and shape and size analysis. PAP smear test is an efficient and easy procedure to detect any abnor mality in cervical cells. But human observation is not always satisfying and it is a tedious task to manually analyze a large number of PAP smear images. The purpose of this study is to automate the screening process and to provide specific statistical data which will be helpful for detecting abnormalities in cervical region. The proposed approach is implemented in MATLAB®, a high level, interactive environment for data visualization/analysis/computation. The MATLAB® Image Processing Toolbox was used to segment the digital images and calculate various statistical data. By comparing cell nuclei distribution and taking into account the shape and size features MATLAB® can be programmed to distinguish normal cervical cell to questionable ones.

Lipi B. Mahanta

2012-02-01

162

Cervical cancer screening in primary health care setting in Sudan: a comparative study of visual inspection with acetic acid and Pap smear  

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Full Text Available Ahmed Ibrahim1, Arja R Aro1, Vibeke Rasch2, Eero Pukkala3,41Unit for Health Promotion Research, University of Southern Denmark, Esbjerg, Denmark; 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Odense University Hospital, Odense, Denmark; 3Finnish Cancer Registry, Institute for Statistical and Epidemiological Cancer Research, Helsinki, Finland; 4School of Public Health, University of Tampere, Tampere, FinlandObjective: To determine the feasibility of visual inspection with the use of acetic acid (VIA as a screening method for cervical cancer, an alternative to the Pap smear used in primary health care setting in Sudan, and to compare sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, and histological diagnosis of positive cases of both tests.Methods: A cross-sectional study of 934 asymptomatic women living in Khartoum, Sudan, was conducted during 2009–2010. A semi-structured questionnaire containing socio-economic and reproductive variables was used to collect data from each participant. Methods of screening used were VIA and conventional Pap smear, followed by colposcopy and biopsy for confirmation of the positive results of both screening tests.Results: The tests identified altogether 119 (12.7% positive women. VIA detected significantly more positive women than Pap smear (7.6% versus 5.1%; P = 0.004, with an overlap between the two screening tests in 19% of positive results. There was no significant difference between VIA and Pap smear findings and sociodemographic and reproductive factors among screened women. Use of colposcopy and biopsy for positive women confirmed that 88/119 (73.9% were positive for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. VIA had higher sensitivity than Pap smear (74.2% versus 72.9%; P = 0.05 respectively. Out of 88 confirmed positive cases, 22 (25.0% cases were invasive cervical cancer in stage 1, of which 19 versus three were detected by VIA and Pap smear respectively (P = 0.001. VIA had higher sensitivity and lower specificity than Pap smear (60.2% versus 47.7% and (41.9% versus 83.8% respectively. The combination of VIA/Pap has better sensitivity and specificity than each independent test (82.6% and 92.2%.Conclusion: The findings of this study showed that VIA has higher sensitivity and lower specificity compared to Pap smear, but a combination of both tests has greater sensitivity and specificity than each test independently. It indicates that VIA is useful for screening of cervical cancer in the primary health care setting in Sudan, but positive results need to be confirmed by colposcopy and biopsy.Keywords: cervical, cancer, screening, VIA, Pap smear, colposcopy, sensitivity, specificity, predictive value, primary health care setting

Ibrahim A

2012-02-01

163

Rate of Opportunistic Pap Smear Screening and Patterns of Epithelial Cell Abnormalities in Pap Smears in Ajman, United Arab Emirates  

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Objectives: The aim of this study was to estimate the proportion of women undergoing Papanicolaou (Pap) smear examinations, and the frequency of epithelial cell abnormalities in a teaching hospital in one emirate of the United Arab Emirates (UAE) during a three-year period. Methods: A retrospective study of 602 patient records from July 2007 to July 2010 was done in a teaching hospital in Ajman, UAE. The variables studied were age, ethnicity, menopausal status, and abnormalities in the Pap sm...

Shaik, Rizwana B.; Al Eyd, Ghaith J.

2012-01-01

164

Molecular testing of human papillomavirus in cervical specimens  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective was to improve the diagnosis of cervical neoplasia by early detection of human papillomavirus (HPV) in uterine cervix, by adding molecular testing of HPV using hybrid capture 2 (HC2) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) tests to Papanicoalou (Pap) test. One hundred women were enrolled in this study. The mean age (mean+-SD) was 41.97+- 8.76 years and range was 27-65 years. All women had undergone cervical cytological screening with cervical cytology, HPV DNA testing by HC2 and PCR, during the period from January to December 2006, at King Abdul-Aziz University Hospital (KAAUH) and King Fahd research Center, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. The results were obtained by HC2 for detection of HPV were 5(5%) high-risk HPV, one low-risk HPV (1%) and 94(94%) negative cases. The PCR detected only 4(4%) cases. Using the HC2 test as a reference, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive, negative predictive values and accuracy of base line Pap were 50, 85, 17.7, 96.4 and 83%; of final Pap smear were 100, 96.8, 66.7, 100, and 97% and for PCR were 66.7, 100, 100, 97.9 and 98%. The Pap test was repeated within a year for patients with abnormal Pap test with positive HPV DNA. Combined screening by cytology and HPV testing using both HC2 and PCR sensitively detects women with existing disease. The absence of HPV DNA provides reassurance that patients are unlikely to develop cancer for several years. We suggest using Pap with HC2 and PCR in screening programs to ensure that women witcreening programs to ensure that women with the double negative result at baseline might safely be screened at longer intervals. (author)

165

Incontinência urinária em mulheres que buscam exame preventivo de câncer de colo uterino: fatores sociodemográficos e comportamentais / Urinary incontinence in women undergoing Pap smear test: socio-demographic and behavioral factors / Incontinencia urinaria en mujeres que solicitan un examen preventivo de cáncer de cuello uterino: factores socio-demográficos y de comportamiento  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este estudo transversal objetivou investigar a associação entre, de um lado, fatores sociodemográficos e comportamentais e, de outro, a presença de incontinência urinária referida em 784 mulheres que buscam exame preventivo de câncer de colo uterino na Grande Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brasil. F [...] oram obtidos dados sociodemográficos, estado de saúde, atividade física, constipação e índice de massa corporal, sendo utilizado o International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire-SF. A prevalência de incontinência urinária foi de 30,7% (16,5% perdiam urina uma vez por semana ou menos e 23,8% em pequena quantidade). Na regressão de Poisson bruta, estiveram associados à incontinência urinária os seguintes fatores: baixa escolaridade, renda por pessoa da família até um salário mínimo, etnia não caucasiana, excesso de peso corporal, pior autoavaliação do estado de saúde, constipação e idade. Após ajuste, seguindo modelo hierarquizado, permaneceram associados: escolaridade, etnia, estado de saúde e idade. A alta prevalência de incontinência urinária em mulheres que buscam exame de rastreamento do câncer de colo uterino justifica abordagens preventivas nesses espaços de atuação. Abstract in spanish Este estudio transversal tuvo como objetivo investigar la asociación entre factores socio-demográficos y de comportamiento con la presencia de incontinencia urinaria, informada por 784 mujeres que solicitaron un examen preventivo de cáncer de cuello uterino en el área metropolitana de Florianópolis, [...] Santa Catarina, Brasil. Se obtuvieron datos socio-demográficos, estado de salud, actividad física, estreñimiento e índice de masa corporal, utilizándose el International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire-SF. La prevalencia de incontinencia urinaria fue de un 30,7% (16,5% perdían orina una vez por semana o menos y un 23,8% en pequeña cantidad). En la regresión de Poisson bruta se asoció a la incontinencia urinaria: la baja escolaridad; renta por persona de la familia de hasta un salario mínimo; etnia no caucásica; exceso de peso corporal; peor autoevaluación de estado de salud; estreñimiento y edad. Tras los ajustes, siguiendo un modelo jerarquizado, permanecieron asociados: escolaridad; etnia; estado de salud y edad. La alta prevalencia de incontinencia urinaria de mujeres que solicitaron un examen de indicios de cáncer de cuello uterino justifica aproximaciones preventivas en esos espacios. Abstract in english This cross-sectional study aimed to investigate the association between socio-demographic and behavioral factors and the presence of self-reported urinary incontinence in 784 women undergoing cervical cancer screening in Greater Florianópolis, Santa Catarina State, Brazil. Socio-demographic data, he [...] alth status, physical activity, constipation, and body mass index were obtained, and the International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire-SF was used. Prevalence of urinary incontinence was 30.7% (16.5% reported leakage once a week or less and 23.8% losses in small volumes). Poisson univariate regression showed the following factors associated with urinary incontinence: lower education, lower income, non-white skin color, overweight, worse health status, constipation, and older age. After adjustment, according to a hierarchical model, schooling, ethnicity, health status, and age remained significantly associated. The high prevalence of urinary incontinence in women seeking Pap smear tests justifies preventive approaches in these areas of intervention.

Cinara, Sacomori; Nubia Berenice, Negri; Fernando Luiz, Cardoso.

166

Incontinência urinária em mulheres que buscam exame preventivo de câncer de colo uterino: fatores sociodemográficos e comportamentais / Urinary incontinence in women undergoing Pap smear test: socio-demographic and behavioral factors / Incontinencia urinaria en mujeres que solicitan un examen preventivo de cáncer de cuello uterino: factores socio-demográficos y de comportamiento  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este estudo transversal objetivou investigar a associação entre, de um lado, fatores sociodemográficos e comportamentais e, de outro, a presença de incontinência urinária referida em 784 mulheres que buscam exame preventivo de câncer de colo uterino na Grande Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brasil. F [...] oram obtidos dados sociodemográficos, estado de saúde, atividade física, constipação e índice de massa corporal, sendo utilizado o International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire-SF. A prevalência de incontinência urinária foi de 30,7% (16,5% perdiam urina uma vez por semana ou menos e 23,8% em pequena quantidade). Na regressão de Poisson bruta, estiveram associados à incontinência urinária os seguintes fatores: baixa escolaridade, renda por pessoa da família até um salário mínimo, etnia não caucasiana, excesso de peso corporal, pior autoavaliação do estado de saúde, constipação e idade. Após ajuste, seguindo modelo hierarquizado, permaneceram associados: escolaridade, etnia, estado de saúde e idade. A alta prevalência de incontinência urinária em mulheres que buscam exame de rastreamento do câncer de colo uterino justifica abordagens preventivas nesses espaços de atuação. Abstract in spanish Este estudio transversal tuvo como objetivo investigar la asociación entre factores socio-demográficos y de comportamiento con la presencia de incontinencia urinaria, informada por 784 mujeres que solicitaron un examen preventivo de cáncer de cuello uterino en el área metropolitana de Florianópolis, [...] Santa Catarina, Brasil. Se obtuvieron datos socio-demográficos, estado de salud, actividad física, estreñimiento e índice de masa corporal, utilizándose el International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire-SF. La prevalencia de incontinencia urinaria fue de un 30,7% (16,5% perdían orina una vez por semana o menos y un 23,8% en pequeña cantidad). En la regresión de Poisson bruta se asoció a la incontinencia urinaria: la baja escolaridad; renta por persona de la familia de hasta un salario mínimo; etnia no caucásica; exceso de peso corporal; peor autoevaluación de estado de salud; estreñimiento y edad. Tras los ajustes, siguiendo un modelo jerarquizado, permanecieron asociados: escolaridad; etnia; estado de salud y edad. La alta prevalencia de incontinencia urinaria de mujeres que solicitaron un examen de indicios de cáncer de cuello uterino justifica aproximaciones preventivas en esos espacios. Abstract in english This cross-sectional study aimed to investigate the association between socio-demographic and behavioral factors and the presence of self-reported urinary incontinence in 784 women undergoing cervical cancer screening in Greater Florianópolis, Santa Catarina State, Brazil. Socio-demographic data, he [...] alth status, physical activity, constipation, and body mass index were obtained, and the International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire-SF was used. Prevalence of urinary incontinence was 30.7% (16.5% reported leakage once a week or less and 23.8% losses in small volumes). Poisson univariate regression showed the following factors associated with urinary incontinence: lower education, lower income, non-white skin color, overweight, worse health status, constipation, and older age. After adjustment, according to a hierarchical model, schooling, ethnicity, health status, and age remained significantly associated. The high prevalence of urinary incontinence in women seeking Pap smear tests justifies preventive approaches in these areas of intervention.

Cinara, Sacomori; Nubia Berenice, Negri; Fernando Luiz, Cardoso.

167

14 CFR 61.307 - What tests do I have to take to obtain a sport pilot certificate?  

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...What tests do I have to take to obtain a sport pilot certificate? 61.307 Section...FLIGHT INSTRUCTORS, AND GROUND INSTRUCTORS Sport Pilots § 61.307 What tests do I have to take to obtain a sport pilot certificate? To obtain a...

2010-01-01

168

Evaluation and significance of hyperchromatic crowded groups (HCG in liquid-based paps  

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Full Text Available Abstract Objective Hyperchromatic crowded groups (HCG, a term first introduced into the cytology literature by DeMay in 1995, are commonly observed in Pap tests and may rarely be associated with serious but difficult to interpret lesions. In this study, we specifically defined HCG as dark crowded cell groups with more than 15 cells which can be identified at 10× screening magnification. Methods We evaluated consecutive liquid-based (Surepath Pap tests from 601 women (age 17–74 years, mean age 29.4 yrs and observed HCG in 477 cases. In all 477 HCG cases, Pap tests were found to be satisfactory and to contain an endocervical sample. HCG were easily detectible at 10× screening magnification (size up to 400 um, mean 239.5 um and ranged from 1 to 50 (mean 19.5 per Pap slide. Results HCG predominantly represented 3-Dimensional groups of endocervical cells with some nuclear overlap (379/477 – 79%, reactive endocervical cells with relatively prominent nucleoli and some nuclear crowding (29/477 – 6%, clusters of inflammatory cells (25/477 – 5.2%, parabasal cells (22/477 – 4.6%, endometrial cells (1/477 – 0.2%. Epithelial cell abnormalities (ECA were present in only 21 of 477 cases (4.6%. 18 of 21 women with HCG-associated ECA were less than 40 years old; only 3 were =/> 40 years. HCG-associated final abnormal Pap test interpretations were as follows: ASCUS (6/21 – 28%, LSIL (12/21 – 57%, ASC-H (2/21 – 9.5%, and HSIL/CIN2-3 (3/21 – 14%. The association of HCG with ECA was statistically significant (p = 0.0174. chi-square test. In patients with ECA, biopsy results were available in 10 cases, and 4 cases of biopsy-proven CIN2/3 were detected. Among these four cases, HCG in the Pap tests, in retrospect represented the lesional high grade cells in three cases (one HSIL case and two ASC-H cases. Interestingly, none of the 124 cases without HCG were found to have an epithelial cell abnormality. Conclusion We conclude: a. HCG are observed in a high proportion of cervical smears. b. In the vast majority of cases, HCG are benign. c. ECA were only observed in cases with HCG. This observation is consistent with the hypothesis that the presence of HCG in Pap tests most often represents adequate sampling of the transformation zone, thus increasing the chances of detecting an epithelial cell abnormality. d. Only a few cases with HCG were associated with a serious ECA, but careful scrutiny of all HCG appears warranted to avoid the potential diagnostic pitfall of a significant false negative interpretation.

Chivukula Mamatha

2007-01-01

169

Significant pathologic findings in 41 Atypical Glandular Cell pap smears  

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Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between atypical glandular cell (AGC on Pap smear and significant pathologic finding to tailor management protocols. Methods: Between 2002 and 2005, Among 26893 Pap smears 122 women with AGC Pap smears (prevalence=0.45% were referred to our colposcopy clinic. Forty one women underwent colposcopy directed biopsy, endocervical curettage, endometrial sampling and cervical conization to determine the cytologic and histologic correlations of AGC on pap smears. Results: A total of 122 women with AGC Pap smear were found. Only 41 women accepted to participate in the study and followed the workup procedures. The mean age of the patients was 46.92 ±11.48 years (range, 23-80 years. Of these patients 13 patients (31.7% were post menopause and 28 patients (68.2% were in reproductive age. We found 13 (31.7% significant pathologic findings including 4 (9.7% high grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HG-SIL, 3(7.3% low grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LG-SIL, 2(4.8% Endometrial hyperplasia, 1(2.4% Endometrial adenocarci-noma, 1(2.4% adenocarcinoma of cervix, 1(2.4% squamous cell carcinoma of cervix and 1(2.4% papillary serous tumor of ovary. There was not any significant difference in the prevalence of significant pathologic findings and subtype of squamous or adenomatous lesions between pre and postmenopausal group. Conclusion: AGC on Pap smear was associated with a clinically significant diagnosis in approximately one third of our cases. The women with a diagnosis of AGC on cervicovaginal smear are needed to be evaluated at least with colposcopy, endocervical and endometrial curettage. Clinicians should be careful about the significance of AGC in pap smears.

Behtash N

2007-07-01

170

The Costs of an Outreach Intervention for Low-Income Women With Abnormal Pap Smears  

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Full Text Available IntroductionFollow-up among women who have had an abnormal Papanicolaou (Pap smear is often poor in public hospitals that serve women at increased risk for cervical cancer. This randomized controlled trial evaluated and compared the total cost and cost per follow-up of a tailored outreach intervention plus usual care with the total cost and cost per follow-up of usual care alone.MethodsWomen with an abnormal Pap smear (n = 348 receiving care at Alameda County Medical Center (Alameda County, California were randomized to intervention or usual care. The intervention used trained community health advisors to complement the clinic’s protocol for usual care. We assessed the costs of the intervention and the cost per follow-up within 6 months of the abnormal Pap smear test result.ResultsThe intervention increased the rate of 6-month follow-up by 29 percentage points, and the incremental cost per follow-up was $959 (2005 dollars. The cost per follow-up varied by the severity of the abnormality. The cost per follow-up for the most severe abnormality (high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion was $681, while the cost per follow-up for less severe abnormalities was higher.ConclusionIn a health care system in which many women fail to get follow-up care for an abnormal Pap smear, outreach workers were more effective than usual care (mail or telephone reminders at increasing follow-up rates. The results suggest that outreach workers should manage their effort based on the degree of abnormality; most effort should be placed on women with the most severe abnormality (high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion.

Todd H. Wagner, PhD

2007-01-01

171

Discrimination of different processed animal proteins (PAPs by FT-IR spectroscopy based on their fat characteristics  

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Full Text Available This study was undertaken to explore the potential of FT-IR technique for discriminating different species of processed animal proteins (PAPs based on their fat characteristics. A total of 47 source-reliable PAPs samples containing fish meal, porcine, bovine, ovine and poultry meat and bone meal (MBM were involved in the present study. The results obtained showed that the FT-IR differentiated quite well between the fat derived from different species of PAPs, especially at the bands of 3,006 cm-1 and 722 cm-1. Results provided evidence that FT-IR differentiated the fat derived from fish meal, terrestrial non-ruminant and ruminant MBM quite well. Fish meal and ruminant MBM samples could be discriminated effectively by both the sensitivity and specificity values which were 1.00 and 1.00, respectively. For non-ruminant MBM samples, the sensitivity and specificity were 1.00 and 0.96, respectively. However, it was hard to distinguish bovine MBM from ovine ones as well as porcine MBM from poultry ones. The result makes it possible to allow FT-IR analytical methodology as a preliminary study for the exploitation of a rapid and reliable way for the identification of the animal origin of PAPs used in feeding stuffs.

Pu, Q.

2014-01-01

172

Experience obtained by ultrasonic testing of austenitic pipeline welds and bimetallic welds  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

According to the technical codes and regulations, the nondestructive testing of narrow-gap welds of approx. 85 mm in thickness, of the austenitic main coolant pipes of a foreign nuclear power plant, has to be done by industrial radiography and the following tests: complete ultrasonic testing for longitudinal defects using 2 incident angles, (15 degrees difference) with a testing sensitivity KSR of 2 mm; tandem test for longitudinal defects with a testing sensitivity KSR of 4 mm. For the testing of the seams, the LLT method (with two probes in an equipment) was applied from both seam sides for detection of two-dimensional reflectors in the almost perpendicular seam edges. The emitter used is a 10 EL 3-probe, and the receiver is a 57 ET 3-probe (adjustable for the necessary depth regions). (orig./HP)

173

Gambaran Pengetahuan Ibu Mengenai Pemeriksaan Pap Smear Di Kelurahan Petisah Tengah Tahun 2009  

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Pap smear merupakan salah satu jenis pemeriksaan skrining dalam mendeteksi dini kanker serviks yang efektif, sederhana, dan murah. Di negera-negara maju, Pap smear telah terbukti menurunkan kejadian kanker serviks invasif sebesar 46-76% dan mortalitas kanker serviks sebesar 50-60%. Namun, di Indonesia tercatat hanya 5% penduduk wanita Indonesia yang melakukan pemeriksaan Pap smear secara rutin. Hal ini mungkin disebabkan oleh kurangnya pengetahuan masyarakat mengenai Pap smear. Tujuan pene...

Octavia, Chintami

2009-01-01

174

Collection of Cervical Secretions Does Not Adversely Affect Pap Smears Taken Immediately Afterward  

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Collection of cervical secretions for local immunological assessment requires that the secretions be collected prior to the Pap smear to avoid contamination with blood. The objective of the present study was to determine whether gentle collection of cervical secretions prior to a Pap smear collection influences the quality of the Pap smear. A total of 266 women were recruited. Half of the participants were assigned to collection of cervical secretions prior to Pap smear collection with Weck-c...

Hildesheim, Allan; Bratti, M. Concepcion; Edwards, Robert P.; Schiffman, Mark; Rodriguez, Ana C.; Herrero, Rolando; Alfaro, Mario; Morera, Lidia A.; Ermatinger, Susan V.; Miller, Barbara T.; Crowley-nowick, Peggy A.

1998-01-01

175

Genetic tests obtainable through pharmacies: the good, the bad, and the ugly.  

Science.gov (United States)

Genomic medicine seeks to exploit an individual's genomic information in the context of guiding the clinical decision-making process. In the post-genomic era, a range of novel molecular genetic testing methodologies have emerged, allowing the genetic testing industry to grow at a very rapid pace. As a consequence, a considerable number of different private diagnostic testing laboratories now provide a wide variety of genetic testing services, often employing a direct-to-consumer (DTC) business model to identify mutations underlying (or associated with) common Mendelian disorders, to individualize drug response, to attempt to determine an individual's risk of a multitude of complex (multifactorial) diseases, or even to determine a person's identity. Recently, we have noted a novel trend in the provision of private molecular genetic testing services, namely saliva and buccal swab collection kits (for deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) isolation) being offered for sale over the counter by pharmacies. This situation is somewhat different from the standard DTC genetic testing model, since pharmacists are healthcare professionals who are supposedly qualified to give appropriate advice to their clients. There are, however, a number of issues to be addressed in relation to the marketing of DNA collection kits for genetic testing through pharmacies, namely a requirement for regulatory clearance, the comparative lack of appropriate genetics education of the healthcare professionals involved, and most importantly, the lack of awareness on the part of both the patients and the general public with respect to the potential benefits or otherwise of the various types of genetic test offered, which may result in confusion as to which test could be beneficial in their own particular case. We believe that some form of genetic counseling should ideally be integrated into, and made inseparable from, the genetic testing process, while pharmacists should be obliged to receive some basic training about the genetic tests that they offer for sale. PMID:23835256

Patrinos, George P; Baker, Darrol J; Al-Mulla, Fahd; Vasiliou, Vasilis; Cooper, David N

2013-01-01

176

Missed Opportunities for Health Education on Pap Smears in Peru  

Science.gov (United States)

Despite cervical cancer being one of the leading causes of cancer-related deaths among women in Peru, cervical Pap smear coverage is low. This article uses findings from 185 direct clinician observations in four cities of Peru (representing the capital and each of the three main geographic regions of the country) to assess missed opportunities for…

Bayer, Angela M.; Nussbaum, Lauren; Cabrera, Lilia; Paz-Soldan, Valerie A.

2011-01-01

177

Susceptibility to levofloxacin predicted from in vitro susceptibility testing results obtained with ciprofloxacin and with ofloxacin.  

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A test battery of bacterial strains with a high incidence of resistance to fluoroquinolones was studied to determine the extent to which susceptibility to levofloxacin could be predicted from susceptibility tests performed with ciprofloxacin or ofloxacin as reagents. Isolates susceptible or intermediately susceptible to ofloxacin (MICs < or = 4 micrograms/ml) may be regarded as susceptible to levofloxacin, with the exception of Enterococcus faecium. Ciprofloxacin-susceptible isolates (MICs < ...

Cormican, M. G.; Jones, R. N.

1995-01-01

178

Early detection of CIN3 and cervical cancer during long-term follow-up using HPV/Pap smear co-testing and risk-adapted follow-up in a locally organised screening programme.  

Science.gov (United States)

We evaluated compliance with human papillomavirus (HPV) testing and risk-adapted patient pathways and monitored changes in high-grade cervical disease during long-term follow-up. Women aged >30 years attending routine screening for cervical cancer were managed according to results from first-round screening tests (cytology and high-risk HPV; Hybrid Capture 2). Between February 2006 and January 2011, 19,795 of 19,947 women agreed to participate, of whom 4,067 proceeded to a second screening round 5 years after recruitment. Predefined endpoints were compliance, grade 3 cervical intraepithelial neoplasia or cancer (CIN3+), new HPV infection, HPV persistence and abnormal smears in round 2. A total of 765 of 19,795 women (3.9%) in round 1 and 41 of 4,067 (1.0%) in round 2 were referred for colposcopy. Compliance rates with colposcopy were 93.1 and 92.7%, respectively, while histological assessment was performed in 680 of 712 (95.5%) and 36 of 38 (94.7%), respectively. CIN3+ rates were 172 of 19,795 (0.87%; 95% confidence intervals: 0.7-1.0) in round 1 and 2 of 4,064 (0.05%; 95% confidence intervals: 0.006-0.2) in round 2; the difference was statistically significant (Fisher's exact test, p<0.001). After 5 years, the incidence of new HPV infection was 124 of 3,906 (3.2%) and HPV persistence was observed in 22 of 161 (13.7%). Locally organised HPV/cytology co-testing is feasible and acceptable to women. Risk-adapted management rapidly detected a high rate of prevalent CIN3+, while the subsequent long-term risk of new high-grade cervical disease was surprisingly low. It remains unclear if this phenomenon is explained by CIN3 mostly occurring early in life or by modifying the natural course of HPV infection with colposcopy and histological assessment. PMID:24519782

Luyten, Alexander; Buttmann-Schweiger, Nina; Luyten, Katrin; Mauritz, Claudia; Reinecke-Lüthge, Axel; Pietralla, Martina; Meijer, Chris J L M; Petry, Karl Ulrich

2014-09-15

179

Women who take pap smear in Fortaleza - social and sexual characterization.   

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Full Text Available

Considering the epidemiological relevance and the mortality of Uterine Cervix Cancer, the aim of this study is know the gynecological profile of women who take Pap smear in a basic unit of a metropolitan area. This is an exploratory study, with quantitative approach and traversal outlining which took place in a Center of Natural Childbirth with 72 women. The data was collected during the women’s appointment and the through analysis of the charts. It was found that most women had up to 40 years of age (42; 58,5%, with low education degree (44; 61,1%, married (39; 54,2%, with menarche from 10 to 13 years (36; 50% and first sexual relation between 12 and 19 years (46; 63,9%. It was also found that some did not  use contraceptive method (30; 41,7%, maintained vaginal only sexual relations (39; 54,1% and did the Pap smear test annually (38; 53%. Its was observed a good adhesion to the Pap smear test by the women, even though not obeying a regular periodicity. These particular studies are of great importance, because it pounts out characteristics that interfere in the woman's health and make it possible for the health professionals to recognize what needs to be improved, together with the satisfactory characteristics in the development of these women's health.

Camila Félix Américo

2009-12-01

180

Analysis of results obtained from field tracing test under artificial rainfall condition  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The field tracing test and the laboratory experiments by column and batch method had been performed, to evaluate migratory mobilities of 60Co, 85Sr and 134Cs in loess medium. The field test supplied dynamic information on the radionuclide migration, while the laboratory experiments made possible to select more accurate sorption model taking into deep consideration of interaction mechanisms between the loess and the radionuclides. The 85Sr migration was well described by the equilibrium sorption model using distribution coefficient. The 60Co and 134Cs migration could be explained by the hybrid non-equilibrium sorption model, assuming a reversible sorption, an irreversible fixation and a filtration. (7 figs., 1 tab.)

 
 
 
 
181

Investigating discrimination model of the signals obtained by eddy current testing  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A software using an eddy current system controlled by a desk computer has been developed in order to separate a characteristic physical value among several parts. The numerical process involved uses multiparameter measurements done previously on significant parts belonging to the same class. The analysis presented deals with hardness testing of steel bolts in relation with heat-treatment, but other applications dealing with either micro structure check or defect investigation, could be done in the future by using a similar method

182

Report of test and research results on atomic energy obtained in national institutes in fiscal 1987  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The test and research regarding the utilization of atomic energy carried out in national institutions have produced many valuable results in diverse fields so far, such as nuclear fusion, safety research, food irradiation and medicine, since the budget had been appropriated for the first time in 1956. It has accomplished large role in the promotion of atomic energy utilization in Japan. This report is volume 28, in which the results of the test and research on atomic energy utilization carried out by national institutions in fiscal year 1987 are summarized. It is hoped that the understanding about the recent trend and the results of the test and research on atomic energy utilization is further promoted by this report. The contents of this report are nuclear fusion; the research on engineering safety and environmental radioactivity safety; food irradiation; the countermeasures against cancer; fertilized soil, the improvement of quality, the protection of plants and the improvement of breeding in agriculture and fishery fields; diagnosis and medical treatment, pharmaceuticals, environmental hygiene and the application to physiology and pathology in medical field; radiation measurement and process analysis in mining and industry fields; nuclear reactor materials and nuclear-powered ships; civil engineering; radioactivation analysis; the research on the prevention of injuries; and the basic researches on materials and acessment and reduction of irradiation risk. (J.P.N.)

183

Report of test and research results on atomic energy obtained in national institutes in fiscal 1989  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The test and research on atomic energy utilization in national institutions were begun in 1956, and valuable results have been produced in the fields of nuclear fusion, safety research, food irradiation, medicine and others, thus those have accomplished great roles for the promotion of atomic energy utilization in Japan. Atomic energy technology synthesizes various advanced technologies over wide technical domains, therefore at the time of its research and development, it is important to place emphasis on the creative and innovative regions which cause large technical innovation and in which the effect spreading to general science and technology can be expected. In addition to the test and research according to such recognition, also the basic technology of atomic energy field has been studied. At present foreign countries request Japan to contribute to the development of the world by creating the new technology and knowledge on atomic energy, and national institutions must meet the request. This is the report No. 30, in which the results of the test and research in the fields of nuclear fusion, safety research, food irradiation, the countermeasures to cancer, agriculture, forestry and fishery, medicine, mining and industry, power utilization, construction, radioactivation analysis and advanced basic research, carried out in 1989 are summarized. (J.P.N.)

184

Report of test and research results on atomic energy obtained in national institutes in fiscal 1984  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The test and research regarding the utilization of atomic energy carried out in national institutions have produced many valuable results in diverse fields so far, such as nuclear fusion, safety research, food irradiation and medicine, since the budget had been appropriated for the first time in 1956. It has accomplished large role in the promotion of atomic energy utilization in Japan. This report is Volume 25, in which the results of the test and research on atomic energy utilization carried out by national institutions in fiscal year 1984 are summarized. It is hoped that the understanding about the recent trend and the results of the test and research on atomic energy utilization is further promoted by this report. The contents of this report are nuclear fusion; the research on engineering safety and environmental radioactivity safety; food irradiation; the countermeasures against cancer; fertilized soil, the improvement of quality, the protection of plants and the improvement of breeding in agriculture and fishery fields; diagnosis and medical treatment, pharmaceuticals, environmental hygiene and the application to physiology and pathology in medical field; radiation chemistry and radiation measurement in mining and industry fields; nuclear reactor materials and nuclear-powered ships; civil engineering; radioactivation analysis; and the research on the prevention of injuries. (Kako, I.)

185

Automatic cervical cell segmentation and classification in Pap smears.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cervical cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer death in females worldwide. The disease can be cured if the patient is diagnosed in the pre-cancerous lesion stage or earlier. A common physical examination technique widely used in the screening is Papanicolaou test or Pap test. In this research, a method for automatic cervical cancer cell segmentation and classification is proposed. A single-cell image is segmented into nucleus, cytoplasm, and background, using the fuzzy C-means (FCM) clustering technique. Four cell classes in the ERUDIT and LCH datasets, i.e., normal, low grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL), high grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL), and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), are considered. The 2-class problem can be achieved by grouping the last 3 classes as one abnormal class. Whereas, the Herlev dataset consists of 7 cell classes, i.e., superficial squamous, intermediate squamous, columnar, mild dysplasia, moderate dysplasia, severe dysplasia, and carcinoma in situ. These 7 classes can also be grouped to form a 2-class problem. These 3 datasets were tested on 5 classifiers including Bayesian classifier, linear discriminant analysis (LDA), K-nearest neighbor (KNN), artificial neural networks (ANN), and support vector machine (SVM). For the ERUDIT dataset, ANN with 5 nucleus-based features yielded the accuracies of 96.20% and 97.83% on the 4-class and 2-class problems, respectively. For the Herlev dataset, ANN with 9 cell-based features yielded the accuracies of 93.78% and 99.27% for the 7-class and 2-class problems, respectively. For the LCH dataset, ANN with 9 cell-based features yielded the accuracies of 95.00% and 97.00% for the 4-class and 2-class problems, respectively. The segmentation and classification performances of the proposed method were compared with that of the hard C-means clustering and watershed technique. The results show that the proposed automatic approach yields very good performance and is better than its counterparts. PMID:24433758

Chankong, Thanatip; Theera-Umpon, Nipon; Auephanwiriyakul, Sansanee

2014-02-01

186

Advantages obtained in radiation protection when using computerized radiography tests - CR (digital) in processing plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

During the year 2000, the ARCtest initiated the development of the research for adapting the Computerized Radiography - CR, originally conceived for medical applications, for the Industry, trying initially to attend the requirements of the processing plants, concerning to the detection of deterioration mechanisms (evaluation of the piping integrity). Due to the obtained excellent results, the possibility of utilization the Computerized Radiography - CR in the radiographic inspection were studied during the shutdown of the Catalytic Cracking Unit of the PETROBRAS-REPLAN, specifically in the replacement of the CO boiler superheater, where a large number of the small diameter welded joints have been predicted

187

Prevalence of Cervical-Vaginal Infections in the Pap-Smear Samples in Iran  

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Full Text Available Cervical-vaginal infection is one of the most common problems in clinical medicine .We aimed to determine the prevalence of cervical-vaginal infections in pap-smear samples from women in urban and rural areas. Method: It was a cross - sectional study which had done on 1448 non-pregnant women those had attended 12 health centers in the Dashte- Azadegan city during 2007-2011, Iran. After explained the aim of study, all subjects had signed informed consent, questionnaires regarding demographic and reproductive characteristics, and contraceptive methods used were completed by researcher. Also, pap-smear samples were prepared by a trained obstetrician and sent it to the pathology laboratory. All data were analyzed using SPSS (version 19. Descriptive and analytical statistics (chi – square test were also applied. Results: The result showed that 55.9% and 44.1% of subjects were respectively in urban and rural areas. The mean age of women was 28±8.075. Pap smear results had shown that 8.8% of samples were infected with one of microorganisms such as Chlamydia, Candida, Cardnerella, and Trichomonas. A significant association was seen between contraceptive methods, education levels and place of residence with cervical-vaginal infections. Conclusion: The most prevalent pathogens by descending order were: Candida, Trichomonas and Gardenerella. The prevalence of cervical-vaginal infections was consistent with the results of many studies but it was different with the results of some studies. This could be due to the special conditions of social, economic and cultural of each area.

Cheraghi Maria

2013-09-01

188

Mode I Critical Stress Intensity Factor of Medium - Density Fiberboard Obtained by Single-Edge - Notched Bending Test  

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Full Text Available The Mode I critical stress intensity factor (KIc obtained by single-edge-notched bending (SENB tests of medium-density fiberboard (MDF was experimentally analyzed. In the SENB test, the critical load for crack propagation (Pc was determined from the relationship between load/loading-line displacement and load/crack opening displacement (COD. A double cantilever beam (DCB test was also conducted and the results were compared with those of SENB tests. The value of Mode I critical stress intensity factor was obtained by introducing an additional crack length, when the crack length ranged from 0.5 to 0.7 times the depth of the specimen. This range coincided well with that used to derive the appropriate KIc value in the single-edge-notched tension (SENT test, which was conducted using the specimens with a similar confi guration cut from the MDF panel used in this study.

Hiroshi Yoshihara

2014-06-01

189

Pengaruh Karakteristik dan Perilaku Pasangan Usia Subur (PUS) Terhadap Pemeriksaan Pap Smear Di RSUZA Banda Aceh Tahun 2008  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Kanker leher rahim (kanker serviks) adalah tumor ganas yang tumbuh didalam leher rahim/serviks. Di Indonesia, angka kejadian kanker leher rahim diperkirakan sekitar 50 Per 100.000 pendudduk. Untuk mengetahui secara dini kanker serviks adalah melalui pemeriksaan Pap Smear, test ini merupakan pemeriksaan sitologi dengan tingkat sensitivitas menengah (cukup baik) dan relatif murah. Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian survei dengan desain cross sectional study untuk mengetahui p...

Cut Nurhasanah

2008-01-01

190

Report of test and research results on atomic energy obtained in national institutes in fiscal 1992  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The tests and researches on the development and utilization of atomic energy in national laboratories were begun in 1956, and have accomplished the great role for the advance of the development and utilization of atomic energy in Japan by having produced many valuable results so far. Atomic energy has been utilized not only in the field of nuclear power but also in diverse fields, and in national laboratories, the research for expanding the development and utilization of atomic energy in medicine, agriculture, forestry, fishery, radioactivation analysis and others in addition the basic research on nuclear fusion have been advanced. Further expecting the pervasive effect to general science and technology, the development of integrated research are promoted from the viewpoint of new technical innovation and creative technology. The safety research of nuclear facilities have been carried out to keep them high level on the basis of the yearly program enacted by Nuclear Safety Commission. This is the report No. 33, in which the results of the test and research in the fields of nuclear fusion safety research, food irradiation, cancer countermeasures, agriculture, forestry, fishery, medicine, mining and manufacture, power utilization, construction, radioactivation analysis carried on in fiscal 1992 are summarized. (J.P.N.)

191

Report of test and research results on atomic energy obtained in national institutes in fiscal 1990  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The tests and researches on the development and utilization of atomic energy in national laboratories were begun in 1956, and have accomplished the great role for the advance of the development and utilization of atomic energy in Japan by having produced many valuable results so far. Atomic energy has been utilized in diverse fields, and also in national laboratories, the research for expanding the development and utilization of atomic energy in food irradiation, medicine, agriculture, forestry, fishery and others in addition to the basic research on nuclear fusion and safety have been advanced. Further expecting the pervasive effect to general science and technology, the development of basic technology and integrated research are promoted from the viewpoint of new techical innovation and creative technology. This is 31st report in which the results of the tests and researches carried out by national laboratories in fiscal year 1990 are summarized. Nuclear fusion, safety research, food irradiation, cancer countermeasures, agriculture, forestry, fishery, medicine, mining and manufacture, power utilization, construction, radioactivation analysis and so on were the main subjects. (K.I.)

192

How to obtain J-R curve from one test on one sample  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Operational definition of J concept is first examined. Then it is shown that conventional methods of experimental determination of J values are based on the following assumption: if the load-deflexion curve is known for one value of the crack length it is possible to know the load-deflexion curve for any value of the crack length. This assumption is generalized with the help of scale functions and formula giving J are deduced. Attention is given to the effect of crack propagation on J values. The same assumption is used to extract the crack length from the load-deflexion curve. As the real crack lengths are known before propagation occurs and at the end of the test, it is possible to achieve a good calibration of the material characteristic

193

Tingkat Pengetahuan Mahasiswi Fakultas Sastra Universitas Sumatera Utara Angkatan 2008 mengenai Pap Smear sebagai Satu Langkah Deteksi Awal untuk Kanker Serviks  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

For the background, it is found that the cervical cancer incidence rate in Indonesia is still fairly high, around 22.3%. Most cases of cervical cancer (60-80%) was detected at an advanced stage though this cancer can be detected early. One of the early detection is by doing a Pap Smear test. The objective of this study was to assess the students’ level of knowledge about the awareness of Pap Smear as an early detection for cancer cervix. The method used in this study was analytical de...

Tracie Gan Pay Fong

2011-01-01

194

Bend points of hydrogen partial pressure curves obtained by tritium removal simulation tests  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A tritium cleanup system has been developed for exhaust gases containing tritium in various chemical forms. This system is distinguished from conventional procedures in that tritium is removed as tritiated hydrogen molecules. Basically, the system consists of five main components, including a hydrogen separator and a decomposition-processing vessel. A previous study assumed that the gas for processing consisted of hydrogen, methane, and helium, with some proportion of tritiated hydrogen and methane. The performance of this tritium cleanup system was examined using a computer-based simulation. To monitor the removal of tritium from the exhaust gas, the partial pressures of the respective components were examined during processing. The curve for the partial pressure of hydrogen contains two clear bends. In the present study, the correspondence between these bend points and their time width and simulation condition was examined in relation to the hydrogen partial pressure curves obtained under 28 conditions, differing in component proportion and process gas volume. It was found that two bend points moved, depending on the process gas condition, and three patterns appeared for the hydrogen partial pressure curves. A mechanism was proposed for explaining the movement of the bend points and the three patterns

195

Reliability and validity of pendulum test measures of spasticity obtained with the Polhemus tracking system from patients with chronic stroke  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Spasticity is a common impairment accompanying stroke. Spasticity of the quadriceps femoris muscle can be quantified using the pendulum test. The measurement properties of pendular kinematics captured using a magnetic tracking system has not been studied among patients who have experienced a stroke. Therefore, this study describes the test-retest reliability and known groups and convergent validity of the pendulum test measures obtained with the Polhemus tracking system. Methods Eight patients with chronic stroke underwent pendulum tests with their affected and unaffected lower limbs, with and without the addition of a 2.2 kg cuff weight at the ankle, using the Polhemus magnetic tracking system. Also measured bilaterally were knee resting angles, Ashworth scores (grades 0–4 of quadriceps femoris muscles, patellar tendon (knee jerk reflexes (grades 0–4, and isometric knee extension force. Results Three measures obtained from pendular traces of the affected side were reliable (intraclass correlation coefficient ? .844. Known groups validity was confirmed by demonstration of a significant difference in the measurements between sides. Convergent validity was supported by correlations ? .57 between pendulum test measures and other measures reflective of spasticity. Conclusion Pendulum test measures obtained with the Polhemus tracking system from the affected side of patients with stroke have good test-retest reliability and both known groups and convergent validity.

Harrison Steven

2009-07-01

196

Mammography and pap smear use by older rural women.  

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OBJECTIVE. To compare the characteristics of older women who did and did not have screening mammograms and Pap smears during the first two years both services were a Medicare Part B benefit. METHODS. A prospective study was conducted in five rural Pennsylvania counties of 2205 female community-dwelling Medicare Part B beneficiaries who volunteered to participate in a Medicare prevention demonstration project. The baseline health risk appraisal included information on demographics, insurance s...

Ives, D. G.; Lave, J. R.; Traven, N. D.; Schulz, R.; Kuller, L. H.

1996-01-01

197

Association of Pap Smear Abnormalities with Autoimmune Disorders  

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Recently, it is hypothesized that there might be an association between immunological disorders and cervical premalignant and malignant abnormalities. Related studies have been generally focused on some particular autoimmune disease, specially the Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE). This study aimed at comparing the rate of Pap smear abnormalities in female patients with autoimmune diseases and normal counterparts. In a case-control setting, 118 female patients with various autoimmune disease...

Kazem Ghahremanzadeh; Heidarali Esmaeili

2011-01-01

198

Pap smear rates among Haitian immigrant women in eastern Massachusetts.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

OBJECTIVE: Given limited prior evidence of high rates of cervical cancer in Haitian immigrant women in the U.S., this study was designed to examine self-reported Pap smear screening rates for Haitian immigrant women and compare them to rates for women of other ethnicities. METHODS: Multi-ethnic women at least 40 years of age living in neighborhoods with large Haitian immigrant populations in eastern Massachusetts were surveyed in 2000-2002. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were used ...

Green, Eric H.; Freund, Karen M.; Posner, Michael A.; David, Michele M.

2005-01-01

199

Making Sense of Your Pap and HPV Test Results  

Science.gov (United States)

... men and women. Other HPV types can cause genital warts . But the HPV types that can cause genital warts are different from the types that can cause ... can cause cervical cancer; they do not cause genital warts. Partners who have been together for a while ...

200

Using the Climbing Drum Peel (CDP) Test to Obtain a G(sub IC) value for Core/Facesheet Bonds  

Science.gov (United States)

A method of measuring the Mode I fracture toughness of core/facesheet bonds in sandwich Structures is desired, particularly with the widespread use of models that need this data as input. This study examined if a critical strain energy release rate, G(sub IC), can be obtained from the climbing drum peel (CDP) test. The CDP test is relatively simple to perform and does not rely on measuring small crack lengths such as required by the double cantilever beam (DCB) test. Simple energy methods were used to calculate G(sub IC) from CDP test data on composite facesheets bonded to a honeycomb core. Facesheet thicknesses from 2 to 5 plies were tested to examine the upper and lower bounds on facesheet thickness requirements. Results from the study suggest that the CDP test, with certain provisions, can be used to find the GIG value of a core/facesheet bond.

Nettles, A. T.; Gregory, Elizabeth D.; Jackson, Justin R.

2006-01-01

 
 
 
 
201

Bend points of hydrogen partial pressure curves obtained by tritium removal simulation tests  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In previous studies, a conceptual tritium cleanup system was developed to remove tritium in various chemical forms from exhaust gases. This cleanup system differs from conventional ones employed at many facilities where tritium is handled in that tritium is removed as tritiated hydrogen molecules. In conventional systems, the tritium is removed in the form of water vapor. The present system consists of five main components: hydrogen separator, decomposition-processing vessel, hydrogen-absorbing vessel, circular pump, and buffer tank. The decomposition-processing vessel of the five main components was developed for this system in our laboratory. For the present study, it was assumed that the gas for processing was composed of hydrogen, methane, and helium. Some of the hydrogen and methane molecules were assumed to be tritiated, and helium was added to maintain a steady flow of gas through the stages of processing in the cleanup system. The performance of the tritium cleanup system was examined by computer-based simulation with simulated exhaust gas. To monitor removal of tritium from the exhaust gas, the partial pressures of hydrogen and methane were examined in a series of performance tests by computer simulation. Results indicate that the partial pressure of hydrogen underwent a characteristic change with two bend points, even though the partial pressure of methane continued to decrease steadily. The time positions of the bends and time interval between the two bend points on the curve of hydrogen partial pressure were investigated under various conditions in relation to component fraction and gas volume. The first bend appears to correspond to the completion of one cycle of processing and the second bend may correspond to the period where helium becomes the dominant determinant of pump speed. Both bends were observed at longer times, and the time interval between both bends increased as the amount of gas to be processed increased. Similarly, the second bend was observed at longer times, and the time interval between both bends increased with methane percentage. The results suggest that some features of exhaust gas can be estimated by inspecting both bend points, because the positions of the bend points and the time interval between them provided information about exhaust gas components and volume. (orig.)

202

Inhibition of pokeweed antiviral protein (PAP) by turnip mosaic virus genome-linked protein (VPg).  

Science.gov (United States)

Pokeweed antiviral protein (PAP) from Phytolacca americana is a ribosome-inactivating protein (RIP) and an RNA N-glycosidase that removes specific purine residues from the sarcin/ricin loop of large rRNA, arresting protein synthesis at the translocation step. PAP is also a cap-binding protein and is a potent antiviral agent against many plant, animal, and human viruses. To elucidate the mechanism of RNA depurination, and to understand how PAP recognizes and targets various RNAs, the interactions between PAP and turnip mosaic virus genome-linked protein (VPg) were investigated. VPg can function as a cap analog in cap-independent translation and potentially target PAP to uncapped IRES-containing RNA. In this work, fluorescence spectroscopy and HPLC techniques were used to quantitatively describe PAP depurination activity and PAP-VPg interactions. PAP binds to VPg with high affinity (29.5 nm); the reaction is enthalpically driven and entropically favored. Further, VPg is a potent inhibitor of PAP depurination of RNA in wheat germ lysate and competes with structured RNA derived from tobacco etch virus for PAP binding. VPg may confer an evolutionary advantage by suppressing one of the plant defense mechanisms and also suggests the possible use of this protein against the cytotoxic activity of ribosome-inactivating proteins. PMID:22773840

Domashevskiy, Artem V; Miyoshi, Hiroshi; Goss, Dixie J

2012-08-24

203

Homology modeling and PAPS ligand (cofactor) binding study of bovine phenol sulfotransferase.  

Science.gov (United States)

In order to understand the mechanisms of ligand binding and the interaction between the ligand and the bovine phenol sulfotransferase, (bSULT1A1, EC 2.8.2.1) a three-dimensional (3D) model of the bSULT1A1 is generated based on the crystal structure of the estrogen sulfotransferase (PDB code 1AQU) by using the InsightII/Homology module. With the aid of the molecular mechanics and molecular dynamics methods, the final refined model is obtained and is further assessed by Profile-3D and ProStat, which show that the refined model is reliable. With this model, a flexible docking study is performed and the results indicate that 3'-phosphoadenosine-5'- phosphosulfate (PAPS) is a more preferred ligand than coenzyme A (CoA), and that His108 forms hydrogen bond with PAPS, which is in good agreement with the experimental results. From these docking studies, we also suggest that Phe255, Phe24 and Tyr169 in bSULT1A1 are three important determinant residues in binding as they have strong van-der-Waals contacts with the ligand. The hydrogen-bonding interactions also play an important role for the stability of the complex. Our results may be helpful for further experimental investigations. PMID:15838710

Zheng, Qing-Chuan; Li, Ze-Sheng; Xiao, Jing-Fa; Sun, Miao; Zhang, Yuan; Sun, Chia-Chung

2005-03-01

204

Shaking table testing of a HTGR reactor core, comparison with the results obtained using a nonlinear mathematical model  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Two series of horizontal tests have been performed at Saclay on the shaking table VESUVE: sinusoidal test and time history response. Sinusoidal tests have shown the strongly nonlinear dynamic behavior of the core. The resonant frequency of the core is dependent on the level of the excitation. These phenomena have been explained by a computer code, which is a lumped mass nonlinear model. El Centro time history displacement at the level of PCRV was reproduced on the shaking table. The analytical model was applied to this excitation and good comparison was obtained for forces and velocities

205

Intention to Obtain Genetic Testing for Melanoma among Individuals at Low to Moderate Risk for Hereditary Melanoma  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: Melanoma is a serious skin cancer that has been on the rise in the United States. Some genetic component is apparent. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to identify demographic, clinical, attitudinal, and health belief factors associated with intention to obtain genetic testing for hereditary melanoma among unaffected first-degree…

Vadaparampil, Susan T.; Azzarello, Lora; Pickard, Jennifer; Jacobsen, Paul B.

2007-01-01

206

The Pap Smear and Cervical Cancer Screening  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

While the effectiveness of cervical cancer-screening programs is well accepted, further decreases in incidence and mortality rates of cervical cancer may require a changing role for the family physician. Especially important will be the use of computerized call-recall systems to ensure that all eligible women are screened at least once, and that appropriate follow-up is made for those with positive test results. Since concern is growing over false negative results, it will also be important t...

Elmslie, Thomas J.

1987-01-01

207

Intelligent and nature inspired optimization methods in medicine : The Pap smear cell classification problem  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The classification problem consists of using some known objects, usually described by a large vector of features, to induce a model that classifies others into known classes. Feature selection is widely used as the first stage of the classification task to reduce the dimension of the problem, decrease noise and improve speed by the elimination of irrelevant or redundant features. The present paper deals with the optimization of nearest neighbour classifiers via intelligent and nature inspired algorithms for a very significant medical problem, the Pap smear cell classification problem. The algorithms used include tabu search, genetic algorithms, particle swarm optimization and ant colony optimization. The proposed complete algorithmic scheme is tested on two sets of data. The first consists of 917 images of Pap smear cells and the second set consists of 500 images, classified carefully by expert cyto-technicians and doctors. Each cell is described by 20 numerical features, and the cells fall into seven classesrepresenting a variety of normal and abnormal cases. Nevertheless, from the medical diagnosis viewpoint, a minimum requirement corresponds to the general two-class problem of correct separation between normal and abnormal cells.

Marinakis, Yannis; Marinaki, Magdalene

2009-01-01

208

Knowledge, attitude and practice related to the pap smear test among users of a primary health unit / Conocimiento, actitud y práctica relacionada al examen de colposcopia entre usuarias de una unidad básica de salud / Conhecimento, atitude e prática relacionada ao exame colpocitológico entre usuárias de uma unidade básica de saúde  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Este é um estudo tipo inquérito CAP (conhecimento, atitude e prática), realizado no período de fevereiro a junho de 2008, no qual se objetivou avaliar o conhecimento, a atitude e a prática do exame colpocitológico entre usuárias de uma unidade básica de saúde (UBS) e verificar sua associação com var [...] iáveis sociodemográficas. A amostra foi composta por 250 mulheres. O conhecimento, a atitude e a prática sobre o exame foram adequados em 40,4, 28 e 67,6% das entrevistadas, respectivamente. Os resultados encontrados evidenciaram proporções mais altas de conhecimento e atitude adequados com escolaridade (>9 anos) e idade (>35 anos). É essencial buscar respostas específicas a respeito dessa problemática, a fim de direcionar ações integradas de educação em saúde, garantindo, assim, o maior acesso, adesão e retorno das mulheres ao exame. Abstract in spanish Estudio tipo encuesta CAP (conocimiento, actitud y práctica) realizado en el período de febrero a junio de 2008, en el cual se objetivó evaluar el conocimiento, la actitud y la práctica del examen de colposcopia entre usuarias de una unidad básica de salud (UBS) y verificar su asociación con variabl [...] es sociodemográficas. La muestra estuvo constituida por 250 mujeres. El conocimiento, la actitud y la práctica sobre el examen fueron adecuadas en 40,4%, 28% y 67,6% de las entrevistadas, respectivamente. Los resultados encontrados evidenciaron proporciones más altas de conocimiento y actitud adecuados con la escolaridad (> 9 años) y edad (> 35 años). Es esencial buscar respuestas específicas sobre esta problemática a fin de dirigir acciones integradas de educación en salud, garantizando, así, el mayor acceso, adhesión y retorno de las mujeres al examen. Abstract in english This KAP (knowledge, attitude and practice) study, carried out from February to June 2008, aimed to evaluate the knowledge, attitude and practice regarding the Pap smear test among users of a primary health unit (PHU) and to verify any association with sociodemographic variables. The sample was comp [...] rised of 250 women. The knowledge, attitude and practice related to the examination were adequate in 40.4%, 28% and 67.6% of respondents, respectively. The results demonstrate higher proportions of adequate knowledge and attitude with schooling (>9 years) and age (>35 years). It is essential to seek specific answers regarding this issue in order to direct integrated actions of health education, thus ensuring greater access, adhesion and return of the women for the examination results.

Camila Teixeira Moreira, Vasconcelos; Ana Karina Bezerra, Pinheiro; Ana Rita Pimentel, Castelo; Lillian de Queiroz, Costa; Roberta Grangeiro de, Oliveira.

2011-02-01

209

Knowledge, attitude and practice related to the pap smear test among users of a primary health unit Conocimiento, actitud y práctica relacionada al examen de colposcopia entre usuarias de una unidad básica de salud Conhecimento, atitude e prática relacionada ao exame colpocitológico entre usuárias de uma unidade básica de saúde  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This KAP (knowledge, attitude and practice study, carried out from February to June 2008, aimed to evaluate the knowledge, attitude and practice regarding the Pap smear test among users of a primary health unit (PHU and to verify any association with sociodemographic variables. The sample was comprised of 250 women. The knowledge, attitude and practice related to the examination were adequate in 40.4%, 28% and 67.6% of respondents, respectively. The results demonstrate higher proportions of adequate knowledge and attitude with schooling (>9 years and age (>35 years. It is essential to seek specific answers regarding this issue in order to direct integrated actions of health education, thus ensuring greater access, adhesion and return of the women for the examination results.Estudio tipo encuesta CAP (conocimiento, actitud y práctica realizado en el período de febrero a junio de 2008, en el cual se objetivó evaluar el conocimiento, la actitud y la práctica del examen de colposcopia entre usuarias de una unidad básica de salud (UBS y verificar su asociación con variables sociodemográficas. La muestra estuvo constituida por 250 mujeres. El conocimiento, la actitud y la práctica sobre el examen fueron adecuadas en 40,4%, 28% y 67,6% de las entrevistadas, respectivamente. Los resultados encontrados evidenciaron proporciones más altas de conocimiento y actitud adecuados con la escolaridad (> 9 años y edad (> 35 años. Es esencial buscar respuestas específicas sobre esta problemática a fin de dirigir acciones integradas de educación en salud, garantizando, así, el mayor acceso, adhesión y retorno de las mujeres al examen.Este é um estudo tipo inquérito CAP (conhecimento, atitude e prática, realizado no período de fevereiro a junho de 2008, no qual se objetivou avaliar o conhecimento, a atitude e a prática do exame colpocitológico entre usuárias de uma unidade básica de saúde (UBS e verificar sua associação com variáveis sociodemográficas. A amostra foi composta por 250 mulheres. O conhecimento, a atitude e a prática sobre o exame foram adequados em 40,4, 28 e 67,6% das entrevistadas, respectivamente. Os resultados encontrados evidenciaram proporções mais altas de conhecimento e atitude adequados com escolaridade (>9 anos e idade (>35 anos. É essencial buscar respostas específicas a respeito dessa problemática, a fim de direcionar ações integradas de educação em saúde, garantindo, assim, o maior acesso, adesão e retorno das mulheres ao exame.

Camila Teixeira Moreira Vasconcelos

2011-02-01

210

ELUCIDATION OF THE ACTIVE CONFORMATION OF THE APS KINASE DOMAIN OF HUMAN PAPS SYNTHETASE 1  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Bifunctional human PAPS synthetase (PAPSS) catalyzes, in a two-step process, the formation of the activated sulfate carrier 3?-phosphoadenosine 5?-phosphosulfate (PAPS). The first reaction involves the formation of the 5?-adenosine phosphosulfate (APS) intermediate from ATP and inorganic sulfate. APS is then further phosphorylated on its 3?-hydroxyl group by an additional ATP molecule to generate PAPS. The former reaction is catalyzed by the ATP-sulfurylase domain and the latter by th...

Sekulic, Nikolina; Dietrich, Kristen; Paarmann, Ingo; Ort, Stephan; Konrad, Manfred; Lavie, Arnon

2007-01-01

211

Colposcopic evaluation of cervix with persistent inflammatory Pap smear: A prospective analytical study  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background: Inflammatory Pap smear is the most common report received by a gynecologist. The cervical screening algorithm for benign cellular changes on the Pap smear recommends treatment of infection if indicated and a repeat Pap smear in 4 to 6 months time. If the inflammatory changes still persist, subject the patient to colposcopy. However, in practice, this is not followed, especially in developing countries like ours where proper screening protocols are not available. Hence, a go...

Dasari Papa; Rajathi S; Kumar Surendra

2010-01-01

212

Comparison of Gram stain and Pap smear procedures in the diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to examine the characteristics of Gram stain versus Pap smear in diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis (BV). METHODS: One-thousand and sixty women were enrolled in this study. All cases with symptoms of BV were determined by Amsel's criteria, which were accepted as the gold standard for diagnosis of BV. Pap smear and Gram stain evaluations were compared according to Amsel's criteria, without viewing the clinical results of the patients. Gram stain and Pap s...

Hakan Postaci; Funda Tasli; Xd Zg Xfc, Xd Zg Xfc L.; Murat Inal; Izzet Maral; Enver Vardar

2002-01-01

213

Gambaran Pengetahuan Ibu tentang Pap Smear di Kelurahan Sei Kera Hilir II Medan Tahun 2010  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Pap Smear is one of the method for cervical cancer screenig which is efficacious, simple, and cost-effective. By applying Pap Smear in developed countries, the incidence of invasive cervical cancer has been reduced around 46-76% and the mortality has been decreased around 50-60%. Nevertheless, there are only 5% of women population in Indonesia who have had regular Pap Smear screening. This may have been influenced by lack of public education about Pap Smear. This study aimed to know the marri...

Youvella, Sylvia

2011-01-01

214

CT attenuation of paired HRCT scans obtained at full inspiratory/expiratory position: comparison with pulmonary function tests  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this prospective study was to measure lung attenuation at paired HRCT obtained at full inspiratory/expiratory position, to correlate with pulmonary function tests (PFTs) and to characterize different types of ventilatory impairment. One hundred fifty-five patients with and without pulmonary disease underwent paired HRCT obtained at full inspiratory/expiratory position. Three scan pairs were evaluated by densito- and planimetry using dedicated software. The PFTs were available for correlation in all patients (mean interval 5 days). Mean lung density (MLD) at full inspiration was -813 HU, and MLD at full expiration was -736 HU; both, as well as the expiratory attenuation increase, demonstrated significant correlations with static and dynamic lung volumes: up to r=0.68, p<0.05 for residual volume. The MLD and emphysema indices correlated markedly better for scans obtained at full expiration than at full inspiration, e.g. correlation with the residual volume: r=0.68 compared with r=0.55. Even better correlations were obtained for the lung area (229 cm{sup 2} at inspiration, 190 cm{sup 2} at expiration), up to r=0.74 for the lung area in expiration and the intrathoracic gas volume. Inspiratory MLD and the expiratory attenuation increase were able to differentiate obstructive and restrictive ventilatory impairment from normal subjects, the best results were obtained from scans obtained at full expiratory position (p<0.05). In conclusion, scans obtained at full expiratory position reveal more functional information than scans obtained at full inspiratory position. Quantitative analysis of CT obtained at full expiratory position provides good estimations of static and dynamic lung volumes as well as significant differences between normal subjects and patients with ventilatory impairment. (orig.)

Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich; Hast, Jochem; Heussel, Claus Peter; Mildenberger, Peter; Thelen, Manfred [Department of Radiology, Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz, Langenbeckstrasse 1, 55131 Mainz (Germany); Schlegel, Jens [Department of Medicine III, Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz, Langenbeckstrasse 1, 55131 Mainz (Germany)

2002-11-01

215

Conhecimento, atitude e prática do exame de Papanicolaou em mulheres com câncer de colo uterino Knowledge, attitudes, and practices related to the Pap smear among women with cervical cancer  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O câncer de colo uterino apresenta alta mortalidade no Brasil, apesar dos programas para rastreamento. O objetivo deste estudo, de corte transversal, foi analisar conhecimento, atitude e prática do exame de Papanicolaou e entender a não adesão das mulheres a este exame. Foram entrevistadas 138 mulheres: noventa com neoplasia intra-epitelial de alto grau e 48 com câncer invasivo de colo uterino. As mulheres com câncer invasivo tiveram prática mais inadequada do exame. No entanto, independente do diagnóstico, mais de 80% delas referiram desmotivação/vergonha, 60% relataram que os médicos não examinavam e, cerca de 50% apontaram o tempo de espera para a consulta e a demora no agendamento como dificuldades para serem atendidas. Em geral, a prática do exame dependeu da iniciativa do médico e a periodicidade da coleta foi determinada pela procura de consulta devido a sintomas. As mulheres com 56 anos ou mais mostraram maior inadequação no conhecimento, na atitude e na prática. No entanto, aquelas com maior escolaridade conheciam melhor o exame. A maior idade e a menor escolaridade podem estar associados a não adesão das mulheres ao exame, porém as dificuldades sociais e econômicas para conseguir atendimento em saúde precisam ser consideradas para aumentar a prática do exame.Despite screening programs, Brazil has a high cervical cancer mortality rate. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to analyze knowledge, attitudes, and practices related to the Pap smear and to understand why women fail to submit to this screening test. A structured questionnaire was used to interview 138 women: 90 with high grade intraepithelial neoplasia and 48 with invasive cervical cancer. Inadequate practices were more frequent among women with invasive cancer. In terms of difficulties in obtaining medical care, more than 80% of women reported lack of motivation, 60% reported that physicians failed to conduct a complete physical examination, and some 50% reported that physicians' schedules were busy. Having a Pap smear usually depended on a physician's request and the woman being symptomatic. Women over than 56 years old showed more frequent inadequate knowledge, attitudes and practices. However, those with more schooling were more knowledgeable of the Pap smear procedure. Age and less schooling could be barriers against women participating in screening programs, but socioeconomic problems must also be considered for improving practices related to the Pap smear.

Sylvia Michelina Fernandes Brenna

2001-08-01

216

Comparison between S-N-P curves obtained from constant stress and step-stress fatigue tests  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This Fatigue is one of the most important failure modes to be considered in many engineering applications. In actual cases, the alternate stress applied to the component may vary during its lifetime. In these situations, the direct use of S-N-P curves may be inadequate when they are based on tests where the number of cycles to failure are determined for specimens under a constant stress for a certain probability of failure. In this paper it is shown S-N-P curves for specimens submitted each one to three different stress levels. Those curves are compared with the common S-N-P curves from constant stress tests. The Palmgren-Miner theory is applied to the obtained data from the two test methods. The results are compared and some conclusions and comments are addressed. (authors)

217

Fluorescence Spectrum and Decay Measurement for Hsil VS Normal Cytology Differentiation in Liquid Pap Smear Supernatant  

Science.gov (United States)

Cervical smear material contains endo and exocervical cells, mucus and inflammative, immune cells in cases of pathology. Just not destroyed keratinocytes lay on the glass for microscopy. Liquid cytology supernatant apart other diagnostics could be used for photodiagnostic. The spectroscopic parameters suitable for Normal and HSIL cytology groups supernatant differentiation are demonstrated. The dried liquid PAP supernatant fractions—sediment and liquid were investigated. Excitation and emission matrices (EEM), supernatant fluorescence decay measured under 280 nm diode short pulse excitation and fluorescence spectroscopy by excitation with 355 nm laser light were analyzed. The differences between Normal and HSIL groups were statistically proven in the certain spectral regions. Fluorescence decay peculiarities show spectral regions consisting of few fluorophores. Obtained results on fluorescence differences in Normal and HSIL groups' supernatant shows the potency of photodiagnosis application in cervical screening.

Vaitkuviene, A.; Gegzna, V.; Juodkazis, S.; Jursenas, S.; Miasojedovas, S.; Kurtinaitiene, R.; Rimiene, J.; Vaitkus, J.

2009-06-01

218

Cardiac output obtained from test bolus injections as a factor in contrast injection rate revision of following coronary CT angiography  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Background.. Optimal contrast enhancement is crucial for the detection of coronary artery stenoses and atherosclerotic changes in coronary CT angiography (CTA). Purpose To demonstrate the feasibility of using the cardiac output (CO) obtained from the test bolus injection data-set (CO test) as a factor in contrast injection rate revision of the following coronary CTA. Material and Methods. The test bolus injection data-sets of 52 consecutive coronary CTAs were examined. CO test was calculated from the test bolus data-set. Aortic peak enhancement (APE) was measured on the following coronary CTA. We simulated the APE at a fixed contrast injection rate of 4 mL/s (simAPE) in each patient. Results. The ranges of COtest and simAPE were 2.82-7.56 L/min and 194-527 Hounsfield Units, respectively. There was a significant negative correlation (R = -0.802, P < 0.001) between simAPE and COtest. Conclusion. COtest can be used for injection rate revision on coronary CTA

219

Cardiac output obtained from test bolus injections as a factor in contrast injection rate revision of following coronary CT angiography  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Background.. Optimal contrast enhancement is crucial for the detection of coronary artery stenoses and atherosclerotic changes in coronary CT angiography (CTA). Purpose To demonstrate the feasibility of using the cardiac output (CO) obtained from the test bolus injection data-set (CO test) as a factor in contrast injection rate revision of the following coronary CTA. Material and Methods. The test bolus injection data-sets of 52 consecutive coronary CTAs were examined. CO test was calculated from the test bolus data-set. Aortic peak enhancement (APE) was measured on the following coronary CTA. We simulated the APE at a fixed contrast injection rate of 4 mL/s (simAPE) in each patient. Results. The ranges of COtest and simAPE were 2.82-7.56 L/min and 194-527 Hounsfield Units, respectively. There was a significant negative correlation (R = -0.802, P < 0.001) between simAPE and COtest. Conclusion. COtest can be used for injection rate revision on coronary CTA.

Konno, Masahiko [Division of Diagnostic Image Analysis, Graduate School of Medicine, Tohoku University, Miyagi (Japan); Yamagata Prefecture Comprehensive Rehabilitation and Education Center, Yamagata (Japan)], E-mail: mkonno@med.tohoku.ac.jp; Hosokai, Yoshiyuki; Usui, Akihito; Abe, Mitsuya; Tateishi, Toshiki; Kawasumi, Yusuke; Saito, Haruo [Division of Diagnostic Image Analysis, Graduate School of Medicine, Tohoku University, Miyagi (Japan); Tsuda, Masashi; Ota, Hideki; Takase, Kei [Division of Diagnostic Radiology, Graduate School of Medicine, Tohoku University, Miyagi (Japan)

2012-12-15

220

Effect of Cervical Wiping with Sterile Cotton on the Quality of Pap-smear  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: There are conflicting reports about the effect of wiping cervix with cotton on Pap-smear results. Therefore, we aimed to do a research about this subject. Materials and Methods: 234 eligible women attended to have Pap-smear at an educational hospital in Rasht, Iran, from July to September 2011, were allocated by block randomization into two groups. In the intervention group, we cleaned cervix with a sterile cotton rotating 360 degrees and obtained samples using spatula for exocervix and cytobrush for endocervix. This method was performed without cleaning the cervix on the control group. Data collection, vulvovaginal examination, laboratory assay were done by investigators masked to the group allocation. Participants were also blind. The data were analyzed using logistic regression in SPSS-13.Results: Rate of sufficient endocervical cell of the slides in the intervention group was significantly higher than in the control group (70.3% vs. 57.8%, p=0.03. In the intervention group 42.4% of the slides were satisfactory and 57.6% had limited quality for interpretation. These figures in the control group were 37.1% and 62.9%, respectively. This difference was not statistically significant. Also, there was no significant difference between the groups on rate of slides with inadequacy of squamous cells and obscuring 75% or more of the slides with inflammatory exudate or blood (p>0.05.Conclusion: There were no significant differences between the groups on some quality indicators of the smears. However, frequency of smears with sufficient endocervical cells was higher in the group with cervical wipping. Therefore, it is recommended to clean cervix before obtaining the smears.

Mahin Kamalifard

2013-09-01

 
 
 
 
221

Psychosocial burden of women with abnormal Pap smears.  

Science.gov (United States)

This cross-sectional study aimed to describe the psychosocial burden of women with abnormal Pap-smear results during the 3 months after recruitment into the study. Seventy-five women negative for intraepithelial lesions and 76 women with epithelial cell abnormalities were recruited. The two study groups did not differ in baseline demographic characteristics or gynecological history. However, the mean Health Impact Profile (HIP) scores were higher for the women negative for intraepithelial lesions [68.18 +/- 14.22 and 57.74 +/- 16.29, respectively (p Questionnaire (WPAI), Health Utilities Index (HUI), Health State Score (HSS), and Hospital Anxiety and Depression (HADS), between the two study groups. However, there was a significant difference in mean scores for HSS within the younger age group (18-28 years) [(75.00 +/- 13.64, n = 19 and 59.72 +/- 19.13, n = 18, respectively)] (p = 0.008). The provision of information, counseling, and advice, support services and clinician consultation times, need strengthening, to help alleviate women's concerns about infection, and their worries, anxiety or depression, following an abnormal Pap result. PMID:19842448

Phonrat, Benjaluck; Ruengkris, Tosaporn; Naksrisook, Supa; Intalapaporn, Kaewta; Jirakorbchaipong, Phuit; Pitisuttithum, Punnee

2009-05-01

222

Association of Oral Contraceptives and Abnormal Pap Smear  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available To assess the hypothesis that combined Oral Contraceptive (OCs increase the risk of cervical neoplasia, we conducted a multicenter Case-Control study in Mashhad, the capital of Khorasan province. Seventy-eight women with moderate to severe dysplasia at Pap smear as case group and one hundred fifty nine women with normal Pap smear were selected as the control group for evaluation. The both case and control groups were matched by age, parity and socioeconomic status. All of the women in this study were single partner as husband and no smoker. 30 percent of cases and 64.8 percent of controls were used OCs. The duration of OCs use was the same in both. The odds ratio for OCs consumption was 0.2 with 95% confidence interval 0.11-0.4 in Logistic regression analysis. In contrast to some other studies, our findings showed an association between OCs and cervical dysplasia and there was a protective effect of OCs for cervical dysplasia.

Sayedmohsen Sayednozadi

2005-01-01

223

DIAGNOSTIC VALUE OF COLPOSCOPY IN PATIENTS WITH ABNORMAL PAP SMEAR  

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Full Text Available  

Introduction: In order to reduce invasive cervical cancer, it is necessary to follow presisly the patients with abnormal pap smear. Simply, repeating the cytologic assessment in patints with atypical pap smear will result in missing 26-83 percent of squamous intraepithelial lesions and most alarming 50 percent of invasive cancers. Considering the contraversy of different study reports about the diagnostic value of colposcopy in confirming the abnormal papsmear, this study was conducted to determine the sensitivity and specificity of colposcopy based on the results of biopsy in women referred to hospitals of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences (IUMS.
Methods: In a prospective study, we selected randomly 210 women from 700 patints who reffered to the hospitals of IUMS. These women were examined and biopsied simultaneously. The data was collected by a structured interview according to the demographic characteristics and then was analyzed using EPI software.
Results. From 210 subjects, only 125 were reported to have abnormal cervical cytologic. The sensitivity came out to be 97.29 percent and specificity was 43.20 percent.
Discussion. In Iran, according to the sensitivity and specificity for colposcpic examination, it can be suggested that in final evaluation of abnormal papsmears, colposcopic assesment of the cervix can be considered as the next appropriate step.

T ALLAMEH

2001-12-01

224

Accuracy of abnormal pap smear at Thammasat University Hospital.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of the present study was to assess the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of the Pap smear in the diagnosis of squamous intraepithelial lesion (SIL) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Pap smear of 15,345 women in 2 years were screened for early detection of abnormal cervix. In 299 cases (1.9%) were diagnosed as low-grade SIL (LSIL), high-grade SIL (HSIL) and SCC by the Bethesda system (TBS) 2001. Only 195 cases (1.3%) had definitive histologic diagnosis as negative, human papilloma virus (HPV) infection, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) 1, CIN 2, CIN 3 and SCC. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy in LSIL was 86.5%, 70% and 71.3%, respectively. For HSIL it was 80.8%, 89.7% and 86.2%, respectively. For SCC it was 100%, 96.9% and 96.9%, respectively. Our data had high diagnostic performance for HSIL and SCC group and moderate diagnostic performance for LSIL group. PMID:23964448

Kanjanavirojkul, Nipa; Muanglek, Rotchana; Yanagihara, Lakkakul

2012-01-01

225

The frequency of herpes simplex virus changes in anal Pap smear and its association with squamous intraepithelial lesions in high-risk male patients.  

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While there are studies postulating a model of synergism between human papillomavirus (HPV) and herpes simplex virus (HSV) in cervical carcinogenesis, the frequency of anal herpes as well as its association with anal squamous intraepithelial lesions (ASILs) has been understudied in men. This study evaluates the frequency of HSV changes in anal Pap smears and its association with ASILs in a high-risk population. A computerized search for specimens associated with anal cytology that had positive findings of HSV was performed. The electronic medical records were examined for past diagnosis of herpes, HSV serology prior to or after cytology, and if the patient received treatment after cytologic diagnosis of HSV. Of the 470 anal Pap smears (Thin-prep) examined, seven had cellular changes consistent with HSV infection. All patients were asymptomatic human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) positive males with no prior HSV serology tests. Two patients had prior diagnoses of HSV infection. Cytologic abnormalities were identified in 86% ranging from atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance to high grade squamous intraepithelial lesion. Three patients were treated after the HSV cytologic diagnosis. The frequency of HSV changes in anal Pap smear is low (1.48%), but the presence of concomitant cytologic abnormalities is high (86%). While our findings suggest the possible role of HSV as a HPV co-factor in ASILs, larger studies are needed to support this. Identification of HSV infection on anal Pap smear is important for institution of patient treatment and subsequent reduction of transmission. PMID:24692314

Greebon, Leslie J; Avery, Diane L; Prihoda, Thomas J; Valente, Philip T; Policarpio-Nicolas, Maria Luisa C

2014-06-01

226

Determining the interobserver reproducibility of Pap smears in the diagnosis of epithelial cell abnormalities  

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Full Text Available "n 800x600 Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";} Background: Cancer of uterine cervix is the second cause of death in women in the world and the most common cause in developing countries. Because the majority of women with invasive cervical cancer of the uterine have not previously undergone screening, many clinicians assume that Pap smear has a high degree of accuracy; but problems such as false positive and false negative interpretations, as well as interobserver variability have questioned its validity."n"nMethods : We retrieved 162 positive cervical smears that had been originally interpreted as ASC-US, ASC-H, LSIL, HSIL, SCC, AGC and adenocarcinoma from the cytology archives of Women's Hospital in Tehran, Iran. The slides were rescreened by an experienced pathologist and reclassified in the mentioned categories. All the 162 slides were reviewed by three more pathologists in a blind study using interpretative criteria utilized in their daily routine to evaluate interobserver reproducibility. To increase the level of interobserver agreement, the diagnostic categories were reduced to squamous Vs. glandular abnormalities and invasive (SCC and adenocarcinoma Vs. non-invasive abnormalities."n"nResults : The results obtained in this study indicated slight interobserver agreement (k=0.26. The most reproducible category was the invasive category (SCC in addition to adenocarcinoma and the least agreement was seen for HSIL (k=0.19. "n"nConclusion: This study showed that reproducibility of cytological interpretation of conventional Pap smears varies among interpretive categories and the overall interobserver agreement is slight. Since convening on the reduction of interobserver discrepancy in Pap smear interpretations necessitates more reliable information of interpretative variability, larger studies need to be undertaken.

Izadi-Mood N

2011-07-01

227

Factors related to the practice of breast self examination (BSE and Pap smear screening among Malaysian women workers in selected electronics factories  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The Malaysian Ministry of Health promotes breast self-examination (BSE for all women, and Pap smear screening every three years for all sexually active women ages 20 years and above. The objectives of this paper were to examine the practice of these two screening tests among women production workers in electronics factories, and to identify factors related to practice. Methods This was a cross-sectional survey of women production workers from ten electronics factories. Data was collected by a self-administered questionnaire from a total of 1,720 women. The chi-square test, odds ratio and binomial logistic regression were used in bivariate and multivariate analysis. Results Prevalence rates were 24.4% for BSE once a month, and 18.4% for Pap smear examination within the last three years. Women who were significantly more likely to perform BSE every month were 30 years and older, Malays, with upper secondary education and above, answered the BSE question correctly, and had a Pap smear within the last three years. The proportion of women who had a Pap smear within the last three years were significantly higher among those who were older, married, with young children, on the contraceptive pill or intra-uterine device, had a medical examination within the last five years, answered the Pap smear question correctly, and performed BSE monthly. Conclusion Screening practice rates in this study were low when compared to national rates. Socio-demographic and health care factors significantly associated with screening practice are indicative of barriers which should be further understood so that more effective educational and promotional strategies could be developed.

Shamsuddin K

2003-05-01

228

Focused rescreening of NILM Pap slides from women ? 30 years of age with positive high risk HPV DNA: an enhanced quality control measure.  

Science.gov (United States)

CLIA 88 regulations specify that at least 10% of negative for intraepithelial lesion or malignancy (NILM) Paps be rescreened as a means of quality control (QC). With the incorporation of HPV DNA testing into American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology guidelines for women ? 30 years of age, a population of NILM patients with positive HPV results exists. Slides from this cohort were rescreened to judge the value of focused QC. Three hundred and eighty-six consecutive, NILM, HCII+, Paps (SurePath and ThinPrep, September 2009 to December 2009) from women aged ? 30 were retrieved from the CellNetix files. These slides were rescreened by cytotechnologists. Slides rescreened as atypical squamous cells (ASC) or higher by cytotechnologists were viewed by cytopathologists (CDS/RJT) who assigned a final interpretation. Of the 386 rescreened cases, 50 (12.9%) were placed in categories of ASC or higher, and 11 (2.9%) were interpreted as LSIL or above. By comparison, routine QC (including random, FocalPoint enriched, and historically high risk cases) was performed on a total of 20,580 Paps (21% of 99,501 annual cases). Concomitant routine QC revealed that 2.1% (427/20,580) were upgraded to ASC or higher and 0.3% (52/20,580) were upgraded to LSIL or higher. Focused rescreening of NILM cases with positive HPV DNA resulted in the detection of approximately ten times more SIL cases than did routine QC Pap slide review at CellNetix. Focused rescreening of this patient set may enhance QC in cytopathology laboratories performing liquid-based Paps. An inherent potential bias in study design is recognized, as results of DNA testing were by definition known at the time of rescreen. PMID:22351303

Sturgis, Charles D; Schaaf, Michael R; Tickman, Ronald J

2013-05-01

229

Suppression of the biosynthesis of proanthocyanidin in Arabidopsis by a chimeric PAP1 repressor.  

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Flavonoids are secondary metabolites that are specific to higher plants. PAP1, a member of the family of MYB domain transcription factors in Arabidopsis, is a positive regulator of the biosynthesis of anthocyanin. We show here that a chimeric PAP1 repressor, in which the EAR-motif repression domain from SUPERMAN was fused to PAP1, suppressed the expression of four flavonoid biosynthetic genes, namely CHS, DFR, LDOX, and BAN, in siliques, and inhibited the accumulation of proanthocyanidin, even in the presence of an endogenous positive regulator, such as TT2. This suppression resulted in the formation of light yellow seeds in 35S::PAP1SRDX transgenic plants. Our results indicate that PAP1 has the potential ability to regulate the biosynthesis not only of anthocyanin but also of proanthocyanidin. Our gene silencing system, using chimeric repressors, appears to be a useful tool for the manipulation of the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites in plants. PMID:17147621

Matsui, Kyoko; Tanaka, Hideo; Ohme-Takagi, Masaru

2004-11-01

230

Tingkat Pengetahuan Ibu-Ibu Tentang Pap Smear Sebagai Salah Satu Langkah Deteksi Awal Kanker Serviks Di Kelurahan Padang Bulan  

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Background-- Pap smear is one of the method for cervical cancer screening which is efficacious, simple and cost effective. By applying Pap smear in developed countries, the incidence of invasive cervical cancer has been reduced around 46-76% and the mortality has been decreased around 50-60%. Nevertheless only 5 percents of women population in Indonesia who had regular Pap Smear screening. This may have been influenced by lack of public education about pap smear. Purpose-- This study aim t...

Harahap, Eva Yanti

2012-01-01

231

A novel scheme for abnormal cell detection in Pap smear images  

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Finding malignant cells in Pap smear images is a "needle in a haystack"-type problem, tedious, labor-intensive and error-prone. It is therefore desirable to have an automatic screening tool in order that human experts can concentrate on the evaluation of the more difficult cases. Most research on automatic cervical screening tries to extract morphometric and texture features at the cell level, in accordance with the NIH "The Bethesda System" rules. Due to variances in image quality and features, such as brightness, magnification and focus, morphometric and texture analysis is insufficient to provide robust cervical cancer detection. Using a microscopic spectral imaging system, we have produced a set of multispectral Pap smear images with wavelengths from 400 nm to 690 nm, containing both spectral signatures and spatial attributes. We describe a novel scheme that combines spatial information (including texture and morphometric features) with spectral information to significantly improve abnormal cell detection. Three kinds of wavelet features, orthogonal, bi-orthogonal and non-orthogonal, are carefully chosen to optimize recognition performance. Multispectral feature sets are then extracted in the wavelet domain. Using a Back-Propagation Neural Network classifier that greatly decreases the influence of spurious events, we obtain a classification error rate of 5%. Cell morphometric features, such as area and shape, are then used to eliminate most remaining small artifacts. We report initial results from 149 cells from 40 separate image sets, in which only one abnormal cell was missed (TPR = 97.6%) and one normal cell was falsely classified as cancerous (FPR = 1%).

Zhao, Tong; Wachman, Elliot S.; Farkas, Daniel L.

2004-07-01

232

An open-end burst test method to obtain uniaxial hoop tensile properties of fuel cladding in a hot cell  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The hoop stress–hoop strain relationship of fuel cladding is one of the essential input parameters for safety analysis of fuel rods. The three objectives of this paper were: to propose a burst test method for open-end tube specimens with the uniaxial hoop stress condition; to develop the necessary in-cell high temperature open-end burst (OEB) techniques to implement the method; and to determine the optimum specimen length for the proposed OEB test method. Silicone oil was selected as the pressurization medium, and it was sealed inside the specimens not by welding but by O-rings so that no axial tensile stress was induced in the specimens. The specimens with combined end plugs and O-rings were successfully assembled by manipulators in a hot cell, and a high temperature (?350 °C), high pressure (?100 MPa) seal was achieved. The optimum specimen length was determined by using ductile and embrittled tubes with various lengths of 30–60 mm and was found to be around 45 mm for typical BWR fuel rods. During the OEB test, internal pressure and diametral expansion were monitored to obtain the basic mechanical performance properties of the fuel cladding such as yield stress, ultimate strength, as well as the true hoop stress–hoop strain curve

233

Cervical Pap Screening Cytological Abnormalities among HIV-Infected Adolescents in the LEGACY Cohort  

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Objectives To determine the prevalence of cervical Pap screening (CPAP-S), identify factors associated with CPAP-S, and explore risk factors for abnormal cervical cytology in female adolescents with perinatally and behaviorally acquired HIV infection. Design Cross-sectional Setting LEGACY is a national observational cohort chart review study of 1478 HIV-infected persons (? age 24 years) managed in 22 HIV specialty clinics in the United States. Participants Sexually active females aged ?13–24 years in the LEGACY cohort Main Outcome measures CPAP-S & abnormal cervical cytology. Results Of 231 sexually active female participants (>= 13 years) in 2006, 49% had CPAP-S documented since 2001. 58% of 113 cervical tests were abnormal (2% high-grade). In multivariable analysis, perinatal HIV infection and black race were associated with decreased likelihood of CPAP-S (adjusted prevalence ratio [APR] 0.66, 95% CI 0.45, 0.96 and APR 0.74, 95% CI 0.56, 0.96, respectively). Presence of any STI was independently associated with increased likelihood of CPAP-S (APR 1.56, 95% CI 1.21, 2.02). CD4+ T-lymphocyte count <200 cells/mL and previous STI were independently associated with increased likelihood of abnormal cervical cytology (APR 2.19, 95% CI 1.26, 3.78 & APR 1.94, 95% CI 1.29, 2.92, respectively). Conclusions Among sexually active HIV-infected adolescent females, prevalence of CPAP-S was low and cytology was abnormal in more than half of Pap smears. Perinatally HIV-infected, sexually active females were less likely to undergo CPAP-S than their behaviorally HIV-infected counterparts. Interventions targeted at HIV-infected adolescents and care providers are needed to improve CPAP-S in HIV-infected young women, especially those with perinatally acquired HIV infection. PMID:22088311

Setse, Rosanna W.; Siberry, George K.; Moss, William J.; Gravitt, Patti; Wheeling, Travis; Bohannon, Beverly; Dominguez, Kenneth; Consortium, Legacy

2014-01-01

234

História prévia de realização de teste de Papanicolaou e câncer do colo do útero: estudo caso-controle na Baixada Fluminense, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil Previous history of Pap smears and cervical cancer: a case-control study in the Baixada Fluminense, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil  

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Full Text Available Este estudo caso-controle hospitalar foi realizado de 2007 a 2010 para estimar a associação de história prévia de colpocitologia e câncer do colo do útero na Baixada Fluminense, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. A amostra consistiu de 152 casos histologicamente confirmados e 169 controles selecionados no mesmo hospital dos casos. A análise foi feita de acordo com um modelo em três níveis hierárquicos; considerando as variáveis sociodemográficas (nível distal, sexual/reprodutivas e de estilo de vida (nível intermediário e a história prévia de colpocitologia (nível proximal. Odds ratios (OR e respectivos intervalos de 95% de confiança (IC95% foram calculados pela regressão logística não condicional. Ter história prévia de três ou mais colpocitologias conferiu uma proteção de 84% (OR = 0,16; IC95%: 0,074; 0,384 após ajuste pelas variáveis selecionadas. Os resultados acentuam a importância do exame preventivo ginecológico no risco desse câncer e fortalecem a necessidade de aumentar a aderência às normas do programa brasileiro, bem como de identificar e capturar mulheres relutantes para o rastreamento da doença.This hospital-based case-control study (2007-2010 aimed to estimate the association between previous Pap smear and cervical cancer diagnosis in the Baixada Fluminense, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. The sample consisted of 152 histologically confirmed cases and 169 controls from the same hospital as the cases. The analysis was conducted according to a model in three hierarchical levels considering sociodemographic characteristics (distal, sexual/reproductive and lifestyle factors (intermediate, and previous Pap smear (proximal. Odds ratios (OR and respective 95% confidence intervals (95%CI were calculated using unconditional logistic regression. History of three or more Pap smears was associated with an 84% reduction in cervical cancer risk (OR = 0.16; 95%CI: 0.074; 0.384 after adjusting for selected variables. The results highlight the importance of preventive gynecological examination for reducing the risk of cervical cancer and emphasize the need to increase adherence to the guidelines of the Brazilian program, besides identifying and scheduling women that have proven reluctant to submit to cervical cancer screening.

Maria Isabel do Nascimento

2012-10-01

235

História prévia de realização de teste de Papanicolaou e câncer do colo do útero: estudo caso-controle na Baixada Fluminense, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil / Previous history of Pap smears and cervical cancer: a case-control study in the Baixada Fluminense, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este estudo caso-controle hospitalar foi realizado de 2007 a 2010 para estimar a associação de história prévia de colpocitologia e câncer do colo do útero na Baixada Fluminense, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. A amostra consistiu de 152 casos histologicamente confirmados e 169 controles selecionados no mesm [...] o hospital dos casos. A análise foi feita de acordo com um modelo em três níveis hierárquicos; considerando as variáveis sociodemográficas (nível distal), sexual/reprodutivas e de estilo de vida (nível intermediário) e a história prévia de colpocitologia (nível proximal). Odds ratios (OR) e respectivos intervalos de 95% de confiança (IC95%) foram calculados pela regressão logística não condicional. Ter história prévia de três ou mais colpocitologias conferiu uma proteção de 84% (OR = 0,16; IC95%: 0,074; 0,384) após ajuste pelas variáveis selecionadas. Os resultados acentuam a importância do exame preventivo ginecológico no risco desse câncer e fortalecem a necessidade de aumentar a aderência às normas do programa brasileiro, bem como de identificar e capturar mulheres relutantes para o rastreamento da doença. Abstract in english This hospital-based case-control study (2007-2010) aimed to estimate the association between previous Pap smear and cervical cancer diagnosis in the Baixada Fluminense, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. The sample consisted of 152 histologically confirmed cases and 169 controls from the same hospital as [...] the cases. The analysis was conducted according to a model in three hierarchical levels considering sociodemographic characteristics (distal), sexual/reproductive and lifestyle factors (intermediate), and previous Pap smear (proximal). Odds ratios (OR) and respective 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) were calculated using unconditional logistic regression. History of three or more Pap smears was associated with an 84% reduction in cervical cancer risk (OR = 0.16; 95%CI: 0.074; 0.384) after adjusting for selected variables. The results highlight the importance of preventive gynecological examination for reducing the risk of cervical cancer and emphasize the need to increase adherence to the guidelines of the Brazilian program, besides identifying and scheduling women that have proven reluctant to submit to cervical cancer screening.

Maria Isabel do, Nascimento; Gulnar Azevedo e, Silva; Gina Torres Rego, Monteiro.

236

História prévia de realização de teste de Papanicolaou e câncer do colo do útero: estudo caso-controle na Baixada Fluminense, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil / Previous history of Pap smears and cervical cancer: a case-control study in the Baixada Fluminense, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este estudo caso-controle hospitalar foi realizado de 2007 a 2010 para estimar a associação de história prévia de colpocitologia e câncer do colo do útero na Baixada Fluminense, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. A amostra consistiu de 152 casos histologicamente confirmados e 169 controles selecionados no mesm [...] o hospital dos casos. A análise foi feita de acordo com um modelo em três níveis hierárquicos; considerando as variáveis sociodemográficas (nível distal), sexual/reprodutivas e de estilo de vida (nível intermediário) e a história prévia de colpocitologia (nível proximal). Odds ratios (OR) e respectivos intervalos de 95% de confiança (IC95%) foram calculados pela regressão logística não condicional. Ter história prévia de três ou mais colpocitologias conferiu uma proteção de 84% (OR = 0,16; IC95%: 0,074; 0,384) após ajuste pelas variáveis selecionadas. Os resultados acentuam a importância do exame preventivo ginecológico no risco desse câncer e fortalecem a necessidade de aumentar a aderência às normas do programa brasileiro, bem como de identificar e capturar mulheres relutantes para o rastreamento da doença. Abstract in english This hospital-based case-control study (2007-2010) aimed to estimate the association between previous Pap smear and cervical cancer diagnosis in the Baixada Fluminense, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. The sample consisted of 152 histologically confirmed cases and 169 controls from the same hospital as [...] the cases. The analysis was conducted according to a model in three hierarchical levels considering sociodemographic characteristics (distal), sexual/reproductive and lifestyle factors (intermediate), and previous Pap smear (proximal). Odds ratios (OR) and respective 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) were calculated using unconditional logistic regression. History of three or more Pap smears was associated with an 84% reduction in cervical cancer risk (OR = 0.16; 95%CI: 0.074; 0.384) after adjusting for selected variables. The results highlight the importance of preventive gynecological examination for reducing the risk of cervical cancer and emphasize the need to increase adherence to the guidelines of the Brazilian program, besides identifying and scheduling women that have proven reluctant to submit to cervical cancer screening.

Maria Isabel do, Nascimento; Gulnar Azevedo e, Silva; Gina Torres Rego, Monteiro.

237

XMLComparison of Molecular (PCR) and Pap Smear Methods in Diagnosis of Human Papiloma Virus (HPV) in Women with Genital Warts  

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Background and Objective: Much research has shown that Human Papiloma Virus (HPV) plays an important role in cervix cancer and it is the cause of 99% of cervix cancer worldwide. Lots of research has been done to find a proper method for HPV diagnosis and screening in patients with genital warts. This study aimed at comparing PCR method with Pap smear test in HPV screening. Material and Methods: Considering the presence of DNA of HPV, 45 vaginal and cervix swap samples of women with genital wa...

Bashi Zadeh Fakhar, H.; Faraji, R.; Ghane, M.; Jafarpour, M.; Ashoorizadeh, B.

2013-01-01

238

Pap smears for men: a vision of the future?  

LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

BACKGROUND: Anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN) rarely receives as much publicity as its neighbouring orifice, the cervix. As in the cervix, intraepithelial neoplasias are precursors to cancer in the anal canal. AIN and cervical interstitial neoplasia (CIN) undergo dysplasia as a consequence of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. Since the advent of screening with the Pap smear in CIN, cervical cancer has plummeted to a fifth of its initial incidence. Anal cancer, however, has been rising, with a predilection for human immunodeficiency virus-infected men. HPV causes a squamous epithelial dysplasia and converts healthy tissue into AINs of increasing severity until anal cancer manifests. CLINICAL CASE: This article describes a clinical case of anogenital HPV infection refractory to medical and surgical therapy. It also describes an effective surgical excision technique associated with a good cosmetic outcome. CONCLUSIONS: The paper concludes by briefly discussing the implications of a national screening programme against AIN in the future.

Oon, S F

2012-02-01

239

Testing for associations between systolic blood pressure and single-nucleotide polymorphism profiles obtained from sparse principal component analysis  

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Background: Hypertension is a prevalent condition linked to major cardiovascular conditions and multiple other comorbidities. Genetic information can offer a deeper understanding about susceptibility and the underlying disease mechanisms. The Genetic Analysis Workshop 18 (GAW18) provides abundant genotype data to determine genetic associations for being hypertensive and for the underlying trait of systolic blood pressure (SBP). The high-dimensional nature of this data promotes dimension reduction techniques to remove excess noise and also synthesize genetic information for complex, polygenic traits. Methods: For both measured and simulated phenotype data from GAW18, we use sparse principal component analysis to obtain sparse genetic profiles that represent the underlying data structures. We then detect associations between the obtained sparse principal components (PCs) and SBP, a major indicator of hypertension, following up by investigating the sparse PCs for genetic structure to gain insight into new patterns. Results: After adjusting for multiple testing, 27 of 122 PCs were significantly associated with measured SBP, offering a large number of components to investigate. Considering the top 3 PCs, linked genetic regions have been identified; these may act in unison while associated with SBP. Simulated data offered similar results. Conclusions: Sparse PCs can offer a new data-driven approach to structuring genotype data and understanding the genetic mechanics behind complex, polygenic traits such as hypertension.

2014-01-01

240

Total sleep time obtained from actigraphy versus sleep logs in an academic sleep center and impact on further sleep testing  

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Full Text Available R Robert Auger,1,2 Ranji Varghese,1 Michael H Silber,1,3 Nancy L Slocumb1 1Center for Sleep Medicine, 2Department of Psychiatry and Psychology, 3Department of Neurology, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Rochester, MN, USA Background: While actigraphy has been deemed ideal for the longitudinal assessment of total sleep time (TST by select groups, endorsement has not been universal and reimbursement is lacking, preventing its widespread use in clinical practice. This study compares longitudinal TST data obtained by actigraphy and logs preceding a clinical evaluation, and secondarily ascertains whether longitudinal TST impacts clinicians' decisions to proceed with further sleep testing. Methods: This was a retrospective, consecutive chart review spanning about 4 months in an academic sleep center. Eighty-four patients wore actigraphs in anticipation of clinical evaluations. Concomitant completion of sleep logs is routinely requested in this setting. Longitudinal TST data available in complete form was reviewed in a blinded fashion among a subset of these patients. A review of text from clinical notes of an expanded cohort with complete actigraphy data (regardless of the degree of completion of logs enabled determination of the frequency and rationale for cancellation of prescheduled sleep testing. Results: Of 84 actigraphy recordings, 90% produced complete data, and 30% produced fully completed logs. Among the subset with both available in complete form, significant mean TST differences were observed on weekends (7.06 ± 2.18 hours versus 8.30 ± 1.93 hours, P = 0.009, but not on weekdays (7.38 ± 1.97 hours versus 7.72 ± 1.62 hours, P = 0.450 for actigraphy and logs, respectively. Further analyses revealed poor agreement between the two measures, with predominantly increased TST estimation with logs. Among those with complete actigraphy data (±logs, testing was cancelled in 11 (15%, eight of whom (73% presented with hypersomnia and three of whom (27% presented with insomnia. Determination of insufficient sleep time was cited as the primary reason for cancellation (64%. Conclusion: Actigraphy and sleep logs provided discrepant mean TST data on weekends only, and the latter predominantly estimated increased TST. Actigraphy was completed more reliably than logs. Longitudinal TST information influenced clinicians' decisions to proceed with further testing, particularly among patients presenting with hypersomnia. Keywords: sleep diaries, polysomnography, multiple sleep latency testing

Auger RR

2013-10-01

 
 
 
 
241

Predictive permeability model of faults in crystalline rocks; verification by joint hydraulic factor (JH) obtained from water pressure tests  

Science.gov (United States)

In the present study, a new model is proposed to predict the permeability per fracture in the fault zones by a new parameter named joint hydraulic factor (JH). JH is obtained from Water Pressure Test (WPT) and modified by the degree of fracturing. The results of JH correspond with quantitative fault zone descriptions, qualitative fracture, and fault rock properties. In this respect, a case study was done based on the data collected from Seyahoo dam site located in the east of Iran to provide the permeability prediction model of fault zone structures. Datasets including scan-lines, drill cores, and water pressure tests in the terrain of Andesite and Basalt rocks were used to analyse the variability of in-site relative permeability of a range from fault zones to host rocks. The rock mass joint permeability quality, therefore, is defined by the JH. JH data analysis showed that the background sub-zone had commonly proportional relationship for JH approximately 1:4:2 between the fault core, inner damage zone, and outer damage zone of extensional fault zones in crystalline rocks. The results of the verification exercise revealed that the new approach would be efficient and that the JH parameter is a reliable scale for the fracture permeability change. It can be concluded that using short duration hydraulic tests (WPTs) and fracture frequency (FF) to calculate the JH parameter provides a possibility to describe a complex situation and compare, discuss, and weigh the hydraulic quality to make predictions as to the permeability models and permeation amounts of different zone structures.

Barani, Hamidreza Rostami; Lashkaripour, Gholamreza; Ghafoori, Mohammad

2014-08-01

242

Total sleep time obtained from actigraphy versus sleep logs in an academic sleep center and impact on further sleep testing  

Science.gov (United States)

Background While actigraphy has been deemed ideal for the longitudinal assessment of total sleep time (TST) by select groups, endorsement has not been universal and reimbursement is lacking, preventing its widespread use in clinical practice. This study compares longitudinal TST data obtained by actigraphy and logs preceding a clinical evaluation, and secondarily ascertains whether longitudinal TST impacts clinicians’ decisions to proceed with further sleep testing. Methods This was a retrospective, consecutive chart review spanning about 4 months in an academic sleep center. Eighty-four patients wore actigraphs in anticipation of clinical evaluations. Concomitant completion of sleep logs is routinely requested in this setting. Longitudinal TST data available in complete form was reviewed in a blinded fashion among a subset of these patients. A review of text from clinical notes of an expanded cohort with complete actigraphy data (regardless of the degree of completion of logs) enabled determination of the frequency and rationale for cancellation of prescheduled sleep testing. Results Of 84 actigraphy recordings, 90% produced complete data, and 30% produced fully completed logs. Among the subset with both available in complete form, significant mean TST differences were observed on weekends (7.06 ± 2.18 hours versus 8.30 ± 1.93 hours, P = 0.009), but not on weekdays (7.38 ± 1.97 hours versus 7.72 ± 1.62 hours, P = 0.450) for actigraphy and logs, respectively. Further analyses revealed poor agreement between the two measures, with predominantly increased TST estimation with logs. Among those with complete actigraphy data (±logs), testing was cancelled in 11 (15%), eight of whom (73%) presented with hypersomnia and three of whom (27%) presented with insomnia. Determination of insufficient sleep time was cited as the primary reason for cancellation (64%). Conclusion Actigraphy and sleep logs provided discrepant mean TST data on weekends only, and the latter predominantly estimated increased TST. Actigraphy was completed more reliably than logs. Longitudinal TST information influenced clinicians’ decisions to proceed with further testing, particularly among patients presenting with hypersomnia. PMID:24124399

Auger, R Robert; Varghese, Ranji; Silber, Michael H; Slocumb, Nancy L

2013-01-01

243

Factors related to the practice of breast self examination (BSE) and Pap smear screening among Malaysian women workers in selected electronics factories  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background The Malaysian Ministry of Health promotes breast self-examination (BSE) for all women, and Pap smear screening every three years for all sexually active women ages 20 years and above. The objectives of this paper were to examine the practice of these two screening tests among women production workers in electronics factories, and to identify factors related to practice. Methods This was a cross-sectional survey of women production workers fro...

Shamsuddin K; Rashidah S; Hl, Chee; Intan O

2003-01-01

244

The Pap smear screening as an occasion for smoking cessation and physical activity counselling: effectiveness of the SPRINT randomized controlled trial  

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Abstract Background The organized Cervical Cancer Screening Programme (CCSP) in Italy might represent an occasion to deliver smoking cessation (SC) counselling to women attending the Pap test examination. Evidence of effectiveness of physical activity (PA) promotion and intervention in adjunct to SC counselling is not strong. Objective of the SPRINT trial was to evaluate the effectiveness of a standard SC counselling intervention delivered by trained midwives in the CC...

Gorini Giuseppe; Carreras Giulia; Giordano Livia; Anghinoni Emanuela; Iossa Anna; Coppo Alessandro; Talassi Fiorella; Galavotti Maurizio; Chellini Elisabetta

2012-01-01

245

Results obtained during acoustic emission monitoring of proof testing of a large Kevlar/epoxy rocket motor case  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A total of 15 acoustic emission (AE) sensors were used to monitor a large Kevlar 49/epoxy rocket motor case during proof cycles to successively higher levels. Fourteen of the sensors were placed on the composite surface and one sensor was coupled to a stainless steel waveguide which penetrated the full length of the inside of the hydraulically pressurized motor case. To reduce signal propagation losses, the bandpass was chosen to be 5 to 10 kHz. In addition to an Acoustic Emission Technology (AET) 5000 system, Hewlett Packard 3400 A root-mean-square voltmeters, and a 1010 Biomation transient recorder were used to record AE data. The AET system measured rise time, event duration, peak amplitude, and energy (calculated from event duration and peak amplitude) for each AE event. The main purpose of this paper is to present and discuss the AE data obtained by hand post-processing of event listings generated for each proof cycle of the AE data taped by the 5000 system during the test. Real AE signal propagation losses are compared to the losses from Pentel pencil-lead breaks. We present first-hit sensor data for events with high amplitude, energy, and event duration. This data indicated that a certain area of the composite case is the potential region of failure.

Hamstad, M.A.

1982-12-01

246

Analysis of data obtained in combined tests of an electromagnetic liquid argon calorimeter with a hadronic scintillating tile calorimeter  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The future ATLAS experiment at LHC-CERN will include in the central region a calorimeter system composed of two separate units, the Liquid Argon (LAr) electromagnetic calorimeter with hermetic accordion geometry and a scintillating tile hadronic calorimeter, using iron as absorber, in which the tile are placed perpendicular to the colliding beams. This system must be able to identify electrons, photons and jets and to reconstruct their energies and angles as well as to measure the missing transverse energy in the events. Three algorithm, employed to reconstruct the hadron energy, are described. A special interest was devoted to the study of energy deposition in various depth samples of the test calorimeter stack to obtain the longitudinal and transverse shower shapes. The longitudinal profiles in the electromagnetic and hadronic calorimeters for pions with different energies were compared with the Monte Carlo predictions. The GEANT simulations reproduces reasonably well the shape of the data in hadronic compartment, while a difference is observed in the electromagnetic part. We intend to study in more details the problems connected with the energy leakage which cause a degradation of the energy resolution as well as tails in the energy distributions

247

Inhibitory effects of a peptide-fusion protein (Latarcin-PAP1-Thanatin) against chikungunya virus.  

Science.gov (United States)

Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) outbreaks have led to a serious economic burden, as the available treatment strategies can only alleviate disease symptoms, and no effective therapeutics or vaccines are currently available for human use. Here, we report the use of a new cost-effective approach involving production of a recombinant antiviral peptide-fusion protein that is scalable for the treatment of CHIKV infection. A peptide-fusion recombinant protein LATA-PAP1-THAN that was generated by joining Latarcin (LATA) peptide with the N-terminus of the PAP1 antiviral protein, and the Thanatin (THAN) peptide to the C-terminus, was produced in Escherichia coli as inclusion bodies. The antiviral LATA-PAP1-THAN protein showed 89.0% reduction of viral plaque formation compared with PAP1 (46.0%), LATA (67.0%) or THAN (79.3%) peptides alone. The LATA-PAP1-THAN protein reduced the viral RNA load that was 0.89-fold compared with the untreated control cells. We also showed that PAP1 resulted in 0.44-fold reduction, and THAN and LATA resulting in 0.78-fold and 0.73-fold reductions, respectively. The LATA-PAP1-THAN protein inhibited CHIKV replication in the Vero cells at an EC50 of 11.2?g/ml, which is approximately half of the EC50 of PAP1 (23.7?g/ml) and protected the CHIKV-infected mice at the dose of 0.75mg/ml. We concluded that production of antiviral peptide-fusion protein in E. coli as inclusion bodies could accentuate antiviral activities, enhance cellular internalisation, and could reduce product toxicity to host cells and is scalable to epidemic response quantities. PMID:24929084

Rothan, Hussin A; Bahrani, Hirbod; Shankar, Esaki M; Rahman, Noorsaadah Abd; Yusof, Rohana

2014-08-01

248

An "infobutton" for enabling patients to interpret on-line Pap smear reports.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We describe the development of a prototype application that would allow patients with little or no medical background to understand their Pap smear reports. This information button, or "infobutton", is attached to on-line text reports describing Pap smear results present in a medical record system intended for patient access (PatCIS). The infobutton application generates an explanation of terms present in the report and a list of questions related to the terms in the report, which link to pub...

Baorto, D. M.; Cimino, J. J.

2000-01-01

249

Selective indication for positive airway pressure (PAP in sleep-related breathing disorders with obstruction  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Positive airway pressure (PAP is the therapy of choice for most sleep-related breathing disorders (SRBD. A variety of PAP devices using positive airway pressure (CPAP, BiPAP, APAP, ASV must be carefully considered before application. This overview aims to provide criteria for choosing the optimal PAP device according to severity and type of sleep-related breathing disorder. In addition, the range of therapeutic applications, constraints and side effects as well as alternative methods to PAP will be discussed. This review is based on an analysis of current literature and clinical experience. The data is presented from an ENT-sleep-laboratory perspective and is designed to help the ENT practitioner initiate treatment and provide support. Different titration methods, current devices and possible applications will be described. In addition to constant pressure devices (CPAP, most commonly used for symptomatic obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA without complicating conditions, BiPAP models will be introduced. These allow two different positive pressure settings and are thus especially suitable for patients with cardiopulmonary diseases or patients with pressure intolerance, increasing compliance in this subgroup considerably. Compliance can also be increased in patients during first night of therapy, patients with highly variable pressure demands or position-dependent OSA, by using self-regulating Auto-adjust PAP devices (Automatic positive airway pressure, APAP. Patients with Cheyne-Stokes breathing, a subtype of central sleep apnoea, benefit from adaptive servo-ventilation (ASV, which analyzes breathing patterns continually and adjusts the actual ventilation pressure accordingly. This not only reduces daytime sleepiness, but can also influence heart disease positively. Therapy with positive airway pressure is very effective in eliminating obstruction-related sleep diseases and symptoms. However, because therapy is generally applied for life, the optimal PAP device must be carefully selected, taking into account side effects that influence compliance.

Stasche, Norbert

2006-10-01

250

14 CFR 61.405 - What tests do I have to take to obtain a flight instructor certificate with a sport pilot rating?  

Science.gov (United States)

...obtain a flight instructor certificate with a sport pilot rating? 61.405 Section 61...INSTRUCTORS Flight Instructors With a Sport Pilot Rating § 61.405 What tests...obtain a flight instructor certificate with a sport pilot rating? To obtain a flight...

2010-01-01

251

Citologia oncológica, captura de híbridos II e inspeção visual no rastreamento de lesões cervicais Pap smear, hybrid capture II, and visual inspection in screening for uterine cervical lesions  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Avaliar as alterações na citologia oncológica, na captura híbrida II e na inspeção visual com ácido acético (IVA a 5% em 684 mulheres atendidas em uma unidade de saúde, e avaliar o desempenho e a concordância entre os exames. Procurar descrever as características sócio-demográficas e reprodutivas (SDR destas mulheres e sua associação com a presença de doença. As mulheres foram submetidas à coleta de citologia, captura e IVA, e as com exame positivo foram submetidas à colposcopia com biopsia, se necessário. Foi calculado o desempenho dos testes e a associação dos fatores SDR com o diagnóstico histológico foi avaliada por intermédio do cálculo do odds ratio. Embora 198 mulheres apresentassem pelo menos um teste alterado, apenas 21 apresentaram lesão histológica. A sensibilidade dos testes foi semelhante enquanto as especificidades da IVA e da citologia foram maiores que a da captura híbrida II. Apenas a ausência de citologia esteve associada à presença de doença. O desempenho da citologia foi maior que o da IVA, que foi maior que o da captura. A ausência de citologia foi associada com doença histológica.The objective of this study was to evaluate alterations in Pap smear, hybrid capture II (HCII, and visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA in 684 women treated at a primary health care unit. The performance and agreement of the exams were evaluated. The study also described social, demographic, and reproductive factors and their association with uterine cervical lesions. Women had specimens taken for Pap smear, HCII, and VIA. When at least one of the tests was positive, colposcopy was performed and targeted biopsies were taken from any suspicious lesions. Performance of tests was evaluated. Women's distribution in relation to social, demographic, and reproductive factors and histological diagnosis was evaluated using the odds ratio. Among 198 women with at least one positive screening test, only 21 showed histological disease. Sensitivities of the tests were similar. VIA and Pap smear presented higher specificity than HCII. Only absence of a previous Pap smear was associated with the presence of histological disease. Pap smear performed better than VIA and HC II. Absence of previous cytology was associated with histological disease.

Renata Clementino Gontijo

2005-02-01

252

Colposcopic evaluation of cervix with persistent inflammatory Pap smear: A prospective analytical study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Inflammatory Pap smear is the most common report received by a gynecologist. The cervical screening algorithm for benign cellular changes on the Pap smear recommends treatment of infection if indicated and a repeat Pap smear in 4 to 6 months time. If the inflammatory changes still persist, subject the patient to colposcopy. However, in practice, this is not followed, especially in developing countries like ours where proper screening protocols are not available. Hence, a good number of patients in the premalignant stage are being missed. This study was undertaken to evaluate patients with persistent inflammatory Pap smears without atypia using colposcopy. Methods: A prospective analytical study of 150 gynecologial patients with persistent inflammatory Pap smear between 2006 and 2008 in an out-patient setting. All of them were subjected to colposcopy and biopsy from the abnormal areas. The incidence of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN/invasive carcinoma was calculated by proportions/percentages. Results: The incidence of invasive carcinoma was <1%. But, the incidence of pre-malignant lesions (CIN was high (20.9%. CIN 2/3 and carcinoma in situ were present in 6.9% of the cases. Conclusions: Patients with persistent inflammatory Pap smears can harbour a high proportion of CIN and hence these patients will need further evaluation.

Dasari Papa

2010-01-01

253

77 FR 72905 - Pipeline Safety: Random Drug Testing Rate; Contractor MIS Reporting; and Obtaining DAMIS Sign-In...  

Science.gov (United States)

...and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration [Docket...PHMSA-2012-0291] Pipeline Safety: Random Drug Testing Rate; Contractor...and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA...percentage rate for random drug testing, reminder...

2012-12-06

254

THE EFFECT OF AGE ON RESULTS OBTAINED BY MARES DURING STATIONARY AND FIELD PERFORMANCE TESTS CONDUCTED IN POLAND IN THE YEARS 2001-2010  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The study encompassed a population of noble mares, assessed in Poland during performance tests. The statistical analysis pertained to results obtained by warmblood mares within a period of 10 years. Performance tests were conducted in II systems: field and stationary. The analysis encompassed 1490 mares, each of which participated in at least one performance test. The conducted study revealed statistically significant differences between average results obtained by 2-3 year-old mares and 4-ye...

Magdalena Drewka; Monika Monkiewicz; Dominika Gulda

2013-01-01

255

ABNORMAL FINDINGS IN PAP SMEARS: ISFAHAN PROVIENCE 1997-1998  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background. Cervical cancer is a common female malignancy in developing countries. In our health care system, the screening program is performed by doing pap smears with the interval of three years. This study was designed to determine the prevalence and frequency disturbation of abnormal smears. Methods. This is a cross sectional study was done in 1997-1998. Sample group were all the under coverage married women aged 20-65 years who have a factor of referal criteria. Papsmears samples were interpreted by a pathologist. Papsmear results were documented by colposcopy and biopsy. Results. The prevalence of abnormal smears in under coverage women is 0.05 percent. Results of abnormal papsmears due to more investigations (colposcopy and biopsy were: Normal 25 percent, ASCUS 57 percent, CIN 14 percent, CIN 2 1 percent, CIN 3 1 percent invasive cancer 2 percent. Conclusion. Refering of women with abnormal signs such as leukoplakia, cervical erosion, and history of contact bleeding is necessary. The number of false positive results in cytotechnologlsts diagtlosfs is high. This result shows that on-job-training for cytotechnologists is important.

G.H SADRI

2001-06-01

256

ABNORMAL FINDINGS IN PAP SMEARS: ISFAHAN PROVIENCE 1997-1998  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background. Cervical cancer is a common female malignancy in developing countries. In our health care system, the screening program is performed by doing pap smears with the interval of three years. This study was designed to determine the prevalence and frequency disturbation of abnormal smears. Methods. This is a cross sectional study was done in 1997-1998. Sample group were all the under coverage married women aged 20-65 years who have a factor of referal criteria. Papsmears samples were interpreted by a pathologist. Papsmear results were documented by colposcopy and biopsy. Results. The prevalence of abnormal smears in under coverage women is 0.05 percent. Results of abnormal papsmears due to more investigations (colposcopy and biopsy were: Normal 25 percent, ASCUS 57 percent, CIN 14 percent, CIN 2 1 percent, CIN 3 1 percent invasive cancer 2 percent. Conclusion. Refering of women with abnormal signs such as leukoplakia, cervical erosion, and history of contact bleeding is necessary. The number of false positive results in cytotechnologlsts diagtlosfs is high. This result shows that on-job-training for cytotechnologists is important.

GH SADRI

2001-03-01

257

Novel chromatin texture features for the classification of pap smears  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper presents a set of novel structural texture features for quantifying nuclear chromatin patterns in cells on a conventional Pap smear. The features are derived from an initial segmentation of the chromatin into bloblike texture primitives. The results of a comprehensive feature selection experiment, including the set of proposed structural texture features and a range of different cytology features drawn from the literature, show that two of the four top ranking features are structural texture features. They also show that a combination of structural and conventional features yields a classification performance of 0.954±0.019 (AUC±SE) for the discrimination of normal (NILM) and abnormal (LSIL and HSIL) slides. The results of a second classification experiment, using only normal-appearing cells from both normal and abnormal slides, demonstrates that a single structural texture feature measuring chromatin margination yields a classification performance of 0.815±0.019. Overall the results demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed structural approach and that it is possible to detect malignancy associated changes (MACs) in Papanicoloau stain.

Bejnordi, Babak E.; Moshavegh, Ramin; Sujathan, K.; Malm, Patrik; Bengtsson, Ewert; Mehnert, Andrew

2013-03-01

258

The limits of pap smear in diagnosing preinvasive cervical neoplasias  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The cervical-vaginal cytology can be interpreted after many classifications, starting from Babeú- Papanicolaou and ending with the Bethesda system, but no matter what the interpretation manner is it is really important to have a good quality of the smears and an experienced cytologist. If we refer to the total number of cases from the lot presented - 16732 cases, the results are satisfactory; 83% smears having normal limits, 10.14% MCB, 2.71% L-SIL, 0.82% H-SIL, 2.77% ASCUS, 0.10% AGC. In Iaúi there are significantly more patients with benign cell changes and L- SIL, while in Buz?u there are significantly more patients with a normal smear, but there is also a higher frequency of theatypical squamous cells with an undetermined significance. Classically specialists say that 50-75% of the false negative results are due to the errors made when harvesting the sample. In conclusion we estimate that considering the present conditions in our country where the lack of interest and financial possibilities do not allow an action of detecting the lesions of the cervix organized nationwide, we can still make a selection of the cases with a high risk by making a free Pap smear for all the patients that come to a specialized service, either state or private, provided they respect the protocol of harvesting the cervical secretions, of preparing and reading/interpreting the smears.

Ana Maria Crauciuc

2011-12-01

259

Time-dependent effect of p-Aminophenol (PAP) toxicity in renal slices and development of oxidative stress  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

p-Aminophenol (PAP), a metabolite of acetaminophen, is nephrotoxic. This study investigated PAP-mediated changes as a function of time that occur prior to loss of membrane integrity. Experiments further evaluated the development of oxidative stress by PAP. Renal slices from male Fischer 344 (F344) rats (N = 4-6) were exposed to 0.1, 0.25, and 0.5 mM PAP for 15-120 min under oxygen and constant shaking at 37 oC. Pyruvate-stimulated gluconeogenesis, adenine nucleotide levels, and total glutathione (GSH) levels were diminished in a concentration- and time-dependent manner prior to detection of a rise in lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) leakage. Glutathione disulfide (GSSG) levels were increased by PAP suggesting the induction of oxidative stress. Western blot analysis confirmed a rise in 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE)-adducted proteins in tissues exposed to 0.1 and 0.25 mM PAP for 90 min. The appearance of 4-HNE-adducted proteins at the 0.1 mM concentration of PAP occurred prior to development of increased LDH leakage. Pretreatment with 1 mM glutathione (GSH) for 30 min only partially reduced PAP toxicity as LDH values were less severely depleted relative to tissues not pretreated with GSH. In contrast, pretreatment for 15 min with 2 mM ascorbic acid completely protected against PAP toxicity. Further studies showed that ascorbic acid pretreatment prevented PAP-mediated depletion of GSH. In summary, PAP rapidly depletes GSH and adenine nucleotides and inhibits gluconeogenenine nucleotides and inhibits gluconeogenesis prior to a rise in LDH leakage. PAP induces oxidative stress as indicated by an increase in GSSG and 4-HNE-adducted proteins. Ascorbic acid pretreatment prevents PAP toxicity by maintaining GSH status

260

Flavonoid production in transgenic hop (Humulus lupulus L.) altered by PAP1/MYB75 from Arabidopsis thaliana L.  

Science.gov (United States)

Hop is an important source of secondary metabolites, such as flavonoids. Some of these are pharmacologically active. Nevertheless, the concentration of some classes as flavonoids in wild-type plants is rather low. To enhance the production in hop, it would be interesting to modify the regulation of genes in the flavonoid biosynthetic pathway. For this purpose, the regulatory factor PAP1/AtMYB75 from Arabidopsis thaliana L. was introduced into hop plants cv. Tettnanger by Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation. Twenty kanamycin-resistant transgenic plants were obtained. It was shown that PAP1/AtMYB75 was stably incorporated and expressed in the hop genome. In comparison to the wild-type plants, the color of female flowers and cones of transgenic plants was reddish to pink. Chemical analysis revealed higher levels of anthocyanins, rutin, isoquercitin, kaempferol-glucoside, kaempferol-glucoside-malonate, desmethylxanthohumol, xanthohumol, ?-acids and ?-acids in transgenic plants compared to wild-type plants. PMID:21912858

Gatica-Arias, A; Farag, M A; Stanke, M; Matoušek, J; Wessjohann, L; Weber, G

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
261

A Hybrid Computational Intelligence Approach Combining Genetic Programming And Heuristic Classification for Pap-Smear Diagnosis  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The paper suggests the combined use of different computational intelligence (CI) techniques in a hybrid scheme, as an effective approach to medical diagnosis. Getting to know the advantages and disadvantages of each computational intelligence technique in the recent years, the time has come for proposing successful combinations of CI tools and techniques for the improvement of decision making, Diagnosis and classification in complex domains of application. In the current approach genetic programming is embedded within a heuristic scheme for classification of medical records into different diagnoses. The final result is a short but robust rule based classification scheme, achieving high degree of classification accuracy (exceeding 90% of accuracy for most classes) in a meaningful and user-friendly representation form for the medical expert. The domain of application analyzed through the paper is the well-known Pap-Test problem, corresponding to a numerical database, which consists of 450 medical records, 25 diagnostic attributes and 5 different diagnostic classes. Experimental data are divided in two equal parts for the training and testing phase, and 8 mutually dependent rules for diagnosis are generated. Medical experts comment on the nature, the meaning and the usability of the acquired results.

Jantzen, Jan

2001-01-01

262

Comparison of dissolution profiles obtained from nifedipine extended release once a day products using different dissolution test apparatuses.  

Science.gov (United States)

In order to improve the predictability of dissolution testing new apparatuses have been proposed that mimic hydrodynamic and mechanical conditions in the gastrointestinal tract. In this study tested were four different nifedipine extended release (ER) formulations using the paddle apparatus and the reciprocating cylinder as pharmacopoeial test devices as well as two newly developed test apparatuses: the rotating beaker apparatus and the dissolution stress test apparatus. Investigated were Adalat OROS in strengths of 30 and 60 mg, and two hydrophilic matrix formulations: 60 mg nifedipine Coral and Nifedipin Sandoz 40 mg retard. The results demonstrate that the dissolution characteristic of the ER tablets is strongly dependent on the applied test conditions. The dosage form related food effects for Coral 60 mg tablets that were previously observed in human bioequivalence studies could be predicted with the two non-compendial dissolution test devices. The dissolution of Sandoz 40 mg tablets was very sensitive to all applied test conditions. The stable drug delivery characteristics of Adalat OROS observed in numerous in vivo studies was also observed in all of the dissolution tests. In conclusion, the present study shows that besides pH dependency the aspect of the mechanical robustness may be an essential factor affecting the dissolution characteristic of hydrogel matrix formulations. PMID:19591927

Garbacz, Grzegorz; Golke, Berit; Wedemeyer, Ralph-Steven; Axell, Marie; Söderlind, Erik; Abrahamsson, Bertil; Weitschies, Werner

2009-09-10

263

Instrumented impact testing as a way to obtain further information on the behaviour of steel in welded constructions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Based on experience gained from instrumented impact testing of ten different mild steels using test pieces of different geometrical shape (Charpy V-notch, Charpy knife-notch, DVM, Schnadt K0, Ksub(0.5), K1 and K2), some general features of the fracture process during impact testing are discussed. Steels can be divided into two main groups that are significantly different with respect to the behaviour during Charpy V-notch testing. The difference vanishes when a crack-like notch is used, and other properties of steel are revealed. It is evident that, even when modified impact testing bears little resemblance to what is happening in an actual steel construction. For the purpose of investigating the fracture conditions in welds, it seems more significant to relate the dynamic aspects to the speed of propagation of the crack when it starts to penetrate the volume considered at a certain stress level. (author)

264

DEVELOPMENT OF A PEROXIDASE-ANTIPEROXIDASE (PAP) TECHNIQUE FOR THE IDENTIFICATION OF HAEMOPHILUS-SOMNUS IN PNEUMONIC CALF LUNGS IN DENMARK  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

A peroxidase-antiperoxidase (PAP) technique was developed for the identification of Haemophilus somnus bacteria in lung tissues of calves. Antisera raised against somatic and wall antigens of a Danish and American strain of H. somnus were produced. Experimentally infected murine tissues were used for the determination of the sensitivity and specificity of antiserum that had been heterologously absorbed with antigens of cross-reacting bacteria, i.e. Pasteurella haemolytica and Pasteurella multocida. None of the antisera reacted with Actinomyces pyogenes. An antiserum raised against somatic antigens of the Danish strain of H. somnus revealed the highest sensitivity in the PAP technique and became specific following absorption. Heterologous absorption also rendered this antiserum specific in crossed immunoelectrophoresis. Subsequently, the PAP technique was applied on formalin-fixed pneumonic lung tissues of 86 calves. An immunodiagnosis of H. somnus pneumonia was obtained in 15 of 17 lungs from which the bacterium had been isolated. Moreover, immunostained bacteria were also demonstrated in 20 lungs from which H. somnus had not been isolated. Thus, application of immunohistochemistry significantly enhanced the diagnostic sensitivity of H. somnus pneumonia of calves and should be used as a potent supplementary tool for the routine screening of suspected lung tissues of calves from which bacterial isolation is negative.

1995-01-01

265

Psychosocial burden of abnormal pap smears among HIV-infected women at Chon Buri hospital, Thailand.  

Science.gov (United States)

This retrospective case-control study assessed the psychological burden of abnormal Pap smears, and their prevalence and characteristics among HIV-infected women attending an HIV clinic. Women with positive (n = 73) and negative Pap-smear results (n = 317) were assessed for psychosocial burden using 4 questionnaires: Psycho-Social Impact of Abnormal Pap Smears (PEAPS-Q), Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), Work Productivity and Impairment (WPAI) and the EURO-Qol Thermometer. The prevalence of pre-cervical cancer lesions in HIV infected woman was 17.5% (ASCUS 2.9%, LSIL 3.8%, HSIL 7.4%, SCC 1.7%, and atypical glandular cells including adenocarcinoma 1.7%). HIV infected women with abnormal Pap smears showed higher anxiety levels on the HADS questionnaire (p = 0.015); this had a significant effect on regular daily activities (p = 0.009) per the WPAI questionnaire compared to HIV positive women with normal Pap smear. Ever married HIV infected woman with an abnormal Pap smear had a significantly lower psychosocial burden using the PEAPS-Q questionnaire (p < 0.001). After adjusting for age and duration since last Pap smear, the education level of the patient was a strong predictor for anxiety. Patients, with a college education had significantly lower anxiety (p = 0.001, 95% CI -5.74 to -1.37) than those with lower or higher education. Women with HSIL were more anxious (p = 0.014, 95% CI 0.49 -4.39) than those with low grade or normal lesions. PMID:20578502

Jayathunge, Mangala P H; Bowanwatanuwong, Chureeratana; Maek-A-nantawat, Wirach; Pitisuttithum, Benjaluck Phonratland Punnee

2010-01-01

266

Salt Repository Project: Data report on corrosion results obtained from excess-salt corrosion test Matrix 1  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The test discussed in this data report was directed at determining the response of the reference A216 grade WCA steel when it is exposed to anoxic excess-salt conditions at 1500C. The environment used in the test was intended to duplicate the intrusion brine scenario (i.e., the formation of brine by the intrusion of water from an outside source into the repository, with the formation of brine through dissolution of salt from the repository horizon). The salt-brine environment used in the test therefore reflected the expected gross salt composition of the repository horizon

267

Dukungan Suami Terhadap Tindakan Ibu Dalam Melakukan Pap Smear Di Kelurahan Sitirejo I Kecamatan Medan Kota Tahun 2012  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Cervical cancer is a malignant tumour which grows in the cerviks. To detect the exixtence of the cervical cancer earlier is through pap smear examination. Pap smear will be implemented well with the husband supports. This study aimed to determine husband supports of mothers’s action for pap smear in Kelurahan Sitirejo I Kecamatan Medan Kota in 2012. This study was descriptive quantitative. The number of respondents in this study was 87 husbands of productive-age couples an...

Melisa, Lenni

2013-01-01

268

Pengetahuan, Sikap dan Tindakan Mahasiswi Terhadap Pemeriksaan Pap's smear di Fakultas Kesehatan Masyarakat Universitas Sumatera Utara tahun 2004  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Salah satu pemeriksaan kesehatan yang sangat penting bagi wanita adalah pemeriksaan Pap's smear. Pap's smear merupakan pemeriksaan sitologi cairan selaput lendir rahim serta selaput lendir vagina untuk mendeteksi secara dini kanker leher rahim. Walaupun pemeriksaan Pap's smear tidak diragukan lagi manfaatnya, ada juga orang yang masih enggan melakukan pemeriksaan ini. Ternyata manfaat positif pemeriksaan kesehatan bagi seseorang belum tentu dirasakan sama untuk orang lain. Penelitian ini b...

Rachmi, Emi

2012-01-01

269

A recursive spectral selection scheme for unsupervised segmentation of multispectral Pap smear image sets  

Science.gov (United States)

Efficient computer-aided cervical cancer detection can improve both the accuracy and the productivity of cytotechnologists and pathologists. Nuclear segmentation is essential to automated screening, and is still a challenge. We propose and demonstrate a novel approach to improving segmentation performance by multispectral imaging followed by unsupervised nuclear segmentation relying on selecting a useful subset of spectral or derived image features. In the absence of prior knowledge, feature selection can be negatively affected by the bias, present in most unsupervised segmentation, to erroneously segment out small objects, yielding ill-balanced class samples. To address this issue, we first introduce a new measurement, Criterion Vector (CV), measuring the distances between the segmentation result and the original data. This efficiently reduces the bias generated by feature selection. Second, we apply a novel recursive feature selection scheme, to generate a new feature subset based on the corresponding CV, ensuring that the correct part of the initial segmentation results is used to obtain better feature subsets. We studied the speed and accuracy of our two-step algorithm in analyzing a number of multispectral Pap smear image sets. The results show high accuracy of segmentation, as well as great reduction of spectral redundancy. The nuclear segmentation accuracy can reach over 90%, by selecting as few as 4 distinct spectra out of 30.

Zhao, Tong; Wachman, Elliot S.; Geyer, Stanley J.; Farkas, Daniel L.

2004-07-01

270

Acquirement of True Stress-strain Curve Using True Fracture Strain Obtained by Tensile Test and FE Analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this work, we predict a true fracture strain using load-displacement curves from tensile test and finite element analysis (FEA), and suggest a method for acquiring true stress-strain (SS) curves by predicted fracture strain. We first derived the true SS curve up to necking point from load-displacement curve. As the beginning, the posterior necking part of true SS curve is linearly extrapolated with the slope at necking point. The whole SS curve is then adopted for FE simulation of tensile test. The Bridgman factor or suitable plate correction factors are applied to pre and post FEA. In the load-true strain curve from FEA, the true fracture strain is determined as the matching point to test fracture load. The determined true strain is validated by comparing with test fracture strain. Finally, we complete the true SS curve by combining the prior necking part and linear part, the latter of which connects necking and predicted fracture points

271

Acquirement of true stress-strain curve using true fracture strain obtained by tensile test and FE analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this work, we predict a true fracture strain using load-displacement curves from tensile test and Finite Element Analysis (FEA), and suggest a method for acquiring true Stress-Strain (SS) curves by predicted fracture strain. We first derived the true SS curve up to necking point from load-displacement curve. As the beginning, the posterior necking part of true SS curve is linearly extrapolated with the slope at necking point. The whole SS curve is then adopted for FE simulation of tensile test. The Bridgman factor or suitable plate correction factors are applied to pre and post FEA. In the load-true strain curve from FEA, the true fracture strain is determined as the matching point to test fracture load. The determined true strain is validated by comparing with test fracture strain. Finally, we complete the true SS curve by combining the prior necking part and linear part, the latter of which connects necking and predicted fracture points.

272

THE EFFECT OF THE BREED OF WARMBLOOD MARES ON RESULTS OBTAINED DURING STATIONARY AND FIELD PERFORMANCE TESTS IN POLAND IN THE YEARS 2001-2010  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The aim of the research was to determine the effect of breed on results obtained by warmblood mares during stationary and field performance tests. Research encompassed results obtained by 1490 mares participating in stationary and field performance tests in Poland in the years 2001-2010. The population was comprised of 17 breeds. Name abbreviations are displayed in Table 1. As a result of significant differences in the number of individual animals comprising each breed and in order to maintai...

Magdalena Drewka; Monika Monkiewicz; Dominika Gulda

2013-01-01

273

Gambaran Tingkat Pengetahuan Wanita tentang Deteksi Dini Kanker Serviks dengan Pemeriksaan Pap Smear di Kelurahan Gedung Johor  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Pap Smear is one of the method for cervical cancer screening which is effective, simple, and cost-effective. By applying Pap Smear in developed countries, the incidence of invasive cervical cancer has been reduced from 45 case per 100.000 until 15 case per 100.000 women’s and the mortality has been decreased around 40%. But in Indonesian, many women population who haven’t do regular Pap Smear screening. This may have been influenced by lack of public education about Pap Smear. This s...

Harahap, Rinal Baharsyah

2011-01-01

274

Problems in obtaining sufficient anaesthesia with propofol and remifentanil : three cases, a test infusion, and a review  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

BACKGROUND: /st>Over a 5 yr period, we have encountered three patients in whom remifentanil appeared to have no clinical effect during general anaesthesia (GA). We describe seven anaesthetics in these three patients. METHODS: /st>We reviewed the literature on this subject. A simple reproducible test to explore this response was designed. This involved a controlled infusion of increasing doses of remifentanil while observing respiratory variables, pain threshold, pupil size, and Glasgow coma scale score. In addition, blood was sampled for genotyping. RESULTS: /st>No description of this impaired response was found in the review of the literature. Two of the patients agreed to participate in the test. In both patients, we found a seemingly normal analgesic response but a lack of respiratory depression and almost no depression of consciousness, even at doses well above the recommended level for clinical use. The genotyping did not explain the results of the test. CONCLUSIONS: /st>The potential causes of this effect are discussed. We advise clinicians to be aware of this unusual response to remifentanil. If such a response is suspected, we recommend the use of another opioid. If this is suspected before GA, we propose the use of our test as a diagnostic tool.

Bache, Stefan Holst; Stendell, L

2013-01-01

275

Physical Activity and Cervical Cancer Testing among American Indian Women  

Science.gov (United States)

Purpose: Studies have shown that women who engage in high levels of physical activity have higher rates of cancer screening, including Papanicalaou (Pap) tests. Because American Indian (AI) women are at high risk for cervical cancer morbidity and mortality, we examined Pap screening prevalence and assessed whether physical activity was associated…

Muus, Kyle J.; Baker-Demaray, Twyla B.; Bogart, T. Andy; Duncan, Glen E.; Jacobsen, Clemma; Buchwald, Dedra S.; Henderson, Jeffrey A.

2012-01-01

276

Asistencia a Citología del Cuello Uterino y sus Determinantes en una Población Rural Colombiana, 1998-1999 Use and determinants of Pap smear in a rural Colombian municipality 1998-1999  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objetivos Establecer la prevalencia de uso de la citología del cuello uterino e identificar los factores que determinan la asistencia a este examen. Métodos Estudio de corte transversal en voluntarias de un programa de prevención de cáncer de cuello uterino realizado en Mogotes, Colombia. Se calcularon razones de prevalencia (RP. La variable dependiente fue el antecedente de asistencia a citología. Se recolectaron características sociodemográficas, clínicas, familiares y de hábitos. Resultados La prevalencia de asistencia previa a citología fue 67,3 %. A mayor edad de la mujer aumentaba la probabilidad de tener una citología anterior. El uso de métodos de planificación familiar que requerían control (RP: 1,4; IC95%: 1,2-1,7 y la residencia rural (RP: 0,9; IC95%: 0,8-1,0 también fueron factores que determinaron su utilización. Conclusiones Estos datos confirman que vivir en zonas rurales está asociado con una menor oportunidad de la mujer para acceder al examen citológico.Objectives Determining the prevalence of Pap smear use and identifying the factors associated with Pap test performance. Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out on volunteer women recruited from a local programme for detecting cervical cancer in Mogotes, Colombia. Prevalence ratios (PR were calculated. Papanicolau smear use was the outcome being measured. Information about demographic characteristics, clinical factors, history of cancer in the family, lifestyle factors and using birth control methods was collected. Results Pap smear use prevalence was 67,3 %. Age group, using birth control methods (PR:1,4; 95 %CI:1,2-1,7 and living in rural settings (PR:0,9; 95 %CI:0,8-1,0 were the factors associated with Pap test performance. Conclusions This data suggests that living in rural settings is associated with decreased opportunities for performing Pap tests.

Miguel A. Castro-Jiménez

277

Reliability and validity of physiological data obtained within a cycle-run transition test in age-group triathletes.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examined the validity and reliability of a sequential "Run-Bike-Run" test (RBR) in age-group triathletes. Eight Olympic distance (OD) specialists (age 30.0 ± 2.0 years, mass 75.6 ± 1.6 kg, run VO2max 63.8 ± 1.9 ml· kg(-1)· min(-1), cycle VO2peak 56.7 ± 5.1 ml· kg(-1)· min(-1)) performed four trials over 10 days. Trial 1 (TRVO2max) was an incremental treadmill running test. Trials 2 and 3 (RBR1 and RBR2) involved: 1) a 7-min run at 15 km· h(-1) (R1) plus a 1-min transition to 2) cycling to fatigue (2 W· kg(-1) body mass then 30 W each 3 min); 3) 10-min cycling at 3 W· kg(-1) (Bsubmax); another 1-min transition and 4) a second 7-min run at 15 km· h(-1) (R2). Trial 4 (TT) was a 30-min cycle - 20-min run time trial. No significant differences in absolute oxygen uptake (VO2), heart rate (HR), or blood lactate concentration ([BLA]) were evidenced between RBR1 and RBR2. For all measured physiological variables, the limits of agreement were similar, and the mean differences were physiologically unimportant, between trials. Low levels of test-retest error (i.e. ICC TT performance. Cycle VO2peak, cycle peak power output, and the change between R1 and R2 (deltaR1R2) in [BLA] were most highly related to overall TT distance (r = 0.89, p TT distance (r = -0.83 and 0.86, both p < 0.05). PMID:24150086

Vleck, Veronica; Millet, Gregoire P; Alves, Francisco Bessone; Bentley, David J

2012-01-01

278

Radioimmunological and enzymatic assay for prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP) in prostatic cancer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Serum prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP) level was determined by radioimmunoassay (RIA) in 272 patients. For comparative purposes PAP was also measured by an enzymatic assay. In prostate adenocarcinoma 55% of the values were elevated. In early stages (A and B) 17% of patients were found to be positive; at later stages (C and D) the percentage increased to 78%. The enzymatic method yielded 46% positive values in these patients: 17% in the former group (A+B), and 64% in the latter one (C+D). False positive values were observed in 10% of the patients with prostate adenoma, and 22% of the patients with prostatis. The data confirm the low sensitivity of RIA (and enzymatic assay) for detecting early intracapsular disease. RIA determination of PAP is a good diagnostic tool for advanced cancer of the prostate. (author)

279

Isospin decomposition of nuclear multipole matrix elements from ? decay rates of mirror transitions: Test of values obtained with hadronic probes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The electromagnetic decay rates of mirror states are used to decompose the multipole electromagnetic matrix elements into isoscalar and isovector or equivalently proton and neutron matrix elements. This method is sensitive to the neutron matrix element because it is measured directly, and it is accurate since it depends only on electromagnetic interactions; it therefore can be used to test methods using inelastic hadron scattering. There is agreement with the results for (?,?') on 26Mg and 42Ca but disagreement with the recent 18O(?,?') experiments

280

Reliability Criteria for Testing the Goodness of the Activation Energy Values Obtained by the Peak Shape Methods in Thermoluminescence Experiments  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this study is to give some expressions able to give a criteria of acceptance for the activation energy values determined through the so called peak shape methods. The expressions are derived for both first and second order kinetics. Furthermore, using approximations concerning the peak temperature parameters, the reliability expressions are simplified for getting a more quickly criteria of acceptance. A table lists several data, from literature, concerning the activation energy determined for various Thermoluminescence materials; the experimental values are then tested using the criteria of acceptance showing the goodness of the method here presented in this research.

G. Kitis

2005-01-01

 
 
 
 
281

RELIABILITY AND VALIDITY OF PHYSIOLOGICAL DATA OBTAINED WITHIN A CYCLE-RUN TRANSITION TEST IN AGE-GROUP TRIATHLETES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study examined the validity and reliability of a sequential "Run-Bike-Run" test (RBR in age-group triathletes. Eight Olympic distance (OD specialists (age 30.0 ± 2.0 years, mass 75.6 ± 1.6 kg, run VO2max 63.8 ± 1.9 ml·kg-1·min-1, cycle VO2peak 56.7 ± 5.1 ml·kg-1·min-1 performed four trials over 10 days. Trial 1 (TRVO2max was an incremental treadmill running test. Trials 2 and 3 (RBR1 and RBR2 involved: 1 a 7-min run at 15 km·h-1 (R1 plus a 1-min transition to 2 cycling to fatigue (2 W·kg-1 body mass then 30 W each 3 min; 3 10-min cycling at 3 W·kg-1 (Bsubmax; another 1-min transition and 4 a second 7-min run at 15 km·h-1 (R2. Trial 4 (TT was a 30-min cycle - 20-min run time trial. No significant differences in absolute oxygen uptake (VO2, heart rate (HR, or blood lactate concentration ([BLA] were evidenced between RBR1 and RBR2. For all measured physiological variables, the limits of agreement were similar, and the mean differences were physiologically unimportant, between trials. Low levels of test-retest error (i.e. ICC <0.8, CV<10% were observed for most (logged measurements. However [BLA] post R1 (ICC 0.87, CV 25.1%, [BLA] post Bsubmax (ICC 0.99, CV 16.31 and [BLA] post R2 (ICC 0.51, CV 22.9% were least reliable. These error ranges may help coaches detect real changes in training status over time. Moreover, RBR test variables can be used to predict discipline specific and overall TT performance. Cycle VO2peak, cycle peak power output, and the change between R1 and R2 (deltaR1R2 in [BLA] were most highly related to overall TT distance (r = 0.89, p < 0. 01; r = 0.94, p < 0.02; r = 0.86, p < 0.05, respectively. The percentage of TR VO2max at 15 km·h-1, and deltaR1R2 HR, were also related to run TT distance (r = -0.83 and 0.86, both p < 0.05

Veronica Vleck

2012-12-01

282

Prediction of inappropriate implantable cardioverter-defibrillator therapies through parameters obtained in a simple exercise stress test.  

Science.gov (United States)

Although the clinical benefits of implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs) have been demonstrated, inappropriate therapies (IATs) cannot be completely avoided even with the most advanced devices. Recently, IATs are considered to decrease the ventricular function and prognosis of a patient. The aim of this study was to investigate the predictors of IAT with parameters during cardiopulmonary exercise stress test (CPX). Sixty consecutive ICD patients underwent symptom-limited CPX, and were divided into IAT (+) and IAT (-) groups. During and after CPX, ECG and hemodynamic parameters of systemic blood pressure, heart rate, and maximal O2 consumption (max VO2) were evaluated every minute. In selected patients, sympathetic and parasympathetic activities were evaluated with analyses of heart rate variability (HRV). No significant differences were observed in clinical background parameters. In the CPX parameters, only the maximal heart rate exhibited a significant difference between the IAT (+) group and the IAT (-) group (154.8 ± 5.9 versus 137.9 ± 4.2 beats per minute, P = 0.032), and LF/HF was higher during the recovery phase 4 minutes after peak exercise in the former group (4.5 ± 1.0 versus 2.4 ± 0.9, P = 0.021). In ICD patients, IAT can be predicted using simple parameters of increased sympathetic activity such as increased maximal heart rate and increased LF/HF ratio during and after the exercise stress test. PMID:23038087

Satoh, Akira; Niwano, Shinichi; Niwano, Hiroe; Kamiya, Kentaro; Kishihara, Jun; Aoyama, Yuya; Kameda, Ryo; Oikawa, Jun; Yuge, Masaru; Izumi, Tohru

2012-01-01

283

Experience obtained with design qualification tests and design qualification approvals of installed measuring systems for radiation protection purposes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Installed dose ratemeters are used for continuous monitoring purposes. Their measuring capacities encompass up to 9 decades, and many instruments are equipped with automatic data recording systems. Almost every system has an alarm system sounding acoustic or optical alarm upon measured values exceeding a programmed threshold value. Measured data readout systems often are installed at a distance of up to several hundred meters from the measuring site, and frequently there are several probes sending their measured values to the recording system. Dose ratemeters for photon radiation have to be calibrated for specific measuring tasks defined by the calibration ordinance. The PTB since 1983 is the institute responsible for examination and approval of dose ratemeters and presents in this paper the rich experience obtained and the difficulties encountered with dose ratemeters equipped with microprocessors. (orig./CB)

284

Protein binding associated with exposure to fluorotelomer alcohols (FTOHs) and polyfluoroalkyl phosphate esters (PAPs) in rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

The biotransformation of fluorotelomer-based compounds such as fluorotelomer alcohols (FTOHs) and polyfluoroalkyl phosphate esters (PAPs) are sources of exposure to perfluorinated carboxylates (PFCAs), leading in part to the observation of significant concentrations of PFCAs in human blood. The biotransformation of FTOHs and PAPs yield intermediate metabolites that have been observed to covalently modify proteins. In the current investigation, the extent of covalent protein binding in Sprague-Dawley rats upon exposure to 8:2 FTOH and the 6:2 polyfluoroalkyl phosphate diester (6:2 diPAP) was quantified. The animals were administered a single dose of 8:2 FTOH or 6:2 diPAP at 100 mg/kg by oral gavage to monitor biotransformation and extent of protein binding within the liver, kidney, and plasma. In the 8:2 FTOH-dosed animals, perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) was produced as the primary PFCA, at 623.13 ± 59.3, 459.5 ± 171.8, and 397.3 ± 133.0 ng/g in the plasma, liver, and kidney, respectively. For the animals exposed to 6:2 diPAPs, perfluorohexanoate (PFHxA) was the primary PFCA produced, with maximum concentrations of 57.4 ± 6.5, 9.0 ± 1.2, and 25.3 ± 1.2 ng/g in the plasma, liver, and kidney, respectively. Protein binding was observed in the plasma, liver, and kidney after 8:2 FTOH and 6:2 diPAP exposure, with the most significant binding occurring in the liver (>100 nmol/g protein). This is the first study to link the exposure and in vivo biotransformation of fluorotelomer-based compounds to covalent protein binding. PMID:24460105

Rand, Amy A; Mabury, Scott A

2014-02-18

285

Reconstruction of $^{60}$Co Radiation Source Locations Using Goodness-of-Fit Tests on Spectra Obtained from an HPGe Detector  

CERN Document Server

High purity germanium (HPGe) detectors are ubiquitous in nuclear physics experiments and are also used in numerous low radioactive background detectors, including the proposed {\\sc Majorana} experiment. Spatial reconstruction of the location of radiation sources from spectral distortions could be used to locate unwanted backgrounds or "hot-spots" inside the detector shield. The effect of the position of a $^{60}$Co point source on the shape of spectra was studied with both Monte Carlo and HPGe detector measurements. We briefly confirm previous work on the position dependence of relative heights of peaks. Spectra taken with the radiation source placed at locations around the detector were then compared using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov (K-S) goodness-of-fit test. We discuss the position reconstruction accuracy of this statistical method, which is promising.

Evans, L T; De, R; Henning, R; Morgan, E D

2009-01-01

286

The accuracy of Pap smear utilization self-report: a methodological consideration in cervical screening research.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

One method used to determine utilization rates of cervical screening is women's self-report. Few studies have assessed the accuracy of this measure--none has been conducted in Australia--although there are a number of reasons for suspecting its validity. This study examined and quantified the accuracy of self-report of Pap smear use among a randomly selected sample of women from an Australian community. Accuracy of Pap smear utilization self-report within a three-year period was assessed by c...

Bowman, J. A.; Redman, S.; Dickinson, J. A.; Gibberd, R.; Sanson-fisher, R. W.

1991-01-01

287

Impact of English Language Proficiency on Receipt of Pap Smears Among Hispanics  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Our aim was to assess the impact of English language proficiency on Pap smear use among Hispanics. We performed a cross-sectional study using 2000 National Health Interview Survey data and included 2,331 Hispanic women, age ?18 without a hysterectomy. After adjusting for sociodemographic and access factors, highly proficient English speakers were more likely to report a Pap smear in the past 3 years as compared to low proficient (adjusted prevalence ratio, 1.16; 95% confidence interval, 1.0...

Alba, Israel; Sweningson, Jamie M.; Chandy, Christa; Hubbell, Fallan

2004-01-01

288

Tingkat Pengetahuan Ibu-Ibu Di Daerah Komplek Pondok Surya Tentang Pap Smear  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Cervical cancer is the second-most in the world of cancer in women. A proven way to prevent cervical cancer is by screening to find pre-cancer lesion before it becomes invasive cancer. Pap Smear screening is most commonly screening method done on women at high risk age. This research aims to find out the level of knowledge among mothers reside in kompleks pondok surya on Pap smear as an effort to prevent cervical cancer. A cross sectional study w ith a total of 113 samples whic...

Nasution, Hadhinah Rasiqah

2014-01-01

289

Global transcriptome analysis of AtPAP2--overexpressing Arabidopsis thaliana with elevated ATP  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

BACKGROUND: AtPAP2 is a purple acid phosphatase that is targeted to both chloroplasts and mitochondria. Over-expression (OE) lines of AtPAP2 grew faster, produced more seeds, and contained higher leaf sucrose and glucose contents. The present study aimed to determine how high energy status affects leaf and root transcriptomes. RESULTS: ATP and ADP levels in the OE lines are 30-50% and 20-50% higher than in the wild-type (WT) plants. Global transcriptome analyses indicated that transcriptional...

Sun, F.; Liang, C.; Whelan, J.; Yang, J.; Zhang, P.; Lim, Bl

2013-01-01

290

THE EFFECT OF THE BREED OF WARMBLOOD MARES ON RESULTS OBTAINED DURING STATIONARY AND FIELD PERFORMANCE TESTS IN POLAND IN THE YEARS 2001-2010  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of the research was to determine the effect of breed on results obtained by warmblood mares during stationary and field performance tests. Research encompassed results obtained by 1490 mares participating in stationary and field performance tests in Poland in the years 2001-2010. The population was comprised of 17 breeds. Name abbreviations are displayed in Table 1. As a result of significant differences in the number of individual animals comprising each breed and in order to maintain the comparability of results, the entire population was divided into four breed groups: Half-Blood, Greater Poland, Lesser Poland and foreign breeds. Minimal and maximum score ranges were shown, as well as mathematical averages (MA and standard deviation (SD in the studied population. Statistical differences between average utility point values obtained by the horse breeds were analyzed using the Kruskal-Wallis test.

Magdalena Drewka

2013-12-01

291

CNS activity of Pokeweed Anti-viral Protein (PAP in mice infected with Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis Virus (LCMV  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Others and we have previously described the potent in vivo and in vitro activity of the broad-spectrum antiviral agent PAP (Pokeweed antiviral protein against a wide range of viruses. The purpose of the present study was to further elucidate the anti-viral spectrum of PAP by examining its effects on the survival of mice challenged with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV. Methods We examined the therapeutic effect of PAP in CBA mice inoculated with intracerebral injections of the WE54 strain of LCMV at a 1000 PFU dose level that is lethal to 100% of mice within 7–9 days. Mice were treated either with vehicle or PAP administered intraperitoneally 24 hours prior to, 1 hour prior to and 24 hours, 48 hours 72 hours and 96 hours after virus inoculation. Results PAP exhibits significant in vivo anti- LCMV activity in mice challenged intracerebrally with an otherwise invariably fatal dose of LCMV. At non-toxic dose levels, PAP significantly prolonged survival in the absence of the majority of disease-associated symptoms. The median survival time of PAP-treated mice was >21 days as opposed to 7 days median survival for the control (p = 0.0069. Conclusion Our results presented herein provide unprecedented experimental evidence that PAP exhibits antiviral activity in the CNS of LCMV-infected mice.

Tibbles Heather E

2005-02-01

292

An Artificial PAP Gene Breaks Self-tolerance and Promotes Tumor Regression in the TRAMP Model for Prostate Carcinoma  

Science.gov (United States)

Prostate cancer (PCa) is the most commonly diagnosed type of cancer in men in western industrialized countries. As a public health burden, the need for the invention of new cost-saving PCa immunotherapies is apparent. In this study, we present a DNA vaccine encoding for the prostate-specific antigen prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP) linked to the J-domain and the SV40 enhancer sequence. The PAP DNA vaccine induced a strong PAP-specific cellular immune response after electroporation (EP)-based delivery in C57BL/6 mice. Splenocytes from mice immunized with PAP recognized the naturally processed PAP epitopes, indicating that vaccination with the PAP-J gene broke its self-tolerance against PAP. Remarkably, DNA vaccination with PAP-J inhibited tumor growth in the Transgenic Adenocarcinoma of the Mouse Prostate (TRAMP) mouse model that closely resembled human PCa. Therefore, this study highlights a novel cancer immunotherapy approach with the potential to control PCa in clinical settings. PMID:22086231

Spies, Elmar; Reichardt, Wilfried; Alvarez, Gerardo; Groettrup, Marcus; ohlschlager, Peter

2012-01-01

293

Outline of test and research results obtained with research commissioning expense for peaceful use of atomic energy in fiscal 1981  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report was compiled by the Atomic Energy Bureau, Science and Technology Agency. Six reports on radiation injury prevention, six reports on radiation utilization, and three reports on nuclear fuel cycle are collected, and the outline of respective tests and research is described. In radiation injury prevention, the scattering of radioisotopes, the evaluation of gaseous radioactive nuclides, the distribution and the behavior of natural and artificial radioactive nuclides, the risk estimation of delayed injuries and hereditary injuries due to low dose radiation, and the epidemiologic study of the group repeatedly exposed to low dose for radiation risk estimation were taken up. In radiation utilization, the hereditary safety of irradiated foods, the automation of the production of short life, RI-labeled compounds, the safety of radioisotope-using facilities in earthquakes, the techniques of treating radioactive wastes in RI utilization, the cleaning of radioactivity-contaminated things with organic solvent, and the facility for treating radioactive liquid using a new filter were studied. In nuclear fuel cycle, the behavior of uranium hexafluoride in fire, the dynamic concentrated management system for the information on safeguard measures and the low level radioactive wastes produced in fuel fabrication establishments were researched. (Kako, I.)

294

Automated segmentation and analysis of fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) signals in interphase nuclei of pap-smear specimens  

Science.gov (United States)

Interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) technology is a potential and promising molecular imaging tool, which can be applied to screen and detect cervical cancer. However, manual FISH detection method is a subjective, tedious, and time-consuming process that results in a large inter-reader variability and possible detection error (in particular for heterogeneous cases). Automatic FISH image analysis aims to potentially improve detection efficiency and also produce more accurate and consistent results. In this preliminary study, a new computerized scheme is developed to automatically segment analyzable interaphase cells and detect FISH signals using digital fluorescence microscopic images acquired from Pap-smear specimens. First, due to the large intensity variations of the acquired interphase cells and overlapping cells, an iterative (multiple) threshold method and a feature-based classifier are applied to detect and segment all potentially analyzable interphase nuclei depicted on a single image frame. Second, a region labeling algorithm followed up a knowledge-based classifier is implemented to identify splitting and diffused FISH signals. Finally, each detected analyzable cell is classified as normal or abnormal based on the automatically counted number of FISH signals. To test the performance of this scheme, an image dataset involving 250 Pap-smear FISH image frames was collected and used in this study. The overall accuracy rate for segmenting analyzable interphase nuclei is 86.6% (360/424). The sensitivity and specificity for classifying abnormal and normal cells are 88.5% and 86.6%, respectively. The overall cell classification agreement rate between our scheme and a cytogeneticist is 86.6%. The testing results demonstrate the feasibility of applying this automated scheme in FISH image analysis.

Wang, Xingwei; Zheng, Bin; Li, Shibo; Zhang, Roy R.; Li, Yuhua; Mulvihill, John J.; Chen, Wei R.; Liu, Hong

2009-02-01

295

Comparative study of visual inspection of the cervix by 3% acetic acid (VIA versus Pap smear by Bethesda method in sexually active women aged 25-50 years as an equally or more effective cervical cancer screening method in a low resource setup  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Cervical cancer is the most common cancer in Indian women and is a preventable cancer. Pap smear being an expensive screening test, increased emphasis is being laid on the development of a reliable and cost effective screening method for cervical cancer. This study aims at early detection of cervical dysplastic lesions using a simple and cost-effective screening test like visual inspection of cervix with 3% acetic acid (VIA and comparing its diagnostic efficacy with the more expensive Pap screening by Bethesda method. Methods: Ours was a prospective study carried out on a 100 sexually active women aged 25-50 years, coming to our OPD. The women were subjected to both a VIA and Pap smear. All Pap and VIA positive women were subjected to a cervical biopsy, whose histopathological report was taken as the gold standard. Results: In our study the sensitivity of VIA was more than that of cytology (100% versus 66.67% but the specificity was significantly lesser (47.83% compared to the 73.91%. The negative predictive value of VIA was comparable with Pap smear (100% and 85% respectively as was the positive predictive value (42.86% and 50%. However the diagnostic accuracy of VIA was lower than that of Pap smear (66.67% and 81.25% in our study. Conclusions: In this study VIA was found to have efficacy comparable to Pap smear in screening cervical cancer. Thus we recommend that VIA could be used as an alternative screening tool to detect early cervical dysplasia - especially in poor resource settings. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2014; 3(3.000: 688-691

Mohit Rajendra Saraogi

2014-06-01

296

Potential application of electronic nose in processed animal proteins (PAP detection in feedstuffs  

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Full Text Available Electronic nose and olfactometry techniques represent a modern analytical approach in food industry since they could potentially improve quality and safety of food processing. The aim of this study was to evaluate possible application of electronic nose in PA P detection and recognition in feed. For this purpose 6 reference feedstuffs (CRA-W / UE STRAT F E E D Project were used. The basis of the test samples was a compound feed for bovine fortified with processed animal proteins ( PAP consisting of meat and bone meal (MBM and/or fish meal at different concentrations. Each feed sample was tested in glass vials and the odour profile was determined by the ten MOS (metal oxide semi-conductor sensors of the electronic nose. Ten different descriptors, representing each ten sensors of electronic nose, were used to characterise the odour of each sample. In the present study, electronic nose was able to discriminate the blank sample from all other samples containing PA P ( M B M , fish meal or both. Samples containing either 0.5% of MBM or 5% of fish meal were identified, while samples containing a high fish meal content (5% associated with a low MBM content (0.5% were not discriminated from samples containing solely fish meal at that same high level (5%. This latter indicates that probably the high fish meal level, in samples containing both MBM and fish meal, tended to mask MBM odour. It was also evident that two odour descriptors were enough to explain 72.12% of total variability in odour pattern. In view of these results, it could be suggested that electronic nose and olfactometry techniques can provide an interesting approach for screening raw materials in feed industry, even though further studies using a wider set of samples are needed.

Dell'Orto V.

2004-01-01

297

Automated evaluation of eddy current testing results obtained at pipelines; Automatische Auswertung von Wirbelstrombefunden aus Pipeline-Messungen  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

For early detection of cracks and local corrosion defects in pipelines, a prototype of a detector pig was developed by cooperative activities of Pipetronix GmbH Karlsruhe and the Rossendorf Research Center. The device is characterized by high sensitivity and reliable detection of defects down to small dimensions, as well as robustness towards interfering signals. For evaluation, algorithms were developed for automated interpretation of measured data and their visualisation, accompanied by application-specific software. A further tool combined with the system is the database-controlled software for administration of the large data quantities as well as any intermediate and final analytic results. By means of fully automated detection and classification of relevant signals it was possible to sharply reduce the time required for information analysis, which enhances the efficiency of the testing device. (orig./CB) [Deutsch] Schaeden an erdverlegten Rohrfernleitungen durch Rissbildung und Korrosion verursachen nicht nur hohe Kosten, sondern koennen auch eine Gefahr fuer die Umwelt bedeuten. Fuer den rechtzeitigen Nachweis von Rissen und lokaler Korrosion in Pipelines wurde in Zusammenarbeit zwischen dem Forschungszentrum Rossendorf und der Pipetronix GmbH Karlsruhe ein Inspektionsmolch entwickelt und als Prototyp aufgebaut. Die Prueftechnik zeichnet sich durch hohe Nachweissicherheit auch kleiner Schaedigungen bei gleichzeitig weitgehender Unempfindlichkeit gegenueber stoerenden Einfluessen aus. Zur Auswertung wurden Algorithmen fuer die automatische Interpretation der Messdaten sowie deren Visualisierung entwickelt und in einem anwendungsorientierten Programmsystem umgesetzt. Gleichzeitig erfolgt eine datenbankgesteuerte Verwaltung der grossen Datenmengen sowie aller Zwischen- und Endergebnisse. Mittels vollautomatischer Detektion und Klassifikation relevanter Anzeigen konnte der Zeitbedarf fuer die Datenauswertung drastisch gesenkt und damit die Effektivitaet der Pruefung erhoeht werden. (orig.)

Buechner, A.; Voigtlaender, J. [Forschungszentrum Rossendorf, Dresden (Germany); Beyer, J. [Pipetronix Karlsruhe, Niederlassung Leipzig (Germany)

1997-12-31

298

The cell wall-targeted purple acid phosphatase AtPAP25 is critical for acclimation of Arabidopsis thaliana to nutritional phosphorus deprivation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Plant purple acid phosphatases (PAPs) belong to a relatively large gene family whose individual functions are poorly understood. Three PAP isozymes that are up-regulated in the cell walls of phosphate (Pi)-starved (-Pi) Arabidopsis thaliana suspension cells were purified and identified by MS as AtPAP12 (At2g27190), AtPAP25 (At4g36350) and AtPAP26 (At5g34850). AtPAP12 and AtPAP26 were previously isolated from the culture medium of -Pi cell cultures, and shown to be secreted by roots of Arabidopsis seedlings to facilitate Pi scavenging from soil-localized organophosphates. AtPAP25 exists as a 55 kDa monomer containing complex NX(S/T) glycosylation motifs at Asn172, Asn367 and Asn424. Transcript profiling and immunoblotting with anti-AtPAP25 immune serum indicated that AtPAP25 is exclusively synthesized under -Pi conditions. Coupled with potent mixed-type inhibition of AtPAP25 by Pi (I50  = 50 ?m), this indicates a tight feedback control by Pi that prevents AtPAP25 from being synthesized or functioning as a phosphatase except when Pi levels are quite low. Promoter-GUS reporter assays revealed AtPAP25 expression in shoot vascular tissue of -Pi plants. Development of an atpap25 T-DNA insertion mutant was arrested during cultivation on soil lacking soluble Pi, but rescued upon Pi fertilization or complementation with AtPAP25. Transcript profiling by quantitative RT-PCR indicated that Pi starvation signaling was attenuated in the atpap25 mutant. AtPAP25 exhibited near-optimal phosphatase activity with several phosphoproteins and phosphoamino acids as substrates. We hypothesize that AtPAP25 plays a key signaling role during Pi deprivation by functioning as a phosphoprotein phosphatase rather than as a non-specific scavenger of Pi from extracellular P-monoesters. PMID:25270985

Del Vecchio, Hernan A; Ying, Sheng; Park, Joonho; Knowles, Vicki L; Kanno, Satomi; Tanoi, Keitaro; She, Yi-Min; Plaxton, William C

2014-11-01

299

Cervical cancer screening with pattern of pap smear. Review of multicenter studies.  

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The percentage of abnormal pap smear was higher in the prospective part of this study than the previously reported results. Unified national programs for diagnosing cervical precancerous lesions should be established covering different region of the Kingdom to evaluate the magnitude of the problem.

Fadwa J. Altaf

2006-10-01

300

Safety and immunological efficacy of a prostate cancer plasmid DNA vaccine encoding prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP).  

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Prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP) is a prostate tumor antigen currently being investigated as a target antigen in several human vaccine trials, some with evidence of clinical benefit. We have previously demonstrated that plasmid DNA vaccines encoding either human or rat PAP can elicit antigen-specific cellular and humoral immunity in rat models. The current study was performed to determine the safety and potential immunological efficacy in rodents of large and repetitive doses of a GMP-grade plasmid DNA vaccine encoding human PAP, pTVG-HP. Fifty-four male Lewis rats were immunized intradermally at 2-week intervals with 100, 500, or 1,500 microg pTVG-HP with 5 microg recombinant rat GM-CSF protein given as a vaccine adjuvant. An additional 12 male Lewis rats served as controls with groups immunized with 1,500 microg of a parental DNA vector not encoding human PAP, and a group that received GM-CSF protein only without plasmid DNA. Groups of animals (n=3-6) were euthanized after two, four, or six immunizations with collections of tissues and blood for toxicity assessment and immunological analysis. No significant toxicities were observed in terms of animal weights, histopathology, hematological changes, or changes in serum chemistries. Six of fifty-four were found to have subtle evidence of possible renal toxicity, however these findings were not statistically different from control animals. The vaccine was found to be effective in eliciting PAP-specific CD4 and CD8 T cells, predominantly Th1 in type, in all immunized animals at all doses and numbers of immunizations. PAP-specific IgG were detected in a dose-dependent fashion, with titers increasing after multiple immunizations. These studies demonstrate that, in rats, immunization with the pTVG-HP vaccine is safe and effective in eliciting PAP-specific cellular and humoral immune responses. These findings support the further clinical evaluation of pTVG-HP in patients with prostate cancer. PMID:16115700

Johnson, Laura E; Frye, Thomas P; Arnot, Alana R; Marquette, Carrie; Couture, Larry A; Gendron-Fitzpatrick, Annette; McNeel, Douglas G

2006-01-16

 
 
 
 
301

Spatial structure of oligopeptide PAP(248-261), the N-terminal fragment of the HIV enhancer prostatic acid phosphatase peptide PAP(248-286), in aqueous and SDS micelle solutions  

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Prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP) is an enzyme that facilitates infection of cells by HIV. Its peptide fragment PAP(248-286) forms amyloid fibrils known as SEVI, which enhance attachment of the virus by viral adhesion to the host cell prior to receptor-specific binding via reducing the electrostatic repulsion between the membranes of the virus and the target cell. The secondary structure of PAP(248-286) in aqueous and SDS solutions can be divided into an N-terminal disordered region, an ?-helical central part and an ?/310-helical C-terminal region (Nanga et al., 2009). In this work, we used NMR spectroscopy to study the spatial structure of the isolated N-terminal fragment of PAP(248-286), PAP(248-261) (GIHKQKEKSRLQGG), in aqueous and SDS micelle solutions. Formation of a PAP(248-261)-SDS complex was confirmed by chemical shift alterations in the 1H NMR spectra of the peptide, as well as by the signs and values of Nuclear Overhauser Effect (NOE). In addition, the PAP(248-261) peptide does not form any specified secondary structure in either aqueous or SDS solutions.

Blokhin, Dmitriy S.; Filippov, Andrei V.; Antzutkin, Oleg N.; Karataeva, Farida Kh.; Klochkov, Vladimir V.

2014-07-01

302

CIR, a corepressor of CBF1, binds to PAP-1 and effects alternative splicing.  

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We have reported that PAP-1, a product of a causative gene for autosomal retinitis pigmentosa, plays a role in splicing. In this study, CIR, a protein originally identified as a CBF1-interacting protein and reported to act as a transcriptional corepressor, was identified as a PAP-1 binding protein and its function as a splicing factor was investigated. In addition to a basic lysine and acidic serine-rich (BA) domain and a zinc knuckle-like motif, CIR has an arginine/serine dipeptide repeat (RS) domain in its C terminal region. The RS domain has been reported to be present in the superfamily of SR proteins, which are involved in splicing reactions. We generated CIR mutants with deletions of each BA and RS domain and studied their subcellular localizations and interactions with PAP-1 and other SR proteins, including SC35, SF2/ASF, and U2AF35. CIR was found to interact with U2AF35 through the BA domain, with SC35 and SF2/ASF through the RS domain, and with PAP-1 outside the BA domain in vivo and in vitro. CIR was found to be colocalized with SC35 and PAP-1 in nuclear speckles. Then the effect of CIR on splicing was investigated using the E1a minigene as a reporter in HeLa cells. Ectopic expression of CIR with the E1a minigene changed the ratio of spliced isoforms of E1a that were produced by alternative selection of 5'-splice sites. These results indicate that CIR is a member of the family of SR-related proteins and that CIR plays a role in splicing regulation. PMID:15652350

Maita, Hiroshi; Kitaura, Hirotake; Ariga, Hiroyoshi; Iguchi-Ariga, Sanae M M

2005-02-15

303

PAP and NT5E inhibit nociceptive neurotransmission by rapidly hydrolyzing nucleotides to adenosine  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP and ecto-5'-nucleotidase (NT5E, CD73 produce extracellular adenosine from the nucleotide AMP in spinal nociceptive (pain-sensing circuits; however, it is currently unknown if these are the main ectonucleotidases that generate adenosine or how rapidly they generate adenosine. Results We found that AMP hydrolysis, when measured histochemically, was nearly abolished in dorsal root ganglia (DRG neurons and lamina II of spinal cord from Pap/Nt5e double knockout (dKO mice. Likewise, the antinociceptive effects of AMP, when combined with nucleoside transport inhibitors (dipyridamole or 5-iodotubericidin, were reduced by 80-100% in dKO mice. In addition, we used fast scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV to measure adenosine production at subsecond resolution within lamina II. Adenosine was maximally produced within seconds from AMP in wild-type (WT mice but production was reduced >50% in dKO mice, indicating PAP and NT5E rapidly generate adenosine in lamina II. Unexpectedly, we also detected spontaneous low frequency adenosine transients in lamina II with FSCV. Adenosine transients were of short duration (60% in frequency in Pap-/-, Nt5e-/- and dKO mice, suggesting these ectonucleotidases rapidly hydrolyze endogenously released nucleotides to adenosine. Field potential recordings in lamina II and behavioral studies indicate that adenosine made by these enzymes acts through the adenosine A1 receptor to inhibit excitatory neurotransmission and nociception. Conclusions Collectively, our experiments indicate that PAP and NT5E are the main ectonucleotidases that generate adenosine in nociceptive circuits and indicate these enzymes transform pulsatile or sustained nucleotide release into an inhibitory adenosinergic signal.

Vihko Pirkko

2011-10-01

304

Charging and discharging tests for obtaining an accurate dynamic electro-thermal model of high power lithium-ion pack system for hybrid and EV applications  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This paper presents a battery test platform including two Li-ion battery designed for hybrid and EV applications, and charging/discharging tests under different operating conditions carried out for developing an accurate dynamic electro-thermal model of a high power Li-ion battery pack system. The aim of the tests has been to study the impact of the battery degradation and to find out the dynamic characteristics of the cells including nonlinear open circuit voltage, series resistance and parallel transient circuit at different charge/discharge currents and cell temperature. An equivalent circuit model, based on the runtime battery model and the Thevenin circuit model, with parameters obtained from the tests and depending on SOC, current and temperature has been implemented in MATLAB/Simulink and Power Factory. A good alignment between simulations and measurements has been found.

Mihet-Popa, Lucian; Camacho, Oscar Mauricio Forero

2013-01-01

305

Love, sex, permissiveness, and abortion: a test of alternative models.  

Science.gov (United States)

Alternative models of premarital abortion permissiveness (PAP) are tested with a two-state sample of single college women. The first model proposes that number of times in love (Love) leads to coitus (Sex) and that coitus increases premarital sexual permissiveness (PSP), which in turn leads to greater acceptance of abortion (PAP). The second posits a causal path from Love to PSP to Sex to PSP. The data appear to be consistent with a revised third model. The paths between Love and PAP and between Love and PSP are negligible, indicating that the effects of Love on PSP and PAP are mediated by Sex. The revised model suggests that as number of times in love increases so does coital experience and that coitus has both a direct effect on PAP and an indirect effect through PSP. PMID:1008700

Mirandé, A M; Hammer, E L

1976-11-01

306

Test of irradiation of tellurium oxide for obtaining iodine-131 by dry distillation; Prueba de irradiacion de dioxido de telurio para obtener yodo-131 por destilacion seca  

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With the purpose of optimizing to the maximum independently the work of the reactor of those mathematical calculations of irradiation that are already optimized, now it corresponds to carry out irradiation tests in the different positions with their respective neutron fluxes that it counts the reactor for samples irradiation. Then, it is necessary to carry out the irradiation of the tellurium dioxide through cycles, with the purpose of observing the activity that it goes accumulating in each cycle and this way to obtain an activity of the Iodine-131 obtained when finishing the last cycle. (Author)

Alanis M, J. [ININ, Departamento de Materiales Radiactivos, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

2003-07-15

307

Generador de flujo con presión binivelada (BiPAP a través de traqueostomía Flow generator with double level pressure (BiPAP through Tracheostomy  

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Full Text Available Introducción: El Programa Chileno de Ventilación No Invasiva en domicilio (AVNI extendió su cobertura utilizando generadores de flujo con presión bi-nivelada (BiPAP en niños con ventilación mecánica prolongada (VMP y traqueostomía (TQT. Objetivo: Reportar la experiencia de esta estrategia describiendo criterios de selección, modalidades de uso y tecnologías complementarias. Pacientes y Métodos: Estudio descriptivo, transversal y prospectivo durante un año desde Junio 2006, en 20 pacientes manejados en el Hospital Josefina Martínez, otros centros de la red asistencial del Ministerio de Salud y en domicilio. Se registraron las características clínicas, modos ventilatorios, evolución y complicaciones. Resultados: La mediana de edad fue de 3,5 años (rango 3 meses a 17 años. La duración de la VMP fue lm a 5a, 6 pacientes (30% se encuentran en domicilio y 14 (70% hospitalizados. La principal causa para VMP fue enfermedad neuromuscular (14, 70%. No hubo mortalidad y 4 pacientes tuvieron complicaciones menores. Conclusión: El BiPAP a través de TQT, usado con criterios estrictos de selección, es un método de VMP que puede ser factible. Se requieren estudios comparativos para definir costos, beneficios y riesgos de estos equipos comparándolos con ventiladores licenciados para soporte vital.Background: The Chilean Program of Noninvasive Home Ventilation started using flow generating equipment with differential pressure at 2 levels (BiPAP through tracheostomies for prolonged mechanical ventilation (PMV. Objective: Describe the experience of this ventilatory support, reporting selection criteria, procedure and technological requirements. Method: Descriptive-transversal study that includes 20 patients treated at Hospital Josefina Martínez, other pediatric hospitals and at home, for 12 months since June 2006. The clinical features, ventilation support, technical characteristics, follow-up and complications were reported. Results: The mean age was 3.5 years-old (range 3 months - 17 years. The duration of PMV ranged between 1 month to 5 years. Six patients (30% are at home and 14 (70% are hospitalized. In 14 patients (70%, the need of PMV was due to neuromuscular diseases. There was no mortality related to the use of Bipap through tracheostomy; only 4 patients had minor complications. Conclusions: This report suggests that the use of BiPAP through tracheostomy in patients with selection criteria is an applicable PVM method. However, comparative systematic trials are necessary to define costs, benefits and risks of this type of ventilation.

SOLEDAD MONTES F

2008-10-01

308

Generador de flujo con presión binivelada (BiPAP) a través de traqueostomía / Flow generator with double level pressure (BiPAP) through Tracheostomy  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Introducción: El Programa Chileno de Ventilación No Invasiva en domicilio (AVNI) extendió su cobertura utilizando generadores de flujo con presión bi-nivelada (BiPAP) en niños con ventilación mecánica prolongada (VMP) y traqueostomía (TQT). Objetivo: Reportar la experiencia de esta estrategia descri [...] biendo criterios de selección, modalidades de uso y tecnologías complementarias. Pacientes y Métodos: Estudio descriptivo, transversal y prospectivo durante un año desde Junio 2006, en 20 pacientes manejados en el Hospital Josefina Martínez, otros centros de la red asistencial del Ministerio de Salud y en domicilio. Se registraron las características clínicas, modos ventilatorios, evolución y complicaciones. Resultados: La mediana de edad fue de 3,5 años (rango 3 meses a 17 años). La duración de la VMP fue lm a 5a, 6 pacientes (30%) se encuentran en domicilio y 14 (70%) hospitalizados. La principal causa para VMP fue enfermedad neuromuscular (14, 70%). No hubo mortalidad y 4 pacientes tuvieron complicaciones menores. Conclusión: El BiPAP a través de TQT, usado con criterios estrictos de selección, es un método de VMP que puede ser factible. Se requieren estudios comparativos para definir costos, beneficios y riesgos de estos equipos comparándolos con ventiladores licenciados para soporte vital. Abstract in english Background: The Chilean Program of Noninvasive Home Ventilation started using flow generating equipment with differential pressure at 2 levels (BiPAP) through tracheostomies for prolonged mechanical ventilation (PMV). Objective: Describe the experience of this ventilatory support, reporting selectio [...] n criteria, procedure and technological requirements. Method: Descriptive-transversal study that includes 20 patients treated at Hospital Josefina Martínez, other pediatric hospitals and at home, for 12 months since June 2006. The clinical features, ventilation support, technical characteristics, follow-up and complications were reported. Results: The mean age was 3.5 years-old (range 3 months - 17 years). The duration of PMV ranged between 1 month to 5 years. Six patients (30%) are at home and 14 (70%) are hospitalized. In 14 patients (70%), the need of PMV was due to neuromuscular diseases. There was no mortality related to the use of Bipap through tracheostomy; only 4 patients had minor complications. Conclusions: This report suggests that the use of BiPAP through tracheostomy in patients with selection criteria is an applicable PVM method. However, comparative systematic trials are necessary to define costs, benefits and risks of this type of ventilation.

SOLEDAD, MONTES F; MIREYA, MÉNDEZ R; PATRICIO, BARAÑAO G; PAMELA, SALINAS F; FRANCISCO, PRADO A.

309

Concordance Between Hybrid Capture 2 Results Performed on Cervical Samples Obtained Before and Immediately After Visual Inspection with Acetic Acid Test  

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Background: VIA is a simple, inexpensive test widely advocated for resource-limited settings. Major limitation of VIA is its low specificity. HPV DNA testing can be used to triage VIA-positive women if the facilities are available. The major concern for such strategy would be whether sample collection after acetic acid wash will alter HPV test characteristics. This study aimed to evaluate whether samples for HPV testing by Hybrid Capture 2 (HC2) technology can be collected immediately after VIA without altering test performance. Methods: Total 204 VIA-positive women were recruited. Cervical samples were collected for HC2 test before and after VIA at the same sitting by the same provider. The paired samples were analyzed at the same laboratory by the same technician in the same batch of testing. Agreement in HC2 results between pre-VIA and post-VIA samples was estimated using kappa statistics. All women had colposcopy and biopsies were obtained if colposcopy was suspicious of neoplasia. Sensitivity and specificity of HC2 test in detecting CIN2+ lesions were calculated using negative colposcopy or biopsy as the gold standard and were compared between the pre and post VIA samples. Results: Almost perfect agreement in HC2 results (kappa=0.85) and RLU/Cut off ratios (correlation coefficient=0.92) was observed between samples collected before and after VIA. The sensitivity and specificity to detect CIN2+ lesions remained unaltered even when cervical samples were collected after VIA. This confirmed that acetic acid wash did not alter HC2 performance. Conclusions: Collection of samples for HC2 test is feasible immediately after VIA. PMID:24627746

Basu, Partha; Samaddar, Anushree; Mittal, Srabani; Basu, Urmimala; Chatterjee, Simi; Biswas, Jaydip

2014-01-01

310

THE EFFECT OF AGE ON RESULTS OBTAINED BY MARES DURING STATIONARY AND FIELD PERFORMANCE TESTS CONDUCTED IN POLAND IN THE YEARS 2001-2010  

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Full Text Available The study encompassed a population of noble mares, assessed in Poland during performance tests. The statistical analysis pertained to results obtained by warmblood mares within a period of 10 years. Performance tests were conducted in II systems: field and stationary. The analysis encompassed 1490 mares, each of which participated in at least one performance test. The conducted study revealed statistically significant differences between average results obtained by 2-3 year-old mares and 4-year-olds only in the free jumping and rideability categories – in favor of 4-year-old mares. No statistically significant differences were noted between average scores for: walk, trot and gallop. The study did not reveal the impact of age on final scores for warmblood mares for the following traits during performance tests: walk, trot and gallop. Age did impact the results of: free jumping and rideability. The authors believe that the horses’ natural gait (its movements since infancy is determined genetically and does not depend on age or length of training.

Magdalena Drewka

2013-12-01

311

The Pap smear screening as an occasion for smoking cessation and physical activity counselling: effectiveness of the SPRINT randomized controlled trial  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The organized Cervical Cancer Screening Programme (CCSP in Italy might represent an occasion to deliver smoking cessation (SC counselling to women attending the Pap test examination. Evidence of effectiveness of physical activity (PA promotion and intervention in adjunct to SC counselling is not strong. Objective of the SPRINT trial was to evaluate the effectiveness of a standard SC counselling intervention delivered by trained midwives in the CCSP, and whether the adjunct of a PA counselling to the SC counselling might increase quit rates. Methods/Design We undertook a randomized controlled trial of 1,100 women undergoing the Pap examination in the three study centres Florence, Turin, and Mantua: 363 were randomly assigned to the SC counselling arm, 366 to the SC?+?PA counselling arm, and 371 to the control group. The intervention was a standard brief SC counselling combined with a brief counselling on increasing PA, and was tailored according to the Di Clemente-Prochaska motivational stages of change for SC and/or PA. Primary outcomes were quit rates, improvement in the motivational stages of change for SC, and reduced daily cigarette consumption. Analysis was by intention to treat. Results Participants randomized in both intervention arms and in the preparation stage of change for SC doubled their likelihood of quitting at 6-month follow-up in comparison to controls (odds ratio [OR]=2.1, 95% confidence interval [95% CI]:1.0-4.6. Moreover, participants in the intervention arms and in the contemplation stage were more likely to reduce their daily cigarette consumption after the intervention (OR=1.8, 95% CI:1.1-3.0. Our study did not show any effect of PA counselling on various outcomes. Conclusions Smoking cessation counselling delivered by midwives to smokers in preparation and contemplation stages of change during the Pap-smear screening was effective and should be recommended, given the high number of women attending the cervical cancer screening programme in Italy. Moreover, the daily number of women invited for the Pap-smear examination should be slightly lowered, in order to let midwives deliver SC counselling to smokers. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN52660565

Gorini Giuseppe

2012-09-01

312

Papanicolaou na pós-menopausa: fatores associados a sua não realização / Factors associated with lack of Pap smear screening in a group of postmenopausal Brazilian women  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar os fatores de risco relacionados à não realização do exame de Papanicolaou entre as mulheres que vivenciam a menopausa. Neste estudo de base populacional, composto de mulheres de 45-69 anos, residentes na área urbana de Maringá, Paraná, Brasil, foram avaliadas 45 [...] 6 mulheres no período da menopausa, as quais apresentaram uma média de 58,7 ± 5,7 anos, sendo 48,0 ± 5,0 anos a idade média do início da menopausa. A maior parte relatou ter até sete anos de estudo, apresentava companheiro, realizava atividade remunerada, era sedentária e não usuária de terapia de reposição hormonal. A cobertura de rastreamento de Papanicolaou foi de 84,5%. Após ajuste por análise multivariada, a faixa etária de 45-69 anos, ocupação remunerada, sem consulta ao ginecologista no último ano e sem realização de mamografia nos últimos dois anos foram associadas à não realização do exame. Os esforços para melhorar o rastreamento do câncer de colo do útero devem estar focados no conhecimento das mulheres e na diminuição dos fatores contribuintes para a não realização do exame de Papanicolaou. Abstract in english This study aimed to analyze risk factors for lack of Pap smear screening among menopausal women. This population-based study evaluated 456 women 45-69 years of age (mean 58.7; SD 5.7), with age at menopause 48.0 years (SD 5.0) living in the urban area of Maringá, Paraná State, Brazil. Most reported [...] having 7 years of schooling or less, were married or living with a partner, had paid work, were sedentary, and were not on hormone replacement therapy. Coverage of Pap smear screening was 84.5%. After adjustment by multivariate analysis, the 45-69-year age bracket, paid work, no visit to the gynecologist in the previous year, and no mammogram in the two previous years were statistically associated with lack of Pap smear screening. Efforts to improve cervical cancer screening should focus on women's knowledge and reduce the factors that hinder women from performing Pap smear tests.

Sheila Cristina Rocha, Brischiliari; Cátia Millene, Dell' Agnolo; Laís Moraes, Gil; Tiara Cristina, Romeiro; Ângela Andréia França, Gravena; Maria Dalva de Barros, Carvalho; Sandra Marisa, Pelloso.

313

Papanicolaou na pós-menopausa: fatores associados a sua não realização / Factors associated with lack of Pap smear screening in a group of postmenopausal Brazilian women  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar os fatores de risco relacionados à não realização do exame de Papanicolaou entre as mulheres que vivenciam a menopausa. Neste estudo de base populacional, composto de mulheres de 45-69 anos, residentes na área urbana de Maringá, Paraná, Brasil, foram avaliadas 45 [...] 6 mulheres no período da menopausa, as quais apresentaram uma média de 58,7 ± 5,7 anos, sendo 48,0 ± 5,0 anos a idade média do início da menopausa. A maior parte relatou ter até sete anos de estudo, apresentava companheiro, realizava atividade remunerada, era sedentária e não usuária de terapia de reposição hormonal. A cobertura de rastreamento de Papanicolaou foi de 84,5%. Após ajuste por análise multivariada, a faixa etária de 45-69 anos, ocupação remunerada, sem consulta ao ginecologista no último ano e sem realização de mamografia nos últimos dois anos foram associadas à não realização do exame. Os esforços para melhorar o rastreamento do câncer de colo do útero devem estar focados no conhecimento das mulheres e na diminuição dos fatores contribuintes para a não realização do exame de Papanicolaou. Abstract in english This study aimed to analyze risk factors for lack of Pap smear screening among menopausal women. This population-based study evaluated 456 women 45-69 years of age (mean 58.7; SD 5.7), with age at menopause 48.0 years (SD 5.0) living in the urban area of Maringá, Paraná State, Brazil. Most reported [...] having 7 years of schooling or less, were married or living with a partner, had paid work, were sedentary, and were not on hormone replacement therapy. Coverage of Pap smear screening was 84.5%. After adjustment by multivariate analysis, the 45-69-year age bracket, paid work, no visit to the gynecologist in the previous year, and no mammogram in the two previous years were statistically associated with lack of Pap smear screening. Efforts to improve cervical cancer screening should focus on women's knowledge and reduce the factors that hinder women from performing Pap smear tests.

Sheila Cristina Rocha, Brischiliari; Cátia Millene, Dell' Agnolo; Laís Moraes, Gil; Tiara Cristina, Romeiro; Ângela Andréia França, Gravena; Maria Dalva de Barros, Carvalho; Sandra Marisa, Pelloso.

314

Papanicolaou na pós-menopausa: fatores associados a sua não realização Factors associated with lack of Pap smear screening in a group of postmenopausal Brazilian women  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar os fatores de risco relacionados à não realização do exame de Papanicolaou entre as mulheres que vivenciam a menopausa. Neste estudo de base populacional, composto de mulheres de 45-69 anos, residentes na área urbana de Maringá, Paraná, Brasil, foram avaliadas 456 mulheres no período da menopausa, as quais apresentaram uma média de 58,7 ± 5,7 anos, sendo 48,0 ± 5,0 anos a idade média do início da menopausa. A maior parte relatou ter até sete anos de estudo, apresentava companheiro, realizava atividade remunerada, era sedentária e não usuária de terapia de reposição hormonal. A cobertura de rastreamento de Papanicolaou foi de 84,5%. Após ajuste por análise multivariada, a faixa etária de 45-69 anos, ocupação remunerada, sem consulta ao ginecologista no último ano e sem realização de mamografia nos últimos dois anos foram associadas à não realização do exame. Os esforços para melhorar o rastreamento do câncer de colo do útero devem estar focados no conhecimento das mulheres e na diminuição dos fatores contribuintes para a não realização do exame de Papanicolaou.This study aimed to analyze risk factors for lack of Pap smear screening among menopausal women. This population-based study evaluated 456 women 45-69 years of age (mean 58.7; SD 5.7, with age at menopause 48.0 years (SD 5.0 living in the urban area of Maringá, Paraná State, Brazil. Most reported having 7 years of schooling or less, were married or living with a partner, had paid work, were sedentary, and were not on hormone replacement therapy. Coverage of Pap smear screening was 84.5%. After adjustment by multivariate analysis, the 45-69-year age bracket, paid work, no visit to the gynecologist in the previous year, and no mammogram in the two previous years were statistically associated with lack of Pap smear screening. Efforts to improve cervical cancer screening should focus on women's knowledge and reduce the factors that hinder women from performing Pap smear tests.

Sheila Cristina Rocha Brischiliari

2012-10-01

315

HPV Reflex Testing in Menopausal Women  

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Objective. To determine the frequency of high risk (HR) HPV and intraepithelial neoplasia following ASCUS pap cytology screens in menopausal women. Study Design. Following IRB approval, we performed a retrospective review of all cases of ASCUS pap tests, HPV results, and relevant clinical-pathologic data in women age 50 or over from November 2005 to January 2007 within a tertiary care center. Statistical analyses were performed in EXCEL. Results. 344 patients were an...

Annekathryn Goodman; David Wilbur; Rosemary Tambouret; Ko, Emily M.

2011-01-01

316

Gambaran Faktor-faktor Perilaku Ibu Dalam Pemeriksaan Pap Smear Di Poli Ginekologi RSUD Dr Pirngadi Medan Tahun 2012  

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Cervical cancer affects many women and 65% of patients already in an advanced stage (Darmindro et al, 2007). One method for early detection of cervical cancer is Pap smear. In Public Hospital Dr Pirngadi Medan acquired the gynecological check-up patient data to hospital with suspected cancer from January to November 2011 as many as 1100 people. The research aims to know the description of predisposing, enabling, and reinforcing factors of mothers in Pap Smear in public hospitals Dr Pirng...

Nasution, Beta Liana Putri

2012-01-01

317

Associations of demographic variables and the Health Belief Model constructs with Pap smear screening among urban women in Botswana  

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Ditsapelo M McFarland College of Nursing and Public Health, Adelphi University, Garden City, NY, USA Purpose: Papanicolaou (Pap) smear services are available in most urban areas in Botswana. Yet most women in such areas do not screen regularly for cancer of the cervix. The purpose of this article is to present findings on the associations of demographic variables and Health Belief Model constructs with Pap smear screening among urban women in Botswana. Sample and methods: The study included a...

McFarl; DM

2013-01-01

318

Clinical management of patients with invasive cervical cancer following a negative Pap smear.  

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Among 535 patients with invasive cervical carcinoma seen between January 1975 and June 1986, 26 were found to have developed the disease within six months (65 percent), 35 within 12 months (88 percent), 37 within 13 months (93 percent), and three developed the disease within 17 months after a negative Pap smear. Eighty-eight percent of these 40 patients were under age 40 at diagnosis. Rapidly progressive cancers are highly resistant to radiation therapy. Seven stage IB patients treated only w...

Schwartz, P. E.; Merino, M. J.; Mccrea Curnen, M. G.

1988-01-01

319

The Social Ecology of Cervical Cancer: The Challenges to Pap Smear Screening  

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Cervical cancer is a preventable disease. The risk factors for the development of cervical cancer include both biologic factors and social factors. In the United States, the leading risk factor for the development of cervical cancer is not having a Pap smear for five years prior to the diagnosis of cancer. In low and middle income countries, cervical cancer incidence and mortality

Annekathryn Goodman

2013-01-01

320

A STUDY ON CERVICAL PAP SMEAR EXAMINATION IN PATIENT LIVING WITH HIV  

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Background: Decline in morbidity & mortality due to cervical cancer in developed countries can be mainly attributed to early detection of precancerous & cancerous lesions due to extensive screening programmeof cervical Pap smear examination. HPV infection is a known etiological agent for cervical cancer. HIV infected women are at higher risk of contracting HPV infection due to immune compromised status. Objective: Present study has been undertaken mainly to detect precancerous & c...

Jha, B. M.; Mubin Patel; KomalPatel; Jitendra Patel

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
321

Enhanced tree-classifier performance by inversion with application to pap smear screening data  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper, we present an inversion method to enhance a binary decision tree classifier using boundary search of training samples. We want to enhance the training at those points which are close to the boundaries. Selection of these points is based on the Euclidean distance from those centroids close to classification boundaries. The enhanced training using these selected data was compared with training using randomly selected samples. We also applied this method to improve the classification of pap smear screening data.

Chen, E. T. Y.; Lee, James; Nelson, Alan C.

1993-07-01

322

Citopatológico de colo uterino entre gestantes no Sul do Brasil: um estudo transversal de base populacional / Pap smears among pregnant women in Southern Brazil: a representative cross-sectional survey  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: Determinar a prevalência e identificar fatores associados ao não rastreamento voluntário para citopatológico (CP) de colo uterino entre puérperas em Rio Grande (RS). MÉTODOS: Entrevistadores previamente treinados aplicaram questionário padronizado, ainda na maternidade, em busca de informa [...] ções sobre características demográficas da gestante, nível socioeconômico da família e tipo de assistência recebida durante o pré-natal para todas aquelas residentes nesse município que tiveram filhos entre 1º de janeiro e 31 de dezembro de 2010. Foram utilizados o teste do ?² para comparar proporções e a regressão de Poisson com ajuste robusto da variância na análise multivariável. RESULTADOS: Dentre as 2.288 entrevistadas, 33% não se submeteram ao CP de colo uterino. Destas, dois terços disseram desconhecer a necessidade de realizá-lo, 18% não fizeram este exame por medo ou vergonha e as demais por outras razões. Após ajuste para diversos fatores de confusão, as maiores razões de prevalência (RP) para não buscar por CP ocorreram entre aquelas de menor idade (RP=1,5; IC95% 1,25 - 1,80) e escolaridade (RP=1,5; IC95% 1,12 - 2,12), que viviam sem companheiro (RP=1,4; IC95% 1,24 - 1,62), fumantes (RP=1,2; IC95% 1,07 - 1,39), que não planejaram a gravidez (RP=1,3; IC95% 1,21 - 1,61), que completaram menos de seis consultas durante pré-natal (RP=1,4; IC95% 1,32 - 1,69) e usuárias de contraceptivo oral (RP=1,2; IC95% 1,04 - 1,38). CONCLUSÕES: Quanto maior o risco para câncer de colo uterino, menor a probabilidade de a gestante se submeter ao CP de colo uterino. Isso, certamente, tem contribuído para o aumento da morbimortalidade por esta doença nesta localidade. Abstract in english PURPOSE: To determine the prevalence and risk factors associated with failure of voluntary screening for cervical cancer during the gestational period in Rio Grande, Rio Grande do Sul State, Southern Brazil. METHODS: Previously trained interviewers applied a standardized questionnaire in the materni [...] ty to all mothers from this municipality who had delivered from January 1st to December 31st 2010 to obtain information about the demographic characteristics of the pregnant women, family socioeconomic status, and prenatal care received. The ?² test was used to compare proportions and Poisson regression with robust adjustment of variance was used in the multivariate analysis. RESULTS: Among the 2,288 respondents, 33% were not submitted to the Pap smear during pregnancy. Two thirds of these women stated that they were not aware of the need to perform it, 18% were not screened out of fear or shame, and the rest for other reasons. After adjustment, the highest prevalence ratios (PR) for noncompliance with the Pap smear occurred among young women (PR=1.5; 95%CI 1.25 - 1.80), with lower educational level (PR=1.5; 95%CI 1.12 - 2.12), who were living without a partner (PR=1.4; 95%CI 1.24 - 1.62), smokers (PR=1.2; 95%CI 1.07 - 1.39), who did not plan the current pregnancy (PR=1.3; 95%CI 1,21 - 1.61), who had attended less than six medical visits during the prenatal period (PR=1.4; 95%CI 1.32 - 1.69) and among users of oral contraceptives (PR=1.2; 95%CI 1.04 - 1.38). CONCLUSIONS: The higher the risk for uterine cervical cancer, the less likely a pregnant woman is to undergo a Pap smear. This definitely contributed to the increased morbidity and mortality from this disease in this setting.

Juraci Almeida, Cesar; Gabriela Breitembach dos, Santos; Andrea Tomais, Sutil; Carolina Fischer, Cunha; Samuel de Carvalho, Dumith.

2012-11-01

323

Citopatológico de colo uterino entre gestantes no Sul do Brasil: um estudo transversal de base populacional Pap smears among pregnant women in Southern Brazil: a representative cross-sectional survey  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar a prevalência e identificar fatores associados ao não rastreamento voluntário para citopatológico (CP de colo uterino entre puérperas em Rio Grande (RS. MÉTODOS: Entrevistadores previamente treinados aplicaram questionário padronizado, ainda na maternidade, em busca de informações sobre características demográficas da gestante, nível socioeconômico da família e tipo de assistência recebida durante o pré-natal para todas aquelas residentes nesse município que tiveram filhos entre 1º de janeiro e 31 de dezembro de 2010. Foram utilizados o teste do ?² para comparar proporções e a regressão de Poisson com ajuste robusto da variância na análise multivariável. RESULTADOS: Dentre as 2.288 entrevistadas, 33% não se submeteram ao CP de colo uterino. Destas, dois terços disseram desconhecer a necessidade de realizá-lo, 18% não fizeram este exame por medo ou vergonha e as demais por outras razões. Após ajuste para diversos fatores de confusão, as maiores razões de prevalência (RP para não buscar por CP ocorreram entre aquelas de menor idade (RP=1,5; IC95% 1,25 - 1,80 e escolaridade (RP=1,5; IC95% 1,12 - 2,12, que viviam sem companheiro (RP=1,4; IC95% 1,24 - 1,62, fumantes (RP=1,2; IC95% 1,07 - 1,39, que não planejaram a gravidez (RP=1,3; IC95% 1,21 - 1,61, que completaram menos de seis consultas durante pré-natal (RP=1,4; IC95% 1,32 - 1,69 e usuárias de contraceptivo oral (RP=1,2; IC95% 1,04 - 1,38. CONCLUSÕES: Quanto maior o risco para câncer de colo uterino, menor a probabilidade de a gestante se submeter ao CP de colo uterino. Isso, certamente, tem contribuído para o aumento da morbimortalidade por esta doença nesta localidade.PURPOSE: To determine the prevalence and risk factors associated with failure of voluntary screening for cervical cancer during the gestational period in Rio Grande, Rio Grande do Sul State, Southern Brazil. METHODS: Previously trained interviewers applied a standardized questionnaire in the maternity to all mothers from this municipality who had delivered from January 1st to December 31st 2010 to obtain information about the demographic characteristics of the pregnant women, family socioeconomic status, and prenatal care received. The ?² test was used to compare proportions and Poisson regression with robust adjustment of variance was used in the multivariate analysis. RESULTS: Among the 2,288 respondents, 33% were not submitted to the Pap smear during pregnancy. Two thirds of these women stated that they were not aware of the need to perform it, 18% were not screened out of fear or shame, and the rest for other reasons. After adjustment, the highest prevalence ratios (PR for noncompliance with the Pap smear occurred among young women (PR=1.5; 95%CI 1.25 - 1.80, with lower educational level (PR=1.5; 95%CI 1.12 - 2.12, who were living without a partner (PR=1.4; 95%CI 1.24 - 1.62, smokers (PR=1.2; 95%CI 1.07 - 1.39, who did not plan the current pregnancy (PR=1.3; 95%CI 1,21 - 1.61, who had attended less than six medical visits during the prenatal period (PR=1.4; 95%CI 1.32 - 1.69 and among users of oral contraceptives (PR=1.2; 95%CI 1.04 - 1.38. CONCLUSIONS: The higher the risk for uterine cervical cancer, the less likely a pregnant woman is to undergo a Pap smear. This definitely contributed to the increased morbidity and mortality from this disease in this setting.

Juraci Almeida Cesar

2012-11-01

324

Citopatológico de colo uterino entre gestantes no Sul do Brasil: um estudo transversal de base populacional / Pap smears among pregnant women in Southern Brazil: a representative cross-sectional survey  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: Determinar a prevalência e identificar fatores associados ao não rastreamento voluntário para citopatológico (CP) de colo uterino entre puérperas em Rio Grande (RS). MÉTODOS: Entrevistadores previamente treinados aplicaram questionário padronizado, ainda na maternidade, em busca de informa [...] ções sobre características demográficas da gestante, nível socioeconômico da família e tipo de assistência recebida durante o pré-natal para todas aquelas residentes nesse município que tiveram filhos entre 1º de janeiro e 31 de dezembro de 2010. Foram utilizados o teste do ?² para comparar proporções e a regressão de Poisson com ajuste robusto da variância na análise multivariável. RESULTADOS: Dentre as 2.288 entrevistadas, 33% não se submeteram ao CP de colo uterino. Destas, dois terços disseram desconhecer a necessidade de realizá-lo, 18% não fizeram este exame por medo ou vergonha e as demais por outras razões. Após ajuste para diversos fatores de confusão, as maiores razões de prevalência (RP) para não buscar por CP ocorreram entre aquelas de menor idade (RP=1,5; IC95% 1,25 - 1,80) e escolaridade (RP=1,5; IC95% 1,12 - 2,12), que viviam sem companheiro (RP=1,4; IC95% 1,24 - 1,62), fumantes (RP=1,2; IC95% 1,07 - 1,39), que não planejaram a gravidez (RP=1,3; IC95% 1,21 - 1,61), que completaram menos de seis consultas durante pré-natal (RP=1,4; IC95% 1,32 - 1,69) e usuárias de contraceptivo oral (RP=1,2; IC95% 1,04 - 1,38). CONCLUSÕES: Quanto maior o risco para câncer de colo uterino, menor a probabilidade de a gestante se submeter ao CP de colo uterino. Isso, certamente, tem contribuído para o aumento da morbimortalidade por esta doença nesta localidade. Abstract in english PURPOSE: To determine the prevalence and risk factors associated with failure of voluntary screening for cervical cancer during the gestational period in Rio Grande, Rio Grande do Sul State, Southern Brazil. METHODS: Previously trained interviewers applied a standardized questionnaire in the materni [...] ty to all mothers from this municipality who had delivered from January 1st to December 31st 2010 to obtain information about the demographic characteristics of the pregnant women, family socioeconomic status, and prenatal care received. The ?² test was used to compare proportions and Poisson regression with robust adjustment of variance was used in the multivariate analysis. RESULTS: Among the 2,288 respondents, 33% were not submitted to the Pap smear during pregnancy. Two thirds of these women stated that they were not aware of the need to perform it, 18% were not screened out of fear or shame, and the rest for other reasons. After adjustment, the highest prevalence ratios (PR) for noncompliance with the Pap smear occurred among young women (PR=1.5; 95%CI 1.25 - 1.80), with lower educational level (PR=1.5; 95%CI 1.12 - 2.12), who were living without a partner (PR=1.4; 95%CI 1.24 - 1.62), smokers (PR=1.2; 95%CI 1.07 - 1.39), who did not plan the current pregnancy (PR=1.3; 95%CI 1,21 - 1.61), who had attended less than six medical visits during the prenatal period (PR=1.4; 95%CI 1.32 - 1.69) and among users of oral contraceptives (PR=1.2; 95%CI 1.04 - 1.38). CONCLUSIONS: The higher the risk for uterine cervical cancer, the less likely a pregnant woman is to undergo a Pap smear. This definitely contributed to the increased morbidity and mortality from this disease in this setting.

Juraci Almeida, Cesar; Gabriela Breitembach dos, Santos; Andrea Tomais, Sutil; Carolina Fischer, Cunha; Samuel de Carvalho, Dumith.

325

The Anal Pap Smear: Cytomorphology of squamous intraepithelial lesions  

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Abstract Background Anal smears are increasingly being used as a screening test for anal squamous intraepithelial lesions (ASILs). This study was undertaken to assess the usefulness and limitations of anal smears in screening for ASILs. Methods The cytomorphological features of 200 consecutive anal smears collected in liquid medium from 198 patients were studied and findings were correlated with results of surgical biopsies and/or repeat smears that became avail...

Arain Shehla; Walts Ann; Thomas Premi; Bose Shikha

2005-01-01

326

Comparison of the Novel Human Papillomavirus 4 Auto-capillary Electrophoresis Test with the Hybrid Capture 2 Assay and with the PCR HPV Typing Set Test in the Detection of High-Risk HPV Including HPV 16 and 18 Genotypes in Cervical Specimens  

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The aim of this study was to compare the novel human papillomavirus (HPV) detection method, the HPV 4 Auto-capillary Electrophoresis (ACE) test with the hybrid capture (HC) 2 assay for the detection of high-risk HPVs. In addition, we compared the HPV 4 ACE test with the polymerase chain reaction HPV Typing Set test for the detection of HPV 16 and HPV 18 genotypes. One hundred ninety-nine cervical swab samples obtained from women with previous abnormal Pap smears were subjected to testing with...

Hong, Jin Hwa; Song, Seung Hun; Kim, Jong Kee; Han, Jeong Hyun; Lee, Jae Kwan

2009-01-01

327

Technique for determination of the number of PapA units in an E. Coli P pilus  

Science.gov (United States)

Optical tweezers have previously been used to characterize the force-vs.-elongation dependence of the PapA rod of uropathogenic E. coli P pili. It was found that the PapA rod elongates in several elongation regions. In the two first, the elongation originates from an elastic stretching and a sequential unfolding of the layer-to-layer bonds (and thereby of the helical structure). Region III is characterized by an elongation that originates from an elastic stretching and an opening of the head-to-tail bonds in the linearized PapA rod. The opening of these bonds takes place in a random order, wherefore the response in this region is affected by entropy. Since the entropic softening of a macromolecule depends on the number of units, the shape of this region can be used to assess the number of PapA units. We provide in this work a recipe for how this can be done solely from the form of region III. An advantage with this technique is that it does not require a continuous monitoring of the elongation of a single PapA rod from unstretched conditions, which often is difficult because of simultaneous multi-pili binding; it suffices to detect it in the third region at which binding often is mediated by only one pilus. Another advantage is that it does not require any prior knowledge about (or assessment of) any physical entity of the PapA rod; the number of PapA units can be assessed solely from the shape of the curve in the third elongation region.

Andersson, Magnus; Fällman, Erik; Uhlin, Bernt E.; Axner, Ove

2006-02-01

328

Tailored telephone counseling to improve adherence to follow-up regimens after an abnormal pap smear among minority, underserved women  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective The present study explored the impact of a tailored telephone counseling intervention on increasing follow-up adherence after an abnormal Pap smear result among low-income, minority women, which may reduce cervical cancer disparity. Methods Participants (N = 211) were randomly assigned to receive: (1) a telephone reminder that included an assessment of barriers to adherence, as well as counseling tailored to the barriers elicited; (2) telephone reminder and barriers assessment, followed by a mailed home tailored barriers print brochure; or (3) enhanced standard care comprising telephone reminder and barriers assessment. Assessments were obtained at initial contact and 1-week later, as well as at 6- and 12-months after the initial colposcopy. Results The telephone counseling group showed greater adherence to follow-up recommendations than did the combined other two groups (p < 0.05). For the initial colposcopy, tailored telephone barriers counseling was more effective among women with a high school education or less. Conclusion Tailored telephone barriers counseling improves adherence to initial colposcopy, as well as to longer-term medical follow-up, among low-income, inner-city women. Practice Implications Dissemination of barriers counseling into ongoing telephone reminder calls and contacts may decrease disparities in cancer outcomes, especially among women with less than postsecondary education. PMID:24007767

Miller, Suzanne M.; Hui, Siu-kuen Azor; Wen, Kuang-Yi; Scarpato, John; Zhu, Fang; Buzaglo, Joanne; Hernandez, Enrique E.

2013-01-01

329

The Anal Pap Smear: Cytomorphology of squamous intraepithelial lesions  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Anal smears are increasingly being used as a screening test for anal squamous intraepithelial lesions (ASILs. This study was undertaken to assess the usefulness and limitations of anal smears in screening for ASILs. Methods The cytomorphological features of 200 consecutive anal smears collected in liquid medium from 198 patients were studied and findings were correlated with results of surgical biopsies and/or repeat smears that became available for 71 patients within six months. Results Adequate cellularity was defined as an average of 6 or more nucleated squamous cells/hpf. A glandular/transitional component was not required for adequacy. Dysplastic cells, atypical parakeratotic cells and bi/multinucleated cells were frequent findings in ASIL while koilocytes were infrequent. Smears from LSIL cases most frequently showed mildly dysplastic and bi/multinucleate squamous cells followed by parakeratotic cells (PK, atypical parakeratotic cells (APK, and koilocytes. HSIL smears contained squamous cells with features of moderate/severe dysplasia and many APKs. Features of LSIL were also found in most HSIL smears. Conclusions In this study liquid based anal smears had a high sensitivity (98% for detection of ASIL but a low specificity (50% for predicting the severity of the abnormality in subsequent biopsy. Patients with cytologic diagnoses of ASC-US and LSIL had a significant risk (46–56% of HSIL at biopsy. We suggest that all patients with a diagnosis of ASC-US and above be recommended for high resolution anoscopy with biopsy.

Walts Ann E

2005-02-01

330

Semi-automatic segmentation and classification of Pap smear cells.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cytologic screening has been widely used for detecting the cervical cancers. In this study, a semiautomatic PC-based cellular image analysis system was developed for segmenting nuclear and cytoplasmic contours and for computing morphometric and textual features to train support vector machine (SVM) classifiers to classify four different types of cells and to discriminate dysplastic from normal cells. A software program incorporating function, including image reviewing and standardized denomination of file names, was also designed to facilitate and standardize the workflow of cell analyses. Two experiments were conducted to verify the classification performance. The cross-validation results of the first experiment showed that average accuracies of 97.16% and 98.83%, respectively, for differentiating four different types of cells and in discriminating dysplastic from normal cells have been achieved using salient features (8 for four-cluster and 7 for two-cluster classifiers) selected with SVM recursive feature addition. In the second experiment, 70% (837) of the cell images were used for training and 30% (361) for testing, achieving an accuracy of 96.12% and 98.61% for four-cluster and two-cluster classifiers, respectively. The proposed system provides a feasible and effective tool in evaluating cytologic specimens. PMID:24403407

Chen, Yung-Fu; Huang, Po-Chi; Lin, Ker-Cheng; Lin, Hsuan-Hung; Wang, Li-En; Cheng, Chung-Chuan; Chen, Tsung-Po; Chan, Yung-Kuan; Chiang, John Y

2014-01-01

331

Automated detection and analysis of fluorescent in situ hybridization spots depicted in digital microscopic images of Pap-smear specimens  

Science.gov (United States)

Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) technology has been widely recognized as a promising molecular and biomedical optical imaging tool to screen and diagnose cervical cancer. However, manual FISH analysis is time-consuming and may introduce large inter-reader variability. In this study, a computerized scheme is developed and tested. It automatically detects and analyzes FISH spots depicted on microscopic fluorescence images. The scheme includes two stages: (1) a feature-based classification rule to detect useful interphase cells, and (2) a knowledge-based expert classifier to identify splitting FISH spots and improve the accuracy of counting independent FISH spots. The scheme then classifies detected analyzable cells as normal or abnormal. In this study, 150 FISH images were acquired from Pap-smear specimens and examined by both an experienced cytogeneticist and the scheme. The results showed that (1) the agreement between the cytogeneticist and the scheme was 96.9% in classifying between analyzable and unanalyzable cells (Kappa=0.917), and (2) agreements in detecting normal and abnormal cells based on FISH spots were 90.5% and 95.8% with Kappa=0.867. This study demonstrated the feasibility of automated FISH analysis, which may potentially improve detection efficiency and produce more accurate and consistent results than manual FISH analysis.

Wang, Xingwei; Zheng, Bin; Li, Shibo; Zhang, Roy; Mulvihill, John J.; Chen, Wei R.; Liu, Hong

2009-03-01

332

Combined Hierarchical Watershed Segmentation and SVM Classification for Pap Smear Cell Nucleus Extraction / Extracción de núcleos de células en imágenes de la prueba de Papanicolaou usando watershed jerárquico y máquinas de vectores soporte  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: English Abstract in spanish En el presente trabajo se presenta un método en dos etapas para la segmentación y clasificación de núcleos de células en imágenes tomadas de la prueba de Papanicolaou. La primera etapa, la etapa de segmentación, está formada por un algoritmo morfológico (watershed o marcas de agua) y un algoritmo je [...] rárquico de mezclado (waterfall o salto de agua). Para realizar el mezclado de regiones, waterfall usa información espectral, de forma y de las regiones que se separarán. En la segunda etapa, la etapa de clasificación, el objetivo es obtener los núcleos a partir de las clasificaciones de las regiones obtenidas en la primera etapa. Antes de realizar la clasificación, fueron probadas tres medidas no supervisadas de calidad de la segmentación para determinar el mejor resultado de la mezcla de regiones. La clasificación de las regiones se realizó usando Máquinas de Vector Soporte. Los resultados fueron comparados con las segmentaciones realizadas por patólogos demostrándose la eficacia del método propuesto. Abstract in english In this paper, we propose a two-phase approach to nuclei segmentation/classification in Pap smear test images. The first phase, the segmentation phase, includes a morphological algorithm (watershed) and a hierarchical merging algorithm (waterfall). In the merging step, waterfall uses spectral and sh [...] ape information as well as the class information. In the second phase, classification, the goal is to obtain nucleus regions and cytoplasm areas by classifying the regions resulting from the first phase based on their spectral and shape features, merging of the adjacent regions belonging to the same class. Between the two phases, three unsupervised segmentation quality criteria were tested in order to determine the best one selecting the best level after merging. The classification of individual regions is obtained using a Support Vector Machine (SVM) classifier. The segmentation and classification results are compared to the segmentation provided by expert pathologists and demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed method.

Maykel, Orozco-Monteagudo; Cosmin, Mihai; Hichem, Sahli; Alberto, Taboada-Crispi.

333

Combined Hierarchical Watershed Segmentation and SVM Classification for Pap Smear Cell Nucleus Extraction / Extracción de núcleos de células en imágenes de la prueba de Papanicolaou usando watershed jerárquico y máquinas de vectores soporte  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: English Abstract in spanish En el presente trabajo se presenta un método en dos etapas para la segmentación y clasificación de núcleos de células en imágenes tomadas de la prueba de Papanicolaou. La primera etapa, la etapa de segmentación, está formada por un algoritmo morfológico (watershed o marcas de agua) y un algoritmo je [...] rárquico de mezclado (waterfall o salto de agua). Para realizar el mezclado de regiones, waterfall usa información espectral, de forma y de las regiones que se separarán. En la segunda etapa, la etapa de clasificación, el objetivo es obtener los núcleos a partir de las clasificaciones de las regiones obtenidas en la primera etapa. Antes de realizar la clasificación, fueron probadas tres medidas no supervisadas de calidad de la segmentación para determinar el mejor resultado de la mezcla de regiones. La clasificación de las regiones se realizó usando Máquinas de Vector Soporte. Los resultados fueron comparados con las segmentaciones realizadas por patólogos demostrándose la eficacia del método propuesto. Abstract in english In this paper, we propose a two-phase approach to nuclei segmentation/classification in Pap smear test images. The first phase, the segmentation phase, includes a morphological algorithm (watershed) and a hierarchical merging algorithm (waterfall). In the merging step, waterfall uses spectral and sh [...] ape information as well as the class information. In the second phase, classification, the goal is to obtain nucleus regions and cytoplasm areas by classifying the regions resulting from the first phase based on their spectral and shape features, merging of the adjacent regions belonging to the same class. Between the two phases, three unsupervised segmentation quality criteria were tested in order to determine the best one selecting the best level after merging. The classification of individual regions is obtained using a Support Vector Machine (SVM) classifier. The segmentation and classification results are compared to the segmentation provided by expert pathologists and demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed method.

Maykel, Orozco-Monteagudo; Cosmin, Mihai; Hichem, Sahli; Alberto, Taboada-Crispi.

2012-06-01

334

Women who take pap smear in Fortaleza - social and sexual characterization.   

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Considering the epidemiological relevance and the mortality of Uterine Cervix Cancer, the aim of this study is know the gynecological profile of women who take Pap smear in a basic unit of a metropolitan area. This is an exploratory study, with quantitative approach and traversal outlining which took place in a Center of Natural C...

Camila Félix Américo; Lydia Vieira Freitas; Levânia Maria Benevides Dias; Ana Carolina Maria Araújo Chagas; Thaís Marques Lima; Escolástica Rejane Ferreira Moura; Ana Karina Bezerra Pinheiro

2009-01-01

335

Pap Smear  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... your feet in the stirrups. The doctor or nurse will then gently open your vagina and insert a speculum. A speculum is a specialized instrument that keeps the vagina open so that a health care provider can see and reach inside the vagina ...

336

Pap Smear  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... which is the release of eggs needed for reproduction. Estrogen and progesterone prepare the inner lining of ... diseases. A vaccine against some types of the human papilloma viruses is now available. These viruses have ...

337

Pap Smear  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... and why it is beneficial. Ovaries Fallopian Tubes Uterus Vagina Anatomy This document is for informational purposes ... The female reproductive organs include: • The vagina • The uterus • The Fallopian tubes • The ovaries These organs are ...

338

Pap Smear  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... of the cervix affects more than 10,000 women in the United States every year. Thanks to ... healthcare provider about what is best for you. • Women ages 21 to 29 should be screened every ...

339

Pap Smear  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... X-Plain.com og020106 Last reviewed: 10/01/2012 1 The female reproductive organs include: • The vagina • ... X-Plain.com og020106 Last reviewed: 10/01/2012 2 Cervical cancer usually develops gradually. At first, ...

340

Pap Smear  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... for your specific condition. ©1995-2012, The Patient Education Institute, Inc. ... of successfully treating cervical cancer are higher if it is found early. There are several ...

 
 
 
 
341

Pap Smear  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... surface area of the cervix. This is called “carcinoma in situ.” If left untreated, the cancer will ... could move to other organs. Treating atypia and carcinoma in situ is very successful in curing cervical ...

342

Pap Smear  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Some sexually transmitted diseases are associated with the development of cancer of the cervix, also called cervical ... available. These viruses have been linked to the development of cervical cancer. Taking the vaccine helps prevent ...

343

Pap Smear  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... The ovaries have 2 main functions: 1. The production of specialized hormones, such as estrogen and progesterone ... or liquid-based cytology. • Women with certain risk factors may need more frequent screening, including those who ...

344

Pap Smear  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... strongly associated with sexually transmitted diseases, practicing safe sex is very important. When used properly, condoms are ... professional for your specific condition. ©1995-2012, The Patient Education Institute, Inc. www.X-Plain.com og020106 ...

345

Pap Smear  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... your specific condition. ©1995-2012, The Patient Education Institute, Inc. www.X-Plain.com og020106 Last reviewed: 10/01/2012 2 Cervical cancer usually develops gradually. At first, the cells that ...

346

Pap Smear  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Cervical cancer usually develops gradually. At first, the cells that line the cervix become slightly abnormal. This is known as “atypia.” After a while, atypia could turn into cancer. ... The sample, which contains cells and mucus, is then smeared onto a glass ...

347

Pap Smear  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Inc. www.X-Plain.com og020106 Last reviewed: 10/01/2012 1 The female reproductive organs include: • ... Inc. www.X-Plain.com og020106 Last reviewed: 10/01/2012 2 Cervical cancer usually develops gradually. ...

348

Pap Smear  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... cervical cancer are higher if it is found early. There are several different recommendations for screening. The following are some of the recommendations. Talk to your healthcare provider about what is best for you. • Women ages 21 to 29 should be screened every two ...

349

Pap Smear  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Cervical cancer usually develops gradually. At first, the cells that line the cervix become slightly abnormal. This ... should not be painful. The sample, which contains cells and mucus, is then smeared onto a glass ...

350

Fødevareemballager af trykt papir og pap : Udvikling og validering af analysekoncept  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Der er i dette projekt udviklet et analysekoncept der kan anvendes som et led i trykkeriernes vurdering af om fødevareemballager af trykt pap og papir lever op til lovgivningens krav. Der er arbejdet med vurderinger baseret på såvel ”worst-case” ekstraktion af de trykte materialer som på migrationstest foretaget med fødevaresimulatoren for tørre fødevarer. Fødevaresimulatoren er en adsorbent (polymeren Tenax) som effektivt optager stoffer der via gasfasen afgives fra tryksagen. Der er valideret og sammenlignet analysemetoder baseret på ekstraktioner af både tryksagerne og Tenax med henholdsvis ethanol og superkritisk kuldioxid. I alle tilfælde er slutbestemmelsen sket ved gaskromatografi med massespektrometrisk detektion (GC-MS). Med det anvendte udstyr kunne vi i nogle tilfælde detektere kendte stoffer i koncentrationer svarende til 10 ?g/kg fødevare. Følsomheden i en screeningsanalyse for ukendte stoffer ligger desværre en del højere. På baggrund af flere fødevareskandaler de senere år, stilles der fra forbrugere, fødevareproducenter og myndighederne stadig større krav til trykkerier af emballager af pap og papir om at levere produkter af høj og dokumenteret kvalitet. I rapporten gennemgås derfor summarisk de gældende europæiske regler på området som trykkerierne skal leve op til og der henvises til relevante vejledninger fra myndigheder og brancheforeninger. Det er væsentligt at trykkerierne arbejder efter god fremstillingsmæssig praksis (GMP) og det beskrives hvordan dette kan organiseres. Ved fremstillingen af en tryksag indgår mange processer, materialer og kemikalier. Det er derfor fundet nødvendigt at give en oversigt over de forskellige trykteknikker som er relevante for pap og papir ligesom råvarerne, fra forskellige papkvaliteter over trykfarverne til det fugtevand som indgår i produktionen af en tryksag bliver gennemgået. Som et led i trykkeriernes GMP vil det være naturligt at indsamle informationer om råvarenes eventuelle indhold af sundhedsskadelige stoffer. Trykfarve- og lakproducenternes manglende vilje til at oplyse om deres produkters sammensætning vanskeliggør desværre trykkeriernes opgave med at dokumentere, at den færdige emballage er i overensstemmelse med lovgivningen. Det ville derfor være ønskeligt, at man havde en generel kemisk analysemetode som kunne sikre at en tryksag er i orden. Men der findes desværre ikke en metode der kan sikre at bare migrationsgrænserne bliver overholdt for de mere end 6000 stoffer, der eksempelvis står opført i den svejtsiske lovgivning om trykfarver. Men jo mere trykkerierne ved om råvarernes sammensætning, jo simplere metoder kan man bruge til at dokumentere overensstemmelse med reglerne. Ved analyse af en række tryksager gennem projektforløbet fandt vi flere problematiske forhold. Eksempelvis førte anvendelsen af de såkaldt UV-hybrid-farver til en for høj migration af to fotoinitiatorer. Trykkeriet har derfor valgt at lade disse farver udgå af sortimentet. Selv om projektet handlede om trykfarver er kvaliteten af materialet der trykkes på meget væsentligt for slutproduktet. Det skal derfor nævnes at pap og papir ofte fremstilles helt eller delvis af genbrugsfibre som potentielt indeholder forureninger der kan give anledning til forurening af fødevarerne. I afsnit 9 opsummeres en samling anbefalinger til trykkerierne om GMP, valg af egnet pap og trykfarver og en strategi for arbejdet med analytisk at sikre overensstemmelse med reglerne.

Petersen, Jens HØjslev; Jensen, Lisbeth Krüger

2013-01-01

351

Factors Related to Regular Undergoing Pap-smear Test: Application of Theory of Planned Behavior  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background: Cervical cancer is the second most common cancer among women in the world and the most common cancer in developing countries.

Farzad Jalilian; Shohreh Emdadi

2011-01-01

352

Enhancement of Chlorogenic Acid Production in Hairy Roots of Platycodon grandiflorum by Over-Expression of An Arabidopsis thaliana Transcription Factor AtPAP1  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available To improve the production of chlorogenic acid (CGA in hairy roots of Platycodon grandiflorum, we induced over-expression of Arabidopsis thaliana transcription factor production of anthocyanin pigment (AtPAP1 using an Agrobacterium rhizogenes-mediated transformation system. Twelve hairy root lines showing over-expression of AtPAP1 were generated. In order to investigate the regulation of AtPAP1 on the activities of CGA biosynthetic genes, the expression levels of seven P. grandiflorum CGA biosynthetic genes were analyzed in the hairy root line that had the greatest accumulation of AtPAP1 transcript, OxPAP1-1. The introduction of AtPAP1 increased the mRNA levels of all examined CGA biosynthetic genes and resulted in a 900% up-regulation of CGA accumulation in OxPAP1-1 hairy roots relative to controls. This suggests that P. grandiflorum hairy roots that over-express the AtPAP1 gene are a potential alternative source of roots for the production of CGA.

Pham Anh Tuan

2014-08-01

353

Enhancement of chlorogenic acid production in hairy roots of Platycodon grandiflorum by over-expression of an Arabidopsis thaliana transcription factor AtPAP1.  

Science.gov (United States)

To improve the production of chlorogenic acid (CGA) in hairy roots of Platycodon grandiflorum, we induced over-expression of Arabidopsis thaliana transcription factor production of anthocyanin pigment (AtPAP1) using an Agrobacterium rhizogenes-mediated transformation system. Twelve hairy root lines showing over-expression of AtPAP1 were generated. In order to investigate the regulation of AtPAP1 on the activities of CGA biosynthetic genes, the expression levels of seven P. grandiflorum CGA biosynthetic genes were analyzed in the hairy root line that had the greatest accumulation of AtPAP1 transcript, OxPAP1-1. The introduction of AtPAP1 increased the mRNA levels of all examined CGA biosynthetic genes and resulted in a 900% up-regulation of CGA accumulation in OxPAP1-1 hairy roots relative to controls. This suggests that P. grandiflorum hairy roots that over-express the AtPAP1 gene are a potential alternative source of roots for the production of CGA. PMID:25153629

Tuan, Pham Anh; Kwon, Do Yeon; Lee, Sanghyun; Arasu, Mariadhas Valan; Al-Dhabi, Naif Abdullah; Park, Nam Il; Park, Sang Un

2014-01-01

354

Enhancement of Chlorogenic Acid Production in Hairy Roots of Platycodon grandiflorum by Over-Expression of An Arabidopsis thaliana Transcription Factor AtPAP1  

Science.gov (United States)

To improve the production of chlorogenic acid (CGA) in hairy roots of Platycodon grandiflorum, we induced over-expression of Arabidopsis thaliana transcription factor production of anthocyanin pigment (AtPAP1) using an Agrobacterium rhizogenes-mediated transformation system. Twelve hairy root lines showing over-expression of AtPAP1 were generated. In order to investigate the regulation of AtPAP1 on the activities of CGA biosynthetic genes, the expression levels of seven P. grandiflorum CGA biosynthetic genes were analyzed in the hairy root line that had the greatest accumulation of AtPAP1 transcript, OxPAP1-1. The introduction of AtPAP1 increased the mRNA levels of all examined CGA biosynthetic genes and resulted in a 900% up-regulation of CGA accumulation in OxPAP1-1 hairy roots relative to controls. This suggests that P. grandiflorum hairy roots that over-express the AtPAP1 gene are a potential alternative source of roots for the production of CGA. PMID:25153629

Tuan, Pham Anh; Kwon, Do Yeon; Lee, Sanghyun; Arasu, Mariadhas Valan; Al-Dhabi, Naif Abdullah; Park, Nam Il; Park, Sang Un

2014-01-01

355

Preliminary interpretations of geologic results obtained from boreholes UE25a-4, -5, -6, and -7, Yucca Mountain, Nevada Test Site  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Since 1978, the USGS (US Geological Survey) has been providing technical assistance in characterizing suitable rock masses at or contiguous to the NTS (Nevada Test Site) for long-term storage of high-level nuclear waste. Current efforts have been focused on investigating Yucca Mountain, a volcanic highland situated along the western boundary of NTS in southern Nevada. Detailed stratigraphic and structural studies have been in progress along a northeastern segment of the highland in a wedge-shaped area bounded by Basin and Range faults, most of which trend north-northeast. A series of four locally steep-walled, nearly parallel, linear washes transect the northeastern half of the area of interest and display trends similar to major faults to the northeast. Prior to the present study, drill hole UE25a-1, located about 1600 feet southeast of the edge of the area of interest, was cored to a depth of 2500 feet. Subsurface information derived from the upper 500 feet of this drill hole is included in this report to compare with recently acquired data. Surface electrical surveys have been conducted by both the University of Utah and the USGS perpendicular to the trend of the washes in an attempt to better understand factors that have influenced the present drainage pattern. Preliminary data of both pole-dipole and dipole-dipole resistivity/IP electrical methods indicate numerous vertical and horizontal discontinuities between adjacent resistive bodies that strongly suggest a broad zone of faulting, fracturing, and (or) brecciation. To verify the existence of structural discontinuities suggested by the linear washes and electrical anomalies, a drilling program was initiated in June 1979, to obtain geologic information within the southernmost of four northwest-trending washes

356

CIEMAT Interlaboratories Comparison of the Results obtained in the Proficiency Test Run by IAEA; Comparacion Interlaboratorios del CIEMAT de los Resultados Obtenidos en la Prueba de Capacitacion de Analisis de Transuranicos en Cenizas propocionadas por el OIEA  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report contains the results obtained by two different laboratories from CIEMAT after participating in the Proficiency Test organised by IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency) in 1999. This test involves the analysis of fly ashes containing natural radionuclides and different amounts of added transuranics. The extraction techniques, counting methods and results obtained are detailed. This type of test are used for the labs to achieve their accreditation and check the reliability of the procedures routinely employed. (Author) 4 refs.

Gasco, C.; Anton, M. P.; Alvarez, A.; Navarro, N.; Meral, J.; Gonzalez, A.; Higueras Lafaja, E. [Ciemat. Madrid (Spain)

2000-07-01

357

Tamizaje en cáncer cervical: conocimiento de la utilidad y uso de citología cervical en México / Cervical cancer screening: knowledge of Pap smear benefits and utilization in Mexico  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish OBJETIVO: Identificar y evaluar los factores que predisponen a la utilización de la prueba de Papanicolaou en la población que usa el servicio del Programa Nacional de Detección Oportuna de Cáncer en México. MÉTODOS: Se realizó un estudio del tipo transversal de enero de 1997 a diciembre de 1998, en [...] la Ciudad de México; se incluyeron a 2.107 mujeres en edad reproductiva que acudieron a un servicio de planificación familiar, las cuáles respondieron a un cuestionario con preguntas sobre características: sociodemográficas, factores de riesgo reproductivo asociados a cáncer cervical, historia de vida sexual, uso de métodos anticonceptivos, conocimiento de la utilidad y utilización del Papanicolaou. Para el análisis de los datos se construyeron modelos multivariados de regresión logística no condicional. RESULTADOS: Los predisponentes de utilización del programa de detección oportuna de cáncer en esta población fueron: el conocimiento de la utilidad del Papanicolaou incrementó en seis veces más la posibilidad de utilización (IC 95% 4,70-7,67); el antecedente de utilización de dos o más métodos de planificación familiar (OR=2,38; IC 95% 1,75-3,24); el antecedente de historia de infección vaginal (OR=2,18; IC 95% 1,73-2,75), y la aceptación del esposo para la realización de exploraciones ginecológicas (OR=1,56; IC 95% 1,07-2,29). CONCLUSIONES: La implementación de programas educativos en la prevención de cáncer, deberán incluir la utilidad de las pruebas de detección. En México, en mujeres en edad reproductiva utilización de la prueba de Papanicolaou se ofrece predominantemente en forma oportunista, por lo que el antecedente de utilización de los Servicios de Salud es un determinante para la utilización del Programa de Detección Oportuna de Cáncer Cervical. Estos resultados muestran la necesidad de ampliar la promoción a la salud de este programa a las mujeres de alto riesgo, incluyendo a sus parejas sexuales. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To identify and evaluate the predisposing factors regarding the utilization of the Pap smears in the population seen in the Cervical Cancer Screening Program in Mexico METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted from January 1997 through December 1998 in Mexico city. A questionnaire wa [...] s applied to a total of 2,107 women of reproductive age who attended a family planning program and data was collected regarding the following topics: social-demographics, reproductive risk factors associated with cervical cancer, sexual behavior and partner history, birth control, knowledge about Pap smear' benefits, and its utilization. Statistic analysis was conducted using Student´s test and non-conditional multiple logistic regression model for determining significance. RESULTS: The predisposing factors were: knowledge about Pap smear's benefits (OR=6.00, CI 95% 4.70-7.67), history of using at least two birth control methods (OR=2.38, CI 95% 1.75-3.24), previous history of vaginal infection (OR=2.18, CI 95% 1.73-2.75), sexual partner's approval of gynecological examinations (OR=1.56, CI 95% 1.07-2.29). CONCLUSIONS: Educational programs on cancer prevention in this population should include the benefits of screening tests. Pap smears for Mexican women of reproductive age are mostly offered opportunely. The previous use of health services is a determinant factor for the utilization of the Cervical Cancer Screening Program. These results show the need to strengthen health promotion programs to women at high risk of cervical cancer and their sexual partners.

José A, Aguilar-Pérez; Ahidée Gpe, Leyva-López; David, Angulo-Nájera; Antonio, Salinas; Eduardo C, Lazcano-Ponce.

358

Tamizaje en cáncer cervical: conocimiento de la utilidad y uso de citología cervical en México / Cervical cancer screening: knowledge of Pap smear benefits and utilization in Mexico  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish OBJETIVO: Identificar y evaluar los factores que predisponen a la utilización de la prueba de Papanicolaou en la población que usa el servicio del Programa Nacional de Detección Oportuna de Cáncer en México. MÉTODOS: Se realizó un estudio del tipo transversal de enero de 1997 a diciembre de 1998, en [...] la Ciudad de México; se incluyeron a 2.107 mujeres en edad reproductiva que acudieron a un servicio de planificación familiar, las cuáles respondieron a un cuestionario con preguntas sobre características: sociodemográficas, factores de riesgo reproductivo asociados a cáncer cervical, historia de vida sexual, uso de métodos anticonceptivos, conocimiento de la utilidad y utilización del Papanicolaou. Para el análisis de los datos se construyeron modelos multivariados de regresión logística no condicional. RESULTADOS: Los predisponentes de utilización del programa de detección oportuna de cáncer en esta población fueron: el conocimiento de la utilidad del Papanicolaou incrementó en seis veces más la posibilidad de utilización (IC 95% 4,70-7,67); el antecedente de utilización de dos o más métodos de planificación familiar (OR=2,38; IC 95% 1,75-3,24); el antecedente de historia de infección vaginal (OR=2,18; IC 95% 1,73-2,75), y la aceptación del esposo para la realización de exploraciones ginecológicas (OR=1,56; IC 95% 1,07-2,29). CONCLUSIONES: La implementación de programas educativos en la prevención de cáncer, deberán incluir la utilidad de las pruebas de detección. En México, en mujeres en edad reproductiva utilización de la prueba de Papanicolaou se ofrece predominantemente en forma oportunista, por lo que el antecedente de utilización de los Servicios de Salud es un determinante para la utilización del Programa de Detección Oportuna de Cáncer Cervical. Estos resultados muestran la necesidad de ampliar la promoción a la salud de este programa a las mujeres de alto riesgo, incluyendo a sus parejas sexuales. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To identify and evaluate the predisposing factors regarding the utilization of the Pap smears in the population seen in the Cervical Cancer Screening Program in Mexico METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted from January 1997 through December 1998 in Mexico city. A questionnaire wa [...] s applied to a total of 2,107 women of reproductive age who attended a family planning program and data was collected regarding the following topics: social-demographics, reproductive risk factors associated with cervical cancer, sexual behavior and partner history, birth control, knowledge about Pap smear' benefits, and its utilization. Statistic analysis was conducted using Student´s test and non-conditional multiple logistic regression model for determining significance. RESULTS: The predisposing factors were: knowledge about Pap smear's benefits (OR=6.00, CI 95% 4.70-7.67), history of using at least two birth control methods (OR=2.38, CI 95% 1.75-3.24), previous history of vaginal infection (OR=2.18, CI 95% 1.73-2.75), sexual partner's approval of gynecological examinations (OR=1.56, CI 95% 1.07-2.29). CONCLUSIONS: Educational programs on cancer prevention in this population should include the benefits of screening tests. Pap smears for Mexican women of reproductive age are mostly offered opportunely. The previous use of health services is a determinant factor for the utilization of the Cervical Cancer Screening Program. These results show the need to strengthen health promotion programs to wome