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  1. Pap and HPV Testing

    ... placed on a glass microscope slide and a fixative is added. In an automated liquid-based Pap ... more deeply into the cervix or into other tissues or organs. In a well-screened population, such ...

  2. Pap Tests and Foreign-Born Women

    2007-11-26

    Foreign-born women living in the U.S. are less likely to have Pap tests to detect cervical cancer than women born in this country. The problem is worse for women from certain countries or regions. Find out why this is a disturbing trend, who these women are and why they are less likely to get a Pap test, and what CDC is doing about it.  Created: 11/26/2007 by National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program.   Date Released: 12/7/2007.

  3. Making Sense of Your Pap and HPV Test Results

    ... Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs) Making Sense of Your Pap & HPV Test Results Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend ... abnormal cells and lead to cervical cancer. The Pap and HPV tests can find early problems that ...

  4. Determination of knowledge, attitude, and behaviors of female physicians about Pap smear test

    Oguz Isik; Mustafa Celik; Hamit Sirri Keten; Ahmet Ferit Dalgaci; Fatis Yildirim

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Pap smear test is a cytological screening test based on collecting and examining shedded cervical cells. The aim of this study was to determine knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors of female physicians in Pap smear test. Material and Methods: In the present study, a total of 197 female physicians who worked in Kahramanmaras province were included. After obtaining informed consents, questionnaire was applied to participants. Knowledge level of participants in Pap smear test were ev...

  5. Access to Adequate Healthcare for Hmong Women: A Patient Navigation Program to Increase Pap Test Screening

    Moon S. Chen, Jr

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the development and implementation of a Hmong Cervical Cancer Intervention Program utilizing a patient navigation model to raise cervical cancer awareness for Hmong women through educational workshops and to assist Hmong women in obtaining a Pap test. Out of 402 women who participated in a baseline survey, the Patient Navigation Program was able to enroll 109 participants who had not had a Pap test in the past 3 years and had never had a Pap test. Through utilization of outreach, an awareness campaign and patient navigation support, at least 38 percent of 109 participants obtained a Pap test. Overall, 21 workshops and 43 outreach activities were conducted by the Hmong Women’s Heritage Association, leading to 63 percent of those enrolled in the Patient Navigation Program who could be contacted to obtain a Pap test.

  6. Health Literacy and Pap Testing in Insured Women

    Mazor, K.M.; Williams, A. E.; Roblin, D W; Gaglio, B.; Cutrona, S.L.; Costanza, M.E.; Han, P.K.J.; Wagner, J. L.; Fouayzi, H.; Field, T. S.

    2014-01-01

    Several studies have found a link between health literacy and participation in cancer screening. Most, however, have relied on self-report to determine screening status. Further, until now, health literacy measures have assessed print literacy only. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between participation in cervical cancer screening (Papanicolaou [Pap] testing) and two forms of health literacy – reading and listening. A demographically diverse sample was recruited from...

  7. The characteristics and relevant factors of Pap smear test use for women with intellectual disabilities in Taiwan

    Yen, Suh-May; Kung, Pei-Tseng; Tsai, Wen-Chen

    2014-01-01

    Background This study examines the Pap smear usage conditions and relevant influential factors for 18,204 women aged 30 years and above with intellectual disabilities, using nationwide data from 2008. Methods The research method of this study is secondary data analysis. The data was obtained from three nationwide databases from 2006 to 2008. This study employed descriptive statistics to analyze the use and rate of Pap smear testing by women with intellectual disabilities. Chi-square test was ...

  8. Negative HPV screening test predicts low cervical cancer risk better than negative Pap test

    Based on a study that included more than 1 million women, investigators at NCI have determined that a negative test for HPV infection compared to a negative Pap test provides greater safety, or assurance, against future risk of cervical cancer.

  9. Adolescents' intention and self-efficacy to follow Pap testing recommendations after receiving the HPV vaccine.

    Higgins, Lisa M; Dirksing, Kelsie N; Ding, Lili; Morrow, Charlene D; Widdice, Lea A; Kahn, Jessica A

    2016-06-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines are recommended in the US for girls and women 11-26 y of age. Because these vaccines do not prevent all cervical cancers, Papanicolaou (Pap) screening is still recommended after vaccination. Young women who have been vaccinated may perceive themselves at lower risk for HPV infection and cervical cancer, which could lead to lower intention and self-efficacy to follow cervical cancer screening guidelines, and subsequent nonadherence to Pap testing. The aim of this study was to examine whether perceived risk of human papillomavirus (HPV) after vaccination and other factors are associated with adolescents' intention and self-efficacy to get Pap testing after HPV vaccination. Women 13-21 y of age (N = 339) receiving their first HPV vaccine dose completed a survey. Multivariable logistic regression examined associations between perceived risk of HPV and intention/self-efficacy to get a Pap test while adjusting for other factors. Approximately half of participants reported high intention and half reported high self-efficacy to get a Pap test. Factors significantly associated with high intention were Pap testing history and knowledge about HPV/HPV vaccines; factors significantly associated with high self-efficacy included insurance plan, Pap testing history, communication with clinician about needing a Pap test after vaccination, lifetime number of male sexual partners, and recent smoking. In conclusion, educating adolescents about HPV/HPV vaccines and the need for Pap testing may increase self-efficacy/intention to get a Pap test after vaccination. PMID:26934107

  10. Evaluation of a nurse-designed mobile health education application to enhance knowledge of Pap testing.

    Christensen, Stacy

    2014-01-01

    An experimental study was conducted using a 2-group randomized control pretest/ posttest design to determine if knowledge about Pap testing could be increased through use of a nurse-designed mobile smartphone app developed to educate individuals about the Pap test. A 14-item pretest survey of knowledge about Pap tests was distributed to women attending a university in New England. Participants in the intervention group were provided with an Android device on which a digital health education application on Pap testing had been downloaded. The control group was given a standard pamphlet on Pap testing., Paired t test results demonstrated that knowledge scores on the posttest increased significantly in both groups, but were significantly higher in the intervention group. User satisfaction with the app was high. The results of this study may enhance nursing care by informing nurses about a unique way of learning about Pap testing to recommend to patients. PMID:25000742

  11. How Often to Get a Pap Test (A Cup of Health with CDC)

    2013-01-10

    Cervical cancer has declined in the U.S., and the decline is largely due to Pap testing and follow-up. Screening recommendations have changed. In this podcast, Meg Watson discusses Pap testing.  Created: 1/10/2013 by MMWR.   Date Released: 1/10/2013.

  12. Pap Smear

    ... very common sexually transmitted viral infection. An HPV DNA test may be done along with a Pap test ... dependent on age, concurrent use of the HPV DNA test , and risk factors (see Screening: Cervical Cancer (Young ...

  13. Papanicolaou (Pap test screening of staff members of a tertiary care teaching hospital in South India

    Amitabh Jena

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: In India, cancer cervix is the most common cancer among females. Papanicolaou cytological (Pap test helps in detecting the early epithelial abnormalities in cervical cells. Material and Methods: Pap smears of female health care staff members (n=80who underwent voluntary Pap test as part of a screening programme,from January to June 2012 were evaluated. Pap smears were evaluated by light microscopy. The 2001 Bethesda system for reporting cervical cytology was used in evaluating the pap smears. Results: Their mean age was 41.3 ± 5.6 years. Epithelial cell abnormality was noted in the Pap smear in 5 (6.3% cases. Conclusion: Our observations provide supportive evidence for using Pap test as a tool for screening for cervical cancer. There is a need for enhancing the awareness among lay public regarding the utility of this test so that more women will avail this test and precancerous changes in cervix can be detected before they progress to frank malignancy.

  14. Use of Schiller's test versus Pap smear to increase detection rate of cervical dysplasias

    Ramaraju H. E.; Nagaveni Y. C.; A. A. Khazi

    2016-01-01

    Background: Application of Lugols iodine to cervix (Schillers test) is named as Visual Inspection of cervix after applying Lugols Iodine (VILI). VILI improves the detection rate of suspicious area over the cervix. The objectives of the study was to screening for early carcinoma or Dysplasia cervix by Schiller's test and Pap smear and to compare the results of Schiller's test with Pap smear results. Methods: The present prospective randomized control trials study was undertaken among 500 ...

  15. Attitude Concerning the Pap Smear Test of Women Who Admitted to the Family Medicine Outpatient Clinic

    Ak M et al.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: In this trial, we evaluated women’s knowledge and behavior concerning the Pap smear test. Material and Method: Women attending to the family medicine outpatient clinic in between April 1 to May 30 irrespective of their complaints included in the study in Dogansehir, Malatya, Turkey. Sociodemographic data form was filled by trained personnel. Questions regarding whether they heard about the Pap smear test, have ever taken it, if not what were the reasons, what are the indications of the Pap smear test were asked. 139 women accepted to participate in the study. 46,8% had heard and 54,2 % didn’t hear about the Pap smear test. The source of information was 57% from health professionals 26% from the media, and 14% from the neighbors. Those who were informed about the Pap smear test from health professionals undertook it more than others. Media was the second effective source and neighbors were ineffective in context to Pap smear test being done Results: As a result preventive medicine has a distinct position in the primary care. Cervical malignancy of the urogenital tract is one of the rare preventable cancers by screening tests. In the primary care set up every effort should be supported in order to improve the awareness of women particularly who are at the risk group.

  16. Awareness of Pap testing and factors associated with intent to undergo Pap testing by level of sexual experience in unmarried university students in Korea: results from an online survey

    Kim, Hae Won

    2014-01-01

    Background Young and unmarried women have not been a target group for cervical cancer prevention in Korea. No previous studies have investigated the awareness of Pap testing, the intention to undergo Pap testing, or the factors associated with that intention, in this group of women. This information would be useful for an expansion in the focus of primary cervical cancer prevention. This study aimed to compare the awareness of Pap testing between groups of unmarried university students in Kor...

  17. A Shandon PapSpin liquid-based gynecological test: A split-sample and direct-to-vial test with histology follow-up study

    Rimiene J

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Studies for liquid-based Papanicolaou (Pap tests reveal that liquid-based cytology (LBC is a safe and effective alternative to the conventional Pap smear. Although there is research on ThinPrep and SurePath systems, information is lacking to evaluate the efficiency and effectiveness of systems based on cytocentrifugation. This study is designed to determine the sensitivity and specificity of the Shandon PapSpin (ThermoShandon, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA liquid-based gynecological system. We used split-sample and direct-to-vial study design. Materials and Methods: 2,945 women referred to prophylactic check-up were enrolled in this study. Split sample design was used in 1,500 women and residual cervical cytology specimen from all these cases was placed in fluid for PapSpin preparation after performing conventional smear. The direct-to-vial study was carried out in another cohort of 1,445 women in whom the entire cervical material was investigated using only the PapSpin technique. Follow up histological diagnoses for 141 women were obtained from both study arms following 189 abnormal cytology cases. 80 LBC cases from the split sample group and 61 LBC cases in the direct-to-vial group were correlated with the histology results. The sensitivity and secificity of the conventional smear and PapSpin tests in both study arms were compared. Results: In the split sample group, conventional smears showed a higher proportion of ASC-US (atypical cells undetermined significance: 31 (2.1% vs 10 (0.7% in PapSpin (P = 0.001. A higher proportion of unsatisfactory samples was found in the conventional smear group: 25 (1.7% vs 6 (0.4% cases (P = 0.001. In the split sample group, the sensitivity of the conventional and PapSpin tests was 68.7% vs 78.1%, and the specificity 93.8% vs 91.8%, respectively. In the direct to vial group PapSpin sensitivity was 75.9% and specificity 96.5%. The differences in sensitivity and specificity were not significant. The

  18. Predictive Capability of HPV and Pap Tests in Screening for Cervical Cancer over a Three-Year Follow-up.

    Girianelli, Vania Reis; Thuler, Luiz Claudio Santos; Azevedo E Silva, Gulnar

    2016-03-01

    Purpose To compare the predictive capability of HPV and Pap smear tests for screening pre-cancerous lesions of the cervix over a three-year follow-up, in a population of users of the Brazilian National Health System (SUS). Methods This is a retrospective cohort study of 2,032 women with satisfactory results for Pap smear and HPV tests using second-generation hybrid capture, made in a previous study. We followed them for 36 months with data obtained from medical records, the Cervix Cancer Information System (SISCOLO), and the Mortality Information System (SIM). The outcome was a histological diagnosis of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 or more advanced lesions (CIN2+). We constructed progression curves of the baseline test results for the period, using the Kaplan-Meier method, and estimated sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value, and positive and negative likelihood ratios for each test. Results A total of 1,440 women had at least one test during follow-up. Progression curves of the baseline test results indicated differences in capability to detect CIN2+ (p Pap smear (88.7% and 73.6%, respectively; p < 0.05) and had a better negative likelihood ratio (0.13 and 0.30, respectively). Specificity and positive likelihood ratio of the tests were similar. Conclusions These findings corroborate the importance of HPV test as a primary cervical cancer screening. PMID:27022786

  19. [The understanding of users of a Family Health Unit about the pap smear test].

    Andrade, Smalyanna Sgren da Costa; da Silva, Fernanda Maria Chianca; Sousa e Silva, Maria do Socorro; Oliveira, Simone Helena dos Santos; Leite, Kamila Nethielly Souza; de Sousa, Merifane Januário

    2013-08-01

    In the attempt to prevent cervical cancer, various preventive measures have been instituted, notable among which is the pap smear test, which fulfills the function of early detection of cancer cells or their precursors. Therefore, the objective was to investigate the discourse on the knowledge, feelings and expectations of women regarding the pap smear test. This is an exploratory qualitative approach, conducted with ten users of a Integrated Family Health Unit in the city of João Pessoa in the State of Paraíba. Data collection was conducted through recorded interviews in April 2011. Eight core ideas were identified: prevention of disease; self-motivated search, search recommended by another person; sense of shame and embarrassment, sensation of pain, feeling of satisfaction; conversations during the examination and exchange of knowledge about women's health. Based on the reports, there are many difficulties to be overcome to ensure greater adherence of women to the pap smear test. PMID:23896912

  20. Pap Tests Every Three Years: Cost-Effective in the Long Run?

    Amschler, Denise Hope

    1983-01-01

    The American Cancer Society's guidelines, recommending that having Pap tests at three-year intervals is safe for many women, are questioned. Dangers to women with a high risk of cervical cancer, problems with faulty test results, and other gynecological problems that may be detected during pelvic examinations are discussed. (PP)

  1. How Often to Get a Pap Test (A Minute of Health with CDC)

    2013-01-10

    Cervical cancer has declined in the U.S., however every year over 12,000 women are diagnosed and 4,000 die. This podcast discusses the importance of Pap testing.  Created: 1/10/2013 by MMWR.   Date Released: 1/10/2013.

  2. Does Cytological Laboratory Holds the Responsibility for the Low Sensitivity of the PAP Test in Detecting Endometrial Cancer?

    Milicić, Valerija; Matić, Tereza Solocki; Martinek, Vjenceslav; Tomasković, Igor; Ramljak, Vesna

    2015-09-01

    Endometrial cancer is the most common gynecological cancer but there is no economically justified screening method. Although we can detect endometrial cells in the sample using PAP test, many studies show low sensitivity and positive predictive value of PAP test for the diagnosis of endometrial cancer. The goal of this research was to determine significance of PAP test for the diagnostics of endometrial carcinoma. Sensitivity and specificity were analyzed with statistical parameters. VCE (vaginal, cervical, endocervical) smears of patients with histologically proven endometrial carcinoma were re-examined in order to determine the proportion of false negative results for endometrial cancer cells in the VCE samples. Study group consisted of all consecutive patients with PAP test performed at the Department of Clinical Cytology of the University Hospital Center Osijek from 2002 until the end of 2014. There was one inclusion criteria: subsequent hysterectomy or curettage within the six month after the PAP test, regardless of histological finding. From a total of 263 patients with previous PAP test and histologically proven endometrial cancer, endometrial cancer was cytologicaly diagnosed in 24.7% (including suspicious and positive findings), while 66.2% patients had normal cytological findings. The diagnostic value of PAP test in detection of endometrial cancer was statistically revealed with 25% sensitivity and 99% specificity. To determine false negative rate VCE samples were reviewed for patients with histologically proven endometrial cancer and negative VCE findings. There were a total of five negative results. In one case revision did not changed the original negative diagnosis, but benign endometrial cells, a lot of blood and inadequate cytohormonal status were found. In three out of four reviewed samples there were missed cells of endometrial adenocarcinoma. Review of remaining VCE sample upgraded the diagnosis from negative to suspicious for endometrial cancer

  3. Pemphigus vulgaris of the cervix: diagnostic difficulties associated with the Pap test.

    Munhoz de Paula Alves Coelho, Karina; Stall, Jaqueline; Henrique Condeixa de França, Paulo; Cristina de Carvalho Tavares, Lara; Stefanello Bublitz, Giuliano; Loos, Beliza; Carvalho Costa, Luciana; Fronza Júnior, Hercílio

    2015-08-01

    Pemphigus vulgaris (PV) is a rare mucocutaneous disease caused by the abnormal production of antibodies against epithelial cell surface glycoproteins, resulting in loss of cell adhesion and intraepithelial blister formation. Cervical involvement in PV has been poorly reported, and there is little information regarding the criteria about consequential cytological changes identified in a Papanicolaou-stained cervicovaginal smear (Pap smear). Here, we report a case of PV manifesting in the cervix as well as the difficulty associated with the cytomorphological identification and interpretation of acantholytic cells. This case involved a 40-year-old patient with no history of Pap test abnormalities and no prior diagnosis of PV. In the cytological assessment, cells were identified both in isolation and in clusters that exhibited round nuclei of increased volume, inconspicuous nucleoli, and perinuclear halos. The patient underwent a cervical biopsy that revealed vesiculobullous lesions and morphological pattern consistent with PV. A skin biopsy confirmed this diagnosis. We concluded that knowledge of PV cytomorphology is important because difficulties associated with the identification and interpretation of acantholytic cells might be responsible for false positive diagnoses of cervical neoplasia. However, a suspected diagnosis of PV is possible if the cytological findings are carefully correlated with the clinical data. PMID:25728997

  4. Mammography and Pap test screening among low-income foreign-born Hispanic women in the USA

    Maria E. Fernandez

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about the factors influencing screening among low-income Hispanic women particularly among recent immigrants. A sample of 148 low-income, low-literate, foreign-born Hispanic women residing in the Washington DC metropolitan area participated in the study. The mean age of the sample was 46.2 (SD = 11.5, 84% reported annual household incomes<=$15,000. All women were Spanish speakers and had low acculturation levels. Ninety six percent had reported having a Pap smear, but 24% were not in compliance with recommended screening (Pap test within the last 3 years. Among women 40 and older, 62% had received a mammogram, but only 33% were compliant with age appropriate recommended mammography screening guidelines. Women in this study had more misconceptions about cancer than Hispanics in other studies. Multivariate logistic models for correlates of Pap test and mammography screening behavior indicate that factors such as fear of the screening test, embarrassment, and lack of knowledge influenced screening behavior. In conclusion, women in this study had lower rates of mammography screening than non-Hispanic women and lower rates of compliance with recommended Mammography and Pap test screening guidelines.

  5. [Opportunistic screening versus missed opportunities: non-adherence to Pap smear testing in women attending prenatal care].

    Ribeiro, Luciane; Bastos, Ronaldo Rocha; Vieira, Marcel de Toledo; Ribeiro, Luiz Cláudio; Teixeira, Maria Teresa Bustamante; Leite, Isabel Cristina Gonçalves

    2016-06-20

    The objectives were to estimate the prevalence of non-adherence to Pap smear testing in women attending prenatal care and to identify associated factors. This was a cross-sectional population-based study in 308 women from a rural municipality (county) in Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Complex stratified cluster sampling was used. Statistical analysis used the chi-square test and logistic regression model with the variables that presented p-value ≤ 0.05 in the bivariate model. Prevalence of lack of Pap smear test was 21.3%. Among women 25 years or older, prevalence was 15.1%. Non-adherence was more common in young, single women and those with low schooling. Low schooling remained associated with non-performance of Pap smear (OR = 0.41), indicating that women with more schooling enjoyed higher odds of testing. Contact with the prenatal clinic did not determine guaranteed access to the test, thus indicating missed opportunities when opportunistic screening is employed. PMID:27333137

  6. Estimation of Pap-test coverage in an area with an organised screening program: challenges for survey methods

    Raggi Patrizio

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The cytological screening programme of Viterbo has completed the second round of invitations to the entire target population (age 25–64. From a public health perspective, it is important to know the Pap-test coverage rate and the use of opportunistic screening. The most commonly used study design is the survey, but the validity of self-reports and the assumptions made about non respondents are often questioned. Methods From the target population, 940 women were sampled, and responded to a telephone interview about Pap-test utilisation. The answers were compared with the screening program registry; comparing the dates of Pap-tests reported by both sources. Sensitivity analyses were performed for coverage over a 36-month period, according to various assumptions regarding non respondents. Results The response rate was 68%. The coverage over 36 months was 86.4% if we assume that non respondents had the same coverage as respondents, 66% if we assume they were not covered at all, and 74.6% if we adjust for screening compliance in the non respondents. The sensitivity and specificity of the question, "have you ever had a Pap test with the screening programme" were 84.5% and 82.2% respectively. The test dates reported in the interview tended to be more recent than those reported in the registry, but 68% were within 12 months of each other. Conclusion Surveys are useful tools to understand the effectiveness of a screening programme and women's self-report was sufficiently reliable in our setting, but the coverage estimates were strongly influenced by the assumptions we made regarding non respondents.

  7. Factors related to failure to attend the consultation to receive the results of the Pap smear test

    Camila Teixeira Moreira Vasconcelos

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to identify the factors related to the failure of women to attend the follow-up consultation to receive the results of the Pap smear test.METHOD: a cross-sectional study, carried out with 775 patients who underwent the Pap smear test in the Centro de Saúde da Família of Fortaleza, between September 2010 and February 2011.RESULTS: the majority of the women studied were young (≤35 years, had low levels of education (≤7 years of study, and commenced sexual activity early (≤20 years, with 17.0% of them failing to return to receive the test results. Statistically significant results for the failure to return were related to: young women (p=0.001; early onset of sexual activity (p=0.047; and inadequate knowledge about the Pap smear test (p=0.029. Conclusion the fact that the women failed to return for the result is a problem for the control of cervical cancer and must be addressed through educational strategies that reinforce the importance of the return for the early detection of this cancer.

  8. A molecular monopoly? HPV testing, the Pap smear and the molecularisation of cervical cancer screening in the USA.

    Hogarth, Stuart; Hopkins, Michael M; Rodriguez, Victor

    2012-02-01

    DNA-based molecular testing for human papillomavirus has emerged as a novel approach to cervical cancer screening in the context of well-entrenched existing technology, the Pap smear. This article seeks to elucidate the process of molecularisation in the context of screening programmes. We illustrate how, although Pap has long been problematised and could be seen as a competing technological option, the existing networks and regime for Pap were important in supporting the entrenchment process for the artefacts, techniques and new diagnostics industry entrant, Digene, associated with the new test. The article provides insights into how the molecularisation of screening unfolds in a mainstream market. We reveal an incremental and accretive, rather than revolutionary, process led by new commercial interests in an era when diagnostic innovation is increasingly privatised. We show Digene's reliance on patents, an international scientific network and their position as an obligatory point of passage in the clinical research field with regard to the new technology's role, as well as on controversial new marketing practices. The article is based on a mixed method approach, drawing on a wide range of contemporary sources (including patents, statutory filings by companies, scientific literature and news sources) as well as interviews. PMID:22118240

  9. Papanicolaou Test in the Detection of High-Grade Cervical Lesions: A Re-evaluation Based on Cytohistologic Non-correlation Rates in 356 Concurrently Obtained Samples

    Carns, Bhavini; Fadare, Oluwole

    2008-01-01

    Studies evaluating the routine Papanicolaou (Pap) test have traditionally used as the reference gold standard, the diagnoses on the follow-up histologic samples. Since the latter are typically obtained days to weeks after the Pap test, the accuracy of the resultant comparison may be affected by interim factors, such as regression of human papillomavirus, new lesion acquisitions or colposcopy-associated variability. A subset of our clinicians have routinely obtained cervical cytology samples i...

  10. The frequency of having pap-smear tests among women between 15-64 years old and the evaluation of the level of their knowledge

    Objective: To determine the frequency of Pap smear testing among women and to evaluate their level of knowledge about the test and other relevant factors. Methods: The study comprised women who presented to the Gynaecology and Obstetrics Polyclinic of Sakarya Training and Research Hospital, Turkey, between April 1 and 30, 2012. The questionnaire was developed in line with the objectives of the study. They were filled by the participants who were supervised during the process. Women who had had at least one Pap smear test in life were considered to have taken a Pap smear test, and those who had heard of the test were accepted as women who knew of the Pap smear test. Data was analysed using SPSS 15.0. Chi-square test was used for analyses, and statistical significance was set at p<0.05. Results: The age of 601 subjects ranged between 15 and 64 years, with a mean of 31.09+-10.49 years. Of the total, 115 (19.1%) had taken a Pap smear test before and 293 (48.8%) knew of the test. The proportion of the women who had had a Pap smear test was higher among those who were over 30 years of age (n=73; 63.47%), had post-high school educational degrees (n=68; 59.13%), had moderate familial income status (n=74; 64.34%), were married (n=109; 94.78%), had first sexual experience after 25 years of age(n=42; 36.52%), and were not using a contraceptive method (n=97; 84.34%) (p<0.05 for each). Besides, more women with previous knowledge of the test had taken the test (p<0.05). Conclusion: The subjects did not have sufficient information on Pap smear and the frequency of having a test was low. Raising awareness would prove beneficial. (author)

  11. Cytohistological correlation and accuracy of the pap smear test in diagnosis of cervical lesions: a hospital based cross-sectional study from Odisha, India

    Reena Naik

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Cervical carcinoma is one of the most common causes of mortality among women.Early detection can be done by Papanicolaou (Papsmear test - a simplest, safe, cost effective and non invasive procedure. The main objective of this study was to categorize Pap smears for cytohistologicalexamination as well as clinically correlate to analyze sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive value of Pap smear. Methods In this prospective study 417 Pap smears performed, cytohistological correlation was done in 104 cases because patients had undergone both Pap smear and cervical biopsy.Detailed history was taken and clinical examination was done. Pap smear sample was collected from cervix and reporting was made according to Bethesda 2001 classification.Cytological findings were correlated with histopathology. Results Overall concordance rate was 60.7%. Concordance rate for malignancy was 100%, for inflammatory lesions 70.8% and for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN 33.3%. Common age group presented for screening was40-50 years.Commonest clinical presentationwas bleeding per vaginum. Conclusion The study provides good cyto-histopathology correlation in detecting high grade lesions and malignancy. Although Pap smear sensitivity was low but can be increased by adequate sampling and avoiding technical errors.Bethesda system is strongly recommended for adequacy of sampling to minimize inconsistency.Regular screening should be advised to the patients for the early detection of cervical carcinoma.

  12. La coloración fluorescente con naranja de acridina y el PAP: validación de ambas técnicas para la detección de Trichomonas vaginalis FLUORESCENT STAINING WITH ACRIDINE ORANGE AND PAP SMEAR: VALIDATION TESTS OF BOTH TECNIQUES FOR THE DETECTION OF Trichomonas vaginalis

    SIXTO RAUL COSTAMAGNA

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available Se efectuó la validación de la coloración de Papanicolaou, utilizada para citología vaginal, frente a la coloración fluorescente con naranja de acridina, a fin de evaluar el valor de un resultado negativo para Trichomonas vaginalis obtenido en un PAP. Se estudiaron 80 muestras de flujo vaginal de mujeres entre 18 y 45 años, pacientes de consultorios externos de Ginecología del Hospital Municipal de la ciudad de Bahía Blanca, Provincia de Buenos Aires (Argentina. Las muestras se colorearon paralelamente por la técnica de Papanicolaou y por la coloración fluorescente con naranja de acridina. Los resultados mostraron que el PAP presenta una sensibilidad del 54,5% para la detección de T. vaginalis, validación efectuada frente a la coloración fluorescente con naranja de acridina, para una prevalencia de enfermedad en el grupo de mujeres estudiadas del 13,75% y un nivel de confianza del 95%. Para ensayos "en paralelo" con ambas coloraciones, el valor global de la prueba fue del 93,8%, con un valor predictivo del resultado negativo del 93,2%. Concluimos que si bien T. vaginalis es detectada en el PAP, éste no presenta sensibilidad significativamente elevada como para ser considerada como única prueba, debiéndose complementar siempre con una coloración fluorescente con naranja de acridina, u otra prueba de similar valorThe present study examined the validity of PAP staining, as used for vaginal cytology, against fluorescent staining with acridine orange in order to determine the value of a negative result of Trichomonas vaginalis obtained by a PAP smear. We examined eighty vaginal-secretion samples from 18- to 45-year-old female patients of the Hospital Municipal of the city of Bahía Blanca, Province of Buenos Aires, Argentina. The samples were stained in parallel by the PAP smear technique and the fluorescent staining technique with acridine orange described by Fripp in 1975. The results of our validation tests demonstrated that

  13. Plastic spatula with narrow long tip provides higher satisfactory smears for Pap test

    Pervinder Kaur

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ayre spatula for cervical smear collection is being used despite the suggestion that different modified spatulas provide more satisfactory sampling. Aims: To see whether the cytological pickup improves with the use of long tipped spatula. Setting and Design: Rurally based University Hospital; crossover study. Materials and Methods: Pap smear using Ayre spatula in 500 and with plastic narrow long tip (Szalay spatula in 500 clinic attending women was taken and analyzed. Crossover smears were taken with modified spatula in 163 and using Ayre spatula in 187 women after 2 weeks of initial smears. The same pathologist made cytological reporting for all smears and was unaware of the type of spatula used. Results: Smears from Ayre spatula had significantly higher reports of inadequate smears (94 of 500 vs. 68 of 500 for Ayre and Szalay, respectively; P = 0.032 and it remained so even after crossover (94 of 187 vs. 70 of 163 for Ayre and Szalay, respectively; P = 0.2. Cellular quality appeared better with smears taken using Szalay spatula, but the overall abnormal smear detection rate remained similar with either collection tool (χ2 = 1.5; P = 0.2. Conclusions: Proportion of satisfactory smears is higher when long tip plastic spatula is used for collection of sample.

  14. Study of effectiveness of combined test Pap smear, visual inspection with acetic acid and Lugols iodine for mass screening of premalignant and malignant lesions of cervix

    Nivedhitha V. S.

    2016-03-01

    Conclusions: This study concludes that the effectiveness of cervical cancer screening can be improved by a combination test of Pap, VILI and VIA, even in tertiary centers in India. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2016; 5(3.000: 725-729

  15. Pap smear (image)

    During a Pap smear, cells from the outside and the canal of the cervix are retrieved by gently scraping the outside of the cervix. The Pap smear is performed to detect cancerous or precancerous conditions ...

  16. Attitudes and factors affecting acceptability of self-administered cervicovaginal sampling for human papillomavirus (HPV) genotyping as an alternative to Pap testing among multiethnic Malaysian women

    Ma'som, Mahirah; Bhoo-Pathy, Nirmala; Nasir, Nazrila Hairizan; Bellinson, Jerome; Subramaniam, Shridevi; Ma, Yuntong; Yap, Siew-Hwei; Goh, Pik-Pin; Gravitt, Patti; Woo, Yin Ling

    2016-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to determine the attitudes and acceptability of self-administered cervicovaginal sampling compared with conventional physician-acquired Papanicolaou (Pap) smear among multiethnic Malaysian women. Method A cross-sectional study was carried out via interviewer-administered surveys from August 2013 through August 2015 at five government-run, urban health clinics in the state of Selangor. Subjects were participants from an ongoing community-based human papillomavirus (HPV) prevalence study who answered a standard questionnaire before and after self-sampling. The cervicovaginal self-sampling for HPV genotyping was performed using a simple brush (‘Just for Me’; Preventive Oncology International, Hong Kong). Detailed data on sociodemographics, previous Pap smear experience, and attitudes towards self-administered cervicovaginal sampling were collected and analysed. Acceptability was inferred using a five-item Likert scale that included six different subjective descriptives: experience, difficulty, convenience, embarrassment, discomfort or pain, and confidence in collecting one's own sample. Results Of the 839 participants, 47.9% were Malays, followed by 30.8% Indians, 18.8% Chinese and 2.5% from other ethnicities. The median age of the participants was 38 years (IQR 30–48). Some 68.2% of participants indicated a preference for self-sampling over the Pap test, with 95% indicating willingness to follow-up a positive result at the hospital. Age, ethnicity and previous Pap test experience were significant independent factors associated with preference for self-sampling. The older the individual, the less likely they were to prefer self-sampling (adjusted OR 0.94, 95% CI 0.90 to 0.98). The Chinese were less likely to prefer self-sampling (72.6%) than the Malays (85.1%) (adjusted OR 0.57, 95% CI 0.33 to 0.98, p=0.004). Participants who had never undergone a Pap smear were also more likely to prefer self-sampling (88.5%) than

  17. Congress: 50 years of the Papanicolaou test. Istituto Superiore di Sanita`. Rome, March 30, 1995; Convegno: 50 anni di Pap test. Istituto Superiore di Sanita`. Roma, 30 marzo 1995

    Branca, Margherita; Cedri, Sabina; Migliore, Giovanna [Istituto Superiore di Sanita`, Rome (Italy). Lab. di Epidemiologia e Biostatistica

    1997-12-01

    The Conference was organized to celebrate the 50th anniversary of the cervical smear test, commonly referred to as the `Pap test` after its creator, George Nicholas Papanicolaou. The reports present the development of the test, its worldwide application, and its performance as the screening test for the detection of cervical cancer. Pap smear screening for precursors of carcinoma of the cervix has led to dramatic decrease in the incidence and deaths from this cancer. The test represents one of the greatest achievements in preventive medicine.

  18. Non-Economic and Economic Factors in the Decision to Obtain a Pap Smear: The Case of Women Residents in the State of Florida

    Alexander, Gigi; Cebula, Richard

    2010-01-01

    In this first-time-ever such study of the adult female population in the state of Florida, the percentage of the women 18 to 44 years of age within each county in the state of Florida in 2007 who had received a Pap smear during the past year was a decreasing function of the percentage of women 18 years of age and older who were current smokers (AS), while being an increasing function of the percentage of women 18 years of age and older with an annual income of $25,000 or more (AIN25PLUS), t...

  19. American College Health Association Annual Pap Test and Sexually Transmitted Infection Survey: 2006

    Smith, P. Davis; Roberts, Craig M.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The authors describe the cervical cytology and sexually transmitted infection (STI) testing patterns of US college health centers. Participants and Methods: A total of 128 self-selected US college health centers--representing more than 2 million college students--completed an online survey during February and March 2007. Results: Almost…

  20. Obtaining reliable quality data from fragility tests

    The parameters discussed in this paper are the same as those present in normal seismic qualification testing. These parameters behave differently in high level acceleration tests and their contribution in providing unreliable data is of major concern since there is a significant difference. These parameters need to be considered in developing methodology guidelines for future fragility standards. In seismic qualification testing, a predefined series of tests are performed and measured against a set of acceptance criteria. The response spectra generally has a peak acceleration of between 3-10 g's at a 2% damping value for the Design Basis Event (Safe Shutdown Earthquake). Fragility level testing has minimum starting point of 10 g's at 2% damping and is generally 20 g's at 2% damping. The dynamic characteristics of the simulated earthquake and the corresponding simulator hardware interfaces are the parameters discussed. There are two major parameter contributions in obtaining unreliable data. The first parameter is test specimen system hardware nonlinearities. The second major variable is electronic signal saturations

  1. Tests for Reproductive Health

    ... 888-220-5446 Test HSV (genital herpes) test Pap test (Pap smear) Syphilis test Urinalysis and urine culture Vaginal ... just because you had a pelvic exam or Pap test. A Pap test does not test for ...

  2. The health beliefs of mothers about preventing cervical cancer and their intention to recommend the Pap test to their daughters: a cross-sectional survey

    Kim, Hae Won

    2016-01-01

    Background Mothers have a primary role in the prevention of cervical cancer in Korea. This study aimed to determine the awareness and health beliefs of mothers about preventing cervical cancer in their daughters, their intention to recommend the Pap test to their daughters, and the factors influencing this intention. Methods A cross-sectional survey design was employed, and the study enrolled mothers (n = 1,581) of pubescent girls aged 13 to 18 years who were living nationwide in Korea. The s...

  3. PapD, a periplasmic transport protein in P-pilus biogenesis.

    Lindberg, F; Tennent, J M; Hultgren, S. J.; Lund, B; Normark, S

    1989-01-01

    The product of the papD gene of uropathogenic Escherichia coli is required for the biogenesis of digalactoside-binding P pili. Mutations within papD result in complete degradation of the major pilus subunit, PapA, and of the pilinlike proteins PapE and PapF and also cause partial breakdown of the PapG adhesin. The papD gene was sequenced, and the gene product was purified from the periplasm. The deduced amino acid sequence and the N-terminal sequence obtained from the purified protein reveale...

  4. Obtaining genetic testing in pediatric epilepsy.

    Ream, Margie A; Patel, Anup D

    2015-10-01

    The steps from patient evaluation to genetic diagnosis remain complicated. We discuss some of the genetic testing methods available along with their general advantages and disadvantages. We briefly review common pediatric epilepsy syndromes with strong genetic association and provide a potentially useful algorithm for genetic testing in drug-resistant epilepsy. We performed an extensive literature review of available information as it pertains to genetic testing and genetics in pediatric epilepsy. If a genetic disorder is suspected as the cause of epilepsy, based on drug resistance, family history, or clinical phenotype, timely diagnosis may reduce overall cost, limit the diagnostic odyssey that can bring much anxiety to families, improve prognostic accuracy, and lead to targeted therapy. Interpretation of complicated results should be performed only in collaboration with geneticists and genetic counselors, unless the ordering neurologist has a strong background in and understanding of genetics. Genetic testing can play an important role in the care provided to patients with epilepsy. PMID:26345167

  5. Iodogen标记PAP

    朱寒珍

    1995-01-01

    前列腺酸性磷酸酶(PAP)是前列腺癌较为特异的标志物,由于体液中含量甚微,故检测均采用RLA。已建立的PAP RLA均以氯胺-T法制备130I-PAP,但因PAP结构的特殊性和分析方法灵敏度,可测范围的高需求,该方法得到的产品无论是理化特性和免疫反应性方面都难以达到应用的要求,

  6. Pap-smear Classification Using Efficient Second Order Neural Network Training Algorithms

    Ampazis, Nikolaos; Dounias, George; Jantzen, Jan

    In this paper we make use of two highly efficient second order neural network training algorithms, namely the LMAM (Levenberg-Marquardt with Adaptive Momentum) and OLMAM (Optimized Levenberg-Marquardt with Adaptive Momentum), for the construction of an efficient pap-smear test classifier. The...... problem. The classification results obtained from the application of the algorithms on a standard benchmark pap-smear data set reveal the power of the two methods to obtain excellent solutions in difficult classification problems whereas other standard computational intelligence techniques achieve...

  7. Pap-smear Classification Using Efficient Second Order Neural Network Training Algorithms

    Ampazis, Nikolaos; Dounias, George; Jantzen, Jan

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we make use of two highly efficient second order neural network training algorithms, namely the LMAM (Levenberg-Marquardt with Adaptive Momentum) and OLMAM (Optimized Levenberg-Marquardt with Adaptive Momentum), for the construction of an efficient pap-smear test classifier. The...... problem. The classification results obtained from the application of the algorithms on a standard benchmark pap-smear data set reveal the power of the two methods to obtain excellent solutions in difficult classification problems whereas other standard computational intelligence techniques achieve...

  8. Evolution of Pap Stain

    Kalyani Raju

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Pap stain was first developed by Dr GN Papanicoloau in 1947 and since then it has been used successfully to screen cervical cancer. In fact it has reduced the incidence of cervical cancer by 70% especially in developed countries having well planned screening programmes. However the stain has undergone various modifications from regressive conventional method to progressive rapid Pap staining where the time taken for staining was reduced. Further the stain was modified as ultrafast Papanocoloau stain and modified ultrafast Pap stain where air dried cervical smears were used and staining time was reduced. Later the other modifications were Enviro-Pap stain which was environmentally friendly with results similar to conventional method; REAP stain which was rapid and economical and Cytocolor developed by Merck where isopropyl alcohol is replaced by Propanol. Each method has advantages and disadvantages. Hence laboratories should develop their own protocol and standardize the staining technique. [Biomed Res Ther 2016; 3(2.000: 490-500

  9. Aerobic biotransformation of polyfluoroalkyl phosphate esters (PAPs) in soil.

    Liu, Chen; Liu, Jinxia

    2016-05-01

    Microbial transformation of polyfluoroalkyl phosphate esters (PAPs) into perfluorocarboxylic acids (PFCAs) has recently been confirmed to occur in activated sludge and soil. However, there lacks quantitative information about the half-lives of the PAPs and their significance as the precursors to PFCAs. In the present study, the biotransformation of 6:2 and 8:2 diPAP in aerobic soil was investigated in semi-dynamics reactors using improved sample preparation methods. To develop an efficient extraction method for PAPs, six different extraction solvents were compared, and the phenomenon of solvent-enhanced hydrolysis was investigated. It was found that adding acetic acid could enhance the recoveries of the diPAPs and inhibit undesirable hydrolysis during solvent extraction of soil. However 6:2 and 8:2 monoPAPs, which are the first breakdown products from diPAPs, were found to be unstable in the six solvents tested and quickly hydrolyzed to form fluorotelomer alcohols. Therefore reliable measurement of the monoPAPs from a live soil was not achievable. The apparent DT50 values of 6:2 diPAP and 8:2 diPAP biotransformation were estimated to be 12 and > 1000 days, respectively, using a double first-order in parallel model. At the end of incubation of day 112, the major degradation products of 6:2 diPAP were 5:3 fluorotelomer carboxylic acid (5:3 acid, 9.3% by mole), perfluoropentanoic acid (PFPeA, 6.4%) and perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA, 6.0%). The primary product of 8:2 diPAP was perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA, 2.1%). The approximately linear relationship between the half-lives of eleven polyfluoroalkyl and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs, including 6:2 and 8:2 diPAPs) that biotransform in aerobic soils and their molecular weights suggested that the molecular weight is a good indicator of the general stability of low-molecular-weight PFAS-based compounds in aerobic soils. PMID:26849529

  10. Cobertura do exame citopatológico na cidade de Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil Pap test coverage in the city of Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Juvenal Soares Dias-da-Costa

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available No Brasil, a avaliação da efetividade de programas de prevenção e ações de saúde pública ainda são incipientes. Dessa forma, realizou-se um estudo transversal de base populacional envolvendo a saúde da população adulta residente na zona urbana da cidade de Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil, com o objetivo de verificar a evolução nos níveis de cobertura do exame citopatológico. Investigaram-se fatores associados com a não realização do procedimento. Considerou-se exame citopatológico atualizado aquele realizado nos últimos três anos. A amostra foi constituída por 1.122 mulheres entre 20 e 69 anos, sendo que 72,2% apresentavam exame citopatológico atualizado, 16,6% atrasado e 11,2% nunca o haviam realizado. A não realização do procedimento esteve associada com baixa inserção social e idade avançada. A regressão logística destacou o efeito independente de classe social, baixa renda familiar, idade, cor da pele, estado civil e ausência de consultas médicas no último ano. Contudo, desapareceu o efeito detectado em mulheres com doenças crônicas. Comparando-se os resultados do estudo realizado em 1992 com o atual, observa-se que a cobertura do exame aumentou de 65,0% para 72,2% (1992 para 1999/2000, entretanto, não atingiu os níveis efetivos para evitar câncer de colo uterino.In Brazil, the effectiveness of preventive public heath programs and actions is rarely evaluated. A cross-sectional study was thus performed in a population-based sample focused on several health characteristics of adults living in Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The study aimed to measure temporal trends in coverage of Pap smear testing in the city. The authors studied the factors associated with failure of women to submit to a Pap smear. An updated Pap smear was defined as one performed in the previous 3 years. The sample consisted of 1,122 women ages 20 to 69 years, 72.2% of whom had an updated Pap smear, 16.6% of whom were behind

  11. [Investigation of human papillomavirus prevalence in women in Eskişehir, Turkey by Pap smear, hybrid capture 2 test and consensus real-time polymerase chain reaction and typing with pyrosequencing method].

    Aslan, Ferhat Gürkan; Us, Tercan; Kaşifoğlu, Nilgün; Özalp, Sabit Sinan; Akgün, Yurdanur; Öge, Tufan

    2016-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) infections have a broad range of clinical spectrum from subclinical or asymptomatic infection to anogenital carcinoma. The detection of HPV-DNA and determination of the risk groups in cervical cancer (CC) screening is very important because CC is considered to be a preventable illness which is the third most common cancer type of women in the world. The aims of this study were to investigate the presence of HPV-DNA in women by two different molecular methods and to compare their results together with the results of cytology, in Eskişehir, Central Anatolia, Turkey. A total of 1081 women aged between 30-65 years, who applied to Eskişehir Early Diagnosis, Screening and Training of Cancer Center (KETEM) for screening were included in the study. Three separate cervical samples were collected simultaneously from the participants for cytologic examination and molecular studies. In the first step of the study, all cervical samples were investigated for the presence of HPV-DNA by Hybrid Capture 2 (HC2; Qiagen, Germany) method. In the second part of the study, consensus real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) (Takara Bio Inc., Japan) was performed in 152 samples which included HC2 positive and randomly selected negative samples, and then the HPV genotypes were detected by using a commercial kit based on pyrosequencing method (Diatech Pharmacogenetics S.R.L, Italy). In the first part of the study, HC2 test was found positive in 3% (32/1081) of the women, while in 4.4% (47/1081) Pap smear was positive alone or with HC2 test. Five (0.5%) samples yielded positive results with both of the methods, and four of them were positive for high risk HPV types. Cytology results were negative in 19 out of 23 (23/1081, 2.1%) samples that were reported as high risk HPV by HC2 test. On the other hand, 42 (42/1081, 3.9%) samples that were positive by cytology yielded negative results by HC2 test. In the second part of the study, 32 (21.1%) of 152 selected

  12. Therapeutic effect of pilose antler polypeptides (PAP) on experimental fracture and its mechanism

    Objective: To test the therapeutic effect of PAP on experimental fracture and its mechanism. Methods: Effect of PAP on the incorporation of [3H]-TdR into DNA syntheses in the cells of rabbits costal cartilage and human embryonic joint as well as osteoblast precursor cells of embryonic chick calvaria in vitro and effect of PAP on the experimental radius fracture in rats in vivo were observed. Results: PAP of 10∼50 μg·ml-1 showed mitogenic activities and significant promotion of DNA syntheses for various cartilage cells in vitro. In vivo experimental results revealed that PAP 10 and 20 mg·kg-1 could promote healing of radius fracture, accelerate osteotylus formation and increase contents of calcium and oxyproline. Conclusion: PAP accelerates fracture healing through promoting multiplications of cartilage and osteoblast precursor cells, collagen accumulation and calcium precipitation in osteotylus

  13. Trichomonas Testing

    ... vaginalis by Direct Fluorescent Antibody (DFA) Related tests: Pap Smear , Chlamydia Testing , Gonorrhea Testing At a Glance Test ... during a routine gynecologic examination that includes a Pap smear . An FDA-cleared PCR test approved for detection ...

  14. TsPAP1 encodes a novel plant prolyl aminopeptidase whose expression is induced in response to suboptimal growth conditions

    Highlights: ► A cDNA encoding a novel plant prolyl aminopeptidase, TsPAP1, was obtained from triticale. ► The cloned TsPAP1 cDNA is 1387 bp long and encodes a protein of 390 amino acids. ► The deduced TsPAP1 protein revealed characteristics of the monomeric bacterial PAPs. ► The TsPAP1 mRNA level increased under drought, salinity and in the presence of metal ions. -- Abstract: A triticale cDNA encoding a prolyl aminopeptidase (PAP) was obtained by RT-PCR and has been designated as TsPAP1. The cloned cDNA is 1387 bp long and encodes a protein of 390 amino acids with a calculated molecular mass of 43.9 kDa. The deduced TsPAP1 protein exhibits a considerable sequence identity with the biochemically characterized bacterial and fungal PAP proteins of small molecular masses (∼35 kDa). Moreover, the presence of conserved regions that are characteristic for bacterial monomeric PAP enzymes (the GGSWG motif, the localization of the catalytic triad residues and the segment involved in substrate binding) has also been noted. Primary structure analysis and phylogenetic analysis revealed that TsPAP1 encodes a novel plant PAP protein that is distinct from the multimeric proteins that have thus far been characterized in plants and whose counterparts have been recognized only in bacteria and fungi. A significant increase in the TsPAP1 transcript level in the shoots of triticale plants was observed under drought and saline conditions as well as in the presence of cadmium and aluminium ions in the nutrient medium. This paper is the first report describing changes in the transcript levels of any plant PAP in response to suboptimal growth conditions.

  15. Shape-based nuclei area of digitized pap smear images

    Muhimmah, Izzati; Kurniawan, Rahadian

    2012-04-01

    Nuclei of the epithelial of Pap smear cells are important risk indicator of cervical cancers. Pathologist uses the changing of the area of the nuclei to determine whether cells are normal or abnormal. It means that having correct measurement of the area of nuclei is important on the pap smears assessment. Our paper present a novel approach to analyze the shape of nuclei in pap smear images and measuring the area of nuclei. We conducted a study to measure the area of nuclei automatically by calculating the number of pixels contained in each of the segmented nuclei. For comparison, we performed measurements of nuclei area using the ellipse area approximation. The result of the t-test confirmed that there were similarity between elliptical area approximation and automatic segmented nuclei-area at 0.5% level of significance.

  16. Obtaining reliable likelihood ratio tests from simulated likelihood functions

    Andersen, Laura Mørch

    2014-01-01

    programs - to base test statistics for mixed models on simulations using asymmetric draws (e.g. Halton draws). Problem 1: Inconsistent LR tests due to asymmetric draws: This paper shows that when the estimated likelihood functions depend on standard deviations of mixed parameters this practice is very...... likely to cause misleading test results for the number of draws usually used today. The paper illustrates that increasing the number of draws is a very inefficient solution strategy requiring very large numbers of draws to ensure against misleading test statistics. The main conclusion of this paper is...

  17. Study of Pap smear and other feasible tests among self reported symptomatic married women in reproductive age group (15-49 yrs regarding reproductive tract infections in a rural community of Maharashtra

    Smita S. Chavan

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Reproductive tract infections (RTIs represent a major public health problem in developing countries. Integrating RTIs/STIs management and early detection of cervical dysplasia in broader reproductive health services can improve women’s health. The objectives of the study were 1. To study the association of socio-demographic & reproductive factors among self-reported symptomatic women for reproductive tract infections. 2. To carry out clinical examination & feasible tests like PH, gram staining, VDRL for reproductive tract infections. 3. To study Pap smear among study subjects. Methods: A cross sectional study community based study was carried out in villages under ‘Parol’ Primary Health Centre of Thane district, Maharashtra, India. A total of 415 married women in reproductive age group were interviewed and examined. Pre-structured, pre-designed questionnaire was used. Clinical examination & feasible laboratory tests were done. Results were analyzed with the help of Microsoft Excel & SPSS 15. Results: A total of 415 women were interviewed, of them 263(63.4% had one or more symptoms of reproductive tract infections. On examination, 69(35% had cervicitis and 30(15.2% pelvic inflammatory disease, 39(19.8% bacterial vaginosis and candidiasis in 61(31%. Cervical erosion was present in 147(74.6% women. On Pap smear, 20(10.2% women had ASCUS (Atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance. Only 2(1% women found HIV positive. No woman was found VDRL reactive. Conclusion: Routine RTI/STI screening and periodic surveys to detect the infection patterns which will helps to control HIV infections in the community is needed in the remote tribal area as the current study shows high prevalence of reproductive tract infection. [Int J Res Med Sci 2013; 1(4.000: 545-551

  18. Obtaining reliable quality data from fragility seismic tests

    The parameters discussed in this paper are the same as those present in normal seismic qualification testing. These parameters behave differently in high level acceleration tests and their contribution in providing unreliable data is of major concern since there is a significant difference. These parameters need to be considered in developing methodology guidelines for future fragility standards

  19. Obtaining reliable Likelihood Ratio tests from simulated likelihood functions

    Andersen, Laura Mørch

    parameters this practice is very likely to cause misleading test results for the number of draws usually used today. The paper shows that increasing the number of draws is a very inefficient solution strategy requiring very large numbers of draws to ensure against misleading test statistics. The paper shows...

  20. [Is the PAP smear era coming to an end?].

    Nowak-Markwitz, Ewa; Spaczyński, Marek

    2015-12-01

    After the discovery of the role human papilloma virus (HPV) plays in the development of cervical cancer we are witnesses to a change in the conception and interpretation of cervical cancer prevention processes. Primary prevention gained a new tool in the form of HPV vaccines. Secondary prevention, i.e. detection of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (GIN), acquired a new diagnostic method--the HPV test. Studies were initiated in order to determine the usefulness of HPV tests in cervical cancer prevention and screening. They revealed that the DNA HPV test used in screening has higher sensitivity in CIN detection than PAP smear and that HPV-negative patients are better and longer protected against developing cervical cancer in comparison to women with normal PAP smear results. HPV tests also possess a predictive value, which detects women more susceptible to developing cervical cancer in the future. PAP smear does not have a predictive value. Instead, it only detects a presence or an absence of neoplasia at that particular time. These results clearly indicate that the era of classic PAP smear is indeed coming to an end, replaced by a new primary CIN screening tool--HPV test. The entire cervical cancer screening system must therefore be redefined and reorganized. PMID:26995946

  1. Fractal analysis of weld defect patterns obtained by radiographic tests

    Tesser, J. A.; Lopes, R. T.; Vieira, A. P.; Goncalves, L. L.; Rebello, J. M. A.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a fractal analysis of radiographic patterns obtained from specimens with three types of inserted welding defects: lack of fusion, lack of penetration, and porosity. The study focused on patterns of carbon steel beads from radiographs of the International Institute of Welding (IIW). The radiographs were scanned using a greyscale with 256 levels, and the fractal features of the surfaces constructed from the radiographic images were characterized by means of Hurst, detrended-...

  2. Uncertainty Estimates of Psychoacoustic Thresholds Obtained from Group Tests

    Rathsam, Jonathan; Christian, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Adaptive psychoacoustic test methods, in which the next signal level depends on the response to the previous signal, are the most efficient for determining psychoacoustic thresholds of individual subjects. In many tests conducted in the NASA psychoacoustic labs, the goal is to determine thresholds representative of the general population. To do this economically, non-adaptive testing methods are used in which three or four subjects are tested at the same time with predetermined signal levels. This approach requires us to identify techniques for assessing the uncertainty in resulting group-average psychoacoustic thresholds. In this presentation we examine the Delta Method of frequentist statistics, the Generalized Linear Model (GLM), the Nonparametric Bootstrap, a frequentist method, and Markov Chain Monte Carlo Posterior Estimation and a Bayesian approach. Each technique is exercised on a manufactured, theoretical dataset and then on datasets from two psychoacoustics facilities at NASA. The Delta Method is the simplest to implement and accurate for the cases studied. The GLM is found to be the least robust, and the Bootstrap takes the longest to calculate. The Bayesian Posterior Estimate is the most versatile technique examined because it allows the inclusion of prior information.

  3. The clinical value of serum PSA and PAP determinations in prostate cancer patients

    Objective: To investigate the clinical value of serum PSA and PAP determinations in diagnosis of prostate cancer patients. Methods: The serum PSA and PAP levels of 98 prostate cancer patients, 45 prostate benign disease patients and 40 normal subjects were tested by IRMA. Results: The serum PSA and PAP levels of prostate cancer patients were significantly higher than those in prostate benign disease patients and normal controls (P < 0.01). The diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of serum PSA for prostate cancer were 93.9% and 93.3% respectively. The diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of serum PAP for prostate cancer were 71.4% and 91.1% respectively. Conclusion: The determination of serum PSA and PAP was of high clinical value for diagnosis of early prostate cancer. It could be used as an important reference parameter for the clinical staging, follow-up of treatment result and prediction of prognosis

  4. Modified PAP method to detect heteroresistance to vancomycin among methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates at a tertiary care hospital

    Iyer R

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was an attempt at developing, establishing, validating and comparing the modified PAP method for detection of hetero-vancomycin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (h-VRSA with the routine antimicrobial susceptibility testing (using the BSAC standardized disc diffusion method, minimum inhibitory concentrations of vancomycin using standard E-test methodology and the Hiramatsu′s screening method. A total of 50 methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus obtained from various clinical specimens, along with the Mu 3 and Mu 50 strains as controls, were studied. No VRSA isolates were obtained. However, four of the test strains were positive by the Hiramatsu′s screening method, of which only one isolate could be confirmed by the modified PAP analysis method. This isolate was a coloniser from the drain fluid of a liver transplant recipient. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and the overall efficiency of the Hiramatsu′s screening method with the modified PAP analysis as the gold standard were found to be 100, 93.8, 25 and 94%, respectively. It is very essential for clinical laboratories to screen for h-VRSA, given the increasing use of glycopeptide antibiotics in therapy and the potential for failed therapy in patients infected with these strains.

  5. Cobertura e motivos para a realização ou não do teste de Papanicolaou no Município de São Paulo Cervical cancer screening in the Municipality of São Paulo: coverage and factors involved in submitting to the Pap test

    Adriana de Araujo Pinho

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Investigou-se a prevalência da realização do teste de Papanicolaou alguma vez na vida e nos últimos três anos entre mulheres de 15 a 49 anos, o recebimento do resultado do último teste realizado e os motivos relatados para a realização ou não do exame. Um inquérito domiciliar foi realizado no Município de São Paulo em 2000, com uma amostra representativa de 1.172 mulheres selecionadas aleatoriamente em seus domicílios. Das mulheres que já tinham iniciado a vida sexual (n = 1.050, 86,1% (932 realizaram o teste alguma vez na vida e 77,3 % (839 nos últimos três anos. Das que já realizaram o teste, 806 (87,0% receberam o resultado do último exame. Os principais motivos para a realização do último teste foram: demanda espontânea (55,5%, recomendação médica (25% e presença de queixas ginecológicas (18,2%. As principais razões para a não realização do exame foram: ausência de problemas ginecológicos, vergonha ou medo e dificuldades de acesso. A despeito do relativo aumento na cobertura do teste de Papanicolaou e de mais da metade das mulheres demandarem espontaneamente pelo exame, sua realização foi menor entre aquelas com as piores condições sócio-econômicas e, portanto, de maior risco para o câncer cervical.This study estimated Pap smear coverage (at least one test in the lifetime and one in the last three years among women aged 15 to 49 years old. The study also discusses whether the women received the results of their last test, as well as self-reported reasons for and against submitting to the test. A population-based survey was conducted in the city of São Paulo in 2000 with a randomly selected representative sample of 1,172 women. Among the women who were already sexually active (n = 1,050, 86.1% reported having had at least one Pap smear during their lifetime, and 77.3% had undergone the test in the previous 3 years. Among those who reported having had at least one Pap smear, 87.0% had received the

  6. Specific binding of PapI to Lrp-pap DNA complexes.

    Kaltenbach, L S; Braaten, B A; Low, D A

    1995-01-01

    Expression of pyelonephritis-associated pili (Pap) varies between transcriptionally active (ON) and inactive (OFF) phase states. Pap phase variation is controlled by the binding of leucine-responsive regulatory protein (Lrp) to two pap regulatory DNA regions, each containing a deoxyadenosine methylase site and designated GATC-I and GATC-II. Methylation of these GATC sites modulates binding of Lrp and plays an essential role in phase variation. PapI, an 8.8-kDa pap-encoded regulatory protein, ...

  7. Health Screening: What Tests You Need and When

    ... turn Javascript on. Screening tests, such as mammograms, Pap smears, and colorectal cancer tests, can find diseases ... your doctor about whether you should be tested. Pap Smears (Women): Have a Pap smear every 1 ...

  8. Get Tested for Cervical Cancer

    ... section Overview 2 of 5 sections The Basics: Pap Test What happens during a Pap test? A Pap test takes about 2 to ... steps to help prevent cervical cancer. Schedule your Pap test. Call a doctor’s office or health clinic ...

  9. Evaluation and significance of hyperchromatic crowded groups (HCG) in liquid-based paps

    Shidham Vinod; Chivukula Mamatha; Austin R Marshall

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Objective Hyperchromatic crowded groups (HCG), a term first introduced into the cytology literature by DeMay in 1995, are commonly observed in Pap tests and may rarely be associated with serious but difficult to interpret lesions. In this study, we specifically defined HCG as dark crowded cell groups with more than 15 cells which can be identified at 10× screening magnification. Methods We evaluated consecutive liquid-based (Surepath) Pap tests from 601 women (age 17–74 ye...

  10. Pap smear screening among Asian Pacific Islander women in a multisite community-based cancer screening program.

    Fernandez, Maria E; Lin, Jennifer; Leong-Wu, Cindy; Aday, Luann

    2009-04-01

    This study assessed screening completion rates (SCR) and sociodemographic factors associated with Pap test screening among previously nonadherent, foreign-born Asian Pacific Islander (API) women across four sites participating in a community-based cancer screening program called ENCOREplus. At intake, 926 out of 1,140 women were nonadherent to recommended Pap test screening guidelines. Most participants were age 51 and older, had a high school education or higher, had been in the U.S. less than a decade, had annual household incomes less than $10,000, and were uninsured. Women with limited resources were more likely to get a Pap test after participating in ENCOREplus. Women from the Glendale site were almost 18 times more likely to get a Pap test than API women in other sites. Over half of the women in Glendale reported that help getting low cost Pap tests and having translators available were instrumental in completing screening. PMID:19372282

  11. Pattern of epithelial cell abnormality in Pap smear: A clinicopathological and demographic correlation

    Urmila Banik

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In the low resource settings of a developing country, a conventional Papanicolaou (Pap test is the mainstay screening system for cervical cancer. In order to counsel women and to organize a public health system for cervical cancer screening by Pap smear examination, it is imperative to know the pattern of premalignant and malignant lesions. This study was undertaken to find out the prevalence of an abnormal Pap smear, in a tertiary hospital of a developing country, and to carry out a clinicopathological and demographical analysis for establishing the pattern of epithelial cell abnormality in a Pap smear. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out in a total of 1699 patients who underwent Pap smear examination. The prevalence of epithelial cell abnormality in the Pap smear was calculated in proportions / percentages. Specimen adequacy and reporting was assessed according to the revised Bethesda system. Results: Among the total of 1699 patients who had their Pap smear done, 139 (8.18% revealed epithelial cell abnormality. Altogether 26 smears revealed high-grade lesions and malignancy, most of which were found to be in women belonging to the 30 - 39 and ≥ 45 age group. A total of 75 (53.96% women were in the 20 - 44 age group and 64 (46.04% were in the ≥ 45 age group. A bimodal age distribution was detected in the epithelial cell abnormality, with the bulk being diagnosed in patients aged 45 or above. Overall one-third of the patients with an abnormal Pap smear result showed healthy cervix in per vaginal examination. Conclusions: A raised prevalence of epithelial cell abnormality reflects the lack of awareness about cervical cancer screening. Women aged 45 or above harbor the bulk of premalignant and malignant lesions in the Pap smear, signifying that these women are among the under users of cytological screening.

  12. Knowledge, Attitudes and Practice about Pap Smear among Women Reffering to A Public Hospital

    Sedighe Rezaie-Chamani

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The Pap smear is a reliable, inexpensive and effective screening test for cervical cancer; thesecond most common cancer among women worldwide. We aimed to determine women’s knowledge,attitudes and practice towards Pap smear and barriers for the screening in a public hospital.Materials and methods: This study, was carried out on 350 outpatient married women reffering for avisit at the clinics of the Alzahra educational hospital, Rasht- Iran, 2011. A questionnaire includingdemographic characteristics (24 questions, knowledge (14 questions, attitudes (11 statments andpractice (10 questions towards Pap smear was completed by interview with the women. The data wereanalyzed using SPSS ver.13.Results: Mean age of participants was 32 (SD 12 years. Of the respondents, only 44.3% were aware ofthe Pap smear and 27.1% had had it at least once in their life. The most common reason for having thetest was physicians’ or other health workers’ advise and for not having the test was no recommendationby health providers and lack of knowledge about Pap smear. Embarrassing, fear of the test result oreconomic problems mentioned by only 12 (4.2% as the main barrier. Mean (±SD knowledge score ofthe women who had heard about the Pap smear was 59.4 (24.3 and attitudes score of all participantswas 48.5 (11.6 from possible range score of 0-100. Women with a history of Pap smear had had higherawareness and attitudes score.Conclusion: The knowledge and practice of the women was inadequate and need to be promoted.Considering the main reason mentioned by the participants for not having the test, all health providersshould educate and encourage women to do regular Pap smear.

  13. Health Care Workers' Beliefs and Practices Around Pap Screening for Adolescents Seeking Contraception.

    Gabzdyl, Elizabeth; Engstrom, Janet L; McFarlin, Barbara L

    2015-01-01

    Adolescents often avoid seeing a health care provider to obtain contraception because they do not want to undergo a pelvic exam and Pap screening for fear of stress, pain or embarrassment. The purpose of this quality improvement project was to study health care workers, attitudes and beliefs about Pap screening and to educate them on the latest evidence-based guidelines, with the hope of ultimately decreasing unnecessary screening. Results showed a modest reduction in the frequency of Pap screening; however, many adolescents continued to undergo unnecessary Pap screening. The reluctance of health care workers to change their practice demonstrates the need for better methods of translating evidence-based guidelines into practice. PMID:26058904

  14. Awareness and uptake of the Pap smear among market women in Lagos, Nigeria

    Kikelomo O. Wright

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Our study evaluates the effect of an educational programme on awareness and uptake of the cervical cancer screening test (Pap smear by women in a model market in Lagos Nigeria. This was a quasi-experimental study using a multistage sampling technique. A total of 350 women were divided into two groups. A baseline survey on awareness of the Pap test and screening practices was carried out using pre-tested, interviewer administered, structured questionnaires. Participants in the intervention group received sessions of community based health information on cervical cancer screening tests while participants in the control group received health information on hypertension. Subsequently, participants in both groups were reassessed to evaluate the effect of the educational programme on the Pap test and cervical screening uptake. Data were analysed with the Epi-info version 6.04. Awareness about the Pap test was low at baseline; only 6.9% and 12.0% of participants in the intervention and control groups, respectively, had heard of Pap smears. Furthermore, less than 10% had correct information on the use of the Pap test. Post-intervention, there was a significant and proportional increase in the knowledge of the Pap test in the intervention group (p<0.05. However, uptake of the test was quite low in the intervention and control groups both pre- and post-intervention and there was no significant change in uptake. We concluded that essential schemes are required to enhance access to screening, as knowledge alone is insufficient to promote acceptance and use of cervical cytological screening tests.

  15. Persistent inflammation on Pap smear: Does it warrant evaluation?

    K. Bhutia; M Puri; Gami, N.; Aggarwal, K; Trivedi, S. S.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Due to the low sensitivity of Pap smear, premalignant lesions of the cervix can be missed in women with inflammatory Pap smears. However, it is not practically possible to subject all women with inflammatory Pap smear to colposcopy. This study was carried out with the aim to evaluate whether women with persistent inflammation on Pap smear need further evaluation with colposcopy. Materials and Methods: Four hundred and twenty women were screened at a tertiary level hospital with Pap...

  16. Correlation of Pap smear and visual inspection with acetic acid for screening of premalignant and malignant lesion of cervix

    Anshu Singh

    2015-09-01

    Results: The present study was conducted over a period of 6 months among 212 patients age of 18-60 years screened. Positive results obtained from cytology were 26, VIA was positive in 28 women. Cervical biopsy was done in 34 women who had positive results by either test. Histology in 31 cases was suggestive of cervical intraepithelial carcinoma (CIN. Conclusions: VIA, though less specific has comparable sensitivity to Pap smear and may be used as a primary screening tool for cervical cancer. In combination both the tests have a higher predictive accuracy. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(9.000: 2382-2385

  17. Comparison of visual inspection of cervix and pap smear for cervical cancer screening

    Objective: To evaluate the performance of visual inspection of cervix (VIA) after application of 3% acetic acid in cervical cancer screening in comparison with PAP smear. Results: Out of 540 subjects, 356 were negative with both screening techniques. One hundred and fifty-six subjects were positive with VIA (28.9%) while PAP smear was positive in seventy-eight subjects (14.4%). The sensitivity of VIA was 93.9% and of PAP smear was 46.9%. Corresponding specificities were 30.4% and 69.5%. There was no significant difference between the positive predictive value (PPV) of both test (p<0.05). The accuracy of VIA was 77.5% compared to 52.8% of PAP smear. The difference was highly significant (p < 0.01). Conclusion: These results indicate that VIA is more sensitive and has a higher accuracy as compared to PAP smear. It could, therefore, be valuable in detection of precancerous lesions of cervix. Low cost, easy applicability and immediate results make VIA a useful screening test in developing countries like Pakistan as compared to PAP smear. (author)

  18. Women's understanding of the term 'Pap smear'.

    Howard, David L; Hostetter, Sarah Smith; Hunter, Jennifer; Johnson, Nicole; Cooper, Saladin; Malnar, Gerard

    2015-07-01

    To assess the understanding of the term 'Pap smear' among women across the entire adult lifespan after recent changes to the guidelines on cervical cancer screening. Women attending the Obstetrics and Gynecology clinic at a large safety net teaching hospital in a Midwestern city were provided one of two versions of a confidential and anonymous survey to complete. The difference between the two versions was the way the primary research question was worded. There were 174 participants ranging in age from 15 to 69 (mean = 33.9) years. Of the 73 women who completed version A of the survey, 74 % were able to identify at least one correct descriptor for the term 'Pap smear.' Women who could identify at least one correct descriptor for the term 'Pap smear' were on average older than those who could not (mean = 36.9 vs. 28.7 years; p = 0.012). Of the 94 patients completing survey version B, 67 % could not differentiate a pelvic exam from a Pap smear. There was no association between age and ability to differentiate a pelvic exam from a Pap smear. The majority of women cannot distinguish a Pap smear from a pelvic exam. The unexpected finding of less understanding among younger women prompts a need for further research and invites discussion of whether more cervical cancer prevention education, with more emphasis on HPV vaccines in recent years, has neglected the importance of Pap smears-which is beginning to show up in knowledge of younger women. Both these findings suggest a need for increased patient education during female preventive health clinic visits. PMID:25630404

  19. Differential binding of Lrp to two sets of pap DNA binding sites mediated by Pap I regulates Pap phase variation in Escherichia coli.

    Nou, X; Braaten, B; Kaltenbach, L; Low, D A

    1995-01-01

    Pyelonephritis-associated pili (Pap) expression in Escherichia coli is subject to a phase variation control mechanism that is regulated by the leucine-responsive regulatory protein (Lrp), PapI, and deoxyadenosine methylase (Dam). In previous work, we found that the differential Dam methylation of two target sites in pap regulatory DNA, GATC-I and GATC II, is essential for the transition between active and inactive pap transcriptional states. Here, we identify six Lrp binding sites within the ...

  20. Exame citopatológico de colo uterino em mulheres com idade entre 20 e 59 anos em Pelotas, RS: prevalência, foco e fatores associados à sua não realização Pap smears of 20 - 59 year-old women in Pelotas, Southern Brazil: prevalence, approach and factors associated with not undergoing the test

    Arnildo A. Hackenhaar

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar a prevalência e o foco de realização do exame citopatológico do colo uterino e também fatores associados à sua não realização em mulheres com idade entre 20 e 59 anos residentes na cidade de Pelotas, RS. MÉTODOS: Entre outubro e dezembro de 2003 foi realizado um estudo transversal de base populacional. Através de amostragem por conglomerados foram sorteados 144 setores censitários em múltiplos estágios. Foram investigadas variáveis sociodemográficas e a realização de exame citopatológico do colo uterino. RESULTADOS: Dentre as 1404 mulheres que constituem a população-alvo dos programas de prevenção do câncer do colo uterino, 83,0% realizaram o exame citopatológico do colo uterino nos três anos antecedentes a este estudo. Mostraram-se significativamente associadas (POBJECTIVE: This study aims to determine the prevalence of and approach of Pap smear tests, as well as associated factors in women living in Pelotas, RS, Southern Brazil, within the 20 - 59 age range, who did not undergo a Pap smear. METHODS: A cross-sectional population-based study was carried out from October to December 2003. 144 census tracts were sampled through a multiple-stage clustered method. Socio-demographic variables were investigated, as well as women's Pap smear tests. RESULTS: Among the 1,404 women who were the target population included in the early detection program of uterine cervix cancer, 83% had had Pap smears in the three years before the study. Variables statistically associated (p<0.05 with women not undergoing the test in the previous three years were: ages ranging from 20-29 to 50-59 years compared with 40-49 year-old women, lower schooling level, lower social level, mixed and black skin color, not having seen a gynecologist in the previous 12 months. CONCLUSIONS: Although this study presents a high coverage of women undergoing Pap smears, women that present higher risk factors for this type of cancer had fewer

  1. Evaluation of a Worksite Cervical Screening Initiative to Increase Pap Smear Uptake in Malaysia: A Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial

    Fauziah Abdullah; Michael O’Rorke; Liam Murray; Tin Tin Su

    2013-01-01

    Background. Despite the significant burden of cervical cancer, Malaysia like many middle-income countries relies on opportunistic cervical screening as opposed to a more organized population-based program. The aim of this study was to ascertain the effectiveness of a worksite screening initiative upon Papanicolaou smear test (Pap test) uptake among educated working women in Malaysia. Methods. 403 female teachers who never or infrequently attended for a Pap test from 40 public secondary school...

  2. CIEMAT interlaboratories comparison of the results obtained in the proficiency test run by IAEA

    This report contains the results obtained by two different laboratories from CIEMAT after participating in the Proficiency Test organised by IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency) in 1999. This test involves the analysis of fly ashes containing natural radionuclides and different amounts of added transuranics. The extraction techniques, counting methods and results obtained are detailed. This type of test are used for the labs to achieve their accreditation and check the reliability of the procedures routinely employed. (Author) 4 refs

  3. XMLComparison of Molecular (PCR and Pap Smear Methods in Diagnosis of Human Papiloma Virus (HPV in Women with Genital Warts

    Bashi zadeh Fakhar, H. (MSc

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Much research has shown that Human Papiloma Virus (HPV plays an important role in cervix cancer and it is the cause of 99% of cervix cancer worldwide. Lots of research has been done to find a proper method for HPV diagnosis and screening in patients with genital warts. This study aimed at comparing PCR method with Pap smear test in HPV screening. Material and Methods: Considering the presence of DNA of HPV, 45 vaginal and cervix swap samples of women with genital warts were tested by means of specific PCR and Pap smear from September 2010 to April 2011. Results: Out of 45 vaginal and cervix swap samples of women suffering genital warts, 37 samples (82.2% are positive. Of 45 Pap smear samples, 13 (29% are neoplasia and 32 (71% normal. Conclusion: The difference between the results of PCR and Pap smear is due to low specification and sensitivity of Pap smear. Thus it is recommended using diagnostic PCR method in addition to Pap smear in order to promote the quality of screening in individuals with genital warts. Keywords: Human Papiloma Virus (HPV; Genital Warts; Molecular (PCR; Pap Smear

  4. Persistent inflammation on Pap smear: Does it warrant evaluation?

    K Bhutia

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Due to the low sensitivity of Pap smear, premalignant lesions of the cervix can be missed in women with inflammatory Pap smears. However, it is not practically possible to subject all women with inflammatory Pap smear to colposcopy. This study was carried out with the aim to evaluate whether women with persistent inflammation on Pap smear need further evaluation with colposcopy. Materials and Methods: Four hundred and twenty women were screened at a tertiary level hospital with Pap smear. Women with inflammation on Pap smear were given treatment as per WHO guidelines and Pap smear was repeated at an interval of 6-12 weeks. Women with persistent inflammation on Pap smear were then subjected to colposcopy and directed biopsy if required. Results: Of the 420 women screened, 102 (24.3% women had a Pap smear showing inflammation. Thirty six women (8.6% had persistent inflammatory Pap smear. Thirty women were subjected to colposcopy and 16 (53.3% had abnormal findings on colposcopy. Five out of these 30 women (16.67% had Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN on biopsy. Conclusions: Nearly 16.67% women with persistent inflammation on Pap smear had cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. Hence, a large number of women with CIN would be missed if persistent inflammation on Pap smear is not evaluated further.

  5. Van Mother-Child Health and Family Planning Center Pap Smear Clinics of Information, Evaluation of Applicants

    Sebahat Gucuk

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In this study of women admitted to our center with information on pap smear test, to evaluate the attitudes and behavior. Materials and Methods: This descriptive study of Van Mother-Child Health and Family Planning Center on a voluntary basis, women aged 15-49 were admitted to the control. The education level of participants, age at first marriage, before the presence of vaginal infection, the story, and motivations pap smear level of information availability, and a family history of cancer, administered a questionnaire asking the state to have a regular income. Results: The study included 362 women with age and hear the pap smear test was significantly increased (p = 0.01. Working women and pap smear level of knowledge (p = 0.04 and pap smears than women not working for International rates significantly higher (p = 0.02. Treatment of vaginal infection at least once before to get there was a significant relationship between the pap smear motivations (p>0.05. Family history of gynecologic cancer or non-gynecologic cancer smears have significantly increased the level of motivations (p = 0.0001. Pap smear information, regular the economic income of those levels, significantly higher than those without regular income (p = 0.0001. Conclusion: We serve the region, with low socio-economic characteristics that are considered, gynecological examination by health workers or women from the home visits, pap smear test for what purpose and how often you get the work done and the importance of explaining and giving more space to this issue suggest that the written and visual media. Keywords: Pap smears, health care, education [TAF Prev Med Bull 2011; 10(5.000: 527-532

  6. Associations of demographic variables and the Health Belief Model constructs with Pap smear screening among urban women in Botswana

    McFarl

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Ditsapelo M McFarland College of Nursing and Public Health, Adelphi University, Garden City, NY, USA Purpose: Papanicolaou (Pap smear services are available in most urban areas in Botswana. Yet most women in such areas do not screen regularly for cancer of the cervix. The purpose of this article is to present findings on the associations of demographic variables and Health Belief Model constructs with Pap smear screening among urban women in Botswana. Sample and methods: The study included a convenience sample of 353 asymptomatic women aged 30 years and older who were living in Gaborone, Botswana. Data were collected using a demographic questionnaire and items of the Health Belief Model. Data analysis included descriptive statistics for demographic variables and bivariate and ordinal (logit regression to determine the associations of demographic variables. Results: Having health insurance and having a regular health care provider were significant predictors of whether or not women had a Pap smear. Women with health insurance were more likely to have had a Pap smear test than women without health insurance (91% vs 36%. Similarly, women who had a regular health care provider were more likely to have had a Pap smear test than women without a regular health care provider (94% vs 42%. Major barriers to screening included what was described as "laziness" for women who had ever had a Pap smear (57% and limited information about Pap smear screening for women who had never had a Pap smear (44%. Conclusion: There is a need for more information about the importance of the Pap smear test and for increased access to screening services in Botswana. Keywords: cervical, screening, barriers, access, beliefs

  7. Intraoperative BiPAP in OSA Patients.

    Singh, Bhavna P; Ns, Kodandaram

    2015-04-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSA) is characterized by recurrent episodes of partial or complete upper airway obstructions during sleep. Severe OSA presents with a number of challenges to the anesthesiologist, the most life threatening being loss of the airway. We are reporting a case where we successfully used intraoperative bi level positive pressure ventilation (BiPAP) with moderate sedation and a regional technique in a patient with severe OSA posted for total knee replacement (TKR). A 55-year-old lady with osteoarthritis of right knee joint was posted for total knee replacement. She had severe OSA with an apnea-hypopnea index of 35. She also had moderate pulmonary hypertension due to her long standing OSA. We successfully used in her a combined spinal epidural technique with intraoperative BiPAP and sedation. She had no complications intraoperatively or post operatively and was discharged on day 5. Patients with OSA are vulnerable to sedatives, anaesthesia and analgesia which even in small doses can cause complete airway collapse. The problem, with regional techniques is that it requires excellent patient cooperation. We decided to put our patient on intraoperative BiPAP hoping that this would allow us to sedate her adequately for the surgery. As it happened we were able to successfully sedate her with slightly lesser doses of the commonly used sedatives without any episodes of desaturation, snoring or exacerbation of pulmonary hypertension. Many more trials are required before we can conclusively say that intraoperative BiPAP allows us to safely sedate OSA patients but we hope that our case report draws light on this possibility. Planning ahead and having a BiPAP machine available inside the operating may allow us to use sedatives in these patients to keep them comfortable under regional anaesthesia. PMID:26023625

  8. Chest radiographs obtained with shaped filters: evaluation by observer performance tests

    The effectiveness of a shaped filter in improving nodule and infiltrate detection was measured by observer performance testing. Seven observers read 152 test radiographs of the chest obtained from human volunteers. Half the test radiographs had target image observer performance in detecting nodule or infiltrate images was compared with the shaped-filter system and with a conventional chest imaging system. The results were analyzed using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) techniques and indicate that the filter technique was not significantly different from the conventional technique in infiltrate depiction. Observer performance in detecting nodules was slightly worse on images obtained with the shaped-filter system

  9. Vulnerability Analysis of PAP for RFID Tags

    Naser, Mu'awya; Rafie, Mohammd; van der Lubbe, Jan

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we analyze the security of an RFID authentication protocol proposed by Liu and Bailey [1], called Privacy and Authentication Protocol (PAP), and show its vulnerabilities and faulty assumptions. PAP is a privacy and authentication protocol designed for passive tags. The authors claim that the protocol, being resistant to commonly assumed attacks, requires little computation and provides privacy protection and authentication. Nevertheless, we propose two traceability attacks and an impersonation attack, in which the revealing of secret information (i.e., secret key and static identifier) shared between the tag and the reader is unnecessary. Moreover, we review all basic assumptions on which the design of the protocol resides, and show how many of them are incorrect and are contrary to the common assumptions in RFID systems.

  10. Intraoperative BiPAP in OSA Patients

    Singh, Bhavna P; NS, Kodandaram

    2015-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSA) is characterized by recurrent episodes of partial or complete upper airway obstructions during sleep. Severe OSA presents with a number of challenges to the anesthesiologist, the most life threatening being loss of the airway. We are reporting a case where we successfully used intraoperative bi level positive pressure ventilation (BiPAP) with moderate sedation and a regional technique in a patient with severe OSA posted for total knee replacement (TKR). ...

  11. Van Mother-Child Health and Family Planning Center Pap Smear Clinics of Information, Evaluation of Applicants

    Sebahat Gucuk; Servet Alkan; Secil Arica; Aysegul Ates

    2011-01-01

    Objective: In this study of women admitted to our center with information on pap smear test, to evaluate the attitudes and behavior. Materials and Methods: This descriptive study of Van Mother-Child Health and Family Planning Center on a voluntary basis, women aged 15-49 were admitted to the control. The education level of participants, age at first marriage, before the presence of vaginal infection, the story, and motivations pap smear level of information availability, and a family history ...

  12. Pap smear screening in the primary health care setting: A study from Turkey

    Hande Celik Mehmetoglu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cervical cancer is one of the ten most frequent cancers in Turkey. It is well known that cervical cancer morbidity and mortality could be significantly reduced with an active cervical smear screening (Pap smear program. Aims: The aims of this study were: 1 to evaluate the knowledge and attitudes of women about cervical smear testing; 2 to establish a cervical smear screening program and to evaluate the cervical cytological abnormalities that were found; 3 to determine the applicability, limitations and effectiveness of this screening in a primary health care unit. Patients and Methods : A total of 332 married women were included in our study. We collected data concerning socio-demographic and fertility characteristics, and knowledge about Pap smear testing was determined through printed questionnaires. A gynecological examination and Pap smear screening was performed on every woman in our study group. Results: Over ninety percent of our study group had never heard of and had not undergone Pap smear screening before. Of the 332 smears evaluated, 328 (98.8% were accepted as normal, whereas epithelial cell anomalies were seen in 4 (1.2%, infection in 59 (17.7%, and reactive cell differences in 223 (67.2% of the smears. Conclusions: The frequency of epithelial cell anomalies in our study group was less than the frequencies reported from Western countries. Knowledge regarding cervical cancer and Pap smear screening was very low. Pap smears can be easily taken and evaluated through a chain built between the primary health care unit and laboratory, and this kind of screening intervention is easily accepted by the population served.

  13. Pap smear screening in the primary health care setting: A study from Turkey

    Hande Celik Mehmetoglu

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cervical cancer is one of the ten most frequent cancers in Turkey. It is well known that cervical cancer morbidity and mortality could be significantly reduced with an active cervical smear screening (Pap smear program. Aims: The aims of this study were: 1 to evaluate the knowledge and attitudes of women about cervical smear testing; 2 to establish a cervical smear screening program and to evaluate the cervical cytological abnormalities that were found; 3 to determine the applicability, limitations and effectiveness of this screening in a primary health care unit. Patients and Methods: A total of 332 married women were included in our study. We collected data concerning socio-demographic and fertility characteristics, and knowledge about Pap smear testing was determined through printed questionnaires. A gynecological examination and Pap smear screening was performed on every woman in our study group. Results: Over ninety percent of our study group had never heard of and had not undergone Pap smear screening before. Of the 332 smears evaluated, 328 (98.8% were accepted as normal, whereas epithelial cell anomalies were seen in 4 (1.2%, infection in 59 (17.7%, and reactive cell differences in 223 (67.2% of the smears. Conclusions: The frequency of epithelial cell anomalies in our study group was less than the frequencies reported from Western countries. Knowledge regarding cervical cancer and Pap smear screening was very low. Pap smears can be easily taken and evaluated through a chain built between the primary health care unit and laboratory, and this kind of screening intervention is easily accepted by the population served.

  14. Effect of conditions in obtaining blood samples for ECP testing in children.

    Pena, J M; Rubira, N; Botey, J; Rodrigo, M J; Alonso, R; Eseverri, J L; Marín, A; Ras, R M

    1996-02-01

    Eosinophil Cationic Protein (ECP) is a basic protein found in eosinophil granules. This cell and its mediators are currently considered to be potential indicators of the severity of inflammation in the organism. ECP concentration can be reliably tested using several RIA or ELISA methods. It is well known that the conditions of sample obtention can affect the ECP values in blood. The aim of this study is to establish which parameters affect ECP testing during regular blood sample collection and how they affect it. Blood samples taken for the routine study of five children attended in our department were analysed: four were asthmatic and one child had atopic dermatitis. In the results we observed that ECP was not detected in the blood samples taken with EDTA tripotassium. In both the plasma samples taken with heparin as well as with serum, more ECP was released at a higher temperature. In the release of ECP obtained by coagulation, samples at 37 degrees showed values of between 4 and 20 higher than those obtained for an hour at 0 degrees. There is a considerable variability in the testing of ECP depending on the blood test extraction conditions, the range is bigger in the samples with eosinophils. These results imply the need to define a stricter protocol for obtaining samples than that suggested at present. PMID:8703307

  15. Results of Investigative Tests of Gas Turbine Engine Compressor Blades Obtained by Electrochemical Machining

    Kozhina, T. D.; Kurochkin, A. V.

    2016-04-01

    The paper highlights results of the investigative tests of GTE compressor Ti-alloy blades obtained by the method of electrochemical machining with oscillating tool-electrodes, carried out in order to define the optimal parameters of the ECM process providing attainment of specified blade quality parameters given in the design documentation, while providing maximal performance. The new technological methods suggested based on the results of the tests; in particular application of vibrating tool-electrodes and employment of locating elements made of high-strength materials, significantly extend the capabilities of this method.

  16. Nucleotide sequence of the papA gene encoding the Pap pilus subunit of human uropathogenic Escherichia coli.

    Båga, M; Normark, S; Hardy, J.; O'Hanley, P; Lark, D; O Olsson; Schoolnik, G; Falkow, S

    1984-01-01

    The papA gene of the uropathogenic strain Escherichia coli J96, coding for the Pap pili subunit, was subjected to DNA sequencing, and found to code for an 185-amino acid-long polypeptide with a 22-amino acid-long signal peptide. Here we present the primary sequence, the hydrophilicity profile, and the predicted polypeptide secondary structure of the Pap pili subunit.

  17. Strategies for obtaining long constant-pressure test times in shock tubes

    Campbell, M. F.; Parise, T.; Tulgestke, A. M.; Spearrin, R. M.; Davidson, D. F.; Hanson, R. K.

    2015-11-01

    Several techniques have been developed for obtaining long, constant-pressure test times in reflected shock wave experiments in a shock tube, including the use of driver inserts, driver gas tailoring, helium gas diaphragm interfaces, driver extensions, and staged driver gas filling. These techniques are detailed here, including discussion on the most recent strategy, staged driver gas filling. Experiments indicate that this staged filling strategy increases available test time by roughly 20 % relative to single-stage filling of tailored driver gas mixtures, while simultaneously reducing the helium required per shock by up to 85 %. This filling scheme involves firstly mixing a tailored helium-nitrogen mixture in the driver section as in conventional driver filling and, secondly, backfilling a low-speed-of-sound gas such as nitrogen or carbon dioxide from a port close to the end cap of the driver section. Using this staged driver gas filling, in addition to the other techniques listed above, post-reflected shock test times of up to 0.102 s (102 ms) at 524 K and 1.6 atm have been obtained. Spectroscopically based temperature measurements in non-reactive mixtures have confirmed that temperature and pressure conditions remain constant throughout the length of these long test duration trials. Finally, these strategies have been used to measure low-temperature n-heptane ignition delay times.

  18. The structure of the PapD-PapGII pilin complex reveals an open and flexible P5 pocket

    Ford, Bradley; Verger, Denis; Dodson, Karen; Volkan, Ender; Kostakioti, Maria; Elam, Jennifer; Pinkner, Jerome; Waksman, Gabriel; Hultgren, Scott

    2012-01-01

    P pili are hairlike polymeric structures that mediate binding of uropathogenic Escherichia coli to the surface of the kidney via the PapG adhesin at their tips. PapG is composed of two domains: a lectin domain at the tip of the pilus followed by a pilin domain that comprises the initial polymerizing subunit of the 1,000-plus-subunit heteropolymeric pilus fiber. Prior to assembly, periplasmic pilin domains bind to a chaperone, PapD. PapD mediates donor strand complementation, in which a beta s...

  19. Conhecimentos, atitudes e prática do exame de Papanicolaou por mulheres, Nordeste do Brasil Conocimientos, actitudes y práctica del examen de Papanicolaou en Noreste Knowledge, attitudes, and practices related to Pap test by women, Northeastern Brazil

    José Veríssimo Fernandes

    2009-10-01

    abordaje cuantitativo. Fueron entrevistadas 267 mujeres con edad de 15 a 69 años, seleccionadas de forma estratificada aleatoria, residentes en el municipio de São José do Mipibu, Noreste de Brasil, en 2007. Se utilizó cuestionario con preguntas pre-codificadas y abiertas, cuyas respuestas fueron descritas y analizadas con relación a la adecuación de los conocimientos, actitudes y práctica de las mujeres con relación al examen preventivo de Papanicolaou. Fueron realizadas exámenes de asociación entre las características sociodemográficas y los comportamientos estudiados, con nivel de significancia de 5%. RESULTADOS: A pesar de 46,1% de las mujeres entrevistadas haber mostrado conocimiento adecuado, proporciones de adecuación significativamente mayores fueron observadas con relación a las actitudes y práctica con respecto al examen: 63,3% y 64,4%, respectivamente. El mayor grado de escolaridad presentó asociación con adecuación de los conocimientos, actitudes y práctica, con relación a las principales barreras para la realización del examen relatadas fueron descuido, falta de solicitud del examen por el médico y vergüenza. CONCLUSIONES: El médico es la principal fuente de información sobre el examen de Papanicolaou. Mientras tanto, mujeres que van a consultas con mayor frecuencia, a pesar de presentar práctica más adecuada del examen, poseen baja adecuación del conocimiento y actitud frente al procedimiento, sugiriendo que no están recibiendo las informaciones adecuadas sobre el objetivo del examen, sus ventajas y beneficios para su salud.OBJECTIVE: To assess the knowledge, attitudes and practices of women related to the Pap test and the association between these behaviors and sociodemographic characteristics. METHODS: A household survey with quantitative approach was conducted. A total of 267 women aged 15 to 69 years, randomly selected in a stratified manner, living in the city of São José de Mipibu, Northeastern Brazil, were interviewed in

  20. Analysis of data obtained in two-phase flow tests of primary heat transport pumps

    This report analyzes data obtained in two-phase flow tests of primary heat transport pumps performed during the period 1980-1983. Phenomena which have been known to cause pump-induced flow oscillations in pressurized piping systems under two-phase conditions are reviewed and the data analyzed to determine whether any of the identified phenomena could have been responsible for the instabilities observed in those tests. Tentative explanations for the most severe instabilities are given based on those analyses. It is shown that suction pipe geometry probably plays an important role in promoting instabilities, so additional experiments to investigate the effect of suction pipe geometry on the stability of flow in a closed pipe loop under two-phase conditions are recommended

  1. Evaluation of a Worksite Cervical Screening Initiative to Increase Pap Smear Uptake in Malaysia: A Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial

    Fauziah Abdullah

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Despite the significant burden of cervical cancer, Malaysia like many middle-income countries relies on opportunistic cervical screening as opposed to a more organized population-based program. The aim of this study was to ascertain the effectiveness of a worksite screening initiative upon Papanicolaou smear test (Pap test uptake among educated working women in Malaysia. Methods. 403 female teachers who never or infrequently attended for a Pap test from 40 public secondary schools in Kuala Lumpur were recruited into a cluster randomized trial conducted between January and November 2010. The intervention group participated in a worksite cervical screening initiative whilst the control group received usual care from the existing cervical screening program. Multivariate logistic regression was performed to determine the impact of the intervention program on Pap smear uptake after 24 weeks of followup. Results. The proportion of women attending for a Pap test was significantly higher in the intervention than in the control group (18.1% versus 10.1%, P value < 0.05 with the worksite screening initiative doubling the Pap smear uptake, adjusted odds ratio 2.44 (95% CI: 1.29–4.62. Conclusion. Worksite health promotion interventions can effectively increase cervical smear uptake rates among eligible workers in middle-income countries. Policy makers and health care providers in these countries should include such interventions in strategies for reducing cervical cancer burden. This trial is registered with IRCT201103186088N1.

  2. Report of test and research results on atomic energy obtained in national institutes in fiscal 1985

    As for the test and research on the utilization of atomic energy in national institutes, the budget was appropriated for the first time in fiscal year 1956, and since then, the many valuable results of research have been obtained so far in the diversified fields of nuclear fusion, safety research, the irradiation of foods, medicine and others, thus the test and research accomplished the large role for promoting the utilization of atomic energy in Japan. In this report, the gists of the results of the test and research on the utilization of atomic energy carried out by national institutes in fiscal year 1985 are collected. No.1 of this report was published in 1960, and this is No.26. It is desired to increase the understanding about the recent trend and the results of the test and research on atomic energy utilization with this book. The researches on nuclear fusion, engineering safety and environmental radioactivity safety, the irradiation of foods, the countermeasures against cancer, fertilized soil, the quality improvement of brewing and farm products, the protection of farm products and the improvement of breeding, diagnosis and medical treatment, pharmaceuticals, environmental hygiene, the application to physiology and pathology, radiochemistry, radiation measurement, process analysis, nuclear reactor materials, nuclear powered ships, civil engineering, radioactivation analysis and injury prevention are reported. (Kako, I.)

  3. A comparative analysis of conventional Pap smear cytology, liquid based cytology and colposcopy clinical impression with colposcopy biopsy histology as gold standard in women undergoing colposcopy in Kenyatta National Hospital

    Macharia H. C.

    2014-02-01

    Results: A total of 73 patients referred with abnormal pap smears were recruited into the study. The mean age of the patients was 38 yrs (SD ±10. About 45% of the patients interviewed did not have knowledge of Pap smear testing. Both the results of referral Pap smear and repeat pap smear were predominantly low grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LGSIL or HGSIL. With biopsy results being the gold standard, Liquid based cytology had a higher specificity of 75% when compared with conventional pap smears’ 11%. Conclusions: Even though colposcopy clinical impression has the highest agreement with colposcopy biopsy it’s a diagnostic and not a screening test, hence Liquid based cytology showed better performance as a screening test compared to conventional Pap smear. In general, there was good agreement for cytological results of repeat CPAP and LBC. We therefore recommend that for patients referred with abnormal pap smears requiring a repeat pap smear, liquid based cytology is used due to its higher specificity compared to conventional Pap smear. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2014; 3(1.000: 58-63

  4. Quantification of brake creep groan in vehicle tests and its relation with stick-slip obtained in laboratory tests

    Neis, P. D.; Ferreira, N. F.; Poletto, J. C.; Matozo, L. T.; Masotti, D.

    2016-05-01

    This paper describes the development of a methodology for assessing and correlating stick-slip and brake creep groan. For doing that, results of tribotests are compared to data obtained in vehicle tests. A low velocity and a linear reduction in normal force were set for the tribotests. The vehicle tests consisted of subjecting a sport utility vehicle to three different ramp slopes. Creep groan events were measured by accelerometers placed on the brake calipers. The root mean square of the acceleration signal (QRMS parameter) was shown to be able to measure the creep groan severity resulting from the vehicle tests. Differences in QRMS were observed between front-rear and left-right wheels for all tested materials. Frequency spectrum analysis of the acceleration revealed that the wheel side and material type do not cause any significant shift in the creep groan frequency. QRMS measured in the vehicle tests presented good correlation with slip power (SP) summation. For this reason, SP summation may represent the "creep groan propensity" of brake materials. Thus, the proposed tribotest method can be utilized to predict the creep groan severity of brake materials in service.

  5. Transcriptional activation of a pap pilus virulence operon from uropathogenic Escherichia coli.

    Båga, M; M. Göransson; Normark, S; Uhlin, B E

    1985-01-01

    A gene cluster mediating production of pili in uropathogenic Escherichia coli was analysed with respect to regulation of pili synthesis. Two cistrons, papB and papI, were localized upstream of the major pilus subunit gene, papA. The papI-papB-papA region was characterized by nucleotide sequencing and by transcriptional analysis. The papA gene was primarily represented by an 800 nucleotide long transcript but was also co-transcribed with papB as a less abundant 1300 nucleotide long mRNA. Both ...

  6. Mutations affecting mRNA processing and fimbrial biogenesis in the Escherichia coli pap operon.

    P. Nilsson; Naureckiene, S; Uhlin, B E

    1996-01-01

    The Escherichia coli pap genetic determinant includes 11 genes and encodes expression of Pap pili on the bacterial surface. An RNase E-dependent mRNA-processing event in the intercistronic papB-papA region results in the accumulation of a papA-gene-specific mRNA in considerable excess of the primary papB-papA mRNA transcription product. We have introduced mutations in the intercistronic region and studied the effect in vivo of these mutations on the processing event, PapA protein expression, ...

  7. Mammography and Pap test screening among low-income foreign-born Hispanic women in the USA Mamografia e teste Papanicolau em mulheres latinas de baixa renda nos Estados Unidos

    Maria E. Fernandez

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about the factors influencing screening among low-income Hispanic women particularly among recent immigrants. A sample of 148 low-income, low-literate, foreign-born Hispanic women residing in the Washington DC metropolitan area participated in the study. The mean age of the sample was 46.2 (SD = 11.5, 84% reported annual household incomesEste estudo determinou os fatores que influenciam a conduta de mulheres latinas de baixa renda nos EUA, em face do monitoramento pela mamografia (MM e por meio do teste de Papanicolau (TP, em uma amostra de 148 mulheres latinas, residentes na região metropolitana de Washington DC. A idade média na amostra foi de 46,2 anos (desvio padrão 11,5, e 84% relatavam renda familiar anual menor que quinze mil dólares. Todas as mulheres falavam espanhol e apresentavam níveis reduzidos de aculturação; 96% destas informavam ter realizado TP, mas 24% não relatavam adesão às normas recomendadas de rastreamento. Entre aquelas com quarenta anos ou mais, 62% haviam realizado MM, mas somente 33% de acordo com as normas de rotina. A freqüência de conceitos equivocados sobre o câncer neste grupo de mulheres foi maior que a observada para mulheres latinas em outros estudos. Modelos logísticos multivariados para variáveis correlacionadas à conduta no rastreamento pelo TP e MM indicam que fatores como o medo do teste, vergonha e desconhecimento tiveram influência. Concluiu-se que as mulheres nesse estudo apresentaram menor freqüência de rastreamento por MM que mulheres não latinas, além de apresentarem também níveis mais reduzidos de adesão às normas de rastreamento por TP e MM.

  8. Comparison of Molecular (PCR and Pap Smear Methods in Diagnosis of Human Papiloma Virus (HPV in Women with Genit al Warts

    Bashi zadeh Fakhar, H . (M S c

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Much research has shown that Human Papiloma Virus (HPV plays an important role in cervix cancer and it is the cause of 99% of cervix cancer worldwide. Lots of research has been done to find a proper method for HPV diagnosis and screening in patients with genital warts. This study aimed at comparing PCR method with Pap smear test in HPV screening. Material and Methods: Considering the presence of DNA of HPV, 45 vaginal and cervix swap samples of women with genital warts were tested by means of specific PCR and Pap smear from September 2010 to April 2011. Results: Out of 45 vaginal and cervix swap samples of women suffering genital warts, 37 samples (82.2% are positive. Of 45 Pap smear samples, 13 (29% are neoplasia and 32 (71% normal. Conclusion: The difference between the results of PCR and Pap smear is due to low specification and sensitivity of Pap smear. Thus it is recommended using diagnostic PCR method in addition to Pap smear in order to promote the quality of screening in individuals with genital warts. Keywords: Human Papiloma Virus (HPV; Genital Warts; Molecular (PCR; Pap Smear

  9. PAP SMEAR FOR SCREENING T. VAGINALIS

    Sateesh. K

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Trichomonas vaginalis is sometimes seen in Papanico laou stained smears, but because emphasis is placed on malignant cells in Papanicolaou stained smears, not much is done to search for this parasite in smears. In this study, cervical and vaginal specimens were examined by conventional Papanicolaou method fo r the presence of Trichomonas vaginalis microscopically. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Five hundred high vaginal swabs collected from gynaecology OPD were stained with Papanicolaou stain. RESULTS: One hundred and fifty (30% out of 500 Papanicolaou stained smea rs screened, were positive for Trichomonas vaginalis. Out of them 76.67% of positiv e smears were from asymptomatic females. Presumptive diagnosis based on perinuclear halo and complete T. vaginalis had the highest sensitivity of 69.33%, while diagnosis base d on perinuclear halo alone was 50.66% and 41.33% for diagnosis based on identification of com plete organisms in Pap smear

  10. Preoperative serum PSA and PAP levels and survival in curative prostatic cancer

    Aim: It has been established that PSA and PAP are useful tumor markers in diagnosis and therapy follow-up of prostatic cancer. In this work we retrospectively evaluated whether there exists a relationship between preoperative PSA and PAP values and survival of patients following the transurethral resection of prostate. Material and Methods: It has been done a mainly simultaneous radioimmunoassay of PSA and PAP in 52 and 49 patients with carcinoma of prostate, respectively. Survival curves were computed by Kaplan-Meier method. Difference between 2 groups of patients were estimated by log rank test. Results: The values of PSA and PAP ranged 0,3-325,2 ng/ml (median 52,3) and 0,1-204,0 ng/ml (median 6,1), respectively. The mean survival time was 33,9±4,2 months (median 26,4±2,6). Based on optimal decision level in differentiation BPH and prostatic cancer, the patients were divided into 2 groups: PSA36,0ng/ml, PAP4,5ng/ml. No significant difference between survival curves was found concerning of PSA and PAP levels. However, in age groups70 years (age ratio 1,03) the mean survival was 45,05±6,23 (median 29,60±2,26) and 22,09±2,98(median 22,80±3,21 months, respectively. The difference is significant (p=0,002). The geometric mean values of PSA in 70 years group are 45,1 ng/ml and 24,1 ng/ml, respectively. The difference is significant (p70 years group are 7,8 ng/ml and 6,7 ng/ml, respectively. No significant difference. Conclusion: It couldn't be proved that preoperative PSA and PAP levels are prognostic indicators. Examination of age ranges reveals significant survival difference between age groups 70 years indicating age effect on survival

  11. Trace element analysis - some tried and tested procedures for obtaining good quality data

    Full text: Using modern XRF spectrometers, detection limits of <1ppm are easily attainable for many elements. But good quality trace element analysis requires software that will produce accurate, spectrally clean, net peak intensities and accurate corrections for inter-element matrix effects. Some of the procedures available in modern software are not capable of consistently producing high quality trace element data. This paper will present some tried and tested procedures for making accurate background corrections, intensity-based spectral overlap corrections from matrix elements, corrections for tube spectral impurities, and methods for correcting for inter-element matrix effects (absorption and enhancement). Most of the procedures have been used in the Geology Department, University of Cape Town for more than thirty years, and have been applied to trace element analyses of the NASA Apollo lunar samples, meteorites, rocks and soils of every description, river, estuarine and marine sediments, deep ocean ferromanganese nodules, environmental and plant samples, and to a number of the GEOPT proficiency test samples. The quality of the data obtainable will be demonstrated using inter-laboratory results from lunar soil analyses and from the GEOPT program. Copyright (2002) Australian X-ray Analytical Association Inc

  12. 14 CFR 61.307 - What tests do I have to take to obtain a sport pilot certificate?

    2010-01-01

    ... sport pilot certificate? 61.307 Section 61.307 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... INSTRUCTORS Sport Pilots § 61.307 What tests do I have to take to obtain a sport pilot certificate? To obtain a sport pilot certificate, you must pass the following tests: (a) Knowledge test. You must pass...

  13. Comparison of Visual Inspection with acetic acid and Pap smear in cervical cancer screening at a tertiary care hospital

    Objective: To determine the accuracy of visual inspection with acetic acid in comparison with Pap smear against colposcopic directed biopsy, for detection of pre-cancerous lesion. Methods: The comparative cross-sectional study was conducted at the Maternal and Child Health Centre (MCHC), Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences (PIMS), Islamabad, from January to December 2010. Every married women with age range 19 to 51 years underwent conventional cytology and visual inspection with 5% acetic acid. Distinct acetowhite areas were taken as positive, while cervical intra-epithelial neoplasia on cytology was labelled as Pap smear positive. Colposcopic directed biopsy was taken as the gold standard. SPSS 13 was used for statistical analysis. Results: Of 519 subjects, 70(13.4%) were screened positive and 29(5.6%) were biopsy positive for cervical intra-epithelial neoplasia. Of these, 26(37.1 %) were positive on visual inspection; 14 (20 %) on cytology; and 30 (42.8%) on combined test. The sensitivity of visual inspection was 78.5% vs 61.1% for Pap smear (p<0.001). The specificity of visual inspection was 99.3% vs 99.4% for cytology (p<0.1). Significantly higher sensitivity and specificity was found for the combined test than either of the two alone; 93.1% and 99.1% respectively (p<0.001). The positive predictive value of visual inspection vs pap was 84.6% vs 78.5% (p<0.001) and negative predictive value was 98.6% vs 96.5% (p<0.1). Both values of combined test were significantly higher than either of the two tests alone (p<0.01). Conclusion: Visual inspection with acetic acid has significantly higher sensitivity than Pap smear and may replace pap smear as a primary screening tool for universal screening. Combined test with higher predictive accuracy may be used for opportunistic screening. (author)

  14. Solution structure of E.coli PapI, a key regulator of the pap pili phase variation

    Kawamura, Tetsuya; Le, Lisa Uyen K.; Zhou, Hongjun; Dahlquist, Frederick W.

    2006-01-01

    Pyelonephritis-associated pili (pap) allow uropathogenic Escherichia coli to bind to epithelial cells and play an important role in urinary tract infection. Expression of pap pili is controlled by a phase-variation mechanism, based on the two distinct heritable states that are the result of adenine N6-methylation in either of the two GATC sequences in its regulatory region. Methylation status of these two sequences is sensed by the action of two proteins, Lrp and PapI, and they play a central...

  15. Engineering of the PapMV vaccine platform with a shortened M2e peptide leads to an effective one dose influenza vaccine.

    Carignan, Damien; Thérien, Ariane; Rioux, Gervais; Paquet, Geneviève; Gagné, Marie-Ève Laliberté; Bolduc, Marilène; Savard, Pierre; Leclerc, Denis

    2015-12-16

    The emergence of highly virulent influenza strains and the risks of pandemics as well as the limited efficiency of the current seasonal vaccines are important public health concerns. There is a major need for new influenza vaccines that would be broadly cross-protective. The ectodomain of matrix protein 2 (M2e) is highly conserved amongst different influenza strains and could be used as a broad spectrum antigen. To overcome its low immunogenicity we have fused a short peptide epitope derived from the human consensus sequence of M2e (amino acids 6-14, EVETPIRNE) to the N-terminus of papaya mosaic virus coat protein. The fusion harboring coat proteins were assembled around a single stranded RNA into virus-like particles (PapMV-sM2e). The resulting PapMV-sM2e rod-shaped particle was stable and indistinguishable from regular PapMV particles. A single intramuscular immunization with PapMV-sM2e was sufficient to mount appreciable levels of CD4 dependent M2e specific total IgG and IgG2a antibody in mice sera. PapMV-sM2e proved to be self-adjuvanting since the addition of PapMV as an exogenous adjuvant did not result in significantly improved antibody titers. In addition, we confirmed the adjuvant property of PapMV-sM2e using the trivalent inactivated flu vaccine as antigen and demonstrated that the newly engineered nanoparticles areas efficacious as an adjuvant than the original PapMV nanoparticles. Upon infection with a sub-lethal dose of influenza, PapMV-sM2e vaccinated animals were completely protected from virus induced morbidity and mortality. Mice immunized with decreasing amounts of PapMV-sM2e and challenged with a more stringent dose of influenza virus displayed dose-dependent levels of protection. Seventy percent of the mice immunized once with the highest dose of PapMV-sM2e survived the challenged. The survival of the mice correlated mainly with the levels of anti-M2e IgG2a antibodies obtained before the infection. These results demonstrate that PapMV-sM2e can

  16. Cloning and characterization of a novel human phosphatidic acid phosphatase type 2, PAP2d, with two different transcripts PAP2d_v1 and PAP2d_v2.

    Sun, Liyun; Gu, Shaohua; Sun, Yaqiong; Zheng, Dan; Wu, Qihan; Li, Xin; Dai, Jianfeng; Dai, Jianliang; Ji, Chaoneng; Xie, Yi; Mao, Yumin

    2005-04-01

    This study reports the cloning and characterization of a novel human phosphatidic acid phosphatase type 2 isoform cDNAs (PAP2d) from the foetal brain cDNA library. The PAP2d gene is localized on chromosome 1p21.3. It contains six exons and spans 112 kb of the genomic DNA. By large-scale cDNA sequencing we found two splice variants of PAP2d, PAP2d_v1 and PAP2d_v2. The PAP2d_v1 cDNA is 1722 bp in length and spans an open reading frame from nucleotide 56 to 1021, encoding a 321aa protein. The PAP2d_v2 cDNA is 1707 bp in length encoding a 316aa protein from nucleotide 56-1006. The PAP2d_v1 cDNA is 15 bp longer than the PAP2d_v2 cDNA in the terminal of the fifth exon and it creates different ORF. Both of the proteins contain a well-conserved PAP2 motif. The PAP2d_v1 is mainly expressed in human brain, lung, kidney, testis and colon, while PAP2d_v2 is restricted to human placenta, skeletal muscle, and kidney. The two splice variants are co-expressed only in kidney. PMID:16010976

  17. Motivos que levam mulheres a não retornarem para receber o resultado de exame Papanicolau Motivos que llevan a las mujeres a no regresar para recibir el resultado del examen de Papanicolau Motives which lead women not to return to receive the results of their pap smear test

    Suzana de Azevedo Greenwood

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available O papanicolau é um eficiente método de prevenção do câncer de colo uterino. Para a efetividade desta prevenção, é imprescindível que a mulher receba o resultado do exame e conclua o tratamento. O presente estudo tem o objetivo de identificar motivos que levam mulheres a não retornarem para o recebimento do resultado do papanicolau. Trata-se de uma pesquisa descritiva, com abordagem qualitativa, realizada em uma unidade de saúde em Fortaleza. Os sujeitos do estudo foram 21 mulheres que colheram seus exames de papanicolau e não retornaram para buscar o resultado. O instrumento de coleta de dados foi constituído por entrevista semi-estruturada, realizada por telefone, nos meses de setembro a novembro de 2004. Os resultados evidenciaram motivos relacionados à mulher, ao profissional que realiza o atendimento e ao serviço.El Papanicolau es un eficiente método de prevención de cáncer cervical, bastante utilizado por las mujeres. Para la efectividad de esta prevención, es imprescindible que la paciente reciba el resultado del examen y concluya el tratamiento. El presente estudio tiene como objetivo identificar los motivos que llevan a las mujeres a no volver para recibir el resultado del Papanicolau. Se trata de una investigación descriptiva con aproximación cualitativa, realizada en una unidad de Salud Pública en Fortaleza. Los sujetos de estudio fueron 21 mujeres, cujas muestras fueron colectadas para Papanicolau y que no retornaron para buscar el resultado. El instrumento de recopilación de datos fue una entrevista semi-estructurada, realizada por teléfono entre los meses de septiembre y noviembre del 2004. Los resultados evidenciaron motivos relacionados a la paciente, al profesional que realiza la atención y al servicio.The Pap smear test is an efficient method of uterine cervical cancer prevention. For this prevention method to be effective, it is essential that the patient receives her results and satisfactorily

  18. Clinical value of serum PAP determination in detection and follow-up of pronostic carcinoma: PAP-RIA VS. PAP-EA

    The clinical usefulness of the RIA for prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP) in comparison to the PAP-enzyme assay (EA) in detection and follow-up of prostatic carcinoma (PC) was evaluated. Groups of patients were formed according to the stage, therapeutic regimen of PC and to the effect of therapy. Serum PAP concentration was determined by commercial RIA and EA kit. In detection of PC RIA and EA demonstrated an equally low diagnostic sensitivity in tumor stages O, A, B and C with a tendency of the RIA to a slightly higher sentitivity in stage C. In stage D, but only if no contrasexual therapy was used, the RIA revealed with 54% pathological findings significantly higher, yet still moderate sensitivity in comparison to 33% by EA. This finding could also be observed in patients with scintigraphically proven stage D2 (osseous metastases) without contrasexual therapy. The whole group of patients on no contrasexual therapy including all stages of PC demonstrated with 29% of pathological findings a slight advantage of the RIA over the EA with 20%. In follow-up of PC the RIA showed a significantly higher sensitivity in evaluation of the effect of therapy. Thus, scintigraphically proven progression of formation of metastases of less than 3 months revealed pathological PAP concentrations by RIA in 56% and PAP activities by EA in 15% of the involved sera. In progression of more than 3 months there were 76% pathological values by RIA vs. 53% by EA. It can be concluded that both the PAP RIA and EA possess low to moderate diagnostic sensitivity in detection of PC the RIA demonstrating a significantly higher sentivity compared to the EA if no contrasexual therapy is used. In follow-up of PC the RIA was more sensitive than the EA in detecting progression of formation of metastases

  19. Perception and Experience of Primary Care Physicians on Pap Smear Screening for Women with Intellectual Disabilities: A Preliminary Finding

    Lin, Jin-Ding; Sung, Chang-Lin; Lin, Lan-Ping; Liu, Ta-Wen; Lin, Pei-Ying; Chen, Li-Mei; Chu, Cordia M.; Wu, Jia-Ling

    2010-01-01

    This study aims to establish evidence-based data to explore the perceptions and experience of primary care physicians in the Pap smear screening provision for women with intellectual disabilities (ID), and to analyze the associated factors in the delivery of screening services to women with ID in Taiwan. Data obtained by a cross-sectional survey…

  20. CLINICAL ASSESSMENT AND CORRILATION OF PAP SMEAR AND LIQUID BASED CYTOLOGY IN BAD CERVIX

    Khushboo

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available AIM: Aim of our study to analyze the prevalence of premalignant lesion based on Pap smear and liquid based cytology in patients of bad cervix. OBJECTIVE: To compare sensitivity and specificity of two methods for screening of bad cervix and to know IDR (increase detection rate of cervical cancer by conventional Pap smear and liquid based cytology. MATERIAL AND METHOD: 200 women attending Gynaecology OPD were random selection on the basis of inclusion criteria. All 200 selected women were subjected for down staging through per speculum examination for identification of bad cervix. Pap smears of all 200 selected women were taken and ensured that no local douche, antiseptic cream and no local internal examination was done on the day of test. The prepared smears were then stained according to Papanicolaou's technique. Liquid based cytology smears preparing by using cervical brush 1-1.5cm were inserted into the cervical os until the large outer bristles of the brush touch ectocervix. Data collected for sociodemographic, parity, down staging clinical examination Pap smear and LBC was organised, interpreted and analysis on appropriate statistical software. P value < 0.05 is considered significant RESULT: Analysis revealed that the maximum number of women in our study are from middle age group(31-40yrs, low socioeconomic status, married before 18 yrs, multipara, do not use any contraceptive, uneducated, urban, Muslim population.in this study more abnormal smear is seen in LBC as compared to pap smear. Sensitivity and specificity for LBC is more as compare to pap smear. CONCLUSION: In low resource setting like ours were facilities for radiology, chemo- radiotherapy and supportive care are limited or unavailable. It is important to identify which resources fill healthcare need most effectively and to consider alternative approaches, LBC is strongly advocated in the best interest of public health, by improving the quality of the sample and reducing the

  1. Attenuated Total Reflectance Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy and Artificial Neural Networks Applied to Differentiate Escherichia coli papG+/papG- Strains

    Łukasz Lechowicz; Wioletta Adamus-Białek; Wiesław Kaca

    2013-01-01

    Fimbriae are an important pathogenic factor of Escherichia coli during development of urinary tract infections. Here, we describe a new method for identification of Escherichia coli papG+ from papG- strains using the attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared Spectroscopy (ATR FT-IR). We applied artificial neural networks to the analysis of the ATR FT-IR results. These methods allowed to discriminate E. coli papG+ from papG- strains with accuracy of 99%.

  2. Mrassf1a-pap, a novel methylation-based assay for the detection of cell-free fetal DNA in maternal plasma.

    Jessica M E van den Oever

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: RASSF1A has been described to be differentially methylated between fetal and maternal DNA and can therefore be used as a universal sex-independent marker to confirm the presence of fetal sequences in maternal plasma. However, this requires highly sensitive methods. We have previously shown that Pyrophosphorolysis-activated Polymerization (PAP is a highly sensitive technique that can be used in noninvasive prenatal diagnosis. In this study, we have used PAP in combination with bisulfite conversion to develop a new universal methylation-based assay for the detection of fetal methylated RASSF1A sequences in maternal plasma. METHODS: Bisulfite sequencing was performed on maternal genomic (gDNA and fetal gDNA from chorionic villi to determine differentially methylated regions in the RASSF1A gene using bisulfite specific PCR primers. Methylation specific primers for PAP were designed for the detection of fetal methylated RASSF1A sequences after bisulfite conversion and validated. RESULTS: Serial dilutions of fetal gDNA in a background of maternal gDNA show a relative percentage of ~3% can be detected using this assay. Furthermore, fetal methylated RASSF1A sequences were detected both retrospectively as well as prospectively in all maternal plasma samples tested (n = 71. No methylated RASSF1A specific bands were observed in corresponding maternal gDNA. Specificity was further determined by testing anonymized plasma from non-pregnant females (n = 24 and males (n = 21. Also, no methylated RASSF1A sequences were detected here, showing this assay is very specific for methylated fetal DNA. Combining all samples and controls, we obtain an overall sensitivity and specificity of 100% (95% CI 98.4%-100%. CONCLUSIONS: Our data demonstrate that using a combination of bisulfite conversion and PAP fetal methylated RASSF1A sequences can be detected with extreme sensitivity in a universal and sex-independent manner. Therefore, this assay could be of great

  3. Molecular testing of human papillomavirus in cervical specimens

    Objective was to improve the diagnosis of cervical neoplasia by early detection of human papillomavirus (HPV) in uterine cervix, by adding molecular testing of HPV using hybrid capture 2 (HC2) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) tests to Papanicoalou (Pap) test. One hundred women were enrolled in this study. The mean age (mean+-SD) was 41.97+- 8.76 years and range was 27-65 years. All women had undergone cervical cytological screening with cervical cytology, HPV DNA testing by HC2 and PCR, during the period from January to December 2006, at King Abdul-Aziz University Hospital (KAAUH) and King Fahd research Center, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. The results were obtained by HC2 for detection of HPV were 5(5%) high-risk HPV, one low-risk HPV (1%) and 94(94%) negative cases. The PCR detected only 4(4%) cases. Using the HC2 test as a reference, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive, negative predictive values and accuracy of base line Pap were 50, 85, 17.7, 96.4 and 83%; of final Pap smear were 100, 96.8, 66.7, 100, and 97% and for PCR were 66.7, 100, 100, 97.9 and 98%. The Pap test was repeated within a year for patients with abnormal Pap test with positive HPV DNA. Combined screening by cytology and HPV testing using both HC2 and PCR sensitively detects women with existing disease. The absence of HPV DNA provides reassurance that patients are unlikely to develop cancer for several years. We suggest using Pap with HC2 and PCR in screening programs to ensure that women with the double negative result at baseline might safely be screened at longer intervals. (author)

  4. Challenges in Obtaining HIV Testing in an Acute Involuntary Inpatient Psychiatric Setting.

    Weller, Jennifer; Levitt, Gwen; Myers, Robert; Riley, Aaron; Gesmundo, Celsius-Kit

    2016-01-01

    Even in health care professions, a stigma remains for patients with co-occurring HIV and serious mental illness. Researchers at a large, urban medical center encountered this stigma when they attempted to initiate a study of cognition in psychiatric inpatients with and without HIV who were seen as vulnerable in the context of research. Education efforts and advocacy on the part of the research team was instrumental and resulted in system-wide changes in the hospital, including the addition of HIV testing to the psychiatric admission laboratory panel. Within the first year that routine laboratory orders included an HIV test, the rate of testing ordered by inpatient-attending psychiatrists reached 60% of admissions. As of 2014, 13 HIV tests were found to be HIV seropositive in inpatients, with four of those cases classified as new-onset, as opposed to two positive tests in the year prior to our study. PMID:27426407

  5. Evaluation and significance of hyperchromatic crowded groups (HCG in liquid-based paps

    Shidham Vinod

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective Hyperchromatic crowded groups (HCG, a term first introduced into the cytology literature by DeMay in 1995, are commonly observed in Pap tests and may rarely be associated with serious but difficult to interpret lesions. In this study, we specifically defined HCG as dark crowded cell groups with more than 15 cells which can be identified at 10× screening magnification. Methods We evaluated consecutive liquid-based (Surepath Pap tests from 601 women (age 17–74 years, mean age 29.4 yrs and observed HCG in 477 cases. In all 477 HCG cases, Pap tests were found to be satisfactory and to contain an endocervical sample. HCG were easily detectible at 10× screening magnification (size up to 400 um, mean 239.5 um and ranged from 1 to 50 (mean 19.5 per Pap slide. Results HCG predominantly represented 3-Dimensional groups of endocervical cells with some nuclear overlap (379/477 – 79%, reactive endocervical cells with relatively prominent nucleoli and some nuclear crowding (29/477 – 6%, clusters of inflammatory cells (25/477 – 5.2%, parabasal cells (22/477 – 4.6%, endometrial cells (1/477 – 0.2%. Epithelial cell abnormalities (ECA were present in only 21 of 477 cases (4.6%. 18 of 21 women with HCG-associated ECA were less than 40 years old; only 3 were =/> 40 years. HCG-associated final abnormal Pap test interpretations were as follows: ASCUS (6/21 – 28%, LSIL (12/21 – 57%, ASC-H (2/21 – 9.5%, and HSIL/CIN2-3 (3/21 – 14%. The association of HCG with ECA was statistically significant (p = 0.0174. chi-square test. In patients with ECA, biopsy results were available in 10 cases, and 4 cases of biopsy-proven CIN2/3 were detected. Among these four cases, HCG in the Pap tests, in retrospect represented the lesional high grade cells in three cases (one HSIL case and two ASC-H cases. Interestingly, none of the 124 cases without HCG were found to have an epithelial cell abnormality. Conclusion We conclude: a. HCG are observed

  6. Comparison of fracture energy values obtained from 3PB, WST and CT test configurations

    Holušová, Táňa; Seitl, Stanislav; Canteli, A.

    Zurich: Trans Tech Publications, 2014 - (Kotrasová, K.; Kormanikova, E.), s. 89-92. (Advanced Materials Research. 969). ISBN 978-3-03835-147-4. ISSN 1022-6680. [SPACE 2013 - International Conference on Structural and Physical Aspects of Civil Engineering /2./. Štrbské Pleso (SK), 27.11.2013-29.11.2013] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP104/11/0833 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : Fracture energy * Compact tension * Three-point bending test * Wedge-splitting test * Cement-based composite Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics

  7. Analysis of results obtained from field tracing test under artificial rainfall condition

    The field tracing test and the laboratory experiments by column and batch method had been performed, to evaluate migratory mobilities of 60Co, 85Sr and 134Cs in loess medium. The field test supplied dynamic information on the radionuclide migration, while the laboratory experiments made possible to select more accurate sorption model taking into deep consideration of interaction mechanisms between the loess and the radionuclides. The 85Sr migration was well described by the equilibrium sorption model using distribution coefficient. The 60Co and 134Cs migration could be explained by the hybrid non-equilibrium sorption model, assuming a reversible sorption, an irreversible fixation and a filtration. (7 figs., 1 tab.)

  8. Nipple Aspirate Test Is No Substitute for Mammogram

    ... Atossa claimed that its test was "literally a Pap smear for breast cancer." According to FDA medical officer ... the agency, this claim is unsubstantiated. "The cervical Pap smear has a known clinical benefit supported by extensive ...

  9. Awareness of cervical cancer and Pap smear among nursing staff at a rural tertiary care hospital in Central India

    S M Jain

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cancer cervix is the leading cause of cancer deaths in females in developing countries and one in five women suffering from cervical cancer lives in India. Aims: The aim of this study is to determine the awareness about cervical cancer and Pap smear among nurses working in a tertiary care institute. Study Setting and Design: Cross-sectional survey in a tertiary care institute. Materials and Methods: Nurses working at our institute excluding those who have worked or working in the Obstetrics and Gynecology department were provided with a pre-designed questionnaire testing their knowledge about cervical cancer. Results: Approximately, 86% were aware about cancer cervix and 69% were aware of a pre-cancerous stage. 42.3% were not aware of any risk factor and 27.6% were not aware of any symptom of cancer cervix. 86.2% were aware about Pap smear, but only 58.6% were aware that facilities of Pap smear were available at our hospital. Conclusions: Knowledge about cervical cancer and awareness of Pap smear as screening test was inadequate in nursing staff. Awareness programs about cervical cancer and screening are needed to increase awareness for this preventable condition. Recommendation: There is a need to arrange reorientation programs to sensitize nurses and establish cytology clinics to offer facilities for easily accessible and affordable screening.

  10. Complementary testing techniques applied to obtain the freeze-thaw resistance of concrete

    Romero, H. L.; Enfedaque, A.; Gálvez, J. C.; Casati, M. J.

    2015-01-01

    Most of the standards that evaluate the resistance of concrete against freeze-thaw cycles (FTC) are based on the loss of weight due to scaling. Such procedures are useful but do not provide information about the microstructural deterioration of the concrete. The test procedure needs to be stopped after several FTCs for weighing the loss of material by scaling. This paper proposes the use of mercury-intrusion-porosimetry and thermogravimetric analysis for assessing the microstructural damage o...

  11. Small punch test - the way how to obtain material mechanical properties from very small volumes

    Dymáček, Petr; Dobeš, Ferdinand

    Brno: Ústav fyziky materiálů AV ČR, v. v. i., 2015 - (Dlouhý, A.; Kunz, L.). s. 186-186 ISBN 978-80-87434-07-9. [ICSMA-17 International Conference on the Strength of Materials /17./. 09.08.2015-14.08.2015, Brno] Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : small punch test Subject RIV: JG - Metallurgy

  12. Advantages obtained in radiation protection when using computerized radiography tests - CR (digital) in processing plants

    During the year 2000, the ARCtest initiated the development of the research for adapting the Computerized Radiography - CR, originally conceived for medical applications, for the Industry, trying initially to attend the requirements of the processing plants, concerning to the detection of deterioration mechanisms (evaluation of the piping integrity). Due to the obtained excellent results, the possibility of utilization the Computerized Radiography - CR in the radiographic inspection were studied during the shutdown of the Catalytic Cracking Unit of the PETROBRAS-REPLAN, specifically in the replacement of the CO boiler superheater, where a large number of the small diameter welded joints have been predicted

  13. Report of test and research results on atomic energy obtained in national institutes in fiscal 1988

    The test and research on atomic energy utilization in national institutions were begun in 1956, and valuable results have been produced in the fields of nuclear fusion, safety research, food irradiation, medicine and others, thus those have accomplished great roles for the promotion of atomic energy utilization in Japan. Atomic energy technology synthesizes various advanced technologies over wide technical domains, therefore at the time of its research and development, it is important to place emphasis on the creative and innovative regions which cause large technical innovation and in which the effect spreading to general science and technology can be expected. In addition to the test and research according to such recognition, also the basic technology of atomic energy field has been studied. At present foreign countries request Japan to contribute to the development of the world by creating the new technology and knowledge on atomic energy, and national institutions must meet the request. This is the report No.29, in which the results of the test and research in the fields of nuclear fusion, safety research, food irradiation, the countermeasures to cancer, agriculture, forestry and fishery, medicine, mining and industry, power utilization, construction, radioactivation analysis and advanced basic research, carried out in 1988 are summarized. (K.I.)

  14. Report of test and research results on atomic energy obtained in national institutes in fiscal 1983

    As for the test and research on the utilization of atomic energy by national organizations, the budget was appropriated for the first time in fiscal year 1956. Since then, many valuable results of research have been produced in the diverse fields of nuclear fusion, safety research, food irradiation, medicine and others, in this way, the test and research have played large roles in the promotion of the utilization of atomic energy in Japan. This is the 24th report, in which the results of the test and research on the utilization of atomic energy carried out in fiscal year 1983 by national organizations are summarized. 5 researches on nuclear fusion, 19 researches on engineering safety and environmental radioactivity safety, 3 researches on food irradiation, 6 researches on the countermeasures to cancer, 19 researches on agriculture, forestry and fishery, 30 researches on medicine, pharmaceuticals and environmental hygiene, 6 researches on mining and industry, 6 researches on power reactors and nuclear ships, 1 research on agricultural water, 7 researches on activation analysis and 4 researches on injury prevention are reported. (Kako, I.)

  15. Report of test and research results on atomic energy obtained in national institutes in fiscal 1987

    The test and research regarding the utilization of atomic energy carried out in national institutions have produced many valuable results in diverse fields so far, such as nuclear fusion, safety research, food irradiation and medicine, since the budget had been appropriated for the first time in 1956. It has accomplished large role in the promotion of atomic energy utilization in Japan. This report is volume 28, in which the results of the test and research on atomic energy utilization carried out by national institutions in fiscal year 1987 are summarized. It is hoped that the understanding about the recent trend and the results of the test and research on atomic energy utilization is further promoted by this report. The contents of this report are nuclear fusion; the research on engineering safety and environmental radioactivity safety; food irradiation; the countermeasures against cancer; fertilized soil, the improvement of quality, the protection of plants and the improvement of breeding in agriculture and fishery fields; diagnosis and medical treatment, pharmaceuticals, environmental hygiene and the application to physiology and pathology in medical field; radiation measurement and process analysis in mining and industry fields; nuclear reactor materials and nuclear-powered ships; civil engineering; radioactivation analysis; the research on the prevention of injuries; and the basic researches on materials and acessment and reduction of irradiation risk. (J.P.N.)

  16. Report of test and research results on atomic energy obtained in national institutes in fiscal 1982

    As for the test and research on the utilization of atomic energy by national organizations, the budget was appropriated for the first time in fiscal year 1956. Since then, many valuable results of research have been produced in the diverse fields of nuclear fusion, safety research, food irradiation, medicine and others, in this way, the test and research have played large roles in the promotion of the utilization of atomic energy in Japan. This is the 23rd report, in which the results of the test and research on the utilization of atomic energy carried out in fiscal year 1982 by national organizations are summarized. 5 researches on nuclear fusion, 12 researches on engineering safety, 5 researches on environmental radioactivity safety, 3 researches on food irradiation, 5 researches on the countermeasures to cancer, 8 researches on soil fertilization, 4 researches on quality improvement, 7 researches on crop protection, 5 researches on the improvement of breeding, 8 researches on diagnosis and treatment, 8 researches on pharmaceuticals, 10 researches on the application to pathology, 6 researches on mining and industry, 6 researches on power reactors and nuclear ships, 1 research on underground water, 6 researches on activation analysis and 3 researches on injury prevention are reported. (Kako, I.)

  17. Design parameters of Portuguese granitic residual soils obtained from DMT tests

    Nuno Cruz; Carlos Rodrigues; António Viana da Fonseca

    2012-01-01

    : Cemented soils are often seen as non-textbook materials, since they donŽt fit into the usual behavior of transportedsoils in the light of classical Soil Mechanics theories. This fact creates several problems on the interpretation of in-situtest results, when the classical approaches are used, limiting the application of common in-situ tests. Departing from a longexperience in characterizing Portuguese granitic soils with Marchetti¿s Dilatometer (DMT) a large calibration box (CemSoilBox) was...

  18. Study on prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP) immunoradiometric assay kit

    This coat-antibody-count PAP IRMA is a solid-phase immunoradiometric assay based on two strains of monoclonal antibodies, designed for the quantitative measurement of prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP) in serum. The minimal detectable concentration is 0.1 μg/L. The intra and inter coefficients of variation are 8.8%-9.6% and 7.7%-12.3%, respectively. The recovery is 96.3%-105.0% and the range of detection is 2.5-200.0 μg/L

  19. Pneumocephalus with BiPAP use after transsphenoidal surgery.

    Kopelovich, Jonathan C; de la Garza, Gabriel O; Greenlee, Jeremy D W; Graham, Scott M; Udeh, Chiedozie I; O'Brien, Erin K

    2012-08-01

    While the benefits of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) or bilevel positive airway pressure (BiPAP) for patients with obstructive sleep apnea are well described, reports in the literature of complications from its use are rare. A patient who received postoperative BiPAP after undergoing transsphenoidal craniopharyngioma resection developed severe pneumocephalus and unplanned intensive care unit admission. Although the pneumocephalus resolved with conservative management over two weeks, we propose caution in the use of CPAP postoperatively in patients undergoing procedures of the head and neck. PMID:22626688

  20. Report of test and research results on atomic energy obtained in national institutes in fiscal 1992

    The tests and researches on the development and utilization of atomic energy in national laboratories were begun in 1956, and have accomplished the great role for the advance of the development and utilization of atomic energy in Japan by having produced many valuable results so far. Atomic energy has been utilized not only in the field of nuclear power but also in diverse fields, and in national laboratories, the research for expanding the development and utilization of atomic energy in medicine, agriculture, forestry, fishery, radioactivation analysis and others in addition the basic research on nuclear fusion have been advanced. Further expecting the pervasive effect to general science and technology, the development of integrated research are promoted from the viewpoint of new technical innovation and creative technology. The safety research of nuclear facilities have been carried out to keep them high level on the basis of the yearly program enacted by Nuclear Safety Commission. This is the report No. 33, in which the results of the test and research in the fields of nuclear fusion safety research, food irradiation, cancer countermeasures, agriculture, forestry, fishery, medicine, mining and manufacture, power utilization, construction, radioactivation analysis carried on in fiscal 1992 are summarized. (J.P.N.)

  1. Tensile-shear correlations obtained from shear punch test technique using a modified experimental approach

    Karthik, V.; Visweswaran, P.; Vijayraghavan, A.; Kasiviswanathan, K. V.; Raj, Baldev

    2009-09-01

    Shear punch testing has been a very useful technique for evaluating mechanical properties of irradiated alloys using a very small volume of material. The load-displacement data is influenced by the compliance of the fixture components. This paper describes a modified experimental approach where the compliances of the punch and die components are eliminated. The analysis of the load-displacement data using the modified setup for various alloys like low carbon steel, SS316, modified 9Cr-1Mo, 2.25Cr-1Mo indicate that the shear yield strength evaluated at 0.2% offset of normalized displacement relates to the tensile YS as per the Von Mises yield relation ( σys = 1.73 τys). A universal correlation of type UTS = mτmax where m is a function of strain hardening exponent, is seen to be obeyed for all the materials in this study. The use of analytical models developed for blanking process are explored for evaluating strain hardening exponent from the load-displacement data. This study is directed towards rationalizing the tensile-shear empirical correlations for a more reliable prediction of tensile properties from shear punch tests.

  2. Simulation of spectroscopic patterns obtained in W/C test-limiter sputtering experiment at TEXTOR

    On the TEXTOR tokamak various experiments aimed at investigation of tungsten erosion and transport are performed. In one experiment a spherical W/C twin limiter positioned close to the last-closed flux surface in the near scrape-off layer was exposed to a number of comparable plasma discharges with stepwise variations of edge plasma parameters. Spatial distribution of tungsten and carbon light emission was recorded with two dimensional CCD cameras and spectrometer systems with high spectral and spatial resolution. Penetration depths, tungsten sputtering fluxes and erosion yields were measured. Comparison between experimental data and the results of modelling with the 3D Monte-Carlo code ERO is performed. The main objective of this study was to test the adequacy of the existing atomic data for neutral tungsten. The modelled penetration depths of the light emission of tungsten are a factor of 2–3 smaller than in experiment, which may indicate the overestimation of ionization rates

  3. Complementary testing techniques applied to obtain the freeze-thaw resistance of concrete

    Romero, H. L.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Most of the standards that evaluate the resistance of concrete against freeze-thaw cycles (FTC are based on the loss of weight due to scaling. Such procedures are useful but do not provide information about the microstructural deterioration of the concrete. The test procedure needs to be stopped after several FTCs for weighing the loss of material by scaling. This paper proposes the use of mercury-intrusion-porosimetry and thermogravimetric analysis for assessing the microstructural damage of concrete during FTCs. Continuous strain measurement can be performed without stopping the FTCs. The combination of the above techniques with the freeze-thaw resistance standards provides better and more precise information about concrete damage. The proposed procedure is applied to an ordinary concrete, a concrete with silica fume addition and one with an air-entraining agent. The test results showed that the three techniques used are suitable and useful to be employed as complementary to the standards.Las normas para evaluar la resistencia del hormigón a los ciclos hielo-deshielo (CHD se basan habitualmente en la pérdida de peso por descascarillamiento. Son útiles, pero no proporcionan información sobre el deterioro microestructural del hormigón. Además, exigen detener el ensayo para pesar el material desprendido. Se propone el uso complementario de la porosimetría por intrusión de mercurio y el análisis termogravimétrico para evaluar el daño microestructural del hormigón durante los CHDs. La medida continua de las deformaciones puede hacerse sin detener los CHDs. La combinación de las técnicas enumeradas con las normas de ensayo proporciona información más completa sobre el daño del hormigón. El procedimiento propuesto se aplica a un hormigón convencional, a un hormigón con adición de humo de sílice y a otro con aireante. Los resultados de los ensayos mostraron que las tres técnicas usadas son útiles y adecuadas como complemento a

  4. Continuous stress-induced dopamine dysregulation augments PAP-I and PAP-II expression in melanotrophs of the pituitary gland

    Research highlights: → We focused on the rat pituitary intermediate lobe (IL) under continuous stress (CS). → CS induced PAP-I and PAP-II expression in melanotrophs of the IL. → This gene induction was triggered by CS-related dopamine dysregulation. → PAP-I and PAP-II may sustain homeostasis of the IL under CS. -- Abstract: Under continuous stress (CS) in rats, melanotrophs, the predominant cell-type in the intermediate lobe (IL) of the pituitary, are hyperactivated to secrete α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone and thereafter degenerate. Although these phenomena are drastic, the molecular mechanisms underlying the cellular changes are mostly unknown. In this study, we focused on the pancreatitis-associated protein (PAP) family members of the secretory lectins and characterized their expression in the IL of CS model rats because we had identified two members of this family as up-regulated genes in our previous microarray analysis. RT-PCR and histological studies demonstrated that prominent PAP-I and PAP-II expression was induced in melanotrophs in the early stages of CS, while another family member, PAP-III, was not expressed. We further examined the regulatory mechanisms of PAP-I and PAP-II expression and revealed that both were induced by the decreased dopamine levels in the IL under CS. Because the PAP family members are implicated in cell survival and proliferation, PAP-I and PAP-II secreted from melanotrophs may function to sustain homeostasis of the IL under CS conditions in an autocrine or a paracrine manner.

  5. Continuous stress-induced dopamine dysregulation augments PAP-I and PAP-II expression in melanotrophs of the pituitary gland

    Konishi, Hiroyuki, E-mail: konishi@med.osaka-cu.ac.jp [Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka (Japan); The 21st Century COE Program ' Base to Overcome Fatigue' , Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka (Japan); Department of Anatomy and Neuroscience, Nagoya University, Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya (Japan); Ogawa, Tokiko, E-mail: togawa@med.osaka-cu.ac.jp [Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka (Japan); The 21st Century COE Program ' Base to Overcome Fatigue' , Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka (Japan); Kawahara, Shinichi, E-mail: kawahara@med.osaka-cu.ac.jp [Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka (Japan); Matsumoto, Sakiko, E-mail: s-matsumoto@med.osaka-cu.ac.jp [Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka (Japan); Department of Anatomy and Neuroscience, Nagoya University, Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya (Japan); Kiyama, Hiroshi, E-mail: kiyama@med.osaka-cu.ac.jp [Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka (Japan); The 21st Century COE Program ' Base to Overcome Fatigue' , Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka (Japan); Department of Anatomy and Neuroscience, Nagoya University, Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya (Japan)

    2011-04-01

    Research highlights: {yields} We focused on the rat pituitary intermediate lobe (IL) under continuous stress (CS). {yields} CS induced PAP-I and PAP-II expression in melanotrophs of the IL. {yields} This gene induction was triggered by CS-related dopamine dysregulation. {yields} PAP-I and PAP-II may sustain homeostasis of the IL under CS. -- Abstract: Under continuous stress (CS) in rats, melanotrophs, the predominant cell-type in the intermediate lobe (IL) of the pituitary, are hyperactivated to secrete {alpha}-melanocyte-stimulating hormone and thereafter degenerate. Although these phenomena are drastic, the molecular mechanisms underlying the cellular changes are mostly unknown. In this study, we focused on the pancreatitis-associated protein (PAP) family members of the secretory lectins and characterized their expression in the IL of CS model rats because we had identified two members of this family as up-regulated genes in our previous microarray analysis. RT-PCR and histological studies demonstrated that prominent PAP-I and PAP-II expression was induced in melanotrophs in the early stages of CS, while another family member, PAP-III, was not expressed. We further examined the regulatory mechanisms of PAP-I and PAP-II expression and revealed that both were induced by the decreased dopamine levels in the IL under CS. Because the PAP family members are implicated in cell survival and proliferation, PAP-I and PAP-II secreted from melanotrophs may function to sustain homeostasis of the IL under CS conditions in an autocrine or a paracrine manner.

  6. Selective indication for positive airway pressure (PAP) in sleep-related breathing disorders with obstruction

    Stasche, Norbert

    2006-01-01

    Positive airway pressure (PAP) is the therapy of choice for most sleep-related breathing disorders (SRBD). A variety of PAP devices using positive airway pressure (CPAP, BiPAP, APAP, ASV) must be carefully considered before application. This overview aims to provide criteria for choosing the optimal PAP device according to severity and type of sleep-related breathing disorder. In addition, the range of therapeutic applications, constraints and side effects as well as alternative methods to PA...

  7. The Popular Passion for Pap (Views and Reviews).

    Otto, Wayne

    1991-01-01

    Muses over how many books bought are actually read. Reflects on factors involved in the decision not merely to buy books but to read them. Notes that some people maintain that most of what is actually read is pap. Wonders whether reading teachers should pay more attention to what people read, as well as how people read. (SR)

  8. Fødevareemballager af trykt papir og pap

    Petersen, Jens Højslev; Jensen, Lisbeth Krüger; Jespersen, Henrik T.;

    Der er i dette projekt udviklet et analysekoncept der kan anvendes som et led i trykkeriernes vurdering af om fødevareemballager af trykt pap og papir lever op til lovgivningens krav. Der er arbejdet med vurderinger baseret på såvel ”worst-case” ekstraktion af de trykte materialer som på migratio......Der er i dette projekt udviklet et analysekoncept der kan anvendes som et led i trykkeriernes vurdering af om fødevareemballager af trykt pap og papir lever op til lovgivningens krav. Der er arbejdet med vurderinger baseret på såvel ”worst-case” ekstraktion af de trykte materialer som på...... ukendte stoffer ligger desværre en del højere. På baggrund af flere fødevareskandaler de senere år, stilles der fra forbrugere, fødevareproducenter og myndighederne stadig større krav til trykkerier af emballager af pap og papir om at levere produkter af høj og dokumenteret kvalitet. I rapporten gennemgås...... organiseres. Ved fremstillingen af en tryksag indgår mange processer, materialer og kemikalier. Det er derfor fundet nødvendigt at give en oversigt over de forskellige trykteknikker som er relevante for pap og papir ligesom råvarerne, fra forskellige papkvaliteter over trykfarverne til det fugtevand som...

  9. Pap-smear Benchmark Data For Pattern Classification

    Jantzen, Jan; Norup, Jonas; Dounias, Georgios;

    2005-01-01

    This case study provides data and a baseline for comparing classification methods. The data consists of 917 images of Pap-smear cells, classified carefully by cyto-technicians and doctors. Each cell is described by 20 numerical features, and the cells fall into 7 classes. A basic data analysis...

  10. Missed Opportunities for Health Education on Pap Smears in Peru

    Bayer, Angela M.; Nussbaum, Lauren; Cabrera, Lilia; Paz-Soldan, Valerie A.

    2011-01-01

    Despite cervical cancer being one of the leading causes of cancer-related deaths among women in Peru, cervical Pap smear coverage is low. This article uses findings from 185 direct clinician observations in four cities of Peru (representing the capital and each of the three main geographic regions of the country) to assess missed opportunities for…

  11. Cytological patterns of cervical pap smears with histopathological correlation

    Bhagya Lakshmi Atla

    2015-08-01

    Conclusion: Pap smear is simple, inexpensive and can be performed in the outpatient department. Hence, it should be recommended routinely as a method of improving reproductive health, early detection of premalignant and malignant cervical lesions. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(8.000: 1911-1916

  12. HPV Test

    ... type of HPV infection may benefit from the protection against other types included in the vaccine. ^ Back ... infection. These include having many children, long-term oral contraceptive ... having multiple sex partners, infrequent Pap tests , smoking, a history of ...

  13. Intention to Obtain Genetic Testing for Melanoma among Individuals at Low to Moderate Risk for Hereditary Melanoma

    Vadaparampil, Susan T.; Azzarello, Lora; Pickard, Jennifer; Jacobsen, Paul B.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Melanoma is a serious skin cancer that has been on the rise in the United States. Some genetic component is apparent. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to identify demographic, clinical, attitudinal, and health belief factors associated with intention to obtain genetic testing for hereditary melanoma among unaffected first-degree…

  14. Cytologic follow up of Low-grade Squamous Intraepithelial Lesions in Pap smears after integrated treatment with antimicrobials followed by oral turmeric oil extract.

    Joshi, Jayashree Vinay; Jagtap, Sujata S; Paradkar, Prajakta Hemant; Walwatkar, Priya; Paradkar, Hemant S; Affandi, Zubair M; Vaidya, Ashok D B

    2016-01-01

    Cervical cancer is preventable because the carcinogenesis is slow and there are opportunities to detect precancerous lesions by Papanicolaou (Pap) smears, colposcopy, or HPV DNA tests and to treat them by antimicrobials, surgery or cold CO2 vapourization. We have earlier reported on the chemopreventive potential of integrated treatment with antimicrobials therapy followed by a standardized oral Turmeric Oil (TO) extract upto 12 weeks in women who had persistent Low-grade Squamous Intra-epithelial Lesion (LSIL) in their Pap smears. In this communication we report their post-therapy follow up for 36 months (N = 18) with Pap smears. We were also able to follow up for 36 months control cases (N = 10) who had only standard therapy with antimicrobials. During 36 months of follow up none of the cases with integrated treatment, progressed to HSIL or cancer. Out of 15/18 cases which had a regression of Pap smear, all 15 remained free of LSIL from 6 to 36 months post-therapy showing persistent therapeutic effect of integrated therapy. In one case there was recurrence of LSIL in Pap smear, ten months post-therapy, which regressed to mild atypia after a second course of oral TO for 8 weeks. In the control group, persistence of LSIL after antimicrobials was observed in Pap smears in 5/10 cases when followed up by Pap smears up to 36 months. This preliminary report indicates some post-therapeutic benefit with integrative treatment as compared to the use of antimicrobials alone. A large scale controlled study is warranted. PMID:27475746

  15. CT attenuation of paired HRCT scans obtained at full inspiratory/expiratory position: comparison with pulmonary function tests

    The purpose of this prospective study was to measure lung attenuation at paired HRCT obtained at full inspiratory/expiratory position, to correlate with pulmonary function tests (PFTs) and to characterize different types of ventilatory impairment. One hundred fifty-five patients with and without pulmonary disease underwent paired HRCT obtained at full inspiratory/expiratory position. Three scan pairs were evaluated by densito- and planimetry using dedicated software. The PFTs were available for correlation in all patients (mean interval 5 days). Mean lung density (MLD) at full inspiration was -813 HU, and MLD at full expiration was -736 HU; both, as well as the expiratory attenuation increase, demonstrated significant correlations with static and dynamic lung volumes: up to r=0.68, p2 at inspiration, 190 cm2 at expiration), up to r=0.74 for the lung area in expiration and the intrathoracic gas volume. Inspiratory MLD and the expiratory attenuation increase were able to differentiate obstructive and restrictive ventilatory impairment from normal subjects, the best results were obtained from scans obtained at full expiratory position (p<0.05). In conclusion, scans obtained at full expiratory position reveal more functional information than scans obtained at full inspiratory position. Quantitative analysis of CT obtained at full expiratory position provides good estimations of static and dynamic lung volumes as well as significant differences between normal subjects and patients with ventilatory impairment. (orig.)

  16. CKI isoforms α and ε regulate Star–PAP target messages by controlling Star–PAP poly(A) polymerase activity and phosphoinositide stimulation

    Laishram, Rakesh S.; Barlow, Christy A.; Richard A. Anderson

    2011-01-01

    Star–PAP is a non-canonical, nuclear poly(A) polymerase (PAP) that is regulated by the lipid signaling molecule phosphatidylinositol 4,5 bisphosphate (PI4,5P2), and is required for the expression of a select set of mRNAs. It was previously reported that a PI4,5P2 sensitive CKI isoform, CKIα associates with and phosphorylates Star–PAP in its catalytic domain. Here, we show that the oxidative stress-induced by tBHQ treatment stimulates the CKI mediated phosphorylation of Star–PAP, which is crit...

  17. Outer-membrane PapC molecular usher discriminately recognizes periplasmic chaperone-pilus subunit complexes.

    Dodson, K W; Jacob-Dubuisson, F; Striker, R T; Hultgren, S. J.

    1993-01-01

    P pili are highly ordered composite structures consisting of thin fibrillar tips joined end-to-end to rigid helical rods. The production of these virulence-associated structures requires a periplasmic chaperone (PapD) and an outer membrane protein (PapC) that is the prototype member of a newly recognized class of proteins that we have named "molecular ushers." Two in vitro assays showed that the preassembly complexes that PapD forms with the three most distal tip fibrillar proteins (PapG, Pap...

  18. Liquid-based cytology versus conventional cytology for evaluation of cervical Pap smears: Experience from the first 1000 split samples

    Vikrant Bhar Singh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Context and Aim: Screening programs using conventional cytology conventional Pap smear (CPS have successfully reduced cervical cancer, but newer tests like liquid-based cytology (LBC and human papillomavirus testing might enhance screening. The main aim of the present study was to assess the diagnostic accuracy of LBC versus CPS using "split samples." Materials and Methods: This was a prospective study comprising of 1000 consecutive cervical "split samples" over a period of 1 year. Split sample was obtained using cervex-brush. CPS was prepared from the brush and the brush head was suspended in the LBC vial and processed by SurePath™ LBC. Results: There were 4.3% unsatisfactory (U/S cases in CPS and 1.7% in LBC; the main cause is insufficient cells, and excess of blood in CPS. About 25/100 (2.5% split samples had epithelial abnormalities both in CPS and LBC (1.2%-atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance; 0.4%-low grade squamous intraepithelial lesion; 0.2%-high grade squamous intraepithelial lesion; 0.5%-squamous cell carcinoma; 0.1%-atypical glandular cells favouring neoplasia; 0.2%-adenocarcinoma. Inflammatory organisms were almost equally identified in both techniques but were better seen in LBC samples. Conclusions: LBC technique leads to significant reduction of U/S rate. LBC samples offered better clarity, uniform spread of smears, less time for screening and better handling of hemorrhagic and inflammatory samples. LBC had equivalent sensitivity and specificity to CPS.

  19. Comparative genetic analysis of Arabidopsis purple acid phosphatases AtPAP10, AtPAP12, and AtPAP26 provides new insights into their roles in plant adaptation to phosphate deprivation

    Liangsheng Wang; Shan Lu; Ye Zhang; Zheng Li; Xiaoqiu Du; Dong Liu

    2014-01-01

    Induction and secretion of acid phosphatases (APases) is thought to be an adaptive mechanism that helps plants survive and grow under phosphate (Pi) deprivation. In Arabidopsis, there are 29 purple acid phosphatase (AtPAP) genes. To systematical y investigate the roles of different AtPAPs, we first identified knockout or knock-down T-DNA lines for al 29 AtPAP genes. Using these atpap mutants combined with in-gel and quantitative APase enzyme assays, we demonstrated that AtPAP12 and AtPAP26 are two major intracellular and secreted APases in Arabidopsis while AtPAP10 is mainly a secreted APase. On Pi-deficient (P-) medium or P-medium supplemented with the organophosphates ADP and fructose-6-phosphate (Fru-6-P), growth of atpap10 was significantly reduced whereas growth of atpap12 was only moderately reduced, and growth of atpap26 was nearly equal to that of the wild type (WT). Overexpression of the AtPAP12 or AtPAP26 gene, however, caused plants to grow better on P-or P- medium supplemented with ADP or Fru-6-P. Interest-ingly, Pi levels are essential y the same for the WT and overexpressing lines, although these two types of plants have significantly different growth phenotypes. These results suggest that the APases may have other roles besides enhancing internal Pi recycling or releasing Pi from external organophosphates for plant uptake.

  20. Viscoplastic-dynamic analyses of small-scale fracture tests to obtain crack arrest toughness values for PTS conditions

    Reliable predictions of crack arrest at the high upper shelf toughness conditions involved in postulated pressurized thermal shock (PTS) events require procedures beyond those utilized in conventional fracture mechanics treatments. To develop such a procedure, viscoplastic-dynamic fracture mechanics finite element analyses, viscoplastic material characterization testing, and small-scale crack propagation and arrest experimentation are being combines in this research. The approach couples SwRI's viscoplastic-dynamic fracture mechanics finite element code VISCRK with experiments using duplex 4340/A533B steel compact specimens. The experiments are simulated by VISCRK computations employing the Bodner-Partom viscoplastic constitutive relation and the nonlinear fracture mechanics parameter T. The goal is to develop temperature-dependent crack arrest toughness values for A533B steel. While only room temperature KIa values have been obtained so far, these have been found to agree closely with those obtained from wide plate tests. (author)

  1. Bacterial vaginosis, aerobic vaginitis, vaginal inflammation and major Pap smear abnormalities.

    Vieira-Baptista, P; Lima-Silva, J; Pinto, C; Saldanha, C; Beires, J; Martinez-de-Oliveira, J; Donders, G

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the impact of the vaginal milieu on the presence of abnormal Pap smears and a positive human papilloma virus (HPV) test. A cross-sectional study was conducted between June 2014 and May 2015, evaluating the vaginal discharge by fresh wet mount microscopy and comparing these data with Pap smear findings. Wet mount slides were scored for bacterial vaginosis (BV), aerobic vaginitis (AV), presence of Candida and Trichomonas vaginalis. Cytologic evaluation was done on all Pap smears according to the Bethesda criteria. The cobas© HPV Test (Roche) was performed for HPV detection. A total of 622 cases were evaluated. The mean age of the patients was 41.6 ± 10.65 years (range 21-75). Eighty-three women (13.3 %) had a cytology result worse than low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL). When comparing this group with the one with normal or minor [atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US) or LSIL] Pap smear abnormalities, there were no differences in the presence of Candida (32.5 % vs. 33.2 %, p = 1.0), absence of lactobacilli (38.6 % vs. 32.5 %, p = 0.32) or BV (20.5 % vs. 13.2 %, p = 0.09). On the other hand, moderate or severe inflammation (msI) (41.0 % vs. 28.8 %, p = 0,04), moderate or severe AV (msAV) (16.9 % vs. 7.2 %, p = 0.009) and msAV/BV (37.3 % vs. 20.0 %, p = 0.001) were more common in women with such major cervical abnormalities. No significant association was found between deviations of the vaginal milieu and high-risk HPV infection. The presence of msI or msAV, but not BV, is independently associated with an increased risk of major cervical cytological abnormalities, but not with HPV infection. PMID:26810061

  2. RECOVERY OF p-AMINOPHENOL (PAP) FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTION BY HYPER-CROSS-LINKED RESIN AND ITS USE FOR WASTEWATER TREATMENT

    ZHANG Haiyun; LI Aimin

    2008-01-01

    p-Aminophenol (PAP), a typical amphoteric compound, has been widely used as raw chemical material and important intermediate in various fields.To study on the recovery of PAP, an experimental comparison of the adsorption and desorption properties of PAP onto three types of hyper-cross-linked resins in aqueous solutions was performed.This paper focuses on the static equilibrium adsorption and desorption behaviors, the adsorption thermodynamics, the column dynamic adsorption and desorption, and other influencing factors of adsorption, such as temperature and pH values.All the isothermal data fit well to the Freundlich model.The capacity of equilibrium adsorption for PAP on NG-10 is the highest within the temperature range 288K~318K, which may greatly contribute to the advantage in specific surface area, especially the micropore area, of the adsorbent.While in the desorption experiments, NG-9 achieved relative well regeneration efficiency whether by ethanol or by 4% hydrochloric acid.Furthermore, the results of column tests and field applications were also proved that NG-9 was an effective sorbent for the reclamation PAP from wastewater.

  3. Rationale and design of the iPap trial: a randomized controlled trial of home-based HPV self-sampling for improving participation in cervical screening by never- and under-screened women in Australia

    Organized screening based on Pap tests has substantially reduced deaths from cervical cancer in many countries, including Australia. However, the impact of the program depends upon the degree to which women participate. A new method of screening, testing for human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA to detect the virus that causes cervical cancer, has recently become available. Because women can collect their own samples for this test at home, it has the potential to overcome some of the barriers to Pap tests. The iPap trial will evaluate whether mailing an HPV self-sampling kit increases participation by never- and under-screened women within a cervical screening program. The iPap trial is a parallel randomized controlled, open label, trial. Participants will be Victorian women age 30–69 years, for whom there is either no record on the Victorian Cervical Cytology Registry (VCCR) of a Pap test (never-screened) or the last recorded Pap test was between five to fifteen years ago (under-screened). Enrolment information from the Victorian Electoral Commission will be linked to the VCCR to determine the never-screened women. Variables that will be used for record linkage include full name, address and date of birth. Never- and under-screened women will be randomly allocated to either receive an invitation letter with an HPV self-sampling kit or a reminder letter to attend for a Pap test, which is standard practice for women overdue for a test in Victoria. All resources have been focus group tested. The primary outcome will be the proportion of women who participate, by returning an HPV self-sampling kit for women in the self-sampling arm, and notification of a Pap test result to the Registry for women in the Pap test arm at 3 and 6 months after mailout. The most important secondary outcome is the proportion of test-positive women who undergo further investigations at 6 and 12 months after mailout of results. The iPap trial will provide strong evidence about whether HPV self

  4. Comparison of Two Methods of Fixation with Carnoy`s Solution and 96% Ethyl Alcohol in Pap Smear Slides

    KH Abdali; M Shamsi; N Riyaz Montazer; HR Tabatabaee

    2007-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Introduction & Objective: Cervical carcinoma is a significant health care problem world wide. The Papanicolaou test is the most common effective tool available for early detection of cervical cancer. Blood could have a negative influence on the quality of the pap smear. Good fixation reduces red blood cells of the back ground slides and can help to improve this technique. One of the effective solutions for hemolyzing red blood cells is using Carnoys solution. The aim of this stu...

  5. Screening of cancer cervix: Pap smear in rural India

    Parimala A; Nidhi Sharma; Jayashree K. Srinivasan

    2016-01-01

    Background: The incidence of cervical premalignant lesions in rural India is likely to be high due to presence of several risk factors like early marriage, early coitarche and multiparity. Hence prospective cross sectional study was conducted to find the incidence of pre-invasive state and cancer of cervix in women between the age group 30 and 60 years, visiting Thirumazhisai health centre by Pap's smear method. Methods: Cervical mucosa is scraped, using Ayre spatula a 360 and deg; tu...

  6. Pap smear rates among Haitian immigrant women in eastern Massachusetts.

    Green, Eric H.; Freund, Karen M; Posner, Michael A.; David, Michele M.

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Given limited prior evidence of high rates of cervical cancer in Haitian immigrant women in the U.S., this study was designed to examine self-reported Pap smear screening rates for Haitian immigrant women and compare them to rates for women of other ethnicities. METHODS: Multi-ethnic women at least 40 years of age living in neighborhoods with large Haitian immigrant populations in eastern Massachusetts were surveyed in 2000-2002. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were used ...

  7. PapA1 and PapA2 are acyltransferases essential for the biosynthesis of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis virulence factor sulfolipid-1.

    Kumar, Pawan; Schelle, Michael W; Jain, Madhulika; Lin, Fiona L; Petzold, Christopher J; Leavell, Michael D; Leary, Julie A; Cox, Jeffery S; Bertozzi, Carolyn R

    2007-07-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis produces numerous exotic lipids that have been implicated as virulence determinants. One such glycolipid, Sulfolipid-1 (SL-1), consists of a trehalose-2-sulfate (T2S) core acylated with four lipid moieties. A diacylated intermediate in SL-1 biosynthesis, SL(1278), has been shown to activate the adaptive immune response in human patients. Although several proteins involved in SL-1 biosynthesis have been identified, the enzymes that acylate the T2S core to form SL(1278) and SL-1, and the biosynthetic order of these acylation reactions, are unknown. Here we demonstrate that PapA2 and PapA1 are responsible for the sequential acylation of T2S to form SL(1278) and are essential for SL-1 biosynthesis. In vitro, recombinant PapA2 converts T2S to 2'-palmitoyl T2S, and PapA1 further elaborates this newly identified SL-1 intermediate to an analog of SL(1278). Disruption of papA2 and papA1 in M. tuberculosis confirmed their essential role in SL-1 biosynthesis and their order of action. Finally, the Delta papA2 and Delta papA1 mutants were screened for virulence defects in a mouse model of infection. The loss of SL-1 (and SL(1278)) did not appear to affect bacterial replication or trafficking, suggesting that the functions of SL-1 are specific to human infection. PMID:17592143

  8. Cardiac output obtained from test bolus injections as a factor in contrast injection rate revision of following coronary CT angiography

    Konno, Masahiko [Division of Diagnostic Image Analysis, Graduate School of Medicine, Tohoku University, Miyagi (Japan); Yamagata Prefecture Comprehensive Rehabilitation and Education Center, Yamagata (Japan)], E-mail: mkonno@med.tohoku.ac.jp; Hosokai, Yoshiyuki; Usui, Akihito; Abe, Mitsuya; Tateishi, Toshiki; Kawasumi, Yusuke; Saito, Haruo [Division of Diagnostic Image Analysis, Graduate School of Medicine, Tohoku University, Miyagi (Japan); Tsuda, Masashi; Ota, Hideki; Takase, Kei [Division of Diagnostic Radiology, Graduate School of Medicine, Tohoku University, Miyagi (Japan)

    2012-12-15

    Background.. Optimal contrast enhancement is crucial for the detection of coronary artery stenoses and atherosclerotic changes in coronary CT angiography (CTA). Purpose To demonstrate the feasibility of using the cardiac output (CO) obtained from the test bolus injection data-set (CO test) as a factor in contrast injection rate revision of the following coronary CTA. Material and Methods. The test bolus injection data-sets of 52 consecutive coronary CTAs were examined. CO test was calculated from the test bolus data-set. Aortic peak enhancement (APE) was measured on the following coronary CTA. We simulated the APE at a fixed contrast injection rate of 4 mL/s (simAPE) in each patient. Results. The ranges of COtest and simAPE were 2.82-7.56 L/min and 194-527 Hounsfield Units, respectively. There was a significant negative correlation (R = -0.802, P < 0.001) between simAPE and COtest. Conclusion. COtest can be used for injection rate revision on coronary CTA.

  9. Evidence for a methylation-blocking factor (mbf) locus involved in pap pilus expression and phase variation in Escherichia coli.

    Braaten, B A; Blyn, L B; Skinner, B. S.; Low, D A

    1991-01-01

    Transcription of the pyelonephritis-associated pilus (pap) operon of Escherichia coli is subject to regulation by a phase variation control mechanism in which the pap pilin gene alternates between transcriptionally active (phase-on) and inactive (phase-off) states. Pap phase variation appears to involve differential inhibition of deoxyadenosine methylase (Dam) methylation of two pap GATC sites, GATC1028 and GATC1130, located in the regulatory region upstream of the papBA promoter. DNA from ph...

  10. Fundamental studies of three radioimmunoassay kits measuring prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP) concentrations

    Measurement of prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP) concentration is useful for the diagnosis and treatment of prostatic cancer. Fundamental studies of measurement of PAP concentration by radioimmunoassay were performed and values determined by three commercially available kits were compared, those are, PAP EIKEN RIA Kit (E kit), RIA Quant P.A.P. (M kit) and GammaDab PAP RIA Kit (C kit). Upper limits of normal PAP concentration were 3 ng/ml by E and M kits and 2 ng/ml by C kits, respectively. The reproducibility and the recovery studies of three kits were satisfactory. However, dilution curve of some patients was not strait. PAP concentration of 27 patients measured by three kits were correlated well to each other, but the discrepancy of values was noticed in high PAP concentrations. PAP concentration measured by RIA is more reliable than that by enzyme immunoassay. When keeping serum samples, the effect of time, temperature and freeze and thawing on PAP values was obvious. It is recommended that serum is separated at 40C as soon as possible after collecting blood and kept frozen until use. (author)

  11. OTTO-PAP: An alternative option to the PBMR fuelling philosophy

    Once Through Then Out, Power Adjusted by Poison (OTTO-PAP) fuelling of a high temperature pebble-bed reactor offers a simple alternative to the MEDUL (Mehrfachdurchlauf = German for multi-pass) fuelling regime followed in pebble bed reactor designs to date. The prerequisite for a modular reactor unit of maximum power output, subject to observing passive safety characteristics is a sufficiently flat axial neutron flux profile. This is achieved by introducing B4C coated particles of pre-calculated size and packing density within the fuel spheres. In accordance with AVR operating practise the temperature profile is radially equalised by introducing a 2-zone core loading. Adding pure graphite spheres loosely into the centre column area of the core effectively reduced the maximum power in the middle. Increasing the reactor diameter is enabled by the introduction of noses. A 3-D geometric modeller developed in cylindrical co-ordinates enables a given flow description of the pebbles adjacent to the nose boundaries and in the vicinity of the shut down/control rods. After translation of the geometric data the neutronic behaviour of the reactor is followed in 3-D by the CITATION code. This study is aimed towards achieving an optimal core layout with a LEU (Low Enriched Uranium) fuel cycle. Physical properties of the OTTO-PAP, 150 MWt reference design is reported, while computations performed observe results obtained by the reference HTR-MODUL design. (author)

  12. To Test or Not to Test? The Role of Attitudes, Knowledge, and Religious Involvement among U.s. Adults on Intent-to-Obtain Adult Genetic Testing

    Botoseneanu, Anda; Alexander, Jeffrey A.; Banaszak-Holl, Jane

    2011-01-01

    Genetic testing can advance cancer prevention if current screening behaviors improve. Increased prevalence of high-risk genotypes within specific religious groups, use of religious venues for recruiting to genetic screening, and ethical-religious considerations argue for exploring the role of religiosity in forming genetic testing decisions. This…

  13. Study of 2 years follow-up of referral patients with abnormal Pap smear

    Fariba Behnamfar; Azam Zafarbakhsh; Taj-Alsadat Allameh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Abnormal Pap smear consists of premalignant or malignant cervical lesions. Many of premalignant cervical lesions will never progress to invasive malignancy, or even may regress over the time. Thus, there is always a risk of overtreatment of patients with an abnormal Pap smear. A long-term follow-up of these patients can reveal final events associated with each subtype of abnormal Pap smear, and, therefore, help us to prevent unnecessary interventions. The aim of our study was to p...

  14. HPV and HPV Testing

    ... Close + - Text Size HPV and HPV Testing Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) What are viruses? Viruses are very ... does it mean? If you have cervical human papilloma virus (HPV) infection and an abnormal Pap test ...

  15. Phosphorylation regulates the Star-PAP-PIPKIα interaction and directs specificity toward mRNA targets

    Mohan, Nimmy; AP, Sudheesh; Francis, Nimmy; Anderson, Richard; Laishram, Rakesh S.

    2015-01-01

    Star-PAP is a nuclear non-canonical poly(A) polymerase (PAP) that shows specificity toward mRNA targets. Star-PAP activity is stimulated by lipid messenger phosphatidyl inositol 4,5 bisphoshate (PI4,5P2) and is regulated by the associated Type I phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate 5-kinase that synthesizes PI4,5P2 as well as protein kinases. These associated kinases act as coactivators of Star-PAP that regulates its activity and specificity toward mRNAs, yet the mechanism of control of these int...

  16. Combined surgical treatment for severe sleep apnoea, to improve BiPAP compliance.

    Başal, Yeşim; Akyıldız, Utku Oğan; Eryilmaz, Aylin

    2015-01-01

    Positive airway pressure (PAP) devices are used in the treatment of obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS). In cases of PAP failure, many different surgical methods can be used for the treatment. The authors present an unusual case of a patient with Bi-level PAP (BiPAP)-intolerant severe OSAS who was treated with combined surgical methods. A 55-year-old man was treated with BiPAP due to OSAS; he was admitted to the clinic with nose stuffiness, respiratory distress and BiPAP adherence with tolerance and compliance problems. Septal deviation, concha hypertrophy, lateral pharyngeal band hypertrophy and Thornwaldt cyst were determined in the examination. Combined surgical methods were administered. The patient's apnoea hypopnoea index (AHI) was 72.8 in diagnostic polysomnography. Preoperative AHI was 7.3 and postoperative AHI was 2.3 while using BiPAP and, after the surgery, the BiPAP intolerance was eliminated. The authors suggest that a combination of different surgical methods would be an adjuvant treatment to increase BiPAP compliance. PMID:26546622

  17. Successful use of BiPAP in infants with congenital myotonic dystrophy.

    Chau, Shuk-Kuen; Lee, So-Lun

    2013-04-01

    Reported herein are two cases of severe phenotype of congenital myotonic dystrophy (CDM) with presentation of respiratory insufficiency at birth. The infants were successfully managed with bi-level positive airway pressure (BiPAP) via nasal mask. The use of BiPAP in infants with CDM has not been reported before. The rationale for using BiPAP is discussed. BiPAP may be more effective than continuous positive airway pressure in managing respiratory insufficiency, especially in infants with the more severe phenotype of CDM. PMID:23679166

  18. IFPE/CAGR-UOX-SWELL, Fuel swelling Data Obtained from the AGR/Halden Ramp Test Programme

    Description: An extensive study of fuel swelling in oxide fuel has been performed on fuel which has been ramp-tested in the Halden Heavy Boiling Water Reactor. The ramp-tests were performed to study the mechanisms of P CI in Advanced Gas-cooled Reactor fuel (AGR) but the initial clad deformation measurements were later supplemented by the use of Transmission Electron Microscopy (Tem) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (Sem). The driving force for P CI arises from a combination of pellet thermal expansion and the creation of fission gas porosity during a temperature/rating transient. Fuel specimens from thirteen ramped rods and two control-reference rods have been examined using Tem and Sem. Swelling measurements have been made at four or five radial locations in the fuel. At least six full grain boundaries were used for the inter-granular study at each location and three complete trans-granular fractures employed for the intra-granular bubbles. In the latter case, the trans-granular regions were examined under very high magnifications to reveal pores as small as 20-25 nm diameter. The Sem study comprises nearly three thousand micrographs. The microscope study was augmented by use of the Enigma fuel modelling code to obtain estimates of the local temperatures and conditions from which the Sem/Tem samples were obtained. Nea-1705/02: The analysis from the 4135, 4136 and 4140 data has been incorporated. Data 4000, 4004, 4064, 4065, 4162, and 4163 have been revised. Many of the tables have been improved. The main report has been extensively modified from the earlier version

  19. Conhecimento, atitude e prática do exame de Papanicolaou em mulheres com câncer de colo uterino Knowledge, attitudes, and practices related to the Pap smear among women with cervical cancer

    Sylvia Michelina Fernandes Brenna

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available O câncer de colo uterino apresenta alta mortalidade no Brasil, apesar dos programas para rastreamento. O objetivo deste estudo, de corte transversal, foi analisar conhecimento, atitude e prática do exame de Papanicolaou e entender a não adesão das mulheres a este exame. Foram entrevistadas 138 mulheres: noventa com neoplasia intra-epitelial de alto grau e 48 com câncer invasivo de colo uterino. As mulheres com câncer invasivo tiveram prática mais inadequada do exame. No entanto, independente do diagnóstico, mais de 80% delas referiram desmotivação/vergonha, 60% relataram que os médicos não examinavam e, cerca de 50% apontaram o tempo de espera para a consulta e a demora no agendamento como dificuldades para serem atendidas. Em geral, a prática do exame dependeu da iniciativa do médico e a periodicidade da coleta foi determinada pela procura de consulta devido a sintomas. As mulheres com 56 anos ou mais mostraram maior inadequação no conhecimento, na atitude e na prática. No entanto, aquelas com maior escolaridade conheciam melhor o exame. A maior idade e a menor escolaridade podem estar associados a não adesão das mulheres ao exame, porém as dificuldades sociais e econômicas para conseguir atendimento em saúde precisam ser consideradas para aumentar a prática do exame.Despite screening programs, Brazil has a high cervical cancer mortality rate. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to analyze knowledge, attitudes, and practices related to the Pap smear and to understand why women fail to submit to this screening test. A structured questionnaire was used to interview 138 women: 90 with high grade intraepithelial neoplasia and 48 with invasive cervical cancer. Inadequate practices were more frequent among women with invasive cancer. In terms of difficulties in obtaining medical care, more than 80% of women reported lack of motivation, 60% reported that physicians failed to conduct a complete physical examination

  20. Fluorescence Spectrum and Decay Measurement for Hsil VS Normal Cytology Differentiation in Liquid Pap Smear Supernatant

    Vaitkuviene, A.; Gegzna, V.; Juodkazis, S.; Jursenas, S.; Miasojedovas, S.; Kurtinaitiene, R.; Rimiene, J.; Vaitkus, J.

    2009-06-01

    Cervical smear material contains endo and exocervical cells, mucus and inflammative, immune cells in cases of pathology. Just not destroyed keratinocytes lay on the glass for microscopy. Liquid cytology supernatant apart other diagnostics could be used for photodiagnostic. The spectroscopic parameters suitable for Normal and HSIL cytology groups supernatant differentiation are demonstrated. The dried liquid PAP supernatant fractions—sediment and liquid were investigated. Excitation and emission matrices (EEM), supernatant fluorescence decay measured under 280 nm diode short pulse excitation and fluorescence spectroscopy by excitation with 355 nm laser light were analyzed. The differences between Normal and HSIL groups were statistically proven in the certain spectral regions. Fluorescence decay peculiarities show spectral regions consisting of few fluorophores. Obtained results on fluorescence differences in Normal and HSIL groups' supernatant shows the potency of photodiagnosis application in cervical screening.

  1. Perfusion from angiogram and a priori (PAP) with temporal regularization

    Taguchi, Katsuyuki; Geschwind, Jean-Francois H.

    2009-02-01

    Perfusion imaging is often used for diagnosis and for assessment of the response to the treatment. If perfusion can be measured during interventional procedures, it could lead to quantitative, more efficient and accurate treatment; however, imaging modalities that allow continuous dynamic scanning are not available in most of procedure rooms. Thus, we developed a method to measure the perfusion-time attenuation curves (TACs)-of regions-of-interest (ROIs) using xray C-arm angiography system with no gantry rotation but with a priori. The previous study revealed a problem of large oscillations in the estimated TACs and the lack of comparison with CT-based approaches. Thus the purposes of this study were (1) to reduce the variance of TDCs; and (2) to compare the performance of the improved PAP with that of the CT-based perfusion method. Our computer simulation study showed that the standard deviation of PAP method was decreased by 10.7-59.0% and that it outperformed (20× or 200× times) higher dose CT methods in terms of the accuracy, variance, and the temporal resolution.

  2. Association of Oral Contraceptives and Abnormal Pap Smear

    Sayedmohsen Sayednozadi

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available To assess the hypothesis that combined Oral Contraceptive (OCs increase the risk of cervical neoplasia, we conducted a multicenter Case-Control study in Mashhad, the capital of Khorasan province. Seventy-eight women with moderate to severe dysplasia at Pap smear as case group and one hundred fifty nine women with normal Pap smear were selected as the control group for evaluation. The both case and control groups were matched by age, parity and socioeconomic status. All of the women in this study were single partner as husband and no smoker. 30 percent of cases and 64.8 percent of controls were used OCs. The duration of OCs use was the same in both. The odds ratio for OCs consumption was 0.2 with 95% confidence interval 0.11-0.4 in Logistic regression analysis. In contrast to some other studies, our findings showed an association between OCs and cervical dysplasia and there was a protective effect of OCs for cervical dysplasia.

  3. Determining the interobserver reproducibility of Pap smears in the diagnosis of epithelial cell abnormalities

    Izadi-Mood N

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available "n 800x600 Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";} Background: Cancer of uterine cervix is the second cause of death in women in the world and the most common cause in developing countries. Because the majority of women with invasive cervical cancer of the uterine have not previously undergone screening, many clinicians assume that Pap smear has a high degree of accuracy; but problems such as false positive and false negative interpretations, as well as interobserver variability have questioned its validity."n"nMethods : We retrieved 162 positive cervical smears that had been originally interpreted as ASC-US, ASC-H, LSIL, HSIL, SCC, AGC and adenocarcinoma from the cytology archives of Women's Hospital in Tehran, Iran. The slides were rescreened by an experienced pathologist and reclassified in the mentioned categories. All the 162 slides were reviewed by three more pathologists in a blind study using interpretative criteria utilized in their daily routine to evaluate interobserver reproducibility. To increase the level of interobserver agreement, the diagnostic categories were reduced to squamous Vs. glandular abnormalities and invasive (SCC and adenocarcinoma Vs. non-invasive abnormalities."n"nResults : The results obtained in this study indicated slight interobserver agreement (k=0.26. The most reproducible category was the invasive category (SCC in addition to adenocarcinoma and the least agreement was seen for HSIL (k=0.19. "n"nConclusion: This study showed that reproducibility of cytological interpretation of conventional Pap smears

  4. Predictive permeability model of faults in crystalline rocks; verification by joint hydraulic factor (JH) obtained from water pressure tests

    Barani, Hamidreza Rostami; Lashkaripour, Gholamreza; Ghafoori, Mohammad

    2014-08-01

    In the present study, a new model is proposed to predict the permeability per fracture in the fault zones by a new parameter named joint hydraulic factor (JH). JH is obtained from Water Pressure Test (WPT) and modified by the degree of fracturing. The results of JH correspond with quantitative fault zone descriptions, qualitative fracture, and fault rock properties. In this respect, a case study was done based on the data collected from Seyahoo dam site located in the east of Iran to provide the permeability prediction model of fault zone structures. Datasets including scan-lines, drill cores, and water pressure tests in the terrain of Andesite and Basalt rocks were used to analyse the variability of in-site relative permeability of a range from fault zones to host rocks. The rock mass joint permeability quality, therefore, is defined by the JH. JH data analysis showed that the background sub-zone had commonly fracture, whereas the fault core had permeability characteristics nearly as low as the outer damage zone, represented by 8 Lu (1.3 ×10-4 m 3/s) per fracture, with occasional peaks towards 12 Lu (2 ×10-4 m 3/s) per fracture. The maximum JH value belongs to the inner damage zone, marginal to the fault core, with 14-22 Lu (2.3 ×10-4-3.6 ×10-4 m 3/s) per fracture, locally exceeding 25 Lu (4.1 ×10-4 m 3/s) per fracture. This gives a proportional relationship for JH approximately 1:4:2 between the fault core, inner damage zone, and outer damage zone of extensional fault zones in crystalline rocks. The results of the verification exercise revealed that the new approach would be efficient and that the JH parameter is a reliable scale for the fracture permeability change. It can be concluded that using short duration hydraulic tests (WPTs) and fracture frequency (FF) to calculate the JH parameter provides a possibility to describe a complex situation and compare, discuss, and weigh the hydraulic quality to make predictions as to the permeability models and

  5. Predictive permeability model of faults in crystalline rocks; verification by joint hydraulic factor (JH) obtained from water pressure tests

    Hamidreza Rostami Barani; Gholamreza Lashkaripour; Mohammad Ghafoori

    2014-08-01

    In the present study, a new model is proposed to predict the permeability per fracture in the fault zones by a new parameter named joint hydraulic factor (JH). JH is obtained from Water Pressure Test WPT) and modified by the degree of fracturing. The results of JH correspond with quantitative fault zone descriptions, qualitative fracture, and fault rock properties. In this respect, a case study was done based on the data collected from Seyahoo dam site located in the east of Iran to provide the permeability prediction model of fault zone structures. Datasets including scan-lines, drill cores, and water pressure tests in the terrain of Andesite and Basalt rocks were used to analyse the variability of in-site relative permeability of a range from fault zones to host rocks. The rock mass joint permeability quality, therefore, is defined by the JH. JH data analysis showed that the background sub-zone had commonly > 3 Lu (less of 5 × 10−5 m3/s) per fracture, whereas the fault core had permeability characteristics nearly as low as the outer damage zone, represented by 8 Lu (1.3 × 10−4 m3/s) per fracture, with occasional peaks towards 12 Lu (2 × 10−4 m3/s) per fracture. The maximum JH value belongs to the inner damage zone, marginal to the fault core, with 14–22 Lu (2.3 × 10−4 –3.6 × 10−4 m3/s) per fracture, locally exceeding 25 Lu (4.1 × 10−4 m3/s) per fracture. This gives a proportional relationship for JH approximately 1:4:2 between the fault core, inner damage zone, and outer damage zone of extensional fault zones in crystalline rocks. The results of the verification exercise revealed that the new approach would be efficient and that the JH parameter is a reliable scale for the fracture permeability change. It can be concluded that using short duration hydraulic tests (WPTs) and fracture frequency (FF) to calculate the JH parameter provides a possibility to describe a complex situation and compare, discuss, and weigh the hydraulic quality to make

  6. Adolescents with Obstructive Sleep Apnea Adhere Poorly to Positive Airway Pressure (PAP), but PAP Users Show Improved Attention and School Performance

    Beebe, Dean W; Byars, Kelly C.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) is associated with medical and neurobehavioral morbidity across the lifespan. Positive airway pressure (PAP) treatment has demonstrated efficacy in treating OSA and has been shown to improve daytime functioning in adults, but treatment adherence can be problematic. There are nearly no published studies examining functional outcomes such as academic functioning in adolescents treated with PAP. This study was conducted as an initial step towards determi...

  7. Cytological features of choricarcinoma in a Pap smear: A case report and literature review.

    Chen, Xiaowei; Wright, Jason D; Abellar, Rosanna G; Koehne de Gonzalez, Anne; Collins, Nikosa; Wright, Thomas C; Hamele-Bena, Diane

    2016-04-01

    Choriocarcinoma is an aggressive malignant trophoblastic tumor that mostly occurs during reproductive years. Cytological features of choriocarcinoma in gynecologic Pap smears have not been described. Herein, we report a case of choriocarcinoma in a Pap smear of a patient who had a history of choriocarcinoma with metastatic disease. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2016;44:324-328. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26712464

  8. Roles of phagocytosis activating protein (PAP) in Aeromonas hydrophila infected Cyprinus carpio.

    Wonglapsuwan, Monwadee; Kongmee, Pataraporn; Suanyuk, Naraid; Chotigeat, Wilaiwan

    2016-06-01

    Cyprinus carpio (koi) is one of the most popular ornamental fish. A major problem for C. carpio farming is bacterial infections especially by Aeromonas hydrophila. Previously studies had shown that the Phagocytosis Activating Protein (PAP) gene was involved in the innate immune response of animals. Therefore, we attempted to identify a role for the PAP gene in the immunology of C. carpio. The expression of the PAP was found in C. carpio whole blood and increased when the fish were stimulated by inactivated A. hydrophila. In addition, PAP-phMGFP DNA was injected as an immunostimulant. The survival rate and the phagocytic index were significantly increased in the A. hydrophila infected fish that received the PAP-phMGFP DNA immunostimulant. A chitosan-PAP-phMGFP nanoparticle was then developed and feeded into fish which infected with A. hydrophila. These fish had a significantly lower mortality rate than the control. Therefore, this research confirmed a key role for PAP in protection fish from bacterial infection and the chitosan-PAP-phMGFP nanoparticle could be a good prototype for fish immunostimulant in the future. PMID:26748248

  9. Bone scintigraphy, plasma ALP, TAP and PAP in patients with prostatic cancer

    This study assessed the ability of bone scintigraphy, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), total acid phosphatase (TAP), and prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP) to diagnose bone metastasis in a series of 62 patients with histologically proven prostatic cancer. Abnormal uptake was seen on the bone scan in 49 patients (79 %). A final diagnosis of bone metastasis was made in 40 patients (65 %). The sensitivity and specificity were 100 % and 59 %, respectively, for bone scintigraphy; 50 % and 96 % for ALP; 65 % and 82 % for TAP; and 73 % and 77 % for PAP. For 40 patients with bone metastasis, all of the ALP, TAP, and PAP were positive in 17 patients (43 %) and negative in 8 patients (20 %). Higher levels of ALP, TAP, and PAP tended to be associated with more extensive bone metastasis. Although serological examination showed lower sensitivity than bone scintigraphy in the diagnosis of bone metastasis, PAP may be most frequently used as a screening procedure of bone metastasis. (Namekawa, K.)

  10. Relation between serum PAP (prostate acid phosphatase) and bone scintigraphy in prostatic cancer

    Seventy-seven patients with prostatic cancer were treated at our department in the last 5 years. Of these patients 30 cases were followed by bone scintigraphy and serum PAP. In 27 follow-up scintigraphy procedures changes of bone scintigraphy corresponded to changes in serum PAP levels. Changes of PAP levels did not always correspond to changes of scintigraphy, but almost all cases in which the level of PAP increased in a short period showed progression of bone metastasis. A 3-month interval between bone scintigraphy procedure in stage D2 prostatic cancer patients is generally recommended. However, we think that in prostatic cancer patients follow-up bone scintigraphy at regular short intervals is unnecessary if there is no change in serum PAP levels, symptoms or physical condition. Bone scintigraphy should be performed when the tumor marker changes rapidly or when any physical symptom appears. (author)

  11. First experiences with commercial RIA kits for prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP)

    Five commercial PAP RIA kits were intercompared by common RIA quality control criteria. All RIAs performed basically well although some differences existed in respect to concentration range, specific and non-specific binding, 50%-intercept, sensitivity and measurements of serum PAP in male and female controls. The latter finding may have been due to differences in antigen purity, antiserum specificity and composition of the assay medium employed. Good correlation was found between PAP determination by RIA and by enzyme assay. First measurements of PAP in patients treated for prostatic carcinoma being performed for orientation purposes are demonstrated. The PAP RIA has been introduced into our routine diagnostic and follow-up of prostatic carcinoma. (orig.)

  12. Factors related to the practice of breast self examination (BSE and Pap smear screening among Malaysian women workers in selected electronics factories

    Shamsuddin K

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Malaysian Ministry of Health promotes breast self-examination (BSE for all women, and Pap smear screening every three years for all sexually active women ages 20 years and above. The objectives of this paper were to examine the practice of these two screening tests among women production workers in electronics factories, and to identify factors related to practice. Methods This was a cross-sectional survey of women production workers from ten electronics factories. Data was collected by a self-administered questionnaire from a total of 1,720 women. The chi-square test, odds ratio and binomial logistic regression were used in bivariate and multivariate analysis. Results Prevalence rates were 24.4% for BSE once a month, and 18.4% for Pap smear examination within the last three years. Women who were significantly more likely to perform BSE every month were 30 years and older, Malays, with upper secondary education and above, answered the BSE question correctly, and had a Pap smear within the last three years. The proportion of women who had a Pap smear within the last three years were significantly higher among those who were older, married, with young children, on the contraceptive pill or intra-uterine device, had a medical examination within the last five years, answered the Pap smear question correctly, and performed BSE monthly. Conclusion Screening practice rates in this study were low when compared to national rates. Socio-demographic and health care factors significantly associated with screening practice are indicative of barriers which should be further understood so that more effective educational and promotional strategies could be developed.

  13. Factors related to the practice of breast self examination (BSE) and Pap smear screening among Malaysian women workers in selected electronics factories.

    Chee, HL; Rashidah, S; Shamsuddin, K; Intan, O

    2003-05-28

    BACKGROUND: The Malaysian Ministry of Health promotes breast self-examination (BSE) for all women, and Pap smear screening every three years for all sexually active women ages 20 years and above. The objectives of this paper were to examine the practice of these two screening tests among women production workers in electronics factories, and to identify factors related to practice. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional survey of women production workers from ten electronics factories. Data was collected by a self-administered questionnaire from a total of 1,720 women. The chi-square test, odds ratio and binomial logistic regression were used in bivariate and multivariate analysis. RESULTS: Prevalence rates were 24.4% for BSE once a month, and 18.4% for Pap smear examination within the last three years. Women who were significantly more likely to perform BSE every month were 30 years and older, Malays, with upper secondary education and above, answered the BSE question correctly, and had a Pap smear within the last three years. The proportion of women who had a Pap smear within the last three years were significantly higher among those who were older, married, with young children, on the contraceptive pill or intra-uterine device, had a medical examination within the last five years, answered the Pap smear question correctly, and performed BSE monthly. CONCLUSION: Screening practice rates in this study were low when compared to national rates. Socio-demographic and health care factors significantly associated with screening practice are indicative of barriers which should be further understood so that more effective educational and promotional strategies could be developed. PMID:12769827

  14. Recombinant Mouse PAP Has pH-Dependent Ectonucleotidase Activity and Acts through A1-Adenosine Receptors to Mediate Antinociception

    Sowa, Nathaniel A.; Kunjumon I. Vadakkan; Zylka, Mark J.

    2009-01-01

    Prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP) is expressed in nociceptive neurons and functions as an ectonucleotidase. When injected intraspinally, the secretory isoforms of human and bovine PAP protein have potent and long-lasting antinociceptive effects that are dependent on A1-adenosine receptor (A1R) activation. In this study, we purified the secretory isoform of mouse (m)PAP using the baculovirus expression system to determine if recombinant mPAP also had antinociceptive properties. We found that mP...

  15. A novel scheme for abnormal cell detection in Pap smear images

    Zhao, Tong; Wachman, Elliot S.; Farkas, Daniel L.

    2004-07-01

    Finding malignant cells in Pap smear images is a "needle in a haystack"-type problem, tedious, labor-intensive and error-prone. It is therefore desirable to have an automatic screening tool in order that human experts can concentrate on the evaluation of the more difficult cases. Most research on automatic cervical screening tries to extract morphometric and texture features at the cell level, in accordance with the NIH "The Bethesda System" rules. Due to variances in image quality and features, such as brightness, magnification and focus, morphometric and texture analysis is insufficient to provide robust cervical cancer detection. Using a microscopic spectral imaging system, we have produced a set of multispectral Pap smear images with wavelengths from 400 nm to 690 nm, containing both spectral signatures and spatial attributes. We describe a novel scheme that combines spatial information (including texture and morphometric features) with spectral information to significantly improve abnormal cell detection. Three kinds of wavelet features, orthogonal, bi-orthogonal and non-orthogonal, are carefully chosen to optimize recognition performance. Multispectral feature sets are then extracted in the wavelet domain. Using a Back-Propagation Neural Network classifier that greatly decreases the influence of spurious events, we obtain a classification error rate of 5%. Cell morphometric features, such as area and shape, are then used to eliminate most remaining small artifacts. We report initial results from 149 cells from 40 separate image sets, in which only one abnormal cell was missed (TPR = 97.6%) and one normal cell was falsely classified as cancerous (FPR = 1%).

  16. Pap smears for men: a vision of the future?

    Oon, S F

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN) rarely receives as much publicity as its neighbouring orifice, the cervix. As in the cervix, intraepithelial neoplasias are precursors to cancer in the anal canal. AIN and cervical interstitial neoplasia (CIN) undergo dysplasia as a consequence of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. Since the advent of screening with the Pap smear in CIN, cervical cancer has plummeted to a fifth of its initial incidence. Anal cancer, however, has been rising, with a predilection for human immunodeficiency virus-infected men. HPV causes a squamous epithelial dysplasia and converts healthy tissue into AINs of increasing severity until anal cancer manifests. CLINICAL CASE: This article describes a clinical case of anogenital HPV infection refractory to medical and surgical therapy. It also describes an effective surgical excision technique associated with a good cosmetic outcome. CONCLUSIONS: The paper concludes by briefly discussing the implications of a national screening programme against AIN in the future.

  17. THE EFFECT OF AGE ON RESULTS OBTAINED BY MARES DURING STATIONARY AND FIELD PERFORMANCE TESTS CONDUCTED IN POLAND IN THE YEARS 2001-2010

    Magdalena Drewka; Monika Monkiewicz; Dominika Gulda

    2013-01-01

    The study encompassed a population of noble mares, assessed in Poland during performance tests. The statistical analysis pertained to results obtained by warmblood mares within a period of 10 years. Performance tests were conducted in II systems: field and stationary. The analysis encompassed 1490 mares, each of which participated in at least one performance test. The conducted study revealed statistically significant differences between average results obtained by 2-3 year-old mares and 4-ye...

  18. Papanicolaou tests diagnosed as atypical by a cytotechnologist and downgraded to benign by a pathologist: a measure of laboratory quality.

    Condel, Jennifer L; Mahood, Laura K; Grzybicki, Dana M; Sturgis, Charles D; Raab, Stephen S

    2002-04-01

    Follow-up of Papanicolaou (Pap) tests diagnosed as atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) or atypical glandular cells of undetermined significance (AGUS) by a cytotechnologist and downgraded to benign by a pathologist has not been measured. Squamous intraepithelial lesion (SIL) follow-up rates were obtained for Pap tests diagnosed as ASCUS (288) or AGUS (94) and downgraded to benign and for Pap tests diagnosed as repair (231). Statistically significant associations were seen between 7 cytotechnologists and between 7 pathologists and ASCUS, AGUS, downgraded ASCUS, and downgraded AGUS rates. The percentage of downgraded ASCUS cases compared with all ASCUS cases per pathologist ranged from 4.8% to 43.7%. Statistically significant associations between pathologists and SIL follow-up rates for downgraded ASCUS diagnoses were seen. The SIL follow-up rate for repair (7.9%) was similar to that for a downgraded ASCUS (11.0%) or AGUS (7.3%). The parameters of downgraded ASCU and AGUS Pap test interpretations are good quality indicators of individual performance and overall laboratory quality. PMID:11939726

  19. Assessing the impact of common forensic presumptive tests on the ability to obtain results using a novel rapid DNA platform.

    Donachie, Gillian E; Dawnay, Nick; Ahmed, Romana; Naif, Sarah; Duxbury, Nicola J; Tribble, Nicholas D

    2015-07-01

    The rise of DNA evidence to the forefront of forensic science has led to high sample numbers being submitted for profiling by investigators to casework laboratories: bottleneck effects are often seen resulting in slow turnaround times and sample backlog. The ParaDNA(®) Screening and Intelligence Tests have been designed to guide investigators on the viability of potential sources of DNA allowing them to determine which samples should be sent for full DNA analysis. Both tests are designed to augment the arsenal of available forensic tests for end users and be used concurrently to those commonly available. Therefore, assessing the impact that common forensic tests have on such novel technology is important to measure. The systems were tested against various potential inhibitors to which samples may be exposed as part of the investigative process. Presumptive test agents for biological materials (blood, semen and saliva) and those used as fingerprint enhancement agents were both used. The Screening Test showed a drop in performance following application of aluminium powder and cyanoacrylate (CNA) on fingerprints samples; however this drop in performance was not replicated with high template DNA. No significant effect was observed for any agent using the Intelligence Test. Therefore, both tests stand up well to the chemical agents applied and can be used by investigators with confidence that system performance will be maintained. PMID:25864157

  20. 77 FR 72905 - Pipeline Safety: Random Drug Testing Rate; Contractor MIS Reporting; and Obtaining DAMIS Sign-In...

    2012-12-06

    ... January 19, 2010, PHMSA published an Advisory Bulletin (75 FR 2926) implementing the annual collection of... Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration Pipeline Safety: Random Drug Testing Rate... for random drug testing, reminder for operators to report contractor MIS data, and new method...

  1. Quantum Properties of a General Path Deviation Equation in the Pap-Geometry

    Wanas, M I

    2004-01-01

    A path deviation equation in the Parameterized Absolute Parallelism (PAP) geometry is derived. This equation includes curvature and torsion terms. These terms are found to be naturally quantized. The equation represents the deviation from a general path equation, in the PAP-geometry, derived by the author in a previous work. It is shown that, as the effect of the torsion, on the deviation, increases, the effect of the curvature decreases. It is also shown that the general path deviation equation can be reduced to the geodesic deviation equation if PAP-geometry becomes Riemannian. The equation can be used to study the deviation from the trajectories of spinning elementary particles.

  2. Salt Repository Project: Data report on corrosion results obtained from excess-salt corrosion test Matrix 1

    The test discussed in this data report was directed at determining the response of the reference A216 grade WCA steel when it is exposed to anoxic excess-salt conditions at 1500C. The environment used in the test was intended to duplicate the intrusion brine scenario (i.e., the formation of brine by the intrusion of water from an outside source into the repository, with the formation of brine through dissolution of salt from the repository horizon). The salt-brine environment used in the test therefore reflected the expected gross salt composition of the repository horizon

  3. Correlation between extent of metastatic lesions in whole body bone scintigraphy of patients with prostatic cancer and prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP) in blood by PAP RIA kit 'Eiken'

    Whole body bone scintigraphy of thirteen patients who were pathohistologically confirmed prostatic cancer was processed by four colors, and then the extent of bone metastases was estimated quantitatively. On the basis of this estimation, the grade of the expansion of bone metastases was classified into 4 grades (0, 1, 2, and 3 grades). And then, correlations of the expantion of bone metastases with PAP, AcP and AlP levels in blood were investigated. The results are as follows: 1) Correlation between the extent of bone metastases and PAP levels was relatively high (r = 0.81). 2) As for the relation between the expansion grade of bone metastases and PAP levels, the levels did not increase in 0 and 1 grades, but markedly increased in 2 and 3 grades. AcP also showed a little similar tendency. 3) In the correlation of PAP with AcP and with AlP, AcP (r = 0.78) was higher than AlP (r = 0.42). 4) Therefore, PAP levels seem to be a good index of the extent of bone metastases in prostatic cancer. (author)

  4. A very rare case of HPV-53-related cervical cancer, in a 79-year-old woman with a previous history of negative Pap cytology

    Zappacosta R

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Roberta Zappacosta,1 Giuseppe Lattanzio,2 Patrizia Viola,2 Manuel Maria Ianieri,3 Daniela Maria Pia Gatta,1 Sandra Rosini11Cytopathology Unit, Experimental and Clinical Sciences Department, Gabriele d’Annunzio University of Chieti-Pescara, Chieti, Italy; 2Surgical Pathology Unit, 3Obstetrics and Gynecology Unit, SS Annunziata Hospital, Chieti, ItalyAbstract: The introduction of organized cervical cancer (CC screening programs has drastically reduced the prevalence of CC. However the incidence is still too high, especially among elderly women. All guidelines strongly recommend a regular Papanicolaou (Pap testing for young and middle-aged patients. On the other hand, many international professional societies no longer advise screening in women who have undergone hysterectomy, and in women aged 65 years and above, who have a previous history of regular Pap smears. Here we report the case of poorly differentiated CC, involving the pelvic lymph nodes and urinary bladder, occurring in a 79-year-old woman who regularly underwent Pap tests, with no reported cytological abnormalities. In this very rare case, the CC cells, as well as cells from metastatic lymph nodes and cells from urinary specimens, molecularly showed human papilloma virus (HPV-53. With the limitations of a single case, this report brings important information to prevent CC in elderly patients: the utility of molecular tests to increase sensitivity of Pap smears in postmenopausal women; the importance of HPV-53 as one of the four “emergent” genotypes having a possible role in oncogenesis; and the presence of HPV-53 in lymph node metastases from cervical carcinoma, which would support the role of this virus in the maintenance of malignant status.Keywords: old women, molecular tests, cervical cancer screening, HPV-DNA test, HPV genotyping

  5. ["Where there's a woman, there's a Pap smear": the meanings assigned to cervical cancer prevention among women in Salvador, Bahia State, Brazil].

    Rico, Ana María; Iriart, Jorge Alberto Bernstein

    2013-09-01

    This study focuses on the meanings assigned to practices for cervical cancer prevention among women from low-income neighborhoods in Salvador, Bahia State, Brazil. This was a qualitative study based on content analysis of semi-structured interviews with 15 women 24 to 68 years of age. The results showed high appreciation of the Pap smear test, performed as part of routine gynecological examination (but without the patient necessarily having biomedical knowledge of its role). Besides accessibility and quality of health services, other factors influence the way the women assign meaning to cervical cancer prevention. Moral values associated with sexuality and gender influence risk perception, adoption of preventive practices, and interpretation of cervical cytology results. The ongoing practice of the Pap smear test is part of the construction of femininity, which is associated with maturity and personal responsibility for self care in a context of medicalization of the female body. PMID:24068222

  6. 14 CFR 61.405 - What tests do I have to take to obtain a flight instructor certificate with a sport pilot rating?

    2010-01-01

    ... flight instructor certificate with a sport pilot rating? 61.405 Section 61.405 Aeronautics and Space..., FLIGHT INSTRUCTORS, AND GROUND INSTRUCTORS Flight Instructors With a Sport Pilot Rating § 61.405 What tests do I have to take to obtain a flight instructor certificate with a sport pilot rating? To obtain...

  7. PAP-1, the mutated gene underlying the RP9 form of dominant retinitis pigmentosa, is a splicing factor

    PAP-1 is an in vitro phosphorylation target of the Pim-1 oncogene. Although PAP-1 binds to Pim-1, it is not a substrate for phosphorylation by Pim-1 in vivo. PAP-1 has recently been implicated as the defective gene in RP9, one type of autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa (adRP). However, RP9 is a rare disease and only two missense mutations have been described, so the report of a link between PAP-1 and RP9 was tentative. The precise cellular role of PAP-1 was also unknown at that time. We now report that PAP-1 localizes in nuclear speckles containing the splicing factor SC35 and interacts directly with another splicing factor, U2AF35. Furthermore, we used in vitro and in vivo splicing assays to show that PAP-1 has an activity, which alters the pattern of pre-mRNA splicing and that this activity is dependent on the phosphorylation state of PAP-1. We used the same splicing assay to examine the activities of two mutant forms of PAP-1 found in RP9 patients. The results showed that while one of the mutations, H137L, had no effect on splicing activity compared with that of wild-type PAP-1, the other, D170G, resulted in both a defect in splicing activity and a decreased proportion of phosphorylated PAP-1. The D170G mutation may therefore cause RP by altering splicing of retinal genes through a decrease in PAP-1 phosphorylation. These results demonstrate that PAP-1 has a role in pre-mRNA splicing and, given that three other splicing factors have been implicated in adRP, this finding provides compelling further evidence that PAP-1 is indeed the RP9 gene

  8. Contextualised behavioural measurements of personality differences obtained in behavioural tests and social observations in adult capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella)

    Uher, Jana; Addessi, Elsa; Visalberghi, Elisabetta

    2013-01-01

    We applied a new framework for behavioural research on personality differences in 26 adult tufted capuchin monkeys. Using the Behavioural Repertoire x Environmental Situations Approach, we generated systematically 20 non-lexical emic personality constructs that have high ecological validity for this species. For construct operationalisation, we obtained 146 contextualised behavioural measures repeatedly in 15 experimental situations and 2 group situations using computerised and video-assisted...

  9. Factors related to the practice of breast self examination (BSE) and Pap smear screening among Malaysian women workers in selected electronics factories

    Shamsuddin K; Rashidah S; Chee HL; Intan O

    2003-01-01

    Abstract Background The Malaysian Ministry of Health promotes breast self-examination (BSE) for all women, and Pap smear screening every three years for all sexually active women ages 20 years and above. The objectives of this paper were to examine the practice of these two screening tests among women production workers in electronics factories, and to identify factors related to practice. Methods This was a cross-sectional survey of women production workers from ten electronics factories. Da...

  10. The evaluation of clinical application for measurement of serum PSA and PAP

    The serum PSA and PAP were measured in 23 cases of prostatic carcinoma, 42 cases of benign prostatic hypertrophy and 21 cases of non-prostatic disease. Significant differences were found between prostatic carcinoma and benign prostatic hypertrophy or control group. According to the Decision Matrix for general clinical evaluation, the diagnostic index and availability of serum PSA and PAP were 135.8%, 138.3% and 0.36, 0.40, respectively. The study showed that the measurement of the serum PSA and PAP should be complementary each other for the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of prostatic carcinoma. Finally, it was considered that the measurement of the serum PSA is superior to that of PAP for therapeutic follow-up in patients with prostatic carcinoma

  11. Procedures for obtaining stress-strain curve including post-necking strain (applicability of testing method (IFD method) and estimation method (K-fit method) for stainless steels)

    Testing and estimation procedures for obtaining true stress-strain curves of stainless steels were discussed in order to calculate load carrying capacity of nuclear power plant components by elastic-plastic finite element analyses. Type 316 stainless steel specimens of various degrees of cold working were subjected to tensile tests with different test speeds. It was shown that faster test speed reduced elongation and ultimate strength of the specimens. The strain on the specimen surface measured by the digital image correlation (DIC) technique exhibited an inhomogeneous strain distribution even when the strain was less than the uniform elongation (necking strain). The strain was elevated locally at the center of the specimen and its magnitude was about 1.2 times the nominal strain measured by an extensometer. A testing method (IFD method) has been developed to obtain the true stress-strain curve including post-necking strain by using an hourglass type specimen. In this study, the IFD method was improved so that it was applicable to the round-bar smooth specimens used for the tensile tests. Then, the stress-strain curves were estimated from the 0.2% proof and ultimate strengths by the K-fit method, which has been proposed by the current author. It was shown that K-fit method could estimate the stress-strain curves including the post-necking strain. Finally, a tensile test was carried out using a plate specimen with round notches. Elastic-plastic finite element analyses using the stress-strain curves estimated by the improved IFD method and K-fit method could simulate the deformation and strain distribution. The load carrying capacity obtained by the finite element analyses were almost equivalent to that obtained by the tensile test. However, the yielding load obtained by the finite element analyses were slightly higher than that obtained by the test due to the strain rate dependency of the stress-strain curve. (author)

  12. Reliability and Validity of Physiological Data Obtained Within a Cycle-Run Transition Test in Age-Group Triathletes

    Veronica Vleck; Millet, Gregoire P.; Francisco Bessone Alves; David J. Bentley

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the validity and reliability of a sequential “Run-Bike-Run” test (RBR) in age-group triathletes. Eight Olympic distance (OD) specialists (age 30.0 ± 2.0 years, mass 75.6 ± 1.6 kg, run VO2max 63.8 ± 1.9 ml· kg-1· min-1, cycle VO2peak 56.7 ± 5.1 ml· kg-1· min-1) performed four trials over 10 days. Trial 1 (TRVO2max) was an incremental treadmill running test. Trials 2 and 3 (RBR1 and RBR2) involved: 1) a 7-min run at 15 km· h-1 (R1) plus a 1-min transition to 2) cycling to fa...

  13. Chemical fractionation tests on South African coal sources to obtain species-specific information on ash fusion temperatures (AFT)

    J.C. van Dyk; L.L. Baxter; J.H.P. van Heerden; R.L.J. Coetzer [Sasol Technology, Sasolburg (South Africa). Syngas and Coal Technologies, R& amp; D Division

    2005-10-01

    Detailed coal and feedstock characteristics are essential to predict gasification performance when a specific coal source is to be gasified. One property that specifically gives detail information on the suitability of a coal source for gasification purposes is the ash fusion temperature (AFT). The AFT of a coal source indicates the extent to which ash agglomeration and ash clinkering are likely to occur within the gasifier. The principal aim of this paper is to obtain mineral species-specific information on ash properties and the specific affect on AFT. Chemical fractionation treatment resulted in coals having different mineral properties that can be used to explain the affect of specific minerals on the AFT of coal. The highest concentration and species of minerals were removed from the coal by acid leaching (HCl and HNO{sub 3}) where Al, Ca, Mg, Na and Fe were removed in high concentrations from the coal. The AFT of coal after leaching increased to {gt}1600{sup o}C. Based on the 95% confidence intervals depicted the following components can be highlighted as having a statistical significant effect on the AFT: Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, CaO, MgO, P{sub 2}O{sub 5} and SiO{sub 2}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} combination. When mineral ratio was used, the best correlation coefficient ) with AFT was obtained with the dolomite ratio. This is in agreement with the results obtained from the correlations between the AFT and the ash composition where CaO and MgO resulted in the best correlation with AFT. Results presented in this paper again highlights the fact and confirmed work from other researchers that ash composition (elemental analyses) on its own does not explain AFT behavior or commercial performance of coal accurately. 14 refs., 6 figs., 6 tabs.

  14. CKIα Is Associated with and Phosphorylates Star-PAP and Is Also Required for Expression of Select Star-PAP Target Messenger RNAs*

    Gonzales, Michael L.; Mellman, David L.; Richard A. Anderson

    2008-01-01

    We have recently identified Star-PAP, a nuclear poly(A) polymerase that associates with phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate 5-kinase Iα (PIPKIα) and is required for the expression of a specific subset of mRNAs. Star-PAP activity is directly modulated by the PIPKIα product phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PI-4,5-P2), linking nuclear phosphoinositide signaling to gene expression. Here, we show that PI-4,5-P2-dependent protein kinase activity is also a part of the ...

  15. Comparison of durability indicators obtained by Non Destructive Testing methods to monitor the durability of concrete structures

    VILLAIN, Géraldine; Balayssac, Jean-Paul; GARNIER, Vincent; Piwakowski, Bogdan; Salin, Jean; Fardeau, Vincent; Dérobert, Xavier; COFFEC, Odile; Joubert, Anaëlle

    2014-01-01

    This paper deals with the use of non destructive testing methods (NDT) to assess indicators of concrete durability and mechanical properties of reinforced concrete structures. On site, NDT methods based on electromagnetic or ultrasonic wave propagation (such as radar, impact echo, ultrasonic transmission deviceÉ) are used because they are more or less sensitive to water content and mechanical properties depending on the method. It has been shown, in a former project [1, 2], that the NDT resul...

  16. Test of a numerical optimization algorithm for obtaining cross sections for multiple collision processes from electron swarm data

    A numerical optimization technique is used to obtain low-energy momentum transfer, j = 0 → 2 rotational and v = 0 → vibrational sections from measured electron swarm data for parahydrogen. The downhill simplex algorithm is used to find cross sections that represent the best numerical fit to the measured electron drift velocity and characteristic energy over a range of E/N. These results, which are in excellent agreement with published cross sections derived using traditional swarm analysis techniques, demonstrates the feasibility of using automated computational algorithms for swarm analysis involving the estimation of multiple cross sections. (Author)

  17. Obtaining and testing of the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungies inocula for the modification of radionuclides transport into the plants

    Spores of the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungies have been isolaten from the plants collected at the Chernobyl zone. Selection of the plants were done due to their high radionuclides' accumulation ability and AM colonization level as well. These spores were used to start the inocula production for the plant treatment aimed to affect radionuclides transport. Spores identification was done based on their morphological and molecular features. Three different AM inocula with high potential to modify 90Sr and 137Cs transport at the phytoremediation experiments were obtained

  18. Pap, gruel, and panada: early approaches to artificial infant feeding.

    Obladen, Michael

    2014-01-01

    This paper collects information on artificial infant feeding published before 1860, the year when commercial formula became available. We have extensive artifactual evidence of thousands of feeding vessels since the Bronze Age. Special museum collections can be found in London, Paris, Cologne, Fécamp, Toronto, New Mexico, and elsewhere. The literature on the use of animal milk for infant feeding begins with Soranus in the 2nd century CE. Literature evidence from the very first printed books in the 15th century proves that physicians, surgeons, midwives, and the laity were aware of the opportunities and risks of artificial infant feeding. Most 17th to 19th century books on infant care contained detailed recipes for one or several of the following infant foods: pap, a semisolid food made of flour or bread crumbs cooked in water with or without milk; gruel, a thin porridge resulting from boiling cereal in water or milk, and panada, a preparation of various cereals or bread cooked in broth. During the 18th century, the published opinion on artificial feeding evolved from health concerns to a moral ideology. This view ignored the social and economic pressures which forced many mothers to forego or shorten breast-feeding. Bottle-feeding has been common practice throughout history. PMID:24577423

  19. Novel chromatin texture features for the classification of pap smears

    Bejnordi, Babak E.; Moshavegh, Ramin; Sujathan, K.; Malm, Patrik; Bengtsson, Ewert; Mehnert, Andrew

    2013-03-01

    This paper presents a set of novel structural texture features for quantifying nuclear chromatin patterns in cells on a conventional Pap smear. The features are derived from an initial segmentation of the chromatin into bloblike texture primitives. The results of a comprehensive feature selection experiment, including the set of proposed structural texture features and a range of different cytology features drawn from the literature, show that two of the four top ranking features are structural texture features. They also show that a combination of structural and conventional features yields a classification performance of 0.954±0.019 (AUC±SE) for the discrimination of normal (NILM) and abnormal (LSIL and HSIL) slides. The results of a second classification experiment, using only normal-appearing cells from both normal and abnormal slides, demonstrates that a single structural texture feature measuring chromatin margination yields a classification performance of 0.815±0.019. Overall the results demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed structural approach and that it is possible to detect malignancy associated changes (MACs) in Papanicoloau stain.

  20. Cantilever beam test in Zr-2.5%Nb: Comparative study between pipe material obtained by laminating and wire drawing

    The Zr-2.5Nb alloy is used in the manufacture of pressure tubes for the CANDU nuclear power reactors. These tubes are subjected to severe service conditions: one o f them, the heavy water corrosion due to the coolant generates release of hydrogen, part of which ingress in the material raising its initial concentration and exposing them to a phenomena referred as delay hydrogen cracking. The results presented in this paper show the performance of a pressure tube of domestic manufacture under conditions of tension and hydrogen content in order to be compared with the behavior of a standard pressure tube in operation in the nuclear power plant. To do this is, cantilever notched and pre cracked samples were hydrided from both kinds of tubes. Each one of these samples was subjected to the cantilever beam test, which consists in a bending test performed in a furnace at 250oC. Starting from a stress intensity factor Ki which determines the propagation start of the crack, the growth is followed by the acoustic emission technique up to the arrest of the crack by controlling the bending load. This work presents the comparative data such as critical voltages, behavior of hydrides, and DHC parameters from both trials. Although the number of tests is reduced; results show a good performance of the tubes of domestic manufacture (author)

  1. Reduced Environmental Redox Potential Affects Both Transcription and Expression of the Pap Pili Gene

    Maluszynska, G. M.; Magnusson, K.-E.; Rosenquist, Å.

    2011-01-01

    Pyelonephritis-associated pili (pap) gene expression is subject to a phase variation control mechanism by which cells alternate between two pili-expression states, viz. a 'phase-off (pili-) and a 'phase-on' (pili+) state. During interaction with a host, Escherichia coli encounter various environmental redox conditions. We have addressed the question of whether bacteria are able to respond to this environmental signal by regulating pap pili biogenesis, a crucial colonisation factor in pyelonep...

  2. Projekt om sikre fødevareemballager af trykt papir og pap

    Petersen, Jens Højslev; Jensen, Lisbeth Krüger; Sørensen, Frank;

    2013-01-01

    Ny rapport og analysekoncept fra en tværfaglig projektgruppe hjælper trykkerier til at dokumentere om emballager af trykt pap til fødevarer lever op til lovgivningens og fødevareindustriens krav.......Ny rapport og analysekoncept fra en tværfaglig projektgruppe hjælper trykkerier til at dokumentere om emballager af trykt pap til fødevarer lever op til lovgivningens og fødevareindustriens krav....

  3. Pneumocephalus with BiPAP use after transsphenoidal surgery☆,☆☆,★

    Kopelovich, Jonathan C.; de la Garza, Gabriel O.; Greenlee, Jeremy D.W.; Graham, Scott M.; Udeh, Chiedozie I.; O'Brien, Erin K

    2012-01-01

    While the benefits of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) or bilevel positive airway pressure (BiPAP) for patients with obstructive sleep apnea are well described, reports in the literature of complications from its use are rare. A patient who received postoperative BiPAP after undergoing transsphenoidal craniopharyngioma resection developed severe pneumocephalus and unplanned intensive care unit admission. Although the pneumocephalus resolved with conservative management over two week...

  4. Combined Spinal Epidural Anaesthesia with BiPAP-Three Case Reports

    Ashok Jadon; Neelam Sinha; Prashant S Agarwal

    2009-01-01

    Summary We report three cases where BiPAP (bi-level positive airway pressure) was used with CSEA (combined spinal epidural anaesthesia) to over come the hypoventilation due to preoperative poor respiratory reserves and additive effect of sedation. Combination of BiPAP with spinal, epidural and CSEA have been used successfully in patients of severe COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) for various surgical procedures. This combination provides safe alternative to conventional general an...

  5. “Cannon Balls or Pus Balls” in Pap Smears: A Case Report

    Bodal, Vijay Kumar; Kaur, Sarbhjit; Bhagat, Ranjiv; Kaur, Rupinder; Bal, Manjit Singh

    2013-01-01

    A 50–year old female presented with the chief complaint of a discharge per vaginum, which was there for the past 15 days. A routine PAP smear was received in the Department of Pathology, Government Medical College, Patiala, India. After its fixation and staining, it was examined under the microscope. It showed the Trichomonas vaginalis infection, with the neutrophils forming cannon balls at places. Neutrophils in the PAP smear are a nonspecific finding, particularly if they are low in numbers...

  6. Selective indication for positive airway pressure (PAP in sleep-related breathing disorders with obstruction

    Stasche, Norbert

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Positive airway pressure (PAP is the therapy of choice for most sleep-related breathing disorders (SRBD. A variety of PAP devices using positive airway pressure (CPAP, BiPAP, APAP, ASV must be carefully considered before application. This overview aims to provide criteria for choosing the optimal PAP device according to severity and type of sleep-related breathing disorder. In addition, the range of therapeutic applications, constraints and side effects as well as alternative methods to PAP will be discussed. This review is based on an analysis of current literature and clinical experience. The data is presented from an ENT-sleep-laboratory perspective and is designed to help the ENT practitioner initiate treatment and provide support. Different titration methods, current devices and possible applications will be described. In addition to constant pressure devices (CPAP, most commonly used for symptomatic obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA without complicating conditions, BiPAP models will be introduced. These allow two different positive pressure settings and are thus especially suitable for patients with cardiopulmonary diseases or patients with pressure intolerance, increasing compliance in this subgroup considerably. Compliance can also be increased in patients during first night of therapy, patients with highly variable pressure demands or position-dependent OSA, by using self-regulating Auto-adjust PAP devices (Automatic positive airway pressure, APAP. Patients with Cheyne-Stokes breathing, a subtype of central sleep apnoea, benefit from adaptive servo-ventilation (ASV, which analyzes breathing patterns continually and adjusts the actual ventilation pressure accordingly. This not only reduces daytime sleepiness, but can also influence heart disease positively. Therapy with positive airway pressure is very effective in eliminating obstruction-related sleep diseases and symptoms. However, because therapy is generally applied for life, the optimal

  7. Comparison of visual field test results obtained through Humphrey matrix frequency doubling technology perimetry versus standard automated perimetry in healthy children

    Sibel Kocabeyoglu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims : The aim of this study was to compare the visual field test results in healthy children obtained via the Humphrey matrix 24-2 threshold program and standard automated perimetry (SAP using the Swedish interactive threshold algorithm (SITA-Standard 24-2 test. Materials and Methods: This prospective study included 55 healthy children without ocular or systemic disorders who underwent both SAP and frequency doubling technology (FDT perimetry visual field testing. Visual field test reliability indices, test duration, global indices (mean deviation [MD], and pattern standard deviation [PSD] were compared between the 2 tests using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test and paired t-test. The performance of the Humphrey field analyzer (HFA 24-2 SITA-standard and frequency-doubling technology Matrix 24-2 tests between genders were compared with Mann-Whitney U-test. Results: Fifty-five healthy children with a mean age of 12.2 ± 1.9 years (range from 8 years to 16 years were included in this prospective study. The test durations of SAP and FDT were similar (5.2 ± 0.5 and 5.1 ± 0.2 min, respectively, P = 0.651. MD and the PSD values obtained via FDT Matrix were significantly higher than those obtained via SAP (P < 0.001, and fixation losses and false negative errors were significantly less with SAP (P < 0.05. A weak positive correlation between the two tests in terms of MD (r = 0.352, P = 0.008 and PSD (r = 0.329, P = 0.014 was observed. Conclusion: Children were able to complete both the visual test algorithms successfully within 6 min. However, SAP testing appears to be associated with less depression of the visual field indices of healthy children. FDT Matrix and SAP should not be used interchangeably in the follow-up of children.

  8. Limit case analysis of the "stable indenter velocity" method for obtaining creep stress exponents from constant load indentation creep tests

    Campbell, J.; Dean, J.; Clyne, T. W.

    2016-06-01

    This study concerns a commonly-used procedure for evaluating the steady state creep stress exponent, n, from indentation data. The procedure involves monitoring the indenter displacement history under constant load and making the assumption that, once its velocity has stabilised, the system is in a quasi-steady state, with stage II creep dominating the behaviour. The stress and strain fields under the indenter are represented by "equivalent stress" and "equivalent strain rate" values. The estimate of n is then obtained as the gradient of a plot of the logarithm of the equivalent strain rate against the logarithm of the equivalent stress. Concerns have, however, been expressed about the reliability of this procedure, and indeed it has already been shown to be fundamentally flawed. In the present paper, it is demonstrated, using a very simple analysis, that, for a genuinely stable velocity, the procedure always leads to the same, constant value for n (either 1.0 or 0.5, depending on whether the tip shape is spherical or self-similar). This occurs irrespective of the value of the measured velocity, or indeed of any creep characteristic of the material. It is now clear that previously-measured values of n, obtained using this procedure, have varied in a more or less random fashion, depending on the functional form chosen to represent the displacement-time history and the experimental variables (tip shape and size, penetration depth, etc.), with little or no sensitivity to the true value of n.

  9. Home-based HPV self-sampling improves participation by never-screened and under-screened women: Results from a large randomized trial (iPap) in Australia.

    Sultana, Farhana; English, Dallas R; Simpson, Julie A; Drennan, Kelly T; Mullins, Robyn; Brotherton, Julia M L; Wrede, C David; Heley, Stella; Saville, Marion; Gertig, Dorota M

    2016-07-15

    We conducted a randomized controlled trial to determine whether HPV self-sampling increases participation in cervical screening by never- and under-screened (not screened in past 5 years) women when compared with a reminder letter for a Pap test. Never- or under-screened Victorian women aged 30-69 years, not pregnant and with no prior hysterectomy were eligible. Within each stratum (never-screened and under-screened), we randomly allocated 7,140 women to self-sampling and 1,020 to Pap test reminders. The self-sampling kit comprised a nylon tipped flocked swab enclosed in a dry plastic tube. The primary outcome was participation, as indicated by returning a swab or undergoing a Pap test; the secondary outcome, for women in the self-sampling arm with a positive HPV test, was undergoing appropriate clinical investigation. The Roche Cobas® 4800 test was used to measure presence of HPV DNA. Participation was higher for the self-sampling arm: 20.3 versus 6.0% for never-screened women (absolute difference 14.4%, 95% CI: 12.6-16.1%, p Pap test as recommended. HPV self-sampling improves participation in cervical screening for never- and under-screened women and most women with HPV detected have appropriate clinical investigation. PMID:26850941

  10. Nutritional Composition of Five Varieties of Pap Commonly Consumed in Maroua (Far-North, Cameroon

    Ponka Roger

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the nutritional composition of five varieties of pap (cereal product commonly consumed in Maroua, city of the Far-North Region of Cameroon. The proximate composition (moisture, ash, protein, lipid, and crude fibre was determined by standard AOAC methods. Minerals (calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, iron, zinc, copper and manganese were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry and phosphorus was determined colorimetrically. Amino acid composition was determined by ion-exchange chromatography. All the pap varieties had a very high carbohydrate content (79.47-85.29 g/100 g dry matter. Appreciable levels of phosphorus and potassium were recorded in all the pap varieties (137.5-231.0 mg/100 g dry matter and 198.20-322.22 mg/100 g dry matter, respectively. Consumption of each pap (100 g by children 1-2 year old would meet 9.86-17.46% and 0.08-19.51% of their daily recommended intake respectively for protein and minerals. Leucine and glutamic acid were the most abundant essential amino acids and non-essential amino acids respectively in the pap. Essential amino acids in most of the pap samples met the recommended children requirement of the FAO/WHO/UNU for 1-2 year old children except methionine+cysteine and lysine.

  11. Hydrological processes obtained on the plot scale under four simulated rainfall tests during the cycle of different crop systems

    Ildegardis Bertol

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The cropping system influences the interception of water by plants, water storage in depressions on the soil surface, water infiltration into the soil and runoff. The aim of this study was to quantify some hydrological processes under no tillage cropping systems at the edge of a slope, in 2009 and 2010, in a Humic Dystrudept soil, with the following treatments: corn, soybeans, and common beans alone; and intercropped corn and common bean. Treatments consisted of four simulated rainfall tests at different times, with a planned intensity of 64 mm h-1 and 90 min duration. The first test was applied 18 days after sowing, and the others at 39, 75 and 120 days after the first test. Different times of the simulated rainfall and stages of the crop cycle affected soil water content prior to the rain, and the time runoff began and its peak flow and, thus, the surface hydrological processes. The depth of the runoff and the depth of the water intercepted by the crop + soil infiltration + soil surface storage were affected by the crop systems and the rainfall applied at different times. The corn crop was the most effective treatment for controlling runoff, with a water loss ratio of 0.38, equivalent to 75 % of the water loss ratio exhibited by common bean (0.51, the least effective treatment in relation to the others. Total water loss by runoff decreased linearly with an increase in the time that runoff began, regardless of the treatment; however, soil water content on the gravimetric basis increased linearly from the beginning to the end of the rainfall.

  12. Reliability Criteria for Testing the Goodness of the Activation Energy Values Obtained by the Peak Shape Methods in Thermoluminescence Experiments

    G. Kitis

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to give some expressions able to give a criteria of acceptance for the activation energy values determined through the so called peak shape methods. The expressions are derived for both first and second order kinetics. Furthermore, using approximations concerning the peak temperature parameters, the reliability expressions are simplified for getting a more quickly criteria of acceptance. A table lists several data, from literature, concerning the activation energy determined for various Thermoluminescence materials; the experimental values are then tested using the criteria of acceptance showing the goodness of the method here presented in this research.

  13. Quantitative data on blood flow during tumor PDT obtained by laser Doppler spectroscopy in the hen's egg test system

    Vervoorts, Anja; Rood, H. A.; Klotz, Marcus; Moser, Joerg G.; Rosenbruch, Martin

    1995-01-01

    Oxygen supply is the most important requirement of type II photodynamic reactions. Prerequisite in photodynamic tumor therapy is an intact tumor blood flow during irradiation. Most photosensitizers destroy tumor vessels due to accumulation in endothelial cells. As a prerequisite to develop novel photosensitizing drugs an in-vivo test system is required to quantitatively assess for inertness of those sensitizers to the blood supply. We adapted and further developed a system capable of measuring the relative oxygen supply to heterotransplanted tumors on the yolk sac membrane (YSM) of fertilized chicken eggs.

  14. RELIABILITY AND VALIDITY OF PHYSIOLOGICAL DATA OBTAINED WITHIN A CYCLE-RUN TRANSITION TEST IN AGE-GROUP TRIATHLETES

    Veronica Vleck

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the validity and reliability of a sequential "Run-Bike-Run" test (RBR in age-group triathletes. Eight Olympic distance (OD specialists (age 30.0 ± 2.0 years, mass 75.6 ± 1.6 kg, run VO2max 63.8 ± 1.9 ml·kg-1·min-1, cycle VO2peak 56.7 ± 5.1 ml·kg-1·min-1 performed four trials over 10 days. Trial 1 (TRVO2max was an incremental treadmill running test. Trials 2 and 3 (RBR1 and RBR2 involved: 1 a 7-min run at 15 km·h-1 (R1 plus a 1-min transition to 2 cycling to fatigue (2 W·kg-1 body mass then 30 W each 3 min; 3 10-min cycling at 3 W·kg-1 (Bsubmax; another 1-min transition and 4 a second 7-min run at 15 km·h-1 (R2. Trial 4 (TT was a 30-min cycle - 20-min run time trial. No significant differences in absolute oxygen uptake (VO2, heart rate (HR, or blood lactate concentration ([BLA] were evidenced between RBR1 and RBR2. For all measured physiological variables, the limits of agreement were similar, and the mean differences were physiologically unimportant, between trials. Low levels of test-retest error (i.e. ICC <0.8, CV<10% were observed for most (logged measurements. However [BLA] post R1 (ICC 0.87, CV 25.1%, [BLA] post Bsubmax (ICC 0.99, CV 16.31 and [BLA] post R2 (ICC 0.51, CV 22.9% were least reliable. These error ranges may help coaches detect real changes in training status over time. Moreover, RBR test variables can be used to predict discipline specific and overall TT performance. Cycle VO2peak, cycle peak power output, and the change between R1 and R2 (deltaR1R2 in [BLA] were most highly related to overall TT distance (r = 0.89, p < 0. 01; r = 0.94, p < 0.02; r = 0.86, p < 0.05, respectively. The percentage of TR VO2max at 15 km·h-1, and deltaR1R2 HR, were also related to run TT distance (r = -0.83 and 0.86, both p < 0.05

  15. Experience obtained with design qualification tests and design qualification approvals of installed measuring systems for radiation protection purposes

    Installed dose ratemeters are used for continuous monitoring purposes. Their measuring capacities encompass up to 9 decades, and many instruments are equipped with automatic data recording systems. Almost every system has an alarm system sounding acoustic or optical alarm upon measured values exceeding a programmed threshold value. Measured data readout systems often are installed at a distance of up to several hundred meters from the measuring site, and frequently there are several probes sending their measured values to the recording system. Dose ratemeters for photon radiation have to be calibrated for specific measuring tasks defined by the calibration ordinance. The PTB since 1983 is the institute responsible for examination and approval of dose ratemeters and presents in this paper the rich experience obtained and the difficulties encountered with dose ratemeters equipped with microprocessors. (orig./CB)

  16. First In-Core Measurement Results Obtained with the Innovative Mobile Calorimeter CALMOS inside the OSIRIS Material Testing Reactor

    Nuclear heating rate inside an MTR has to be known in order to design and to run irradiation experiments which have to fulfill target temperature constraints. This measurement is usually carried out by calorimetry [1, 2]. An innovative calorimetric system, CALMOS, has been studied and built in 2011 for the 70 MWth OSIRIS reactor operated by CEA. Thanks to a new calorimetric probe, associated to a specific displacement system, it provides measurements along the fissile height and above the core. The development of the calorimetric probe required the manufacturing and the irradiation of mock-ups in the ex-core area, where nuclear heating rate does not exceed 2 W.g-1. The calorimeter working mode, the different measurement procedures allowed with such a new probe and main modeling and experimental results have been already presented [3, 4]. In this paper, we present the first results obtained during several measurement campaigns carried out in 2012 and 2013 inside the OSIRIS core with the final device. For the first time, this new experimental measurement system was operated in nominal in-core thermo hydraulic conditions with nominal neutron and gamma fluxes (up to 6 W.g-1) in several experimental locations. After a brief presentation of the displacement system specificities, first nuclear heating distributions are presented and discussed. Experimental data were also used to upgrade the Finite Element model of the calorimeter in order to match measured temperatures with calculated ones. This model allowed to estimate a Kc correction factor which takes into account small nonlinearities when the heating rate is deduced from the calibration method. A comparison is made between nuclear heating rates determined from the probe calibration and from the zero method. In addition, an evaluation of the global uncertainty associated to the measurements is detailed. Finally, a global comparison is made with available measurements obtained from previous calorimeters. (authors)

  17. Thermal isocreep curves obtained during multi-axial creep tests on recrystallized Zircaloy-4 and M5™ alloy

    Zirconium alloys are widely used in the nuclear industry. Several components, such as cladding or guide tubes, undergo strong mechanical loading during and after their use inside the pressurized water reactors. The current requirements on higher fuel performances lead to the developing on new Zr based alloys exhibiting better mechanical properties. In this framework, creep behaviors of recrystallized Zircaloy-4 and M5™, have been investigated and then compared. In order to give a better understanding of the thermal creep anisotropy of Zr-based alloys, multi-axial creep tests have been carried out at 673 K. Using a specific device, creep conditions have been set using different values of β = σzz/σθθ, σzz and σθθ being respectively the axial and hoop creep stresses. Both axial and hoop strains are measured during each test which is carried out until stationary creep is stabilized. The steady-state strain rates are then used to build isocreep curves. Considering the isocreep curves, the M5™ alloy shows a largely improved creep resistance compared to the recrystallized Zircaloy-4, especially for tubes under high hoop loadings (0 < β < 1). The isocreep curves are then compared with simulations performed using two different mechanical models. Model 1 uses a von Mises yield criterion, the model 2 is based on a Hill yield criterion. For both models, a coefficient derived from Norton law is used to assess the stress dependence

  18. Thermal isocreep curves obtained during multi-axial creep tests on recrystallized Zircaloy-4 and M5™ alloy

    Rautenberg, M., E-mail: mrautenb@gmail.com [AREVA, AREVA NP, 10 rue Juliette Récamier, 69456 Lyon (France); CIRIMAT, CNRS/UPS/INPT, 4 allée Emile Monso, 31030 Toulouse (France); Poquillon, D. [CIRIMAT, CNRS/UPS/INPT, 4 allée Emile Monso, 31030 Toulouse (France); Pilvin, P. [LIMATB, University Bretagne-Sud, rue de Saint-Maudé, 56321 Lorient (France); Grosjean, C. [AREVA, AREVA NP, 10 rue Juliette Récamier, 69456 Lyon (France); CIRIMAT, CNRS/UPS/INPT, 4 allée Emile Monso, 31030 Toulouse (France); Cloué, J.M. [AREVA, AREVA NP, 10 rue Juliette Récamier, 69456 Lyon (France); Feaugas, X. [LEMMA, Université de La Rochelle, Avenue Michel Crépeau, 17042 La Rochelle (France)

    2014-04-01

    Zirconium alloys are widely used in the nuclear industry. Several components, such as cladding or guide tubes, undergo strong mechanical loading during and after their use inside the pressurized water reactors. The current requirements on higher fuel performances lead to the developing on new Zr based alloys exhibiting better mechanical properties. In this framework, creep behaviors of recrystallized Zircaloy-4 and M5™, have been investigated and then compared. In order to give a better understanding of the thermal creep anisotropy of Zr-based alloys, multi-axial creep tests have been carried out at 673 K. Using a specific device, creep conditions have been set using different values of β = σ{sub zz}/σ{sub θθ}, σ{sub zz} and σ{sub θθ} being respectively the axial and hoop creep stresses. Both axial and hoop strains are measured during each test which is carried out until stationary creep is stabilized. The steady-state strain rates are then used to build isocreep curves. Considering the isocreep curves, the M5™ alloy shows a largely improved creep resistance compared to the recrystallized Zircaloy-4, especially for tubes under high hoop loadings (0 < β < 1). The isocreep curves are then compared with simulations performed using two different mechanical models. Model 1 uses a von Mises yield criterion, the model 2 is based on a Hill yield criterion. For both models, a coefficient derived from Norton law is used to assess the stress dependence.

  19. New experimental limits on violations of the Pauli exclusion principle obtained with the Borexino Counting Test Facility

    The Pauli exclusion principle (PEP) has been tested for nucleons (n,p) in 12C and 16O nuclei, using the results of background measurements with the prototype of the Borexino detector, the Counting Test Facility (CTF). The approach consisted of a search for γ, n, p and/or α's emitted in a non-Paulian transition of 1P- shell nucleons to the filled 1S1/2 shell in nuclei. Similarly, the Pauli-forbidden β± decay processes were searched for. Due to the extremely low background and the large mass (4.2 tons) of the CTF detector, the following most stringent up-to-date experimental bounds on PEP violating transitions of nucleons have been established: τ(12C→12C+γ)>2.1.1027y, τ(12C→11B+p)>5.0.1026y, τ(12C(16O)→11C(15O)+n)>3.7.1026y, τ(12C→8Be+α)>6.1.1023y, τ(12C→12N+e-+νe)>7.6.1027y and τ(12C→12B+e++νe)>7.7.1027y, all at 90 % C.L. (orig.)

  20. New experimental limits on violations of the Pauli exclusion principle obtained with the Borexino Counting Test Facility

    Back, H O; De Bari, A; De Bellefon, A; Bellini, G; Benziger, J; Bonetti, S; Buck, C; Caccianiga, B; Cadonati, L; Calaprice, F; Cecchet, G; Chen, M; Di Credico, A; Dadoun, O; D'Angelo, D; Derbin, A; Deutsch, M; Etenko, A; Von Feilitzsch, F; Fernholz, R; Ford, R; Franco, D; Freudiger, B; Galbiati, C; Gazzana, S; Giammarchi, M G; Goeger-Neff, M; Goretti, A; Grieb, C; Hampel, W; Harding, E; Hartmann, F X; Heusser, G; Ianni, A; Ianni, A M; De Kerret, H; Kiko, J; Kirsten, T; Kobychev, V V; Korga, G; Korschinek, G; Kozlov, Y; Kryn, D; Laubenstein, M; Lendvai, C; Leung, M; Litvinovich, E; Lombardi, P; Machulin, I; Malvezzi, S; Maneira, J; Manno, I; Manuzio, D; Manuzio, G; Masetti, F; Martemianov, A; Mazzucato, U; McCarty, K; Meroni, E; Mention, G; Miramonti, L; Monzani, M E; Muratova, V; Musico, P; Niedermeier, L; Oberauer, L; Obolensky, M; Ortica, F; Pallavicini, M; Papp, L; Perasso, L; Peiffer, P; Pocar, A; Raghavan, R S; Ranucci, G; Razeto, A; Sabelnikov, A; Salvo, C; Scardaoni, R; Schimizzi, D; Schönert, S; Simgen, H; Shutt, T A; Skorokhvatov, M; Smirnov, O; Sonnenschein, A; Sotnikov, A; Sukhotin, S; Suvorov, Y; Tarasenkov, V; Tartaglia, R; Testera, G; Vignaud, D; Vogelaar, R B; Vyrodov, V N; Wójcik, M; Zaimidoroga, O A; Zuzel, G

    2004-01-01

    The Pauli exclusion principle (PEP) has been tested for nucleons ($n,p$) in $^{12}C$ and $^{16}O$ nuclei, using the results of background measurements with the prototype of the Borexino detector, the Counting Test Facility (CTF). The approach consisted of a search for $\\gamma$, $n$, $p$ and/or $\\alpha$'s emitted in a non-Paulian transition of 1$P$- shell nucleons to the filled 1$S_{1/2}$ shell in nuclei. Similarly, the Pauli-forbidden $\\beta^{\\pm}$ decay processes were searched for. Due to the extremely low background and the large mass (4.2 tons) of the CTF detector, the following most stringent up-to-date experimental bounds on PEP violating transitions of nucleons have been established: $\\tau(^{12}C\\to^{12}\\widetilde{C}+\\gamma) > 2.1\\cdot10^{27}$ y, $\\tau(^{12}C\\to^{11}\\widetilde{B}+ p) > 5.0\\cdot10^{26}$ y, $\\tau(^{12}C(^{16}O)\\to^{11}\\widetilde{C}(^{15}\\widetilde{O})+ n) > 3.7 \\cdot 10^{26}$ y, $\\tau(^{12}C\\to^{8}\\widetilde{Be}+\\alpha) > 6.1 \\cdot 10^{23}$ y, $\\tau(^{12}C\\to^{12}\\widetilde{N}+ e^- + \\wid...

  1. Human papillomavirus testing in cervical cancer screening.

    Castle, Philip E; Cremer, Miriam

    2013-06-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) testing is more reliable and sensitive but less specific than Papanicolaou (Pap) testing/cervical cytology for the detection of cervical precancer and cancer. HPV-negative women are at lower risk of cervical cancer than Pap-negative women. In high-resource settings, HPV testing can be used to make cervical cancer prevention programs more efficient by focusing clinical attention on women who have HPV. In lower-resource settings, where Pap testing has not been sustained or widespread, new, lower-cost HPV tests may make cervical cancer screening feasible. PMID:23732037

  2. Time-dependent effect of p-Aminophenol (PAP) toxicity in renal slices and development of oxidative stress

    p-Aminophenol (PAP), a metabolite of acetaminophen, is nephrotoxic. This study investigated PAP-mediated changes as a function of time that occur prior to loss of membrane integrity. Experiments further evaluated the development of oxidative stress by PAP. Renal slices from male Fischer 344 (F344) rats (N = 4-6) were exposed to 0.1, 0.25, and 0.5 mM PAP for 15-120 min under oxygen and constant shaking at 37 oC. Pyruvate-stimulated gluconeogenesis, adenine nucleotide levels, and total glutathione (GSH) levels were diminished in a concentration- and time-dependent manner prior to detection of a rise in lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) leakage. Glutathione disulfide (GSSG) levels were increased by PAP suggesting the induction of oxidative stress. Western blot analysis confirmed a rise in 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE)-adducted proteins in tissues exposed to 0.1 and 0.25 mM PAP for 90 min. The appearance of 4-HNE-adducted proteins at the 0.1 mM concentration of PAP occurred prior to development of increased LDH leakage. Pretreatment with 1 mM glutathione (GSH) for 30 min only partially reduced PAP toxicity as LDH values were less severely depleted relative to tissues not pretreated with GSH. In contrast, pretreatment for 15 min with 2 mM ascorbic acid completely protected against PAP toxicity. Further studies showed that ascorbic acid pretreatment prevented PAP-mediated depletion of GSH. In summary, PAP rapidly depletes GSH and adenine nucleotides and inhibits gluconeogenesis prior to a rise in LDH leakage. PAP induces oxidative stress as indicated by an increase in GSSG and 4-HNE-adducted proteins. Ascorbic acid pretreatment prevents PAP toxicity by maintaining GSH status

  3. New experimental limits on violations of the Pauli exclusion principle obtained with the Borexino Counting Test Facility

    Back, H.O. [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State Univ., Physics Dept., Blacksburg (United States); Balata, M.; Credico, A. di [I.N.F.N Lab. Nazionali del Gran Sasso, Assergi (Italy); Bari, A. de; Cecchet, G. [Dipt. di Fisica Nucleare e Teorica Univ. and I.N.F.N., Pavia (Italy); Bellefon, A. de; Dadoun, O. [Lab. de Physique Corpusculaire et Cosmologie, Paris (France); Bellini, G.; Bonetti, S.; Caccianiga, B. [Dipt. di Fisica Univ. and I.N.F.N., Milano (Italy); Benziger, J.; Cadonati, L.; Calaprice, F. [Princeton Univ., Dept. of Physics, Princeton (United States); Buck, C. [Max-Planck-Inst. fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany); Chen, M. [Queen' s Univ. Stirling Hall, Dept. of Physics, Kingston, Ontario (Canada); D' Angelo, D.; Feilitzsch, F. von [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Garching (Germany); Derbin, A. [Joint Inst. for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Deutsch, M. [Dept. of Physics, Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge (United States); Etenko, A. [RRC Kurchatov Inst., Moscow (Russian Federation); Fernholz, R.; Ford, R.; Franco, D.; Freudiger, B.; Galbiati, C.; Gazzana, S.; Giammarchi, M.G.; Goeger-Neff, M.; Goretti, A.; Grieb, C.; Hampel, W.; Harding, E.; Hartmann, F.X.; Heusser, G.; Ianni, A.; Ianni, A.M.; Kerret, H. de; Kiko, J.; Kirsten, T.; Kobychev, V.V.; Korga, G.; Korschinek, G.; Kozlov, Y.; Kryn, D.; Laubenstein, M.; Lendvai, C.; Leung, M.; Itvinovich, E.L.; Lombardi, P.; Machulin, I.; Malvezzi, S.; Maneira, J.; Manno, I.; Manuzio, D.; Manuzio, G.; Masetti, F.; Martemianov, A.; Mazzucato, U.; McCarty, K.; Meroni, E.; Mention, G.; Miramonti, L.; Monzani, M.E.; Muratova, V.; Musico, P.; Niedermeier, L.; Oberauer, L.; Obolensky, M.; Ortica, F.; Pallavicini, M.; Papp, L.; Perasso, L.; Peiffer, P.; Pocar, A.; Raghavan, R.S.; Ranucci, G.; Razeto, A.; Sabelnikov, A.; Salvo, C.; Scardaoni, R.; Schimizzi, D.; Schoenert, S.; Simgen, H.; Shutt, T.; Skorokhvatov, M.; Smirnov, O.; Sonnenschein, A.; Sotnikov, A.; Sukhotin, S. [and others

    2004-11-01

    The Pauli exclusion principle (PEP) has been tested for nucleons (n,p) in {sup 12}C and {sup 16}O nuclei, using the results of background measurements with the prototype of the Borexino detector, the Counting Test Facility (CTF). The approach consisted of a search for {gamma}, n, p and/or {alpha}'s emitted in a non-Paulian transition of 1P- shell nucleons to the filled 1S{sub 1/2} shell in nuclei. Similarly, the Pauli-forbidden {beta}{sup {+-}} decay processes were searched for. Due to the extremely low background and the large mass (4.2 tons) of the CTF detector, the following most stringent up-to-date experimental bounds on PEP violating transitions of nucleons have been established: {tau}({sup 12}C{yields}{sup 12}C+{gamma})>2.1.10{sup 27}y, {tau}({sup 12}C{yields}{sup 11}B+p)>5.0.10{sup 26}y, {tau}({sup 12}C({sup 16}O){yields}{sup 11}C({sup 15}O)+n)>3.7.10{sup 26}y, {tau}({sup 12}C{yields}{sup 8}Be+{alpha})>6.1.10{sup 23}y, {tau}({sup 12}C{yields}{sup 12}N+e{sup -}+{nu}{sub e})>7.6.10{sup 27}y and {tau}({sup 12}C{yields}{sup 12}B+e{sup +}+{nu}{sub e})>7.7.10{sup 27}y, all at 90 % C.L. (orig.)

  4. Microspores irradiation in anther culture: testing a new technique to obtain mutations immediatly detected and fixed (Application to Nicotiana tabacum)

    In order to consider the effects of microspores irradiation on embryo development, and in order to observe the morphological responses of haploid plantlets derived from androgenetic anthers to ionizing irradiation, 1000, 1500 and 2000r of gamma rays were delivered on anthers of Nicotiana tabacum (DL50 range calculated: 1500r). The cytological studies of embryo development revealed an apparent increase in irradiated microspores: cell division is stimulated but followed by an early mortality. A sharp rise in lethality effects was observed when gamma rays were applied beyond the seventh day of culture, when the proembryo contains an average of 4 cells. Morphological aberrations and colour changes in the Mo progeny derived from irradiated microspores are diverse. But after chromosome doubling and mutation checking out, all the plants were not recorded to have transmitted their aberrant characters. Thus, heritable character 'mutations) and not heritable character (variations) were obtained. The variations characters include dwarfing, excessive branching, fasciation and dichotomy of the stems, altered flower form, especially of petals. As to the leaves, they usually show induced changes in their colour (chlorotic areas, mosaic-colour changes, or an over-all colour changes), in their form (irregularity in outline) and in their texture (thickening, hairless leaf). Among the mutants, a monster tobacco, with excrescences on the leaves and the flowers is certainly the most conspicuous. But mutants also include altered leaf colour (over-all pale green) and altered flower colour, (dark red, clear pink, white)

  5. A recursive spectral selection scheme for unsupervised segmentation of multispectral Pap smear image sets

    Zhao, Tong; Wachman, Elliot S.; Geyer, Stanley J.; Farkas, Daniel L.

    2004-07-01

    Efficient computer-aided cervical cancer detection can improve both the accuracy and the productivity of cytotechnologists and pathologists. Nuclear segmentation is essential to automated screening, and is still a challenge. We propose and demonstrate a novel approach to improving segmentation performance by multispectral imaging followed by unsupervised nuclear segmentation relying on selecting a useful subset of spectral or derived image features. In the absence of prior knowledge, feature selection can be negatively affected by the bias, present in most unsupervised segmentation, to erroneously segment out small objects, yielding ill-balanced class samples. To address this issue, we first introduce a new measurement, Criterion Vector (CV), measuring the distances between the segmentation result and the original data. This efficiently reduces the bias generated by feature selection. Second, we apply a novel recursive feature selection scheme, to generate a new feature subset based on the corresponding CV, ensuring that the correct part of the initial segmentation results is used to obtain better feature subsets. We studied the speed and accuracy of our two-step algorithm in analyzing a number of multispectral Pap smear image sets. The results show high accuracy of segmentation, as well as great reduction of spectral redundancy. The nuclear segmentation accuracy can reach over 90%, by selecting as few as 4 distinct spectra out of 30.

  6. Detection of pap, sfa, afa, foc, and fim Adhesin-Encoding Operons in Uropathogenic Escherichia coli Isolates Collected From Patients With Urinary Tract Infection

    Rahdar

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC with its virulence factors is the most prevalent cause of urinary tract infection (UTI. Objectives; This study aimed to determine the occurrence of fim, pap, sfa, and afa genes among 100 UPEC isolates collected from patients diagnosed with UTI. Materials and Methods A total of 100 UPEC isolates were obtained from urine samples of patients with UTI. The prevalence of 5 virulence genes encoding type 1 fimbriae (fimH, pili associated with pyelonephritis (pap, S and F1C fimbriae (sfa and foc and afimbrial adhesins (afa were determined through PCR method. We also investigated the phylogenetic background of all isolates. In addition, the distribution of adhesin-encoding operons between the phylogroups was assessed. Results The prevalence of genes encoding for fimbrial adhesive systems was 95% for fim, 57% for pap, 16% for foc, and 81% for sfa. The operons encoding for afa afimbrial adhesins were identified in 12% of isolates. The various combinations of detected genes were designated as virulence patterns. The fim gene, which occurred in strains from all phylogenetic groups (A, B1, B2, and D was evaluated and no significant differences were found among these groups. Conversely, significant differences were observed in relation to pap, afa, foc, and sfa operons. Conclusions These results indicate that the PCR method is a powerful genotypic assay for the detection of adhesin-encoding operons. Thus, this assay can be recommended for clinical use to detect virulent urinary E. coli strains, as well as epidemiological studies.

  7. Distribution of the P-associated-pilus (pap) region among Escherichia coli from natural sources: evidence for horizontal gene transfer.

    Plos, K; Hull, S I; Hull, R A; Levin, B R; Orskov, I; Orskov, F.; Svanborg-Edén, C

    1989-01-01

    Variation in chromosomal DNA in Escherichia coli was studied with probes specific for the P-associated-pilus (pap) region. The presence of DNA homologous to pap was determined by dot blots. Variation in the number of copies of pap and in the organization of internal and flanking sequences was determined by Southern blot hybridization. The 229 strains studied were also classified by O:K:H serotyping and multilocus enzyme electrophoresis. There was considerable heterogeneity in the presence of ...

  8. Structure and copy number of gene clusters related to the pap P-adhesin operon of uropathogenic Escherichia coli.

    Arthur, M; Campanelli, C; Arbeit, R D; Kim, C.; Steinbach, S; C. E. Johnson; Rubin, R H; Goldstein, R.

    1989-01-01

    The structurally related pap and prs operons of the uropathogenic Escherichia coli isolate J96 encode a P and an F adhesin that mediate bacterial attachment to the human P blood group antigen and the Forssman antigen, respectively. Using probes prepared from different segments of the pap operon, Southern blot hybridizations were performed to characterize pap-related sequences of 30 E. coli clinical isolates expressing different adhesin phenotypes. Gene clusters encoding P and F adhesins displ...

  9. Novel Molecular Variants of Allele I of the Escherichia coli P Fimbrial Adhesin Gene papG

    Johnson, James R.; Stell, Adam L.; Kaster, Nicholas; Fasching, Claudine; O'Bryan, Timothy T.

    2002-01-01

    P fimbriae of extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli mediate digalactoside-specific adherence via the tip adhesin molecule PapG, which occurs in three known variants (I to III), which are encoded by the corresponding three alleles of papG. In the present study, newly discovered variants of papG allele I and the respective wild-type source strains were characterized. One of the new papG allele I variants conferred a unique agglutination phenotype that combined the phenotypes associated wi...

  10. Importance of a 5′ Stem-Loop for Longevity of papA mRNA in Escherichia coli

    Bricker, Angela L.; Belasco, Joel G.

    1999-01-01

    High-level expression of the major pilus subunit (PapA) of uropathogenic strains of Escherichia coli results in part from the unusually long lifetime of the mRNA that encodes this protein. Here we report that the longevity of papA mRNA derives in large measure from the protection afforded by its 5′ untranslated region. This papA RNA segment can prolong the lifetime of an otherwise short-lived mRNA to which it is fused. In vivo alkylation studies indicate that, in its natural milieu, the papA ...