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  1. Pap Tests and Foreign-Born Women

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2007-11-26

    Foreign-born women living in the U.S. are less likely to have Pap tests to detect cervical cancer than women born in this country. The problem is worse for women from certain countries or regions. Find out why this is a disturbing trend, who these women are and why they are less likely to get a Pap test, and what CDC is doing about it.  Created: 11/26/2007 by National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program.   Date Released: 12/7/2007.

  2. Access to Adequate Healthcare for Hmong Women: A Patient Navigation Program to Increase Pap Test Screening

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    Moon S. Chen, Jr

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the development and implementation of a Hmong Cervical Cancer Intervention Program utilizing a patient navigation model to raise cervical cancer awareness for Hmong women through educational workshops and to assist Hmong women in obtaining a Pap test. Out of 402 women who participated in a baseline survey, the Patient Navigation Program was able to enroll 109 participants who had not had a Pap test in the past 3 years and had never had a Pap test. Through utilization of outreach, an awareness campaign and patient navigation support, at least 38 percent of 109 participants obtained a Pap test. Overall, 21 workshops and 43 outreach activities were conducted by the Hmong Womens Heritage Association, leading to 63 percent of those enrolled in the Patient Navigation Program who could be contacted to obtain a Pap test.

  3. Factors associated with pap testing among Hmong women.

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    Fang, Dao Moua; Lee, Serge; Stewart, Susan; Ly, May Ying; Chen, Moon S

    2010-08-01

    This paper reports the baseline data on the proportion of Hmong women (n=402), ages 18-65, in Sacramento, California who reported that they had a Pap test for the early detection of cervical cancer. We assessed the association between sociodemographic characteristics and Pap test receipt using chi-squared and multiple logistic regression analyses. Only 74% had ever had a Pap test, with 61% tested in the previous three years, compared with 91% and 86%, respectively, of California women overall. Women were more likely to have had a recent Pap test if they were age 21-30 (OR=3.0 vs. age 51-65, 95% CI 1.4-6.7) or 31-40 (OR=3.0, 95% CI 1.4-6.4), and less likely if they were single (OR=0.4 vs. married/partnered, 95% CI 0.2-1.0) or born in the U.S. (OR=0.3 vs. <10 years in U.S., 95% CI 0.1-0.8). PMID:20693730

  4. Health Literacy and Pap Testing in Insured Women

    OpenAIRE

    Mazor, K.M.; Williams, A E; Roblin, D.W.; Gaglio, B.; Cutrona, S.L.; Costanza, M E; Han, P.K.J.; Wagner, J L; Fouayzi, H.; Field, T. S.

    2014-01-01

    Several studies have found a link between health literacy and participation in cancer screening. Most, however, have relied on self-report to determine screening status. Further, until now, health literacy measures have assessed print literacy only. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between participation in cervical cancer screening (Papanicolaou [Pap] testing) and two forms of health literacy – reading and listening. A demographically diverse sample was recruited from...

  5. The characteristics and relevant factors of Pap smear test use for women with intellectual disabilities in Taiwan

    OpenAIRE

    Yen, Suh-May; Kung, Pei-Tseng; Tsai, Wen-Chen

    2014-01-01

    Background This study examines the Pap smear usage conditions and relevant influential factors for 18,204 women aged 30 years and above with intellectual disabilities, using nationwide data from 2008. Methods The research method of this study is secondary data analysis. The data was obtained from three nationwide databases from 2006 to 2008. This study employed descriptive statistics to analyze the use and rate of Pap smear testing by women with intellectual disabilities. Chi-square test was ...

  6. Negative HPV screening test predicts low cervical cancer risk better than negative Pap test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Based on a study that included more than 1 million women, investigators at NCI have determined that a negative test for HPV infection compared to a negative Pap test provides greater safety, or assurance, against future risk of cervical cancer.

  7. Pap Smear

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: Was this page helpful? Also known as: Pap Smear; Cervical Smear; Cervical/Vaginal Cytology Formal name: Papanicolaou Test Related tests: HPV Test ; Trichomonas Testing All content on Lab Tests Online has ... I should know? How is it used? A Pap test is primarily used to screen for cervical ...

  8. Evaluation of a nurse-designed mobile health education application to enhance knowledge of Pap testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Stacy

    2014-01-01

    An experimental study was conducted using a 2-group randomized control pretest/ posttest design to determine if knowledge about Pap testing could be increased through use of a nurse-designed mobile smartphone app developed to educate individuals about the Pap test. A 14-item pretest survey of knowledge about Pap tests was distributed to women attending a university in New England. Participants in the intervention group were provided with an Android device on which a digital health education application on Pap testing had been downloaded. The control group was given a standard pamphlet on Pap testing., Paired t test results demonstrated that knowledge scores on the posttest increased significantly in both groups, but were significantly higher in the intervention group. User satisfaction with the app was high. The results of this study may enhance nursing care by informing nurses about a unique way of learning about Pap testing to recommend to patients. PMID:25000742

  9. How Often to Get a Pap Test (A Cup of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-01-10

    Cervical cancer has declined in the U.S., and the decline is largely due to Pap testing and follow-up. Screening recommendations have changed. In this podcast, Meg Watson discusses Pap testing.  Created: 1/10/2013 by MMWR.   Date Released: 1/10/2013.

  10. Papanicolaou (Pap test screening of staff members of a tertiary care teaching hospital in South India

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    Amitabh Jena

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: In India, cancer cervix is the most common cancer among females. Papanicolaou cytological (Pap test helps in detecting the early epithelial abnormalities in cervical cells. Material and Methods: Pap smears of female health care staff members (n=80who underwent voluntary Pap test as part of a screening programme,from January to June 2012 were evaluated. Pap smears were evaluated by light microscopy. The 2001 Bethesda system for reporting cervical cytology was used in evaluating the pap smears. Results: Their mean age was 41.3 ± 5.6 years. Epithelial cell abnormality was noted in the Pap smear in 5 (6.3% cases. Conclusion: Our observations provide supportive evidence for using Pap test as a tool for screening for cervical cancer. There is a need for enhancing the awareness among lay public regarding the utility of this test so that more women will avail this test and precancerous changes in cervix can be detected before they progress to frank malignancy.

  11. Use of Schiller's test versus Pap smear to increase detection rate of cervical dysplasias

    OpenAIRE

    Ramaraju H. E.; Nagaveni Y. C.; A. A. Khazi

    2016-01-01

    Background: Application of Lugols iodine to cervix (Schillers test) is named as Visual Inspection of cervix after applying Lugols Iodine (VILI). VILI improves the detection rate of suspicious area over the cervix. The objectives of the study was to screening for early carcinoma or Dysplasia cervix by Schiller's test and Pap smear and to compare the results of Schiller's test with Pap smear results. Methods: The present prospective randomized control trials study was undertaken among 500 ...

  12. Attitude Concerning the Pap Smear Test of Women Who Admitted to the Family Medicine Outpatient Clinic

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    Ak M et al.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: In this trial, we evaluated women’s knowledge and behavior concerning the Pap smear test. Material and Method: Women attending to the family medicine outpatient clinic in between April 1 to May 30 irrespective of their complaints included in the study in Dogansehir, Malatya, Turkey. Sociodemographic data form was filled by trained personnel. Questions regarding whether they heard about the Pap smear test, have ever taken it, if not what were the reasons, what are the indications of the Pap smear test were asked. 139 women accepted to participate in the study. 46,8% had heard and 54,2 % didn’t hear about the Pap smear test. The source of information was 57% from health professionals 26% from the media, and 14% from the neighbors. Those who were informed about the Pap smear test from health professionals undertook it more than others. Media was the second effective source and neighbors were ineffective in context to Pap smear test being done Results: As a result preventive medicine has a distinct position in the primary care. Cervical malignancy of the urogenital tract is one of the rare preventable cancers by screening tests. In the primary care set up every effort should be supported in order to improve the awareness of women particularly who are at the risk group.

  13. Rates and independent correlates of Pap smear testing among Korean-American women.

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    Wismer, B A; Moskowitz, J M; Chen, A M; Kang, S H; Novotny, T E; Min, K; Lew, R; Tager, I B

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study reports population estimates of Pap smear testing among Korean-American women and evaluates correlates of testing. METHODS: Korean Americans in 2 California counties were surveyed by telephone. Frequencies were age-adjusted to the 1990 census to produce population estimates of testing. Logistic regression models were used to evaluate independent correlates of testing RESULTS: Only 50% of the Korean-American women surveyed had a Pap test in the previous 2 years. The strongest independent correlate was having had a regular check-up in the previous 2 years (odds ratio 7.2, 95% confidence interval 4.2, 12.1). CONCLUSIONS: Rates of Pap testing among Korean-American women are well below national objectives. Collaboration and community-sensitive research are essential to collect data and design programs to improve the health of ethnic minority communities. PMID:9551013

  14. A Shandon PapSpin liquid-based gynecological test: A split-sample and direct-to-vial test with histology follow-up study

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    Rimiene J

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Studies for liquid-based Papanicolaou (Pap tests reveal that liquid-based cytology (LBC is a safe and effective alternative to the conventional Pap smear. Although there is research on ThinPrep and SurePath systems, information is lacking to evaluate the efficiency and effectiveness of systems based on cytocentrifugation. This study is designed to determine the sensitivity and specificity of the Shandon PapSpin (ThermoShandon, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA liquid-based gynecological system. We used split-sample and direct-to-vial study design. Materials and Methods: 2,945 women referred to prophylactic check-up were enrolled in this study. Split sample design was used in 1,500 women and residual cervical cytology specimen from all these cases was placed in fluid for PapSpin preparation after performing conventional smear. The direct-to-vial study was carried out in another cohort of 1,445 women in whom the entire cervical material was investigated using only the PapSpin technique. Follow up histological diagnoses for 141 women were obtained from both study arms following 189 abnormal cytology cases. 80 LBC cases from the split sample group and 61 LBC cases in the direct-to-vial group were correlated with the histology results. The sensitivity and secificity of the conventional smear and PapSpin tests in both study arms were compared. Results: In the split sample group, conventional smears showed a higher proportion of ASC-US (atypical cells undetermined significance: 31 (2.1% vs 10 (0.7% in PapSpin (P = 0.001. A higher proportion of unsatisfactory samples was found in the conventional smear group: 25 (1.7% vs 6 (0.4% cases (P = 0.001. In the split sample group, the sensitivity of the conventional and PapSpin tests was 68.7% vs 78.1%, and the specificity 93.8% vs 91.8%, respectively. In the direct to vial group PapSpin sensitivity was 75.9% and specificity 96.5%. The differences in sensitivity and specificity were not significant. The positive predictive values for the conventional and PapSpin methods were not different in the split sample group: 88.0% vs 86.2% and 95.7% in the direct-to-vial group. Also, no differences were found for negative predictive value (82.1, 86.8% and 80.0% respectively. Conclusions: PapSpin showed good qualitative results in both study arms, even after the material splitting in the first study arm, and is a good alternative to the conventional Pap smear. Additionally, the PapSpin method offers several advantages such as the opportunity to prepare duplicate slides, option for HPV DNA testing and cell block preparations from residual material. Microscopic evaluation of thinner cell preparations is less time consuming than the conventional Pap smears.

  15. Predictive Capability of HPV and Pap Tests in Screening for Cervical Cancer over a Three-Year Follow-up.

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    Girianelli, Vania Reis; Thuler, Luiz Claudio Santos; Azevedo E Silva, Gulnar

    2016-03-01

    Purpose To compare the predictive capability of HPV and Pap smear tests for screening pre-cancerous lesions of the cervix over a three-year follow-up, in a population of users of the Brazilian National Health System (SUS). Methods This is a retrospective cohort study of 2,032 women with satisfactory results for Pap smear and HPV tests using second-generation hybrid capture, made in a previous study. We followed them for 36 months with data obtained from medical records, the Cervix Cancer Information System (SISCOLO), and the Mortality Information System (SIM). The outcome was a histological diagnosis of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 or more advanced lesions (CIN2+). We constructed progression curves of the baseline test results for the period, using the Kaplan-Meier method, and estimated sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value, and positive and negative likelihood ratios for each test. Results A total of 1,440 women had at least one test during follow-up. Progression curves of the baseline test results indicated differences in capability to detect CIN2+ (p Pap smear (88.7% and 73.6%, respectively; p < 0.05) and had a better negative likelihood ratio (0.13 and 0.30, respectively). Specificity and positive likelihood ratio of the tests were similar. Conclusions These findings corroborate the importance of HPV test as a primary cervical cancer screening. PMID:27022786

  16. [The understanding of users of a Family Health Unit about the pap smear test].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Smalyanna Sgren da Costa; da Silva, Fernanda Maria Chianca; Sousa e Silva, Maria do Socorro; Oliveira, Simone Helena dos Santos; Leite, Kamila Nethielly Souza; de Sousa, Merifane Januário

    2013-08-01

    In the attempt to prevent cervical cancer, various preventive measures have been instituted, notable among which is the pap smear test, which fulfills the function of early detection of cancer cells or their precursors. Therefore, the objective was to investigate the discourse on the knowledge, feelings and expectations of women regarding the pap smear test. This is an exploratory qualitative approach, conducted with ten users of a Integrated Family Health Unit in the city of João Pessoa in the State of Paraíba. Data collection was conducted through recorded interviews in April 2011. Eight core ideas were identified: prevention of disease; self-motivated search, search recommended by another person; sense of shame and embarrassment, sensation of pain, feeling of satisfaction; conversations during the examination and exchange of knowledge about women's health. Based on the reports, there are many difficulties to be overcome to ensure greater adherence of women to the pap smear test. PMID:23896912

  17. Frequency of Undergoing Mammogram and Pap Test Among Healthcare Providers in Hospitals of Hamadan

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    Nasrolahi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background The Mammograms and Papanicolaou (Pap test of women aged 25 to 64 years are Iran’s national strategy for breast and cervical cancer screening, respectively. Widespread primary care services are supplied through a network of primary health centers; nonetheless, little is known about breast and cervical cancer screening-related practices among healthcare workers in hospitals. Objectives The present study aimed to investigate the frequency of undergoing breast and cervical cancer screening among Iranian healthcare providers. Materials and Methods In this cross-sectional study, 460 female healthcare providers from four public hospitals in Hamadan were recruited. Data were collected using a questionnaire, which included socio-demographic characteristics, family history of breast and cervical cancers, and history of undergoing mammography and Pap smear test. Results The rate of positive family history of breast cancer was 15.6%. The mean age at undergoing the first mammogram was 40.7 ± 3.9 years and the mean number of lifetime mammographies was 1.12 ± 0.33. From 460 women in this study, 42.6% had undergone mammography. Specialist physicians had undergone mammography more frequently than other healthcare providers had done. Only 72 participants (15.6% had positive family history of breast cancer among which 15 (62.5 % had undergone mammography. The frequency of undergoing mammography was significantly different among different healthcare providers (χ 2 = 12.16; P = 0.007 and positive family history of breast cancer were significant. A total of 268 cases out of 420 had the positive history of undergoing Pap test. The mean age at undergoing the first screening was 27.9 ± 4.6 years and the mean number of lifetime Pap test was 1.64 ± 0.92. Most of the midwives (88.1% had undergone Pap test; the rate was 77.8% in specialist physicians, 61.8% in nurses, and 51.7% in general practitioner. Only 14 out of 420 respondents had positive family history of cervical cancer among which 13 (92.9% had undergone Pap rest. The frequency of undergoing Pap test was significantly different among different healthcare providers (χ2 = 12.16, P = 0.007 and positive family history of cervical cancer among those older than 40 years (χ2 = 7.24, P = 0.02 were significant. Conclusions Screening for gynecologic cancer is important in early diagnosis and women wellbeing. The acceptance of cancer screening test was low in most of the healthcare providers. The attitude and practice of healthcare provider can affect women’s acceptance of cancer screening test.

  18. How Often to Get a Pap Test (A Minute of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-01-10

    Cervical cancer has declined in the U.S., however every year over 12,000 women are diagnosed and 4,000 die. This podcast discusses the importance of Pap testing.  Created: 1/10/2013 by MMWR.   Date Released: 1/10/2013.

  19. Factors associated with Mexican women's familiarity with the purpose of the Pap test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Njera Aguilar, P; Lazcano Ponce, E C; de Ruz, P A; Ramrez Snchez, T; Cantoral Uriza, L; Hernndez Avila, M

    1996-12-01

    Use of health services is usually associated with a variety of factors, including the socioeconomic characteristics of the users, their familiarity with the usefulness of the services provided, and the acceptability and accessibility of those services. To study the factors associated with women's familiarity with the Pap test, a population-based study was carried out in Mexico City and two rural areas in the state of Oaxaca by means of household interviews. The sample consisted of 4208 women 15 to 49 years of age. Univariate, bivariate, and multivariate analyses were done using unconditional logistic regression; the independent variables were access to social security health services, age, education, housing quality, and place of residence (urban or rural); the dependent variable was the interview subject's familiarity with the purpose of the Pap test. The results were expressed as odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals. It was found that 41.5% of the women surveyed did not know the purpose of the Pap test, and that within this latter group, 97% had never had one. Factors found to be associated with not knowing the test's purpose were lack of access to the social security health services (OR = 1.9; 95% CI: 1.5-2.3); illiteracy (OR = 36.1; 95% CI: 17.9-72.7); and low socioeconomic level (OR = 2.9; 95% CI: 2.3-3.7). Also, rural dwellers had less familiarity with the Pap test than urban dwellers (OR = 0.5; 95% CI: 0.4-0.7). These results highlight the need to develop strategies for making the benefits of the Pap test known, bearing in mind the socioeconomic and cultural diversity of the populations involved. PMID:9041746

  20. Current approach of health employees in Turkey to pap smear test

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    Hakan Yetimalar

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Our primary aim was to detect how much importance is given to pap smear test by the health staff.Material and Methods: In this study inquiries including questions about age, marital status, occupation, attitude for applying to gynecology polyclinics as well as questions regarding their knowledge about and attitude to pap smear test and HPV vaccination were delivered to health staff as well as to a control group which was formed from patients applying to our polyclinics.Results: Neither of the groups applied for gynecologic control without having complaints.There was no significant difference between the groups when the rates of having smear test at least once were taken into consideration. In this study we detected that the smear test was not offered routinely to nearly half of the patients.Those patients who were offered the smear test had the test by significantly higher rates. 91,17% of the women in the study group had heard about HPV vaccination.Discussion: The awareness of health staff as well as the non-health staff population about pap smear test is far from adequate in Turkey. Furthermore, gynecologists do not offer smear tests to their patients efficiently.This situation may prevent the reduction of cervical malignancies in the near future.

  1. [Factors associated with failure to take a Pap smear test among Quilombola women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Mrcio Vasconcelos; Guimares, Mark Drew Crosland; Frana, Elisabeth Barboza

    2014-11-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze factors associated with failure to take a Pap smear test among quilombola women living in Vitria da Conquista in the state of Bahia. A cross-sectional, population-based study was conducted with women aged 18 to 64. Descriptive analysis and univariate and multivariate analysis using a multinomial logistic model was applied. Women who had never performed the test or had not had one for over three years were compared separately from those who were examined within the preceding three years. Of the 348 women included in the analysis, 27.3%, reported never having a Pap smear test. The following factors were independently associated with never having taken the test: age of 18 to 29 years and 50 to 59 years; lack of education; not having a partner; seeking care in health-related units/establishments other than their place of residence; and having a clinical breast examination three or more years ago or never having one. The findings indicate a need for reflection in order to combat factors that are associated with not having a Pap smear test among quilombola women, since it is important to implement actions for the prevention of cervical cancer. PMID:25351319

  2. Pap Smear Screening Test and it’s Applications in Cervical Cancer Detection and Classification

    OpenAIRE

    S.Athinarayanan; Dr.M.V.Srinath

    2013-01-01

    A large group of women population, in the world is affected by the cervical cancer in their different age groups. Hence, most of the researchers, pathologists and also more number of collegiate have provided more number of solutions, to identify this cancer from the test images of pap smear screening test. But their results represent, only to an extent, whether the patient is affected by cancer or not, and do not specially identify the exact nature and severity of the cancer. In this paper, i...

  3. Pemphigus vulgaris of the cervix: diagnostic difficulties associated with the Pap test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munhoz de Paula Alves Coelho, Karina; Stall, Jaqueline; Henrique Condeixa de França, Paulo; Cristina de Carvalho Tavares, Lara; Stefanello Bublitz, Giuliano; Loos, Beliza; Carvalho Costa, Luciana; Fronza Júnior, Hercílio

    2015-08-01

    Pemphigus vulgaris (PV) is a rare mucocutaneous disease caused by the abnormal production of antibodies against epithelial cell surface glycoproteins, resulting in loss of cell adhesion and intraepithelial blister formation. Cervical involvement in PV has been poorly reported, and there is little information regarding the criteria about consequential cytological changes identified in a Papanicolaou-stained cervicovaginal smear (Pap smear). Here, we report a case of PV manifesting in the cervix as well as the difficulty associated with the cytomorphological identification and interpretation of acantholytic cells. This case involved a 40-year-old patient with no history of Pap test abnormalities and no prior diagnosis of PV. In the cytological assessment, cells were identified both in isolation and in clusters that exhibited round nuclei of increased volume, inconspicuous nucleoli, and perinuclear halos. The patient underwent a cervical biopsy that revealed vesiculobullous lesions and morphological pattern consistent with PV. A skin biopsy confirmed this diagnosis. We concluded that knowledge of PV cytomorphology is important because difficulties associated with the identification and interpretation of acantholytic cells might be responsible for false positive diagnoses of cervical neoplasia. However, a suspected diagnosis of PV is possible if the cytological findings are carefully correlated with the clinical data. PMID:25728997

  4. Mammography and Pap test screening among low-income foreign-born Hispanic women in the USA

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    Maria E. Fernandez

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about the factors influencing screening among low-income Hispanic women particularly among recent immigrants. A sample of 148 low-income, low-literate, foreign-born Hispanic women residing in the Washington DC metropolitan area participated in the study. The mean age of the sample was 46.2 (SD = 11.5, 84% reported annual household incomes<=$15,000. All women were Spanish speakers and had low acculturation levels. Ninety six percent had reported having a Pap smear, but 24% were not in compliance with recommended screening (Pap test within the last 3 years. Among women 40 and older, 62% had received a mammogram, but only 33% were compliant with age appropriate recommended mammography screening guidelines. Women in this study had more misconceptions about cancer than Hispanics in other studies. Multivariate logistic models for correlates of Pap test and mammography screening behavior indicate that factors such as fear of the screening test, embarrassment, and lack of knowledge influenced screening behavior. In conclusion, women in this study had lower rates of mammography screening than non-Hispanic women and lower rates of compliance with recommended Mammography and Pap test screening guidelines.

  5. Cmo afecta el tipo de seguro de salud a la realizacin del Papanicolaou en Per? / How does type of health insurance affect receipt of Pap testing in Peru?

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Leslie, Barrionuevo-Rosas; Laia, Palncia; Carme, Borrell.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Describir la asociacin entre la realizacin de la citologa del cuello uterino y el tipo de seguro de salud en las mujeres peruanas, y determinar el papel de las variables sociodemogrficas y de salud sexual en esta relacin. MTODOS: Se realiz un estudio transversal que utiliza la infor [...] macin de la Encuesta Demogrfica y de Salud Familiar (ENDES), Per, 2005-2008, correspondiente a una seleccin de 12 272 mujeres de 30 a 49 aos de edad. La variable dependiente fue la realizacin de alguna prueba de Papanicolaou (PAP) en los ltimos 5 aos. Las variables independientes principales fueron el tipo de seguro de salud, el nivel educativo, el nivel socioeconmico del hogar, la etnia y el rea de residencia. La asociacin multivariada fue estimada a travs de la razn de prevalencias, utilizando la regresin Poisson con varianza robusta. RESULTADOS: Se encontr que 62,7% de las mujeres sexualmente activas se haban realizado algn PAP en los ltimos 5 aos. Este porcentaje de participacin variaba segn el tipo de seguro de salud, donde las mujeres con seguro pblico tenan 1,27 (intervalo de confianza de 95% [IC95%]: 1,24-1,31) y las que tenan seguro privado 1,52 (IC95%:1,46-1,58) veces mayor probabilidad de haberse realizado un PAP que aquellas sin seguro. Esta asociacin era explicada predominantemente por las variables de posicin socioeconmica. Asimismo las mujeres que tenan la participacin ms baja eran las analfabetas o con educacin primaria, de nivel socioeconmico bajo, con antecedente de lengua indgena y que vivan en la zonas rurales-siendo esta brecha an mayor cuando adems carecan de seguro de salud, llegando a ser hasta la tercera parte en relacin con los grupos sociales ms favorecidos. CONCLUSIONES: Se hallaron desigualdades segn el tipo de seguro de salud en la realizacin del PAP, siendo las mujeres sin seguro las que menos lo utilizaron, lo cual supone una barrera para el acceso al cribado de cncer de crvix en Per. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: Describe the association between receipt of cervical cytology and type of health insurance in Peruvian women, and determine the role of sociodemographic and sexual health variables in this relationship. METHODS: A cross-sectional study using information on a sample of 12 272 women aged 30 [...] to 49 years from the Demographic and Family Health Survey (ENDES), Peru, 2005-2008. The dependent variable was receipt of at least one Pap smear in the last five years. The primary independent variables were type of health insurance, educational level, household socioeconomic level, ethnicity, and place of residence. Prevalence ratio, obtained from Poisson regression with robust variance, was used to measure multivariate association. RESULTS: Among sexually active women, 62.7% had received at least one Pap test in the last five years. Percentage of women tested varied by type of health insurance. Women with public or private insurance had a greater probability of having received a Pap smear-1.27 (95% CI, 1.24-1.31) and 1.52 (95% CI, 1.46-1.58) times greater, respectively-than uninsured women. This association was primarily explained by socioeconomic status variables. In addition, women who participated the least in screening were characterized by illiteracy or only a primary education, low socioeconomic level, speaking an indigenous language, and living in a rural area. When they also lacked health insurance, the gap widened, rising to as much as one third compared to more advantaged social groups. CONCLUSIONS: Inequalities were found in receipt of Pap testing according to type of health insurance; women without insurance were least likely to be screened, implying existence of a barrier to cervical cancer screening in Peru.

  6. Estimation of Pap-test coverage in an area with an organised screening program: challenges for survey methods

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    Raggi Patrizio

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The cytological screening programme of Viterbo has completed the second round of invitations to the entire target population (age 25–64. From a public health perspective, it is important to know the Pap-test coverage rate and the use of opportunistic screening. The most commonly used study design is the survey, but the validity of self-reports and the assumptions made about non respondents are often questioned. Methods From the target population, 940 women were sampled, and responded to a telephone interview about Pap-test utilisation. The answers were compared with the screening program registry; comparing the dates of Pap-tests reported by both sources. Sensitivity analyses were performed for coverage over a 36-month period, according to various assumptions regarding non respondents. Results The response rate was 68%. The coverage over 36 months was 86.4% if we assume that non respondents had the same coverage as respondents, 66% if we assume they were not covered at all, and 74.6% if we adjust for screening compliance in the non respondents. The sensitivity and specificity of the question, "have you ever had a Pap test with the screening programme" were 84.5% and 82.2% respectively. The test dates reported in the interview tended to be more recent than those reported in the registry, but 68% were within 12 months of each other. Conclusion Surveys are useful tools to understand the effectiveness of a screening programme and women's self-report was sufficiently reliable in our setting, but the coverage estimates were strongly influenced by the assumptions we made regarding non respondents.

  7. Factors related to failure to attend the consultation to receive the results of the Pap smear test

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    Camila Teixeira Moreira Vasconcelos

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to identify the factors related to the failure of women to attend the follow-up consultation to receive the results of the Pap smear test.METHOD: a cross-sectional study, carried out with 775 patients who underwent the Pap smear test in the Centro de Saúde da Família of Fortaleza, between September 2010 and February 2011.RESULTS: the majority of the women studied were young (≤35 years, had low levels of education (≤7 years of study, and commenced sexual activity early (≤20 years, with 17.0% of them failing to return to receive the test results. Statistically significant results for the failure to return were related to: young women (p=0.001; early onset of sexual activity (p=0.047; and inadequate knowledge about the Pap smear test (p=0.029. Conclusion the fact that the women failed to return for the result is a problem for the control of cervical cancer and must be addressed through educational strategies that reinforce the importance of the return for the early detection of this cancer.

  8. HPV DNA and Pap smear test results in cases with and without cervical pathology

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    Sabit Sinan Özalp

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of the study was to determine the HPV prevalance and its relation to Pap smear, colposcopy and colposcopy directed biopsy in our region of Eskisehir, Turkey.Material and Methods: A total of 615 women who applied to the outpatient clinic between December 2009 and December 2010 constituted our study population. All patients underwent pelvic examination and Pap smear sampling. Patients who had pathological cervical appearance or Pap smear results of ASCUS, AGUS, LSIL or HSIL were referred to colposcopy. Cervical samples for HPV DNA were taken from the patients before Pap smear sampling during the routine examination or before the colposcopic evaluation. Results: Twenty six of 615 patients (4% were HPV positive. Of these 26 patients, 12 were positive for HPV type 16, 3 for type 18, 3 for type 51, 2 for type 6, 1 for type 52, 1 for type 33, 1 for type 16 and type 31, 1 for type 6 and 52, 1 for type 56 and 90, 1 for type 39 and 66. In 4 patients with cervical cancer, and in 3 of 4 CIN III cases both HPV DNA and Pap smear were positive. In the Pap smear examination of 615 patients, cytology revealed 35 ASCUS (5.6% 4 AGUS (0.6%, 2 CIN I (0.3% results who were negative for HPV DNA. These patients with abnormal cytology (n=41 underwent colposcopy directed biopsy, there were 3 CIN I and 1 CIN III and all the other cervical biopsy results of these patients were benign (inflammation, chronic cervicitis. Conclusion: HPV positivity in our hospital setting is low which is compatible with other studies in Turkey. In positive HPV cases there is a good correlation between HPV type and positive cervical biopsy results.

  9. The Effect of Education on Women's Practice Based on the Health Belief Model About Pap Smear Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirzadeh, Asiyeh; Mazaheri, Maryam Amidi

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Cervical cancer is the most common gynecological cancer in Iran. The single most effective tool in reducing death due to cervical cancer is the use of pap smear as a screening tool. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of education based on Health Belief Model about giving pap smear in women. Methods: This quasi-experimental study was performed on 70 women who referred to two health center in Kouhdasht (Lorestan- Iran). The samples were randomly divided in two groups (35 in intervention group and 35 in control group). The data were collected by a validated and reliable questionnaire. Interventions were run based on Health Belief Model during three sessions only for intervention group. Each educational session was for 4560 min. The independent t-test and paired t-test were used to analyze data. A two-tailed P value lower than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Result: According to results, the mean scores of knowledge were significantly different between two groups after intervention (P < 0.001). The mean scores of the model variables (perceived susceptibility and severity, perceived benefits, and barriers) had no significant difference in the two groups before intervention, but after intervention had significant difference between the two groups (P < 0.001). Conclusion: Designing and executing health education programs based on health belief model can promote the practice of women regarding to pap smear tests. PMID:22973490

  10. A molecular monopoly? HPV testing, the Pap smear and the molecularisation of cervical cancer screening in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogarth, Stuart; Hopkins, Michael M; Rodriguez, Victor

    2012-02-01

    DNA-based molecular testing for human papillomavirus has emerged as a novel approach to cervical cancer screening in the context of well-entrenched existing technology, the Pap smear. This article seeks to elucidate the process of molecularisation in the context of screening programmes. We illustrate how, although Pap has long been problematised and could be seen as a competing technological option, the existing networks and regime for Pap were important in supporting the entrenchment process for the artefacts, techniques and new diagnostics industry entrant, Digene, associated with the new test. The article provides insights into how the molecularisation of screening unfolds in a mainstream market. We reveal an incremental and accretive, rather than revolutionary, process led by new commercial interests in an era when diagnostic innovation is increasingly privatised. We show Digene's reliance on patents, an international scientific network and their position as an obligatory point of passage in the clinical research field with regard to the new technology's role, as well as on controversial new marketing practices. The article is based on a mixed method approach, drawing on a wide range of contemporary sources (including patents, statutory filings by companies, scientific literature and news sources) as well as interviews. PMID:22118240

  11. The frequency of having pap-smear tests among women between 15-64 years old and the evaluation of the level of their knowledge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To determine the frequency of Pap smear testing among women and to evaluate their level of knowledge about the test and other relevant factors. Methods: The study comprised women who presented to the Gynaecology and Obstetrics Polyclinic of Sakarya Training and Research Hospital, Turkey, between April 1 and 30, 2012. The questionnaire was developed in line with the objectives of the study. They were filled by the participants who were supervised during the process. Women who had had at least one Pap smear test in life were considered to have taken a Pap smear test, and those who had heard of the test were accepted as women who knew of the Pap smear test. Data was analysed using SPSS 15.0. Chi-square test was used for analyses, and statistical significance was set at p<0.05. Results: The age of 601 subjects ranged between 15 and 64 years, with a mean of 31.09+-10.49 years. Of the total, 115 (19.1%) had taken a Pap smear test before and 293 (48.8%) knew of the test. The proportion of the women who had had a Pap smear test was higher among those who were over 30 years of age (n=73; 63.47%), had post-high school educational degrees (n=68; 59.13%), had moderate familial income status (n=74; 64.34%), were married (n=109; 94.78%), had first sexual experience after 25 years of age(n=42; 36.52%), and were not using a contraceptive method (n=97; 84.34%) (p<0.05 for each). Besides, more women with previous knowledge of the test had taken the test (p<0.05). Conclusion: The subjects did not have sufficient information on Pap smear and the frequency of having a test was low. Raising awareness would prove beneficial. (author)

  12. Clinical application of the SurePath liquid-based Pap test in cytological screening of bronchial brushing for the diagnosis of lung cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Fan, Yi-Bo; Wang, Qing-shan; Ye, Lin; Wang, Tian-Yu; Wu, Guang-ping

    2010-01-01

    The SurePath liquid-based Pap test (LPT) is successfully and widely used to assess sputum cytology. This study aimed to compare the cytological findings and diagnostic sensitivity of LPT with those of the conventional Pap smear (CPS) method for diagnosing lung cancer. Bronchial brushing specimens from 204 patients diagnosed with lung cancer were studied. LPT slides showed decreased areas of cell monolayers, a clearer background and distinct, stereoscopic cytological features. The LPT had a si...

  13. Cytohistological correlation and accuracy of the pap smear test in diagnosis of cervical lesions: a hospital based cross-sectional study from Odisha, India

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    Reena Naik

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Cervical carcinoma is one of the most common causes of mortality among women.Early detection can be done by Papanicolaou (Papsmear test - a simplest, safe, cost effective and non invasive procedure. The main objective of this study was to categorize Pap smears for cytohistologicalexamination as well as clinically correlate to analyze sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive value of Pap smear. Methods In this prospective study 417 Pap smears performed, cytohistological correlation was done in 104 cases because patients had undergone both Pap smear and cervical biopsy.Detailed history was taken and clinical examination was done. Pap smear sample was collected from cervix and reporting was made according to Bethesda 2001 classification.Cytological findings were correlated with histopathology. Results Overall concordance rate was 60.7%. Concordance rate for malignancy was 100%, for inflammatory lesions 70.8% and for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN 33.3%. Common age group presented for screening was40-50 years.Commonest clinical presentationwas bleeding per vaginum. Conclusion The study provides good cyto-histopathology correlation in detecting high grade lesions and malignancy. Although Pap smear sensitivity was low but can be increased by adequate sampling and avoiding technical errors.Bethesda system is strongly recommended for adequacy of sampling to minimize inconsistency.Regular screening should be advised to the patients for the early detection of cervical carcinoma.

  14. La coloración fluorescente con naranja de acridina y el PAP: validación de ambas técnicas para la detección de Trichomonas vaginalis FLUORESCENT STAINING WITH ACRIDINE ORANGE AND PAP SMEAR: VALIDATION TESTS OF BOTH TECNIQUES FOR THE DETECTION OF Trichomonas vaginalis

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    SIXTO RAUL COSTAMAGNA

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available Se efectuó la validación de la coloración de Papanicolaou, utilizada para citología vaginal, frente a la coloración fluorescente con naranja de acridina, a fin de evaluar el valor de un resultado negativo para Trichomonas vaginalis obtenido en un PAP. Se estudiaron 80 muestras de flujo vaginal de mujeres entre 18 y 45 años, pacientes de consultorios externos de Ginecología del Hospital Municipal de la ciudad de Bahía Blanca, Provincia de Buenos Aires (Argentina. Las muestras se colorearon paralelamente por la técnica de Papanicolaou y por la coloración fluorescente con naranja de acridina. Los resultados mostraron que el PAP presenta una sensibilidad del 54,5% para la detección de T. vaginalis, validación efectuada frente a la coloración fluorescente con naranja de acridina, para una prevalencia de enfermedad en el grupo de mujeres estudiadas del 13,75% y un nivel de confianza del 95%. Para ensayos "en paralelo" con ambas coloraciones, el valor global de la prueba fue del 93,8%, con un valor predictivo del resultado negativo del 93,2%. Concluimos que si bien T. vaginalis es detectada en el PAP, éste no presenta sensibilidad significativamente elevada como para ser considerada como única prueba, debiéndose complementar siempre con una coloración fluorescente con naranja de acridina, u otra prueba de similar valorThe present study examined the validity of PAP staining, as used for vaginal cytology, against fluorescent staining with acridine orange in order to determine the value of a negative result of Trichomonas vaginalis obtained by a PAP smear. We examined eighty vaginal-secretion samples from 18- to 45-year-old female patients of the Hospital Municipal of the city of Bahía Blanca, Province of Buenos Aires, Argentina. The samples were stained in parallel by the PAP smear technique and the fluorescent staining technique with acridine orange described by Fripp in 1975. The results of our validation tests demonstrated that, against fluorescent staining with acridine orange, the PAP smear has a 54.5% sensitivity for the detection of T. vaginalis for a 13.75% prevalence of disease among the females in the study with a 95% confidence level. In assays conducted "in parallel" for both stainings, the global value of the test was 93.8%, with a predictive negative value of 93.2%. We conclude that, although the PAP smear can detect T. vaginalis, its sensitivity is not high enough for the test to be used as the sole diagnostic means and the test must always be supplemented with fluorescent staining with acridine orange or another test of similar value. Otherwise, the diagnostic sensitivity would not be any higher than that of vaginal discharge exams in vitro.

  15. Plastic spatula with narrow long tip provides higher satisfactory smears for Pap test

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    Pervinder Kaur

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ayre spatula for cervical smear collection is being used despite the suggestion that different modified spatulas provide more satisfactory sampling. Aims: To see whether the cytological pickup improves with the use of long tipped spatula. Setting and Design: Rurally based University Hospital; crossover study. Materials and Methods: Pap smear using Ayre spatula in 500 and with plastic narrow long tip (Szalay spatula in 500 clinic attending women was taken and analyzed. Crossover smears were taken with modified spatula in 163 and using Ayre spatula in 187 women after 2 weeks of initial smears. The same pathologist made cytological reporting for all smears and was unaware of the type of spatula used. Results: Smears from Ayre spatula had significantly higher reports of inadequate smears (94 of 500 vs. 68 of 500 for Ayre and Szalay, respectively; P = 0.032 and it remained so even after crossover (94 of 187 vs. 70 of 163 for Ayre and Szalay, respectively; P = 0.2. Cellular quality appeared better with smears taken using Szalay spatula, but the overall abnormal smear detection rate remained similar with either collection tool (χ2 = 1.5; P = 0.2. Conclusions: Proportion of satisfactory smears is higher when long tip plastic spatula is used for collection of sample.

  16. The influence of the professionals gender in the periodicity of Pap Test - doi:10.5020/18061230.2010.p181

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Rafael Leite Sampaio

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Methods: A descriptive study, with a qualitative approach, held in the period of September to November, 2008 with 83 users of the Family Health Strategy of Caio Prado, Itapina-Cear, who had Pap test in delay. The data were collected through a semi-structured interview and organized according to the Content Analysis: (1 Professional gender and the periodicity of Pap test and (2 Test that causes pain and fear. Results: It was observed that 67 (80.72% were between 25 and 59 years, 52 (62.62% were married, 65 (78.31% had primary education, 45 (54.22% were farmers and 49 (59.04% earned less than minimum wage. Most users reported feelings of shame by male examiners as a reason for irregularity in the frequency of Pap test. On a smaller scale, the reason pointed out was to consider this a test that causes pain and fear. Final Considerations: The users reported that the presence of a male professional was a strong influence to irregularity in the frequency of Pap test in this health unit. Albeit to a lesser extent, prior negative experience with this exam and not the professionals gender issue has been implicated as a reason not to perform periodic cytology.

  17. Study of effectiveness of combined test Pap smear, visual inspection with acetic acid and Lugols iodine for mass screening of premalignant and malignant lesions of cervix

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    Nivedhitha V. S.

    2016-03-01

    Conclusions: This study concludes that the effectiveness of cervical cancer screening can be improved by a combination test of Pap, VILI and VIA, even in tertiary centers in India. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2016; 5(3.000: 725-729

  18. Pap smear (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    During a Pap smear, cells from the outside and the canal of the cervix are retrieved by gently scraping the outside of the cervix. The Pap smear is performed to detect cancerous or precancerous conditions ...

  19. Congress: 50 years of the Papanicolaou test. Istituto Superiore di Sanita`. Rome, March 30, 1995; Convegno: 50 anni di Pap test. Istituto Superiore di Sanita`. Roma, 30 marzo 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Branca, Margherita; Cedri, Sabina; Migliore, Giovanna [Istituto Superiore di Sanita`, Rome (Italy). Lab. di Epidemiologia e Biostatistica

    1997-12-01

    The Conference was organized to celebrate the 50th anniversary of the cervical smear test, commonly referred to as the `Pap test` after its creator, George Nicholas Papanicolaou. The reports present the development of the test, its worldwide application, and its performance as the screening test for the detection of cervical cancer. Pap smear screening for precursors of carcinoma of the cervix has led to dramatic decrease in the incidence and deaths from this cancer. The test represents one of the greatest achievements in preventive medicine.

  20. Study of effectiveness of combined test Pap smear, visual inspection with acetic acid and Lugols iodine for mass screening of premalignant and malignant lesions of cervix

    OpenAIRE

    Nivedhitha V. S.; Sankareswari R.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Cancer cervix is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in developing nations. This study aims to evaluate the usefulness of visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA) and Lugols iodine (VILI) as adjunct to improve the sensitivity of cervical cytology with Pap smear and to enhance the test performance. Methods: Study was conducted in Gynaec OPD clinic in SVMCH and RC, Ariyur, Pondicherry during the period of January 2015 to June 2015. 350 patients enrolled in the study, 1...

  1. Pap and HPV Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with these sexually transmitted viruses also cause most anal cancers; many vaginal , vulvar , and penile cancers; and some oropharyngeal cancers . Although HPV infection is very common, most infections will be ...

  2. Obtaining reliable quality data from fragility tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The parameters discussed in this paper are the same as those present in normal seismic qualification testing. These parameters behave differently in high level acceleration tests and their contribution in providing unreliable data is of major concern since there is a significant difference. These parameters need to be considered in developing methodology guidelines for future fragility standards. In seismic qualification testing, a predefined series of tests are performed and measured against a set of acceptance criteria. The response spectra generally has a peak acceleration of between 3-10 g's at a 2% damping value for the Design Basis Event (Safe Shutdown Earthquake). Fragility level testing has minimum starting point of 10 g's at 2% damping and is generally 20 g's at 2% damping. The dynamic characteristics of the simulated earthquake and the corresponding simulator hardware interfaces are the parameters discussed. There are two major parameter contributions in obtaining unreliable data. The first parameter is test specimen system hardware nonlinearities. The second major variable is electronic signal saturations

  3. Fatores associados a no realizao de Papanicolau em mulheres quilombolas / Factors associated with failure to take a Pap smear test among Quilombola women

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Mrcio Vasconcelos, Oliveira; Mark Drew Crosland, Guimares; Elisabeth Barboza, Frana.

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar os fatores associados a no realizao do exame de Papanicolaou entre as mulheres quilombolas residentes em Vitria da Conquista, Bahia. Foi utilizado delineamento de estudo transversal de base populacional, com incluso de mulheres com idade de 18-64 anos. Foram [...] realizadas anlise descritiva e de associao univariada e multivariada utilizando modelo logstico multinomial. Mulheres que nunca realizaram o exame ou o realizaram h mais de trs anos foram comparadas separadamente com aquelas que realizaram o exame h menos de trs anos. De 348 mulheres includas na anlise, 27,3% afirmaram nunca ter realizado o Papanicolaou. Foram associados de forma independente com nunca ter feito o exame: faixa etria de 18 a 29 anos e 50 a 59 anos, no ter instruo, no ter companheiro, buscar atendimento relacionado sade em unidades/estabelecimentos diferentes de seu local de residncia e ter realizado exame clnico das mamas h trs ou mais anos ou nunca t-lo realizado. Os achados indicam uma necessidade de reflexo, com o objetivo de melhor enfrentamento dos fatores que se associam no realizao do exame Papanicolaou entre as mulheres quilombolas, sendo importante contemplar aes de preveno para o cncer de colo uterino. Abstract in english The objective of this study was to analyze factors associated with failure to take a Pap smear test among quilombola women living in Vitria da Conquista in the state of Bahia. A cross-sectional, population-based study was conducted with women aged 18 to 64. Descriptive analysis and univariate and m [...] ultivariate analysis using a multinomial logistic model was applied. Women who had never performed the test or had not had one for over three years were compared separately from those who were examined within the preceding three years. Of the 348 women included in the analysis, 27.3%, reported never having a Pap smear test. The following factors were independently associated with never having taken the test: age of 18 to 29 years and 50 to 59 years; lack of education; not having a partner; seeking care in health-related units/establishments other than their place of residence; and having a clinical breast examination three or more years ago or never having one. The findings indicate a need for reflection in order to combat factors that are associated with not having a Pap smear test among quilombola women, since it is important to implement actions for the prevention of cervical cancer.

  4. Detection of Clostridium chauvoei in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues of sheep by the peroxidase-antiperoxidase (PAP) technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giraudo Conesa, L C; Vannelli, S A; Uzal, F A

    1995-01-01

    A peroxidase-antiperoxidase (PAP) technique was used to detect Clostridium chauvoei in tissue sections from sheep inoculated intramuscularly with a pure culture of this microorganism. Samples of various tissues were taken for bacteriology, histopathology and immunohistochemistry. A primary antiserum against C. chauvoei for use in the PAP technique was produced in rabbits. Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded sections of muscle samples were positively and specifically stained by the PAP technique. The results were consistent with those obtained by bacteriology, but the PAP test was simpler, quicker and less expensive than the bacteriological procedures. The use of the PAP technique would be appropriate for detecting clostridial infections without the constraints of conventional identification methods, especially where laboratory conditions for anaerobic procedures are not readily available. PMID:8619282

  5. Pap-smear Classification Using Efficient Second Order Neural Network Training Algorithms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ampazis, Nikolaos; Dounias, George; Jantzen, Jan

    In this paper we make use of two highly efficient second order neural network training algorithms, namely the LMAM (Levenberg-Marquardt with Adaptive Momentum) and OLMAM (Optimized Levenberg-Marquardt with Adaptive Momentum), for the construction of an efficient pap-smear test classifier. The...... problem. The classification results obtained from the application of the algorithms on a standard benchmark pap-smear data set reveal the power of the two methods to obtain excellent solutions in difficult classification problems whereas other standard computational intelligence techniques achieve...

  6. Evolution of Pap Stain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalyani Raju

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Pap stain was first developed by Dr GN Papanicoloau in 1947 and since then it has been used successfully to screen cervical cancer. In fact it has reduced the incidence of cervical cancer by 70% especially in developed countries having well planned screening programmes. However the stain has undergone various modifications from regressive conventional method to progressive rapid Pap staining where the time taken for staining was reduced. Further the stain was modified as ultrafast Papanocoloau stain and modified ultrafast Pap stain where air dried cervical smears were used and staining time was reduced. Later the other modifications were Enviro-Pap stain which was environmentally friendly with results similar to conventional method; REAP stain which was rapid and economical and Cytocolor developed by Merck where isopropyl alcohol is replaced by Propanol. Each method has advantages and disadvantages. Hence laboratories should develop their own protocol and standardize the staining technique. [Biomed Res Ther 2016; 3(2.000: 490-500

  7. Obtaining genetic testing in pediatric epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ream, Margie A; Patel, Anup D

    2015-10-01

    The steps from patient evaluation to genetic diagnosis remain complicated. We discuss some of the genetic testing methods available along with their general advantages and disadvantages. We briefly review common pediatric epilepsy syndromes with strong genetic association and provide a potentially useful algorithm for genetic testing in drug-resistant epilepsy. We performed an extensive literature review of available information as it pertains to genetic testing and genetics in pediatric epilepsy. If a genetic disorder is suspected as the cause of epilepsy, based on drug resistance, family history, or clinical phenotype, timely diagnosis may reduce overall cost, limit the diagnostic odyssey that can bring much anxiety to families, improve prognostic accuracy, and lead to targeted therapy. Interpretation of complicated results should be performed only in collaboration with geneticists and genetic counselors, unless the ordering neurologist has a strong background in and understanding of genetics. Genetic testing can play an important role in the care provided to patients with epilepsy. PMID:26345167

  8. Comparison of the Cobas 4800 HPV and HPV 9G DNA Chip Tests for Detection of High-Risk Human Papillomavirus in Cervical Specimens of Women with Consecutive Positive HPV Tests But Negative Pap Smears

    OpenAIRE

    Jun, Sun-young; Park, Eun Su; Kim, Jiyoung; Kang, Jun; Lee, Jae Jun; Bae, Yoonjin; Kim, Sang-Il; Maeng, Lee-So

    2015-01-01

    Detecting high-risk (HR) HPV is important for clinical management of women with persistent HPV-positive and Pap-negative results. The Cobas 4800 HPV test is the first FDA-approved HPV DNA test that can be used alone as a first-line screening tool. The HPV 9G DNA chip test is a PCR-based DNA microarray assay. We evaluated the patients of consecutive HPV-positivity on HPV 9G DNA chip test without cytologic abnormalities. We then compared the performances of HPV 9G DNA chip and the Cobas 4800 HP...

  9. Exame Papanicolaou: sentimentos relatados por profissionais de enfermagem ao se submeterem a esse exame / Pap smear screening: sensations reported by nursing professionals when submitted to this test

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Roberta Jeane Bezerra, Jorge; Maria Albertina Rocha, Digenes; Francisco Antonio da Cruz, Mendona; Lus Rafael Leite, Sampaio; Roberto, Jorge Jnior.

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se conhecer os sentimentos de auxiliares e tcnicas de enfermagem ao se submeterem ao exame Papanicolaou. Trata-se de um estudo descritivo com abordagem qualitativa realizado nos meses de setembro a outubro de 2006, com 35 servidoras de uma instituio governamental referncia em ginecolog [...] ia na cidade de Fortaleza (CE). Os dados foram coletados atravs de entrevista semiestruturada, contendo uma questo norteadora gravada e analisada de acordo com referencial terico metodolgico da fenomenologia social. Os relatos foram agrupados em trs temticas: um exame que causa incmodo, medo e vergonha; um exame que gera ansiedade quanto aos resultados; e um exame que "me deixa calma e tranquila". Apesar de as entrevistadas pertencerem a uma instituio que cuida de mulheres na preveno do cncer crvico-uterino, elas no deixaram de emitir sentimentos negativos relacionados ao exame. Concluiu-se a importncia de realizar projetos educativos, enfatizando a importncia do empoderamento das usurias a fim de minimizar essas questes. Abstract in english This work sought to record the impressions of nursing assistants and technicians after submitting to Pap smear screening. This is a descriptive study using a qualitative approach conducted in September and October of 2006 with 35 employees of a public institution, which is a benchmark in gynecology [...] in Fortaleza in the State of Cear (Brazil). The data was collected through semi-structured interviews containing a recorded leading question and analyzed according to the methodological-theoretical reference of social phenomenology. The testimonials were separated in three groups: an exam that causes discomfort, fear and shame; an exam that causes anxiety about the results; and an exam that "makes me calm and relaxed". Despite the interviewees being part of an institution that cares for the prevention of cervical-uterine cancer in women, negative feelings about the Pap smear test were nonetheless reported. The conclusion reached is that it is important to stage educational campaigns emphasizing the importance of empowerment of patients in order to minimize these aspects.

  10. Aerobic biotransformation of polyfluoroalkyl phosphate esters (PAPs) in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chen; Liu, Jinxia

    2016-05-01

    Microbial transformation of polyfluoroalkyl phosphate esters (PAPs) into perfluorocarboxylic acids (PFCAs) has recently been confirmed to occur in activated sludge and soil. However, there lacks quantitative information about the half-lives of the PAPs and their significance as the precursors to PFCAs. In the present study, the biotransformation of 6:2 and 8:2 diPAP in aerobic soil was investigated in semi-dynamics reactors using improved sample preparation methods. To develop an efficient extraction method for PAPs, six different extraction solvents were compared, and the phenomenon of solvent-enhanced hydrolysis was investigated. It was found that adding acetic acid could enhance the recoveries of the diPAPs and inhibit undesirable hydrolysis during solvent extraction of soil. However 6:2 and 8:2 monoPAPs, which are the first breakdown products from diPAPs, were found to be unstable in the six solvents tested and quickly hydrolyzed to form fluorotelomer alcohols. Therefore reliable measurement of the monoPAPs from a live soil was not achievable. The apparent DT50 values of 6:2 diPAP and 8:2 diPAP biotransformation were estimated to be 12 and > 1000 days, respectively, using a double first-order in parallel model. At the end of incubation of day 112, the major degradation products of 6:2 diPAP were 5:3 fluorotelomer carboxylic acid (5:3 acid, 9.3% by mole), perfluoropentanoic acid (PFPeA, 6.4%) and perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA, 6.0%). The primary product of 8:2 diPAP was perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA, 2.1%). The approximately linear relationship between the half-lives of eleven polyfluoroalkyl and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs, including 6:2 and 8:2 diPAPs) that biotransform in aerobic soils and their molecular weights suggested that the molecular weight is a good indicator of the general stability of low-molecular-weight PFAS-based compounds in aerobic soils. PMID:26849529

  11. Collection of the BD SurePath Pap Test with a broom device plus endocervical brush improves disease detection when compared to the broom device alone or the spatula plus endocervical brush combination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davis-Devine Sharon

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Here we examine the diagnostic utility of the US Food And Drug Administration (FDA approved Spatula + endocervical brush combination for the BD SurePath Pap Test (SPPT and compare it to SPPT collection with the broom alone or to an off-label combination of broom + EC brush. This question is important due to lingering concerns over the value of EC detection to a satisfactory Pap test. Methods: 20,125 SPPT vials were examined for the collection devices contained. The SPPT collection device combinations allowed were: Rovers Cervex-Brush (broom, FDA approved, Medscand Pap Perfect Spatula + Medscand CytoBrush Plus GT (spatula + GT brush, FDA approved or Rovers Cervex-Brush + Surgipath C-E Brush (broom + CE brush, off label. Results: Examination of SPPT vials revealed 11,130 collected with the broom, 4,687 collected with the spatula + GT brush and 2,921 collected with the broom + CE brush. Absence of an endocervical/transformation zone was seen in 22.86% of broom cases, 13.10% of spatula + GT brush cases (p= 0.00005 vs broom and 10.17% of broom + CE brush cases (p= 0.00005 vs broom, p= 0.00005 vs spatula + GT brush. Importantly, LSIL detection was: broom 2.99%; spatula + GT brush 2.45% (p= 0.053 vs broom; broom + CE brush 4.18% (p= 0.034 vs broom, p= 0.0001 vs spatula + GT brush. Conclusion: When broom + brush combination is compared to broom alone or to spatula + GT brush, the broom + CE brush combination better sampled the endocervical/transformation zone and increased LSIL detection.

  12. Cobertura do exame citopatológico na cidade de Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil Pap test coverage in the city of Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juvenal Soares Dias-da-Costa

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available No Brasil, a avaliação da efetividade de programas de prevenção e ações de saúde pública ainda são incipientes. Dessa forma, realizou-se um estudo transversal de base populacional envolvendo a saúde da população adulta residente na zona urbana da cidade de Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil, com o objetivo de verificar a evolução nos níveis de cobertura do exame citopatológico. Investigaram-se fatores associados com a não realização do procedimento. Considerou-se exame citopatológico atualizado aquele realizado nos últimos três anos. A amostra foi constituída por 1.122 mulheres entre 20 e 69 anos, sendo que 72,2% apresentavam exame citopatológico atualizado, 16,6% atrasado e 11,2% nunca o haviam realizado. A não realização do procedimento esteve associada com baixa inserção social e idade avançada. A regressão logística destacou o efeito independente de classe social, baixa renda familiar, idade, cor da pele, estado civil e ausência de consultas médicas no último ano. Contudo, desapareceu o efeito detectado em mulheres com doenças crônicas. Comparando-se os resultados do estudo realizado em 1992 com o atual, observa-se que a cobertura do exame aumentou de 65,0% para 72,2% (1992 para 1999/2000, entretanto, não atingiu os níveis efetivos para evitar câncer de colo uterino.In Brazil, the effectiveness of preventive public heath programs and actions is rarely evaluated. A cross-sectional study was thus performed in a population-based sample focused on several health characteristics of adults living in Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The study aimed to measure temporal trends in coverage of Pap smear testing in the city. The authors studied the factors associated with failure of women to submit to a Pap smear. An updated Pap smear was defined as one performed in the previous 3 years. The sample consisted of 1,122 women ages 20 to 69 years, 72.2% of whom had an updated Pap smear, 16.6% of whom were behind schedule for testing, and 11.2% of whom had never had a Pap smear. Risk factors for never having a test were low socioeconomic status and old age. Logistic regression showed an independent effect of social class, low family income, age, skin color, marital status, and no medical appointment in the previous year. However, the effect of chronic diseases disappeared in logistic regression. The authors compare the results of the study conducted in 1992 with the present. Pap smear coverage increased from 65.0% to 72.2% (1992 to 1999/2000 in the city, yet such figures had still not ensured the effectiveness of the program for uterine cervical cancer prevention.

  13. [Investigation of human papillomavirus prevalence in women in Eskişehir, Turkey by Pap smear, hybrid capture 2 test and consensus real-time polymerase chain reaction and typing with pyrosequencing method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslan, Ferhat Gürkan; Us, Tercan; Kaşifoğlu, Nilgün; Özalp, Sabit Sinan; Akgün, Yurdanur; Öge, Tufan

    2016-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) infections have a broad range of clinical spectrum from subclinical or asymptomatic infection to anogenital carcinoma. The detection of HPV-DNA and determination of the risk groups in cervical cancer (CC) screening is very important because CC is considered to be a preventable illness which is the third most common cancer type of women in the world. The aims of this study were to investigate the presence of HPV-DNA in women by two different molecular methods and to compare their results together with the results of cytology, in Eskişehir, Central Anatolia, Turkey. A total of 1081 women aged between 30-65 years, who applied to Eskişehir Early Diagnosis, Screening and Training of Cancer Center (KETEM) for screening were included in the study. Three separate cervical samples were collected simultaneously from the participants for cytologic examination and molecular studies. In the first step of the study, all cervical samples were investigated for the presence of HPV-DNA by Hybrid Capture 2 (HC2; Qiagen, Germany) method. In the second part of the study, consensus real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) (Takara Bio Inc., Japan) was performed in 152 samples which included HC2 positive and randomly selected negative samples, and then the HPV genotypes were detected by using a commercial kit based on pyrosequencing method (Diatech Pharmacogenetics S.R.L, Italy). In the first part of the study, HC2 test was found positive in 3% (32/1081) of the women, while in 4.4% (47/1081) Pap smear was positive alone or with HC2 test. Five (0.5%) samples yielded positive results with both of the methods, and four of them were positive for high risk HPV types. Cytology results were negative in 19 out of 23 (23/1081, 2.1%) samples that were reported as high risk HPV by HC2 test. On the other hand, 42 (42/1081, 3.9%) samples that were positive by cytology yielded negative results by HC2 test. In the second part of the study, 32 (21.1%) of 152 selected samples were positive by HC2 test, 40 (26.3%) were positive by Pap smear, and 53 (34.9%) were positive by consensus RT-PCR. All of the 32 samples that were positive by HC2 were also positive by RT-PCR, however 21 samples that were positive by RT-PCR were negative by HC2 test. Among 40 samples that were positive (abnormal) by Pap smear, HPV-DNA was positive in nine (22.5%) by RT-PCR and in five (12.5%) by HC2 test, but HPV-DNA was not detected in 31 (77.5%) samples by both of the tests. Genotyping of the strains could be performed in 44 samples, and the most common type detected was HPV type 16 (n=15, 34.1%), followed by type 90 (n=11, 25%) and type 18 (n= 4, 9.1%). In our study, the sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of Pap smear method were estimated as 16.1%, 96%, 10.6% and 97.5%, respectively, based on the HC2 results which was approved by U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). In addition, a significant degree of concordance was detected between HC2 and concensus RT-PCR methods (Cohen's kappa: 0.665). In conclusion, regarding the insufficient number of cytopathologists in our country and according to the recommendations of American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology (ASCCP) and FDA, it was once again demonstrated that, the implementation of molecular diagnostic methods in addition to the Pap smear for effective screening of CC are needed. PMID:27058331

  14. Testing and Obtaining Fit of Data to the Rasch Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafsson, Jan-Eric

    Problems and procedures in assessing and obtaining fit of data to the Rasch model are treated and assumptions embodied in the Rasch model are made explicit. It is concluded that statistical tests are needed which are sensitive to deviations so that more than one item parameter would be needed for each item, and more than one person parameter would…

  15. Tests for Reproductive Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 5446 Test HSV (genital herpes) test Pap test (Pap smear) Syphilis test Urinalysis and urine culture Vaginal yeast infection test How It Is Done A sample of blood is drawn from a vein and ... health problems just because you had a pelvic exam or Pap test. A Pap test does not test for ...

  16. Therapeutic effect of pilose antler polypeptides (PAP) on experimental fracture and its mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To test the therapeutic effect of PAP on experimental fracture and its mechanism. Methods: Effect of PAP on the incorporation of [3H]-TdR into DNA syntheses in the cells of rabbits costal cartilage and human embryonic joint as well as osteoblast precursor cells of embryonic chick calvaria in vitro and effect of PAP on the experimental radius fracture in rats in vivo were observed. Results: PAP of 10?50 ?gml-1 showed mitogenic activities and significant promotion of DNA syntheses for various cartilage cells in vitro. In vivo experimental results revealed that PAP 10 and 20 mgkg-1 could promote healing of radius fracture, accelerate osteotylus formation and increase contents of calcium and oxyproline. Conclusion: PAP accelerates fracture healing through promoting multiplications of cartilage and osteoblast precursor cells, collagen accumulation and calcium precipitation in osteotylus

  17. Pap Screening Goals and Perceptions of Pain among Black, Latina, and Arab Women: Steps toward Breaking down Psychological Barriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauss, Julie W.; Mabiso, Athur; Williams, Karen Patricia

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Understanding women’s psychological barriers to getting Papanicolaou (Pap) screening has potential to impact cancer disparities. This study examined pain perceptions of Pap testing among Black, Latina and Arab women and goal setting to receive Pap tests. METHODS Data on 420 women, a longitudinal study, were analyzed using Chi-square tests of differences and generalized linear mixed models. RESULTS At baseline, 30.3% of Black and 35.5% of Latina women perceived Pap tests to be very painful compared to 24.2% of Arab women. Perceptions of pain influenced goal settings, such as scheduling a first ever Pap test (Odds ratio = 0.58, 95% Confidence interval: 0.14-0.94). Immediately following the intervention, women’s perception that Pap tests are very painful significantly declined (P-value<0.001) with Arab and Black women registering the greatest improvements (20.3 and 17.3 percent reduction, respectively compared to 8.4 percent for Latina). CONCLUSIONS Having the perception that the Pap test is very painful significantly reduces the likelihood of Black, Latina and Arab women setting the goal to schedule their first ever Pap test. Latina women are the least likely to improve their perception that the Pap test is very painful, though national statistics show they have the highest rates of morbidity and mortality from cervical cancer. These findings are instructive for designing tailored interventions to break down psychological barriers to Pap screening among underserved women. PMID:23288606

  18. Significance of a diagnosis of microorganisms on pap smear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzhugh, Valerie A; Heller, Debra S

    2008-01-01

    The Pap smear has been in use for more than half a century as the primary screening test for preinvasive and invasive lesions of the uterine cervix. Although not the primary use and an imperfect test, it can be extremely useful in the diagnosis of some microorganisms. This review focuses on the use of the Pap smear in the diagnosis of several microorganisms including Actinomyces, Chlamydia trachomatis, Candida, Trichomonas vaginalis, Leptothrix vaginalis, Herpes Simplex Virus, the causative agents of bacterial vaginosis, and other rarer organisms. The accuracy of diagnosis using the smear varies among the different organisms in question. PMID:18162813

  19. Trichomonas Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... vaginalis by Direct Fluorescent Antibody (DFA) Related tests: Pap Smear , Chlamydia Testing , Gonorrhea Testing At a Glance Test ... during a routine gynecologic examination that includes a Pap smear . An FDA-cleared PCR test approved for detection ...

  20. Cobertura e adequação do exame citopatológico de colo uterino em estados das regiões Sul e Nordeste do Brasil Pap test coverage and adequacy in the South and Northeast of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele da Silva Correa

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available O câncer de colo do útero é o segundo mais comum em mulheres no Brasil e no mundo e pode ser evitado através da detecção precoce de lesões precursoras. O exame citopatológico de colo uterino ainda é o mais efetivo e eficiente para realizar este rastreamento. O objetivo do estudo foi investigar a cobertura e a adequação do exame citopatológico e fatores associados. Foi realizado um estudo transversal com 3.939 mulheres que tiveram filho nos últimos dois anos anteriores à pesquisa, distribuídas em 41 municípios brasileiros. A cobertura do exame na vida foi de 75,3% (IC95%: 74,0-76,7 e a adequação foi de 70,7% (IC95%: 69,3-72,1. A adequação associou-se positivamente com idade maior de 25 anos, maior escolaridade, fazer pré-natal na última gestação e consultar para exame ginecológico no último ano. Foi menos frequente entre mulheres do estrato socioeconômico mais baixo e primíparas. Portanto, faz-se necessário fortalecer as ações preventivas para os subgrupos de mulheres mais vulneráveis, assim como potencializar as situações de utilização dos serviços de saúde.Cervical cancer is the second most common cancer among women both in Brazil and elsewhere in the world and can be averted through early detection of precursor lesions. Pap smear is still the most effective and efficient screening test. This study focused on the coverage and adequacy of Pap test and associated factors. The authors adopted a cross-sectional design with a sample of 3,939 women who had given birth in the two previous years in 41 municipalities (counties of Brazil. Lifetime Pap test coverage was 75.3% (95%CI: 74.0-76.7, and prevalence of adequacy was 70.7% (95%CI: 69.3-72.1. Adequacy was positively associated with age over 25 years, schooling, prenatal care in the last pregnancy, and gynecological visit in the previous year, and was less frequent among primiparous women and those with lower socioeconomic status. It is thus necessary to strengthen preventive measures in vulnerable subgroups and maximize situations for use of health services.

  1. TsPAP1 encodes a novel plant prolyl aminopeptidase whose expression is induced in response to suboptimal growth conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► A cDNA encoding a novel plant prolyl aminopeptidase, TsPAP1, was obtained from triticale. ► The cloned TsPAP1 cDNA is 1387 bp long and encodes a protein of 390 amino acids. ► The deduced TsPAP1 protein revealed characteristics of the monomeric bacterial PAPs. ► The TsPAP1 mRNA level increased under drought, salinity and in the presence of metal ions. -- Abstract: A triticale cDNA encoding a prolyl aminopeptidase (PAP) was obtained by RT-PCR and has been designated as TsPAP1. The cloned cDNA is 1387 bp long and encodes a protein of 390 amino acids with a calculated molecular mass of 43.9 kDa. The deduced TsPAP1 protein exhibits a considerable sequence identity with the biochemically characterized bacterial and fungal PAP proteins of small molecular masses (∼35 kDa). Moreover, the presence of conserved regions that are characteristic for bacterial monomeric PAP enzymes (the GGSWG motif, the localization of the catalytic triad residues and the segment involved in substrate binding) has also been noted. Primary structure analysis and phylogenetic analysis revealed that TsPAP1 encodes a novel plant PAP protein that is distinct from the multimeric proteins that have thus far been characterized in plants and whose counterparts have been recognized only in bacteria and fungi. A significant increase in the TsPAP1 transcript level in the shoots of triticale plants was observed under drought and saline conditions as well as in the presence of cadmium and aluminium ions in the nutrient medium. This paper is the first report describing changes in the transcript levels of any plant PAP in response to suboptimal growth conditions.

  2. TsPAP1 encodes a novel plant prolyl aminopeptidase whose expression is induced in response to suboptimal growth conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szawlowska, Urszula; Grabowska, Agnieszka [Department of Biochemistry, Warsaw University of Life Sciences - SGGW, Nowoursynowska 159, 02-776 Warsaw (Poland); Zdunek-Zastocka, Edyta, E-mail: edyta_zdunek_zastocka@sggw.pl [Department of Biochemistry, Warsaw University of Life Sciences - SGGW, Nowoursynowska 159, 02-776 Warsaw (Poland); Bielawski, Wieslaw [Department of Biochemistry, Warsaw University of Life Sciences - SGGW, Nowoursynowska 159, 02-776 Warsaw (Poland)

    2012-03-02

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A cDNA encoding a novel plant prolyl aminopeptidase, TsPAP1, was obtained from triticale. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The cloned TsPAP1 cDNA is 1387 bp long and encodes a protein of 390 amino acids. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The deduced TsPAP1 protein revealed characteristics of the monomeric bacterial PAPs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The TsPAP1 mRNA level increased under drought, salinity and in the presence of metal ions. -- Abstract: A triticale cDNA encoding a prolyl aminopeptidase (PAP) was obtained by RT-PCR and has been designated as TsPAP1. The cloned cDNA is 1387 bp long and encodes a protein of 390 amino acids with a calculated molecular mass of 43.9 kDa. The deduced TsPAP1 protein exhibits a considerable sequence identity with the biochemically characterized bacterial and fungal PAP proteins of small molecular masses ({approx}35 kDa). Moreover, the presence of conserved regions that are characteristic for bacterial monomeric PAP enzymes (the GGSWG motif, the localization of the catalytic triad residues and the segment involved in substrate binding) has also been noted. Primary structure analysis and phylogenetic analysis revealed that TsPAP1 encodes a novel plant PAP protein that is distinct from the multimeric proteins that have thus far been characterized in plants and whose counterparts have been recognized only in bacteria and fungi. A significant increase in the TsPAP1 transcript level in the shoots of triticale plants was observed under drought and saline conditions as well as in the presence of cadmium and aluminium ions in the nutrient medium. This paper is the first report describing changes in the transcript levels of any plant PAP in response to suboptimal growth conditions.

  3. Shape-based nuclei area of digitized pap smear images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhimmah, Izzati; Kurniawan, Rahadian

    2012-04-01

    Nuclei of the epithelial of Pap smear cells are important risk indicator of cervical cancers. Pathologist uses the changing of the area of the nuclei to determine whether cells are normal or abnormal. It means that having correct measurement of the area of nuclei is important on the pap smears assessment. Our paper present a novel approach to analyze the shape of nuclei in pap smear images and measuring the area of nuclei. We conducted a study to measure the area of nuclei automatically by calculating the number of pixels contained in each of the segmented nuclei. For comparison, we performed measurements of nuclei area using the ellipse area approximation. The result of the t-test confirmed that there were similarity between elliptical area approximation and automatic segmented nuclei-area at 0.5% level of significance.

  4. [Is the PAP smear era coming to an end?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak-Markwitz, Ewa; Spaczyński, Marek

    2015-12-01

    After the discovery of the role human papilloma virus (HPV) plays in the development of cervical cancer we are witnesses to a change in the conception and interpretation of cervical cancer prevention processes. Primary prevention gained a new tool in the form of HPV vaccines. Secondary prevention, i.e. detection of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (GIN), acquired a new diagnostic method--the HPV test. Studies were initiated in order to determine the usefulness of HPV tests in cervical cancer prevention and screening. They revealed that the DNA HPV test used in screening has higher sensitivity in CIN detection than PAP smear and that HPV-negative patients are better and longer protected against developing cervical cancer in comparison to women with normal PAP smear results. HPV tests also possess a predictive value, which detects women more susceptible to developing cervical cancer in the future. PAP smear does not have a predictive value. Instead, it only detects a presence or an absence of neoplasia at that particular time. These results clearly indicate that the era of classic PAP smear is indeed coming to an end, replaced by a new primary CIN screening tool--HPV test. The entire cervical cancer screening system must therefore be redefined and reorganized. PMID:26995946

  5. Study of Pap smear and other feasible tests among self reported symptomatic married women in reproductive age group (15-49 yrs regarding reproductive tract infections in a rural community of Maharashtra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smita S. Chavan

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Reproductive tract infections (RTIs represent a major public health problem in developing countries. Integrating RTIs/STIs management and early detection of cervical dysplasia in broader reproductive health services can improve women’s health. The objectives of the study were 1. To study the association of socio-demographic & reproductive factors among self-reported symptomatic women for reproductive tract infections. 2. To carry out clinical examination & feasible tests like PH, gram staining, VDRL for reproductive tract infections. 3. To study Pap smear among study subjects. Methods: A cross sectional study community based study was carried out in villages under ‘Parol’ Primary Health Centre of Thane district, Maharashtra, India. A total of 415 married women in reproductive age group were interviewed and examined. Pre-structured, pre-designed questionnaire was used. Clinical examination & feasible laboratory tests were done. Results were analyzed with the help of Microsoft Excel & SPSS 15. Results: A total of 415 women were interviewed, of them 263(63.4% had one or more symptoms of reproductive tract infections. On examination, 69(35% had cervicitis and 30(15.2% pelvic inflammatory disease, 39(19.8% bacterial vaginosis and candidiasis in 61(31%. Cervical erosion was present in 147(74.6% women. On Pap smear, 20(10.2% women had ASCUS (Atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance. Only 2(1% women found HIV positive. No woman was found VDRL reactive. Conclusion: Routine RTI/STI screening and periodic surveys to detect the infection patterns which will helps to control HIV infections in the community is needed in the remote tribal area as the current study shows high prevalence of reproductive tract infection. [Int J Res Med Sci 2013; 1(4.000: 545-551

  6. The clinical value of serum PSA and PAP determinations in prostate cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To investigate the clinical value of serum PSA and PAP determinations in diagnosis of prostate cancer patients. Methods: The serum PSA and PAP levels of 98 prostate cancer patients, 45 prostate benign disease patients and 40 normal subjects were tested by IRMA. Results: The serum PSA and PAP levels of prostate cancer patients were significantly higher than those in prostate benign disease patients and normal controls (P < 0.01). The diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of serum PSA for prostate cancer were 93.9% and 93.3% respectively. The diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of serum PAP for prostate cancer were 71.4% and 91.1% respectively. Conclusion: The determination of serum PSA and PAP was of high clinical value for diagnosis of early prostate cancer. It could be used as an important reference parameter for the clinical staging, follow-up of treatment result and prediction of prognosis

  7. Modified PAP method to detect heteroresistance to vancomycin among methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates at a tertiary care hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iyer R

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was an attempt at developing, establishing, validating and comparing the modified PAP method for detection of hetero-vancomycin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (h-VRSA with the routine antimicrobial susceptibility testing (using the BSAC standardized disc diffusion method, minimum inhibitory concentrations of vancomycin using standard E-test methodology and the Hiramatsu?s screening method. A total of 50 methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus obtained from various clinical specimens, along with the Mu 3 and Mu 50 strains as controls, were studied. No VRSA isolates were obtained. However, four of the test strains were positive by the Hiramatsu?s screening method, of which only one isolate could be confirmed by the modified PAP analysis method. This isolate was a coloniser from the drain fluid of a liver transplant recipient. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and the overall efficiency of the Hiramatsu?s screening method with the modified PAP analysis as the gold standard were found to be 100, 93.8, 25 and 94%, respectively. It is very essential for clinical laboratories to screen for h-VRSA, given the increasing use of glycopeptide antibiotics in therapy and the potential for failed therapy in patients infected with these strains.

  8. Cobertura e motivos para a realização ou não do teste de Papanicolaou no Município de São Paulo Cervical cancer screening in the Municipality of São Paulo: coverage and factors involved in submitting to the Pap test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana de Araujo Pinho

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Investigou-se a prevalência da realização do teste de Papanicolaou alguma vez na vida e nos últimos três anos entre mulheres de 15 a 49 anos, o recebimento do resultado do último teste realizado e os motivos relatados para a realização ou não do exame. Um inquérito domiciliar foi realizado no Município de São Paulo em 2000, com uma amostra representativa de 1.172 mulheres selecionadas aleatoriamente em seus domicílios. Das mulheres que já tinham iniciado a vida sexual (n = 1.050, 86,1% (932 realizaram o teste alguma vez na vida e 77,3 % (839 nos últimos três anos. Das que já realizaram o teste, 806 (87,0% receberam o resultado do último exame. Os principais motivos para a realização do último teste foram: demanda espontânea (55,5%, recomendação médica (25% e presença de queixas ginecológicas (18,2%. As principais razões para a não realização do exame foram: ausência de problemas ginecológicos, vergonha ou medo e dificuldades de acesso. A despeito do relativo aumento na cobertura do teste de Papanicolaou e de mais da metade das mulheres demandarem espontaneamente pelo exame, sua realização foi menor entre aquelas com as piores condições sócio-econômicas e, portanto, de maior risco para o câncer cervical.This study estimated Pap smear coverage (at least one test in the lifetime and one in the last three years among women aged 15 to 49 years old. The study also discusses whether the women received the results of their last test, as well as self-reported reasons for and against submitting to the test. A population-based survey was conducted in the city of São Paulo in 2000 with a randomly selected representative sample of 1,172 women. Among the women who were already sexually active (n = 1,050, 86.1% reported having had at least one Pap smear during their lifetime, and 77.3% had undergone the test in the previous 3 years. Among those who reported having had at least one Pap smear, 87.0% had received the result of the last test. The main reasons reported for having had the last test were: spontaneous demand (55.5%, medical referral (25%, and gynecological complaints (18.2%. The main reasons for never having had a Pap test were: no gynecological problems, embarrassment or fear, and difficulties in accessing health services. Despite high coverage of the Pap test and the fact that the majority of the women had self-reported a spontaneous demand, use of the Pap test was less prevalent among women with the lowest socioeconomic level (and consequently at greater risk of cervical cancer.

  9. Health Screening: What Tests You Need and When

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... turn Javascript on. Screening tests, such as mammograms, Pap smears, and colorectal cancer tests, can find diseases and ... your doctor about whether you should be tested. Pap Smears (Women): Have a Pap smear every 1 to ...

  10. Obtaining reliable quality data from fragility seismic tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The parameters discussed in this paper are the same as those present in normal seismic qualification testing. These parameters behave differently in high level acceleration tests and their contribution in providing unreliable data is of major concern since there is a significant difference. These parameters need to be considered in developing methodology guidelines for future fragility standards

  11. Obtaining reliable likelihood ratio tests from simulated likelihood functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Laura Mrch

    2014-01-01

    likely to cause misleading test results for the number of draws usually used today. The paper illustrates that increasing the number of draws is a very inefficient solution strategy requiring very large numbers of draws to ensure against misleading test statistics. The main conclusion of this paper is...

  12. Obtaining reliable Likelihood Ratio tests from simulated likelihood functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Laura Mrch

    parameters this practice is very likely to cause misleading test results for the number of draws usually used today. The paper shows that increasing the number of draws is a very inefficient solution strategy requiring very large numbers of draws to ensure against misleading test statistics. The paper shows...

  13. Pattern of epithelial cell abnormality in Pap smear: A clinicopathological and demographic correlation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urmila Banik

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In the low resource settings of a developing country, a conventional Papanicolaou (Pap test is the mainstay screening system for cervical cancer. In order to counsel women and to organize a public health system for cervical cancer screening by Pap smear examination, it is imperative to know the pattern of premalignant and malignant lesions. This study was undertaken to find out the prevalence of an abnormal Pap smear, in a tertiary hospital of a developing country, and to carry out a clinicopathological and demographical analysis for establishing the pattern of epithelial cell abnormality in a Pap smear. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out in a total of 1699 patients who underwent Pap smear examination. The prevalence of epithelial cell abnormality in the Pap smear was calculated in proportions / percentages. Specimen adequacy and reporting was assessed according to the revised Bethesda system. Results: Among the total of 1699 patients who had their Pap smear done, 139 (8.18% revealed epithelial cell abnormality. Altogether 26 smears revealed high-grade lesions and malignancy, most of which were found to be in women belonging to the 30 - 39 and ≥ 45 age group. A total of 75 (53.96% women were in the 20 - 44 age group and 64 (46.04% were in the ≥ 45 age group. A bimodal age distribution was detected in the epithelial cell abnormality, with the bulk being diagnosed in patients aged 45 or above. Overall one-third of the patients with an abnormal Pap smear result showed healthy cervix in per vaginal examination. Conclusions: A raised prevalence of epithelial cell abnormality reflects the lack of awareness about cervical cancer screening. Women aged 45 or above harbor the bulk of premalignant and malignant lesions in the Pap smear, signifying that these women are among the under users of cytological screening.

  14. Cytological patterns of cervical pap smears with histopathological correlation

    OpenAIRE

    Bhagya Lakshmi Atla; Prasad Uma; M. Shamili; Satish Kumar, S.(Lorentz Institute, Leiden University, Niels Bohrweg 2, Leiden, Netherlands)

    2015-01-01

    Background: Cervical cancer is the most common, preventable cancer and does not develop suddenly from normal epithelium but is presented by a spectrum of intraepithelial neoplasia. Pap smear is an ideal screening and low cost effective test to detect intraepithelial neoplasia especially in developing countries but has limitations and needs confirmation by histopathology. The study aimed to determine the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and diagnos...

  15. Knowledge, Attitudes and Practice about Pap Smear among Women Reffering to A Public Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedighe Rezaie-Chamani

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The Pap smear is a reliable, inexpensive and effective screening test for cervical cancer; thesecond most common cancer among women worldwide. We aimed to determine women’s knowledge,attitudes and practice towards Pap smear and barriers for the screening in a public hospital.Materials and methods: This study, was carried out on 350 outpatient married women reffering for avisit at the clinics of the Alzahra educational hospital, Rasht- Iran, 2011. A questionnaire includingdemographic characteristics (24 questions, knowledge (14 questions, attitudes (11 statments andpractice (10 questions towards Pap smear was completed by interview with the women. The data wereanalyzed using SPSS ver.13.Results: Mean age of participants was 32 (SD 12 years. Of the respondents, only 44.3% were aware ofthe Pap smear and 27.1% had had it at least once in their life. The most common reason for having thetest was physicians’ or other health workers’ advise and for not having the test was no recommendationby health providers and lack of knowledge about Pap smear. Embarrassing, fear of the test result oreconomic problems mentioned by only 12 (4.2% as the main barrier. Mean (±SD knowledge score ofthe women who had heard about the Pap smear was 59.4 (24.3 and attitudes score of all participantswas 48.5 (11.6 from possible range score of 0-100. Women with a history of Pap smear had had higherawareness and attitudes score.Conclusion: The knowledge and practice of the women was inadequate and need to be promoted.Considering the main reason mentioned by the participants for not having the test, all health providersshould educate and encourage women to do regular Pap smear.

  16. Awareness and uptake of the Pap smear among market women in Lagos, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kikelomo O. Wright

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Our study evaluates the effect of an educational programme on awareness and uptake of the cervical cancer screening test (Pap smear by women in a model market in Lagos Nigeria. This was a quasi-experimental study using a multistage sampling technique. A total of 350 women were divided into two groups. A baseline survey on awareness of the Pap test and screening practices was carried out using pre-tested, interviewer administered, structured questionnaires. Participants in the intervention group received sessions of community based health information on cervical cancer screening tests while participants in the control group received health information on hypertension. Subsequently, participants in both groups were reassessed to evaluate the effect of the educational programme on the Pap test and cervical screening uptake. Data were analysed with the Epi-info version 6.04. Awareness about the Pap test was low at baseline; only 6.9% and 12.0% of participants in the intervention and control groups, respectively, had heard of Pap smears. Furthermore, less than 10% had correct information on the use of the Pap test. Post-intervention, there was a significant and proportional increase in the knowledge of the Pap test in the intervention group (p<0.05. However, uptake of the test was quite low in the intervention and control groups both pre- and post-intervention and there was no significant change in uptake. We concluded that essential schemes are required to enhance access to screening, as knowledge alone is insufficient to promote acceptance and use of cervical cytological screening tests.

  17. La coloración fluorescente con naranja de acridina y el PAP: validación de ambas técnicas para la detección de Trichomonas vaginalis FLUORESCENT STAINING WITH ACRIDINE ORANGE AND PAP SMEAR: VALIDATION TESTS OF BOTH TECNIQUES FOR THE DETECTION OF Trichomonas vaginalis

    OpenAIRE

    SIXTO RAUL COSTAMAGNA; MARIA PRADO FIGUEROA; OSCAR SORIA; ALEJANDRO FUENTES; RICARDO FERREYRA

    2000-01-01

    Se efectuó la validación de la coloración de Papanicolaou, utilizada para citología vaginal, frente a la coloración fluorescente con naranja de acridina, a fin de evaluar el valor de un resultado negativo para Trichomonas vaginalis obtenido en un PAP. Se estudiaron 80 muestras de flujo vaginal de mujeres entre 18 y 45 años, pacientes de consultorios externos de Ginecología del Hospital Municipal de la ciudad de Bahía Blanca, Provincia de Buenos Aires (Argentina). Las muestras se colorearon pa...

  18. Correlation of Pap smear and visual inspection with acetic acid for screening of premalignant and malignant lesion of cervix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anshu Singh

    2015-09-01

    Results: The present study was conducted over a period of 6 months among 212 patients age of 18-60 years screened. Positive results obtained from cytology were 26, VIA was positive in 28 women. Cervical biopsy was done in 34 women who had positive results by either test. Histology in 31 cases was suggestive of cervical intraepithelial carcinoma (CIN. Conclusions: VIA, though less specific has comparable sensitivity to Pap smear and may be used as a primary screening tool for cervical cancer. In combination both the tests have a higher predictive accuracy. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(9.000: 2382-2385

  19. Comparison Between Pap Smear and Via As Screening For Cervical Lesions

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    Harshini V 1, Amritha Bhandary 2, Suchithra Thunga 3

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: An important reason for higher cervical cancer incidence in developing countries is lack of effectivescreening programs like pap smear, aimed at detecting precancerous conditions before they progress to invasivecancer. The potential difficulties in implementing cervical cytology based screening in low-resource settings haveprompted the investigation of accuracy of alternative low technology tests such as Visual inspection with acetic acidapplication [VIA], Visual inspection with acetic acid application with magnification [VIAM], visual inspection onLugol’s Iodine application [VILI] in early detection of cervical neoplasia .In our study we compared pap smear withVIA to study the accurarcy of VIA as it is simpler and easier technique to be used as screening in low resourcesettings. Aim: This is a hospital based descriptive, prospective study to evaluate validity of pap smear and VIAtechniques as screening tests in identifying cervical lesions. Materials And Methods: After general and systemicexamination as a routine,visual local pelvic examination including visualisation of cervix and vagina per speculumand the findings are documented in the proforma .Then VIA and pap smear are done in that order, if any of thesetests are positive then cervical biopsy will be taken and further advise to the subject is given. Results: A total of 313women were involved in the study. The sensitivity of pap smear is 54.5% specificity is 98.9% while that of VIA95.4% and 97.9%respectively. We found that VIA accuracy was comparatively more than that of pap smear.Conclusion: In low resource settings, usefulness of VIA is more than that of pap smear. We suggest to perform VIAin all the women inspite of having pap smear facility to improve detection rate of cervical lesions and provide betterpatient councelling and treatment.

  20. Comparison of visual inspection of cervix and pap smear for cervical cancer screening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To evaluate the performance of visual inspection of cervix (VIA) after application of 3% acetic acid in cervical cancer screening in comparison with PAP smear. Results: Out of 540 subjects, 356 were negative with both screening techniques. One hundred and fifty-six subjects were positive with VIA (28.9%) while PAP smear was positive in seventy-eight subjects (14.4%). The sensitivity of VIA was 93.9% and of PAP smear was 46.9%. Corresponding specificities were 30.4% and 69.5%. There was no significant difference between the positive predictive value (PPV) of both test (p<0.05). The accuracy of VIA was 77.5% compared to 52.8% of PAP smear. The difference was highly significant (p < 0.01). Conclusion: These results indicate that VIA is more sensitive and has a higher accuracy as compared to PAP smear. It could, therefore, be valuable in detection of precancerous lesions of cervix. Low cost, easy applicability and immediate results make VIA a useful screening test in developing countries like Pakistan as compared to PAP smear. (author)

  1. Women's understanding of the term 'Pap smear'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, David L; Hostetter, Sarah Smith; Hunter, Jennifer; Johnson, Nicole; Cooper, Saladin; Malnar, Gerard

    2015-07-01

    To assess the understanding of the term 'Pap smear' among women across the entire adult lifespan after recent changes to the guidelines on cervical cancer screening. Women attending the Obstetrics and Gynecology clinic at a large safety net teaching hospital in a Midwestern city were provided one of two versions of a confidential and anonymous survey to complete. The difference between the two versions was the way the primary research question was worded. There were 174 participants ranging in age from 15 to 69 (mean = 33.9) years. Of the 73 women who completed version A of the survey, 74 % were able to identify at least one correct descriptor for the term 'Pap smear.' Women who could identify at least one correct descriptor for the term 'Pap smear' were on average older than those who could not (mean = 36.9 vs. 28.7 years; p = 0.012). Of the 94 patients completing survey version B, 67 % could not differentiate a pelvic exam from a Pap smear. There was no association between age and ability to differentiate a pelvic exam from a Pap smear. The majority of women cannot distinguish a Pap smear from a pelvic exam. The unexpected finding of less understanding among younger women prompts a need for further research and invites discussion of whether more cervical cancer prevention education, with more emphasis on HPV vaccines in recent years, has neglected the importance of Pap smears-which is beginning to show up in knowledge of younger women. Both these findings suggest a need for increased patient education during female preventive health clinic visits. PMID:25630404

  2. COMPARISION AND CORRELATION OF PAP SMEAR WITH COLPOSCOPY AND HISTOPATHIOLOGY IN EVALUATION OF CERVIX

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    Zainab S

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available AIMS AND OBJECTIVES : Correlate pap smear findings wi th colposcopic findings, To localize the lesion by colposcopy and obtain biopsy and to provide appropriate treatment wherever possible. MATERIAL AND METHODS : This was a prospective comparative study of 104 patients who attended the Gynecology OPD of KIMS f rom may2012 to may 2014. INCLUSION CRITERIA : 1. Women of age between 20 - 65 years. 2. Women with symptoms like vaginal discharge, post coital bleeding, postmenopausal bleeding, intermenstrual bleeding and persistent leucorrhoea . 3. Women with normal looking cervix but symptomatic. EXCLUSION CRITERIA : 1. Women with bleeding at the time of examination . 2. Women with frank lesions . 3. Women with clinical evidence of acute pelvic infection . 4. Women who was previously treated for carcinoma cervix . 5. Pregnant wome n. RESULTS : Sensitivity of pap smear was found to be very low which was 31.25% compared to its specificity which was 94.44%. Which means pap smear shows higher no. of false negative smears Colposcopy showed a high sensitivity 96.57% and a good specificity 88.55% compared to pap smear . CONCLUSIOS: It is evident that colposcopy is definitely more sensitive and accurate than pap smear. By combining pap smear with colposcopy, we can maximize the sensitivity and specificity of cancer cervix screening.

  3. Exame citopatológico de colo uterino em mulheres com idade entre 20 e 59 anos em Pelotas, RS: prevalência, foco e fatores associados à sua não realização Pap smears of 20 - 59 year-old women in Pelotas, Southern Brazil: prevalence, approach and factors associated with not undergoing the test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnildo A. Hackenhaar

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar a prevalência e o foco de realização do exame citopatológico do colo uterino e também fatores associados à sua não realização em mulheres com idade entre 20 e 59 anos residentes na cidade de Pelotas, RS. MÉTODOS: Entre outubro e dezembro de 2003 foi realizado um estudo transversal de base populacional. Através de amostragem por conglomerados foram sorteados 144 setores censitários em múltiplos estágios. Foram investigadas variáveis sociodemográficas e a realização de exame citopatológico do colo uterino. RESULTADOS: Dentre as 1404 mulheres que constituem a população-alvo dos programas de prevenção do câncer do colo uterino, 83,0% realizaram o exame citopatológico do colo uterino nos três anos antecedentes a este estudo. Mostraram-se significativamente associadas (POBJECTIVE: This study aims to determine the prevalence of and approach of Pap smear tests, as well as associated factors in women living in Pelotas, RS, Southern Brazil, within the 20 - 59 age range, who did not undergo a Pap smear. METHODS: A cross-sectional population-based study was carried out from October to December 2003. 144 census tracts were sampled through a multiple-stage clustered method. Socio-demographic variables were investigated, as well as women's Pap smear tests. RESULTS: Among the 1,404 women who were the target population included in the early detection program of uterine cervix cancer, 83% had had Pap smears in the three years before the study. Variables statistically associated (p<0.05 with women not undergoing the test in the previous three years were: ages ranging from 20-29 to 50-59 years compared with 40-49 year-old women, lower schooling level, lower social level, mixed and black skin color, not having seen a gynecologist in the previous 12 months. CONCLUSIONS: Although this study presents a high coverage of women undergoing Pap smears, women that present higher risk factors for this type of cancer had fewer tests.

  4. Cobertura do exame citopatológico do colo do útero na cidade de São Leopoldo, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil Coverage of Pap smear tests in the city of São Leopoldo, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deise Karine Muller

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo transversal teve por objetivos verificar a cobertura de realização do exame preventivo de câncer do colo do útero e os fatores associados na população de mulheres de 20 a 60 anos residentes na zona urbana de São Leopoldo, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil, durante o ano de 2003. A amostra foi por conglomerados. Foram analisados dois desfechos, a realização de exame preventivo do câncer do colo do útero nos últimos três anos e exame preventivo de Papanicolaou nunca realizado. Entre as 867 mulheres entrevistadas, 741 (85,5%; IC95%: 83,1-87,8 tinham realizado o exame citopatológico do colo uterino nos últimos três anos, 60 (6,9%; IC95%: 5,2-8,6 estavam com o procedimento atrasado e 66 (7,6%; IC95%: 5,8-9,4 nunca o haviam realizado. Na regressão de Poisson foi observada significância para as variáveis: classe econômica, idade, cor da pele, estado civil. Observou-se que apesar da cobertura elevada, os fatores de risco para o câncer de colo uterino não motivaram a realização do exame.This cross-sectional study aimed to verify the coverage of Pap smear tests and associated factors in a cluster sample of women 20 to 60 years of age in the city of São Leopoldo, Rio Grande Sul State, Brazil, in 2003. Two outcomes were analyzed: Pap smear in the previous three years and Pap smear never performed. Among 867 women, 741 (85.5%; 95%CI: 83.1-87.8 had a Pap smear in the previous three years, 60 (6.9%; 95%CI: 5.2-8.6 were late with the test, and 66 (7.6%; 95%CI: 5.8-9.4 had never done a Pap smear. Poisson regression showed significant association with: income, age, skin color, and marital status. Although coverage was high, risk factors for uterine cervical cancer were not associated with performing the test.

  5. Comparison of PWR fuel assembly CHF tests obtained at three different test facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text of publication follows: Critical Heat Flux (CHF) is a key phenomenon in the heat transfer process in the nuclear core of pressurized water reactors (PWR). CHF limits the power capability of the nuclear plant and also the core design fuel management. Framatome Cogema Fuels (formerly Babcock and Wilcox), Siemens Power Corporation (SPC) in the US, Kraftwerk Union (KWU/Siemens) in Germany and Framatome in France have all been carrying out CHF tests for qualifying the thermal-hydraulic performance of their fuel assemblies in several test loops. With the merging of these companies within Framatome-ANP and the AREVA group, it was decided to utilize the same test facility for all regions. The Karlstein Thermal Hydraulic facility (KATHY) loop located at Karlstein, Germany has been selected to be the reference loop of Framatome ANP. The other loops previously used were the OMEGA loop of the French CEA and the Heat Transfer Research Facility (HTRF) loop of Columbia University. In order to be able to use results from tests obtained at any of the facilities interchangeably, a comparison of experimental measurements was necessary to demonstrate the equivalence of these loops. These experiments have been performed both using an axially uniform flux shape and using an axially nonuniform flux shape. In this paper a short description of the test facilities is presented after which the results of this comparison between KATHY, OMEGA and the HTRF are described. The method used in the comparison is presented in detail. The results obtained using only experimental conditions do not account for small differences in the rod bundle radial peaking and axial flux shape. Theses differences can be modeled using a subchannel thermal-hydraulic analysis code and a CHF correlation. Such a technique permits a much more precise comparison of the results. This comparison demonstrates an excellent consistency of the results between the different loops. This conclusion is valid over a large range of thermal hydraulic parameters (pressure, mass flow rate and local quality).. Therefore the continuity of the CHF test results used in within the AREVA group for product performance demonstrations is completely ensured. (authors)

  6. Evaluation of a Worksite Cervical Screening Initiative to Increase Pap Smear Uptake in Malaysia: A Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Fauziah Abdullah; Michael O’Rorke; Liam Murray; Tin Tin Su

    2013-01-01

    Background. Despite the significant burden of cervical cancer, Malaysia like many middle-income countries relies on opportunistic cervical screening as opposed to a more organized population-based program. The aim of this study was to ascertain the effectiveness of a worksite screening initiative upon Papanicolaou smear test (Pap test) uptake among educated working women in Malaysia. Methods. 403 female teachers who never or infrequently attended for a Pap test from 40 public secondary school...

  7. Presencia de algunos factores de riesgo de cncer de crvix en mujeres con citologas normales / Presence of some risk factors for cervix uteri cancer in women with normal Pap's smear test results

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Yoimy, Daz Brito; Mara Margarita, Bez Pupo; Jorge Luis, Prez Rivero; Migdalia, Garca Placeres.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduccin: el cncer del cuello del tero es un problema de salud que afecta a las mujeres, son mltiples los factores que lo predisponen. Objetivo: identificar la presencia de algunos factores de riesgo de Cncer de cervix en mujeres de un Grupo Bsico de Trabajo con citologas normales. Mtodo: [...] se realiz un estudio observacional descriptivo, en mujeres pertenecientes al Grupo Bsico de Trabajo 1 del Policlnico Docente "Tula Aguilera", del municipio Camagey, desde septiembre a diciembre del ao 2011. De las 997 mujeres registradas en las Historias Clnicas de Salud Familiar, se seleccionaron 191 utilizando el Programa EPIDAT, por muestreo aleatorio simple. Se les aplic una encuesta y los datos recogidos fueron presentados en tablas de frecuencias. Resultados: se encontr que predomin el grupo de edades entre 35-39 aos con un 24,0 %, el 90,0 % comenzaron a tener relaciones antes de los 20 aos, el 64,3 % tuvieron tres y ms compaeros sexuales, 70,7 % padecieron de infeccin vaginal. Conclusiones : al concluir el estudio, se aprecia la presencia elevada de factores de riesgo de cncer del crvix en las fminas estudiadas. Abstract in english Introduction: the cervix uteri cancer is a health problem affecting women and the number of predisposing factors is large. Objective: to identify some risk factors for cervix uteri cancer in females cared for by a basic work team with normal results in their Pap's smear tests. Methods: an observatio [...] nal and descriptive study was conducted in women, who were cared for by the basic work team no. 1 of "Tula Aguilera" teaching polyclinics in Camaguey municipality from September to December, 2011. The medical records of family health registered 997 from whom 191 were selected through the simple random sampling based on EPIDAT software. They were surveyed and their data presented in frequency tables. Results: it was found that 35-39 y age group predominated with 24%; 90% of them began their sexual relationships prior to being 20 years-old; 64.3% had three or more sexual partners and 70.7% suffered from vaginal infection. Conclusions: at the end of the study, we noticed the significant presence of risk factors for cervix uteri cancer in the studied women.

  8. Persistent inflammation on Pap smear: Does it warrant evaluation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Bhutia

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Due to the low sensitivity of Pap smear, premalignant lesions of the cervix can be missed in women with inflammatory Pap smears. However, it is not practically possible to subject all women with inflammatory Pap smear to colposcopy. This study was carried out with the aim to evaluate whether women with persistent inflammation on Pap smear need further evaluation with colposcopy. Materials and Methods: Four hundred and twenty women were screened at a tertiary level hospital with Pap smear. Women with inflammation on Pap smear were given treatment as per WHO guidelines and Pap smear was repeated at an interval of 6-12 weeks. Women with persistent inflammation on Pap smear were then subjected to colposcopy and directed biopsy if required. Results: Of the 420 women screened, 102 (24.3% women had a Pap smear showing inflammation. Thirty six women (8.6% had persistent inflammatory Pap smear. Thirty women were subjected to colposcopy and 16 (53.3% had abnormal findings on colposcopy. Five out of these 30 women (16.67% had Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN on biopsy. Conclusions: Nearly 16.67% women with persistent inflammation on Pap smear had cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. Hence, a large number of women with CIN would be missed if persistent inflammation on Pap smear is not evaluated further.

  9. Associations Between Women's Perception of Their Husbands'/Partners' Social Support and Pap Screening in Pacific Islander Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouttapa, Michele; Park Tanjasiri, Sora; Wu Weiss, Jie; Sablan-Santos, Lola; DeGuzman Lacsamana, Jasmine; Quitugua, Lourdes; Flores, Preciosa; Flores, Peter; Paige, Ciara; Tui'one May, Vanessa; Tupua, Marina; Schmidt-Vaivao, Dorothy; Taito, Peniamina; Vaikona, Elenoa; Vunileva, Isileli

    2016-01-01

    Pacific Islanders experience high rates of cervical cancer incidence and mortality. This cross-sectional study examined the extent to which Samoan, Chamorro, and Tongan women's perceived receipt of social support from their husbands or male partners was associated with rates of routine cancer screening- specifically Pap testing. A total of 585 Pacific Islander women who live in the United States completed a self-report survey. Women who reported having a Pap test within the past 3 years had significantly higher scores on support from their husbands/male partners. Furthermore, the relationship of emotional support and informational support with increased Pap testing was significantly stronger for Tongan women. The findings suggest that men play an important role in promoting women's cancer prevention behaviors in Pacific Islander and potentially other collectivistic populations. Incorporating social support messages into interventions may be a simple yet effective strategy to increase women's Pap testing. PMID:26646422

  10. XMLComparison of Molecular (PCR and Pap Smear Methods in Diagnosis of Human Papiloma Virus (HPV in Women with Genital Warts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bashi zadeh Fakhar, H. (MSc

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Much research has shown that Human Papiloma Virus (HPV plays an important role in cervix cancer and it is the cause of 99% of cervix cancer worldwide. Lots of research has been done to find a proper method for HPV diagnosis and screening in patients with genital warts. This study aimed at comparing PCR method with Pap smear test in HPV screening. Material and Methods: Considering the presence of DNA of HPV, 45 vaginal and cervix swap samples of women with genital warts were tested by means of specific PCR and Pap smear from September 2010 to April 2011. Results: Out of 45 vaginal and cervix swap samples of women suffering genital warts, 37 samples (82.2% are positive. Of 45 Pap smear samples, 13 (29% are neoplasia and 32 (71% normal. Conclusion: The difference between the results of PCR and Pap smear is due to low specification and sensitivity of Pap smear. Thus it is recommended using diagnostic PCR method in addition to Pap smear in order to promote the quality of screening in individuals with genital warts. Keywords: Human Papiloma Virus (HPV; Genital Warts; Molecular (PCR; Pap Smear

  11. Associations of demographic variables and the Health Belief Model constructs with Pap smear screening among urban women in Botswana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McFarl

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Ditsapelo M McFarland College of Nursing and Public Health, Adelphi University, Garden City, NY, USA Purpose: Papanicolaou (Pap smear services are available in most urban areas in Botswana. Yet most women in such areas do not screen regularly for cancer of the cervix. The purpose of this article is to present findings on the associations of demographic variables and Health Belief Model constructs with Pap smear screening among urban women in Botswana. Sample and methods: The study included a convenience sample of 353 asymptomatic women aged 30 years and older who were living in Gaborone, Botswana. Data were collected using a demographic questionnaire and items of the Health Belief Model. Data analysis included descriptive statistics for demographic variables and bivariate and ordinal (logit regression to determine the associations of demographic variables. Results: Having health insurance and having a regular health care provider were significant predictors of whether or not women had a Pap smear. Women with health insurance were more likely to have had a Pap smear test than women without health insurance (91% vs 36%. Similarly, women who had a regular health care provider were more likely to have had a Pap smear test than women without a regular health care provider (94% vs 42%. Major barriers to screening included what was described as "laziness" for women who had ever had a Pap smear (57% and limited information about Pap smear screening for women who had never had a Pap smear (44%. Conclusion: There is a need for more information about the importance of the Pap smear test and for increased access to screening services in Botswana. Keywords: cervical, screening, barriers, access, beliefs

  12. Van Mother-Child Health and Family Planning Center Pap Smear Clinics of Information, Evaluation of Applicants

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    Sebahat Gucuk

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In this study of women admitted to our center with information on pap smear test, to evaluate the attitudes and behavior. Materials and Methods: This descriptive study of Van Mother-Child Health and Family Planning Center on a voluntary basis, women aged 15-49 were admitted to the control. The education level of participants, age at first marriage, before the presence of vaginal infection, the story, and motivations pap smear level of information availability, and a family history of cancer, administered a questionnaire asking the state to have a regular income. Results: The study included 362 women with age and hear the pap smear test was significantly increased (p = 0.01. Working women and pap smear level of knowledge (p = 0.04 and pap smears than women not working for International rates significantly higher (p = 0.02. Treatment of vaginal infection at least once before to get there was a significant relationship between the pap smear motivations (p>0.05. Family history of gynecologic cancer or non-gynecologic cancer smears have significantly increased the level of motivations (p = 0.0001. Pap smear information, regular the economic income of those levels, significantly higher than those without regular income (p = 0.0001. Conclusion: We serve the region, with low socio-economic characteristics that are considered, gynecological examination by health workers or women from the home visits, pap smear test for what purpose and how often you get the work done and the importance of explaining and giving more space to this issue suggest that the written and visual media. Keywords: Pap smears, health care, education [TAF Prev Med Bull 2011; 10(5.000: 527-532

  13. Intraoperative BiPAP in OSA Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Bhavna P

    2015-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSA) is characterized by recurrent episodes of partial or complete upper airway obstructions during sleep. Severe OSA presents with a number of challenges to the anesthesiologist, the most life threatening being loss of the airway. We are reporting a case where we successfully used intraoperative bi level positive pressure ventilation (BiPAP) with moderate sedation and a regional technique in a patient with severe OSA posted for total knee replacement (TKR). A 55-year-old lady with osteoarthritis of right knee joint was posted for total knee replacement. She had severe OSA with an apnea-hypopnea index of 35. She also had moderate pulmonary hypertension due to her long standing OSA. We successfully used in her a combined spinal epidural technique with intraoperative BiPAP and sedation. She had no complications intraoperatively or post operatively and was discharged on day 5. Patients with OSA are vulnerable to sedatives, anaesthesia and analgesia which even in small doses can cause complete airway collapse. The problem, with regional techniques is that it requires excellent patient cooperation. We decided to put our patient on intraoperative BiPAP hoping that this would allow us to sedate her adequately for the surgery. As it happened we were able to successfully sedate her with slightly lesser doses of the commonly used sedatives without any episodes of desaturation, snoring or exacerbation of pulmonary hypertension. Many more trials are required before we can conclusively say that intraoperative BiPAP allows us to safely sedate OSA patients but we hope that our case report draws light on this possibility. Planning ahead and having a BiPAP machine available inside the operating may allow us to use sedatives in these patients to keep them comfortable under regional anaesthesia. PMID:26023625

  14. Intraoperative BiPAP in OSA Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Bhavna P; Ns, Kodandaram

    2015-04-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSA) is characterized by recurrent episodes of partial or complete upper airway obstructions during sleep. Severe OSA presents with a number of challenges to the anesthesiologist, the most life threatening being loss of the airway. We are reporting a case where we successfully used intraoperative bi level positive pressure ventilation (BiPAP) with moderate sedation and a regional technique in a patient with severe OSA posted for total knee replacement (TKR). A 55-year-old lady with osteoarthritis of right knee joint was posted for total knee replacement. She had severe OSA with an apnea-hypopnea index of 35. She also had moderate pulmonary hypertension due to her long standing OSA. We successfully used in her a combined spinal epidural technique with intraoperative BiPAP and sedation. She had no complications intraoperatively or post operatively and was discharged on day 5. Patients with OSA are vulnerable to sedatives, anaesthesia and analgesia which even in small doses can cause complete airway collapse. The problem, with regional techniques is that it requires excellent patient cooperation. We decided to put our patient on intraoperative BiPAP hoping that this would allow us to sedate her adequately for the surgery. As it happened we were able to successfully sedate her with slightly lesser doses of the commonly used sedatives without any episodes of desaturation, snoring or exacerbation of pulmonary hypertension. Many more trials are required before we can conclusively say that intraoperative BiPAP allows us to safely sedate OSA patients but we hope that our case report draws light on this possibility. Planning ahead and having a BiPAP machine available inside the operating may allow us to use sedatives in these patients to keep them comfortable under regional anaesthesia. PMID:26023625

  15. Pap-smear Benchmark Data For Pattern Classification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jantzen, Jan; Norup, Jonas; Dounias, Georgios; Bjerregaard, Beth

    This case study provides data and a baseline for comparing classification methods. The data consists of 917 images of Pap-smear cells, classified carefully by cyto-technicians and doctors. Each cell is described by 20 numerical features, and the cells fall into 7 classes. A basic data analysis...... includes scatter plots and linear classification results, in order to provide domain knowledge and lower bounds on the acceptable performance of future classifiers. Students and researchers can access the database on the Internet, and use it to test and compare their own classification methods....

  16. Preoperative serum PSA and PAP levels and survival in curative prostatic cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aim: It has been established that PSA and PAP are useful tumor markers in diagnosis and therapy follow-up of prostatic cancer. In this work we retrospectively evaluated whether there exists a relationship between preoperative PSA and PAP values and survival of patients following the transurethral resection of prostate. Material and Methods: It has been done a mainly simultaneous radioimmunoassay of PSA and PAP in 52 and 49 patients with carcinoma of prostate, respectively. Survival curves were computed by Kaplan-Meier method. Difference between 2 groups of patients were estimated by log rank test. Results: The values of PSA and PAP ranged 0,3-325,2 ng/ml (median 52,3) and 0,1-204,0 ng/ml (median 6,1), respectively. The mean survival time was 33,94,2 months (median 26,42,6). Based on optimal decision level in differentiation BPH and prostatic cancer, the patients were divided into 2 groups: PSA36,0ng/ml, PAP4,5ng/ml. No significant difference between survival curves was found concerning of PSA and PAP levels. However, in age groups70 years (age ratio 1,03) the mean survival was 45,056,23 (median 29,602,26) and 22,092,98(median 22,803,21 months, respectively. The difference is significant (p=0,002). The geometric mean values of PSA in 70 years group are 45,1 ng/ml and 24,1 ng/ml, respectively. The difference is significant (p70 years group are 7,8 ng/ml and 6,7 ng/ml, respectively. No significant difference. Conclusion: It couldn't be proved that preoperative PSA and PAP levels are prognostic indicators. Examination of age ranges reveals significant survival difference between age groups 70 years indicating age effect on survival

  17. Isolation and cloning of the Phytolacca americana anti-viral protein PAP-I gene

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Heba A, Mahfouze; Khalid A, El-Dougdoug; Badawi A, Othman; Mostafa A, Gomaa.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available La protena antiviral del ginseng (PAP), aislada de plantas de Phytolacca americana y Phytolacca acinosa, inhibe la traduccin proteica mediante la remocin cataltica de un residuo de adenina especfico, en la cadena mayor de la subunidad 60S del ARN ribosomal eucaritico. En este estudio se aisl [...] y secuenci el gen PAP-I de P. americana, y posteriormente se compar con los genes de otras protenas inactivadoras de ribosomas (RIP), reportadas en GenBank(r). Se extrajo el ADN total de las hojas tardas del verano de las plantas de P. americana y el fragmento de 868 pb correspondiente al ADN del gen se amplific con el uso de cebadores especficos, mediante reaccin en cadena de la polimerasa (PCR). El producto de la PCR eluido se purific, se clon en el vector pTZ57R/T, y se moviliz en clulas de Escherichia coli cepa DH5a. Tras la secuenciacin del producto de la PCR del gen PAP-I, la secuencia mostr una homologa nucleotdica de 98 a 82 % y aminoacdica de 94 a 26 %, con las RIP reportadas. El anlisis filogentico confirm que el gen amplificado corresponde a la RIP tipo I de simple cadena (PAP-I). Abstract in english The pokeweed antiviral protein (PAP) isolated from Phytolacca americana and Phytolacca acinosa plants, inhibits protein translation by catalytically removing a specific adenine residue from the large rRNA of the 60S subunit of eukaryotic ribosomes. In this study, the P. americana PAP-I gene was isol [...] ated and sequenced, and further compared to other ribosome-inactivating proteins (RIPs) genes previously reported in GenBank(r). Total DNA was extracted from the late summer leaves of P. americana. A polymerase chain reaction (PCR) 868 bp-long DNA product was obtained, using gene specific primers, based on the expected gene size. The eluted product was purified and cloned into the pTZ57R/T vector, and mobilized into the Escherichia coli strain DH5a. After sequencing, the analysis of the PAP-I PCR product showed 98 to 82 % nucleotide and amino acid 94 to 26 % homologies, respectively, compared to previously reported RIPs. A phylogenetic analysis confirmed that the amplified PAP-I gene corresponds to the single chain Type-I RIP (PAP-I).

  18. CIEMAT interlaboratories comparison of the results obtained in the proficiency test run by IAEA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains the results obtained by two different laboratories from CIEMAT after participating in the Proficiency Test organised by IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency) in 1999. This test involves the analysis of fly ashes containing natural radionuclides and different amounts of added transuranics. The extraction techniques, counting methods and results obtained are detailed. This type of test are used for the labs to achieve their accreditation and check the reliability of the procedures routinely employed. (Author) 4 refs

  19. Pap smear screening in the primary health care setting: A study from Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hande Celik Mehmetoglu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cervical cancer is one of the ten most frequent cancers in Turkey. It is well known that cervical cancer morbidity and mortality could be significantly reduced with an active cervical smear screening (Pap smear program. Aims: The aims of this study were: 1 to evaluate the knowledge and attitudes of women about cervical smear testing; 2 to establish a cervical smear screening program and to evaluate the cervical cytological abnormalities that were found; 3 to determine the applicability, limitations and effectiveness of this screening in a primary health care unit. Patients and Methods : A total of 332 married women were included in our study. We collected data concerning socio-demographic and fertility characteristics, and knowledge about Pap smear testing was determined through printed questionnaires. A gynecological examination and Pap smear screening was performed on every woman in our study group. Results: Over ninety percent of our study group had never heard of and had not undergone Pap smear screening before. Of the 332 smears evaluated, 328 (98.8% were accepted as normal, whereas epithelial cell anomalies were seen in 4 (1.2%, infection in 59 (17.7%, and reactive cell differences in 223 (67.2% of the smears. Conclusions: The frequency of epithelial cell anomalies in our study group was less than the frequencies reported from Western countries. Knowledge regarding cervical cancer and Pap smear screening was very low. Pap smears can be easily taken and evaluated through a chain built between the primary health care unit and laboratory, and this kind of screening intervention is easily accepted by the population served.

  20. Pap smear screening in the primary health care setting: A study from Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hande Celik Mehmetoglu

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cervical cancer is one of the ten most frequent cancers in Turkey. It is well known that cervical cancer morbidity and mortality could be significantly reduced with an active cervical smear screening (Pap smear program. Aims: The aims of this study were: 1 to evaluate the knowledge and attitudes of women about cervical smear testing; 2 to establish a cervical smear screening program and to evaluate the cervical cytological abnormalities that were found; 3 to determine the applicability, limitations and effectiveness of this screening in a primary health care unit. Patients and Methods: A total of 332 married women were included in our study. We collected data concerning socio-demographic and fertility characteristics, and knowledge about Pap smear testing was determined through printed questionnaires. A gynecological examination and Pap smear screening was performed on every woman in our study group. Results: Over ninety percent of our study group had never heard of and had not undergone Pap smear screening before. Of the 332 smears evaluated, 328 (98.8% were accepted as normal, whereas epithelial cell anomalies were seen in 4 (1.2%, infection in 59 (17.7%, and reactive cell differences in 223 (67.2% of the smears. Conclusions: The frequency of epithelial cell anomalies in our study group was less than the frequencies reported from Western countries. Knowledge regarding cervical cancer and Pap smear screening was very low. Pap smears can be easily taken and evaluated through a chain built between the primary health care unit and laboratory, and this kind of screening intervention is easily accepted by the population served.

  1. Human sperm chromosomes obtained from hamster eggs after sperm capacitation in TEST-yolk buffer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandriff, B.; Gordon, L.; Watchmaker, G.

    1985-01-01

    Human sperm chromosomes were obtained after capacitation with TES-Tris (TEST) yolk buffer and fusion with Syrian hamster eggs. Semen samples could be stored at 4/sup 0/C for 3 days and remain functional in the assay system. The efficiency of TEST yolk buffer for obtaining karyotypes was as good as, or greater than, the efficiency of standard BWW medium containing human serum albumin. 16 references, 3 tables.

  2. Bacillary haemoglobinuria diagnosis by the peroxidase-antiperoxidase (PAP) technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzal, F A; Belak, K; Rivera, E; Robles, C A; Feinstein, R E

    1992-10-01

    A peroxidase-antiperoxidase (PAP) technique was used to diagnose bacillary haemoglobinuria in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded liver tissues of cattle. The PAP method revealed Clostridium haemolyticum in the zone of liver necrosis characteristic of the disease and also in culture smears of this microorganism, but C. novyi type B, C. chauvoei, C. septicum and C. perfringens types B and C remained unstained by the PAP reaction. The PAP technique performed provides a specific, simple and rapid method to diagnose bacillary haemoglobinuria. PMID:1462725

  3. Nucleotide sequence of the papA gene encoding the Pap pilus subunit of human uropathogenic Escherichia coli.

    OpenAIRE

    Bga, M; Normark, S; Hardy, J.; O'Hanley, P.; Lark, D; Olsson, O.; Schoolnik, G; Falkow, S

    1984-01-01

    The papA gene of the uropathogenic strain Escherichia coli J96, coding for the Pap pili subunit, was subjected to DNA sequencing, and found to code for an 185-amino acid-long polypeptide with a 22-amino acid-long signal peptide. Here we present the primary sequence, the hydrophilicity profile, and the predicted polypeptide secondary structure of the Pap pili subunit.

  4. Who is getting Pap smears in urban Peru?

    OpenAIRE

    Paz Soldan, Valerie A; Lee, Frank H; Carcamo, Cesar; Holmes, King K.; Garnett, Geoff P; Garcia, Patricia

    2008-01-01

    Background Cervical cancer, although usually preventable by Pap smear screening, remains the leading cause of cancer-related deaths among women in Peru. The percentages and characteristics of women in Peru who have or have not had a Pap smear have not been defined.

  5. A comparative analysis of conventional Pap smear cytology, liquid based cytology and colposcopy clinical impression with colposcopy biopsy histology as gold standard in women undergoing colposcopy in Kenyatta National Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Macharia H. C.

    2014-02-01

    Results: A total of 73 patients referred with abnormal pap smears were recruited into the study. The mean age of the patients was 38 yrs (SD ±10. About 45% of the patients interviewed did not have knowledge of Pap smear testing. Both the results of referral Pap smear and repeat pap smear were predominantly low grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LGSIL or HGSIL. With biopsy results being the gold standard, Liquid based cytology had a higher specificity of 75% when compared with conventional pap smears’ 11%. Conclusions: Even though colposcopy clinical impression has the highest agreement with colposcopy biopsy it’s a diagnostic and not a screening test, hence Liquid based cytology showed better performance as a screening test compared to conventional Pap smear. In general, there was good agreement for cytological results of repeat CPAP and LBC. We therefore recommend that for patients referred with abnormal pap smears requiring a repeat pap smear, liquid based cytology is used due to its higher specificity compared to conventional Pap smear. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2014; 3(1.000: 58-63

  6. Transcriptional activation of a pap pilus virulence operon from uropathogenic Escherichia coli.

    OpenAIRE

    Bga, M; M. Gransson; Normark, S; Uhlin, B. E.

    1985-01-01

    A gene cluster mediating production of pili in uropathogenic Escherichia coli was analysed with respect to regulation of pili synthesis. Two cistrons, papB and papI, were localized upstream of the major pilus subunit gene, papA. The papI-papB-papA region was characterized by nucleotide sequencing and by transcriptional analysis. The papA gene was primarily represented by an 800 nucleotide long transcript but was also co-transcribed with papB as a less abundant 1300 nucleotide long mRNA. Both ...

  7. USING PARTIAL LEAST SQUARES REGRESSION TO OBTAIN COTTON FIBER LENGTH DISTRIBUTIONS FROM THE BEARD TESTING METHOD

    Science.gov (United States)

    The beard testing method for measuring cotton fiber length is based on the fibrogram theory. However, in the instrumental implementations, the engineering complexity alters the original fiber length distribution observed by the instrument. This causes challenges in obtaining the entire original le...

  8. Cobertura e fatores associados à não realização do exame preventivo de Papanicolaou em São Luís, Maranhão Coverage and factors associated with not performing Pap smear screening tests in São Luís, Maranhão, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Maria Hiluy Nicolau de Oliveira

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de estimar a cobertura, a periodicidade, e identificar fatores associados à não realização do exame preventivo de Papanicolau, 465 mulheres de 25 a 49 anos residentes no município de São Luís foram entrevistadas em 1998. Foi realizado inquérito domiciliar pelo método de amostragem por conglomerados em três estágios. Na análise estatística foram calculados intervalos de confiança de 95% corrigidos pelo desenho do estudo, e os "odds ratio" brutos e ajustados por regressão logística. A cobertura do Papanicolaou pelo menos uma vez na vida foi de 82,4% (Intervalo de Confiança 95%, 76,6 - 87,0%, praticamente atingindo a cobertura mínima necessária de 85% para causar impacto epidemiológico na incidência e mortalidade por câncer cérvico-uterino. O intervalo entre a realização dos exames foi curto, pois 65,8% das mulheres repetiram o exame com até um ano. Após o ajuste para fatores de confundimento foram associados à não realização do Papanicolaou: não ter companheiro, ter cinco a oito anos de escolaridade, não ter realizado consulta médica nos três últimos meses e morar em domicílio cujo chefe de família tem ocupação manual não especializada. Ter tido de dois a quatro parceiros sexuais nos três últimos meses foi associado a menor risco de não realização do preventivo. Em capital do Nordeste, a cobertura do exame preventivo de Papanicolaou foi semelhante à relatada em outros estudos nacionais. Entretanto, algumas mulheres realizaram citologias desnecessárias a intervalos curtos, implicando em desperdício de recursos e dificultando o acesso aos grupos mais vulneráveis que apresentaram maiores riscos de não testagem.In 1998, 465 women from 25 to 49 years of age, inhabitants of the municipality of São Luís, Maranhão, Brazil were interviewed to estimate Pap smear coverage, interval between tests and to identify factors associated with not performing Pap smears. A three-stage household cluster survey was performed; 95% confidence intervals corrected by design effect, and crude and adjusted odds ratio estimates were calculated by logistic regression. Pap smear coverage at least once in a lifetime was 82.4% (95% CI 76.6% - 87.0% and nearly reached the minimum value of the 85% needed to impact the incidence and mortality of cervical cancer. The interval between tests was low, given that 65.8% of women repeated the test within one year. After adjustment for confounding factors, the risks of not having performed a Pap smear test at least once in a lifetime were higher for women who did not live with a companion, who had five to eight years of schooling, who had not been to a medical appointment in the past three months and who lived in households whose head of family was engaged in a manual and non-qualified occupation. Women who had two to four sexual partners in the past three months were at a lower risk of not having a cervical smear. In this Northeastern state capital, Pap smear coverage was similar to other national studies. However, some women were unnecessarily tested at short intervals, wasting resources and contributing to reduce the access of more vulnerable groups who presented higher risks for not having had a Pap smear test.

  9. PAP SMEAR FOR SCREENING T. VAGINALIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sateesh. K

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Trichomonas vaginalis is sometimes seen in Papanico laou stained smears, but because emphasis is placed on malignant cells in Papanicolaou stained smears, not much is done to search for this parasite in smears. In this study, cervical and vaginal specimens were examined by conventional Papanicolaou method fo r the presence of Trichomonas vaginalis microscopically. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Five hundred high vaginal swabs collected from gynaecology OPD were stained with Papanicolaou stain. RESULTS: One hundred and fifty (30% out of 500 Papanicolaou stained smea rs screened, were positive for Trichomonas vaginalis. Out of them 76.67% of positiv e smears were from asymptomatic females. Presumptive diagnosis based on perinuclear halo and complete T. vaginalis had the highest sensitivity of 69.33%, while diagnosis base d on perinuclear halo alone was 50.66% and 41.33% for diagnosis based on identification of com plete organisms in Pap smear

  10. Comparison of Molecular (PCR and Pap Smear Methods in Diagnosis of Human Papiloma Virus (HPV in Women with Genit al Warts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bashi zadeh Fakhar, H . (M S c

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Much research has shown that Human Papiloma Virus (HPV plays an important role in cervix cancer and it is the cause of 99% of cervix cancer worldwide. Lots of research has been done to find a proper method for HPV diagnosis and screening in patients with genital warts. This study aimed at comparing PCR method with Pap smear test in HPV screening. Material and Methods: Considering the presence of DNA of HPV, 45 vaginal and cervix swap samples of women with genital warts were tested by means of specific PCR and Pap smear from September 2010 to April 2011. Results: Out of 45 vaginal and cervix swap samples of women suffering genital warts, 37 samples (82.2% are positive. Of 45 Pap smear samples, 13 (29% are neoplasia and 32 (71% normal. Conclusion: The difference between the results of PCR and Pap smear is due to low specification and sensitivity of Pap smear. Thus it is recommended using diagnostic PCR method in addition to Pap smear in order to promote the quality of screening in individuals with genital warts. Keywords: Human Papiloma Virus (HPV; Genital Warts; Molecular (PCR; Pap Smear

  11. Effect of conditions in obtaining blood samples for ECP testing in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pena, J M; Rubira, N; Botey, J; Rodrigo, M J; Alonso, R; Eseverri, J L; Marín, A; Ras, R M

    1996-02-01

    Eosinophil Cationic Protein (ECP) is a basic protein found in eosinophil granules. This cell and its mediators are currently considered to be potential indicators of the severity of inflammation in the organism. ECP concentration can be reliably tested using several RIA or ELISA methods. It is well known that the conditions of sample obtention can affect the ECP values in blood. The aim of this study is to establish which parameters affect ECP testing during regular blood sample collection and how they affect it. Blood samples taken for the routine study of five children attended in our department were analysed: four were asthmatic and one child had atopic dermatitis. In the results we observed that ECP was not detected in the blood samples taken with EDTA tripotassium. In both the plasma samples taken with heparin as well as with serum, more ECP was released at a higher temperature. In the release of ECP obtained by coagulation, samples at 37 degrees showed values of between 4 and 20 higher than those obtained for an hour at 0 degrees. There is a considerable variability in the testing of ECP depending on the blood test extraction conditions, the range is bigger in the samples with eosinophils. These results imply the need to define a stricter protocol for obtaining samples than that suggested at present. PMID:8703307

  12. Mammography and Pap test screening among low-income foreign-born Hispanic women in the USA Mamografia e teste Papanicolau em mulheres latinas de baixa renda nos Estados Unidos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria E. Fernandez

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about the factors influencing screening among low-income Hispanic women particularly among recent immigrants. A sample of 148 low-income, low-literate, foreign-born Hispanic women residing in the Washington DC metropolitan area participated in the study. The mean age of the sample was 46.2 (SD = 11.5, 84% reported annual household incomesEste estudo determinou os fatores que influenciam a conduta de mulheres latinas de baixa renda nos EUA, em face do monitoramento pela mamografia (MM e por meio do teste de Papanicolau (TP, em uma amostra de 148 mulheres latinas, residentes na região metropolitana de Washington DC. A idade média na amostra foi de 46,2 anos (desvio padrão 11,5, e 84% relatavam renda familiar anual menor que quinze mil dólares. Todas as mulheres falavam espanhol e apresentavam níveis reduzidos de aculturação; 96% destas informavam ter realizado TP, mas 24% não relatavam adesão às normas recomendadas de rastreamento. Entre aquelas com quarenta anos ou mais, 62% haviam realizado MM, mas somente 33% de acordo com as normas de rotina. A freqüência de conceitos equivocados sobre o câncer neste grupo de mulheres foi maior que a observada para mulheres latinas em outros estudos. Modelos logísticos multivariados para variáveis correlacionadas à conduta no rastreamento pelo TP e MM indicam que fatores como o medo do teste, vergonha e desconhecimento tiveram influência. Concluiu-se que as mulheres nesse estudo apresentaram menor freqüência de rastreamento por MM que mulheres não latinas, além de apresentarem também níveis mais reduzidos de adesão às normas de rastreamento por TP e MM.

  13. Test of irradiation of tellurium oxide for obtaining iodine-131 by dry distillation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the purpose of optimizing to the maximum independently the work of the reactor of those mathematical calculations of irradiation that are already optimized, now it corresponds to carry out irradiation tests in the different positions with their respective neutron fluxes that it counts the reactor for samples irradiation. Then, it is necessary to carry out the irradiation of the tellurium dioxide through cycles, with the purpose of observing the activity that it goes accumulating in each cycle and this way to obtain an activity of the Iodine-131 obtained when finishing the last cycle. (Author)

  14. Comparison of Visual Inspection with acetic acid and Pap smear in cervical cancer screening at a tertiary care hospital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To determine the accuracy of visual inspection with acetic acid in comparison with Pap smear against colposcopic directed biopsy, for detection of pre-cancerous lesion. Methods: The comparative cross-sectional study was conducted at the Maternal and Child Health Centre (MCHC), Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences (PIMS), Islamabad, from January to December 2010. Every married women with age range 19 to 51 years underwent conventional cytology and visual inspection with 5% acetic acid. Distinct acetowhite areas were taken as positive, while cervical intra-epithelial neoplasia on cytology was labelled as Pap smear positive. Colposcopic directed biopsy was taken as the gold standard. SPSS 13 was used for statistical analysis. Results: Of 519 subjects, 70(13.4%) were screened positive and 29(5.6%) were biopsy positive for cervical intra-epithelial neoplasia. Of these, 26(37.1 %) were positive on visual inspection; 14 (20 %) on cytology; and 30 (42.8%) on combined test. The sensitivity of visual inspection was 78.5% vs 61.1% for Pap smear (p<0.001). The specificity of visual inspection was 99.3% vs 99.4% for cytology (p<0.1). Significantly higher sensitivity and specificity was found for the combined test than either of the two alone; 93.1% and 99.1% respectively (p<0.001). The positive predictive value of visual inspection vs pap was 84.6% vs 78.5% (p<0.001) and negative predictive value was 98.6% vs 96.5% (p<0.1). Both values of combined test were significantly higher than either of the two tests alone (p<0.01). Conclusion: Visual inspection with acetic acid has significantly higher sensitivity than Pap smear and may replace pap smear as a primary screening tool for universal screening. Combined test with higher predictive accuracy may be used for opportunistic screening. (author)

  15. Strategies for obtaining long constant-pressure test times in shock tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, M. F.; Parise, T.; Tulgestke, A. M.; Spearrin, R. M.; Davidson, D. F.; Hanson, R. K.

    2015-11-01

    Several techniques have been developed for obtaining long, constant-pressure test times in reflected shock wave experiments in a shock tube, including the use of driver inserts, driver gas tailoring, helium gas diaphragm interfaces, driver extensions, and staged driver gas filling. These techniques are detailed here, including discussion on the most recent strategy, staged driver gas filling. Experiments indicate that this staged filling strategy increases available test time by roughly 20 % relative to single-stage filling of tailored driver gas mixtures, while simultaneously reducing the helium required per shock by up to 85 %. This filling scheme involves firstly mixing a tailored helium-nitrogen mixture in the driver section as in conventional driver filling and, secondly, backfilling a low-speed-of-sound gas such as nitrogen or carbon dioxide from a port close to the end cap of the driver section. Using this staged driver gas filling, in addition to the other techniques listed above, post-reflected shock test times of up to 0.102 s (102 ms) at 524 K and 1.6 atm have been obtained. Spectroscopically based temperature measurements in non-reactive mixtures have confirmed that temperature and pressure conditions remain constant throughout the length of these long test duration trials. Finally, these strategies have been used to measure low-temperature n-heptane ignition delay times.

  16. Report of test and research results on atomic energy obtained in national institutes in fiscal 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the budget was appropriated in 1954 fiscal year for the first time, many valuable results of research have been obtained regarding the peaceful use of atomic energy, and these have played important role for the promotion of the peaceful use of atomic energy in Japan. In this report, the outline of the test and research results on the peaceful use of atomic energy obtained in national institutes in fiscal 1981 is summarized. The first volume of this report was published in 1961, and this report is Volume 22. With this report, it is hoped to advance the understanding more about the recent trend and the accomplishment of the test and research on atomic energy utilization. 7 reports on nuclear fusion, 11 reports on technological safety, 6 reports on environmental radioactivity safety, 5 reports on food irradiation, 4 reports on the countermeasures against cancer, 31 reports on agriculture, forestry and fishery, 36 reports on medicine, 6 reports on mining and industry, 5 reports on power utilization, 1 report on construction engineering, 3 reports on radioactivation analysis and 1 report on injury prevention by about 60 national institutes are collected. Also the subjects of the test and research carried out in four other institutes are shown. (Kako, I.)

  17. Comparison Between Pap Smear and Via As Screening For Cervical Lesions

    OpenAIRE

    Harshini V 1, Amritha Bhandary 2, Suchithra Thunga 3

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: An important reason for higher cervical cancer incidence in developing countries is lack of effectivescreening programs like pap smear, aimed at detecting precancerous conditions before they progress to invasivecancer. The potential difficulties in implementing cervical cytology based screening in low-resource settings haveprompted the investigation of accuracy of alternative low technology tests such as Visual inspection with acetic acidapplication [VIA], Visual inspection with...

  18. STUDY OF CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE OF PAP SMEAR IN STD CLINICS

    OpenAIRE

    Parvathi; Guru Prasad; Rashmi; Divya Lekha

    2015-01-01

    AIM The objective of this study is to analyse the association between sexually transmitted diseases and cervical cytology by doing Papanicolaou (Pap) smear in the female patients attending Sexually Transmitted Disease (STD) Clinics. MATERIALS AND METHODS The present study was carried out on 200 female patients attending STD clinic Outpatient Department (OPD) in King George Hospital (KGH) for a period of 2 years. For all the patients Pap smears were taken. RES...

  19. Cloning and characterization of a novel human phosphatidic acid phosphatase type 2, PAP2d, with two different transcripts PAP2d_v1 and PAP2d_v2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Liyun; Gu, Shaohua; Sun, Yaqiong; Zheng, Dan; Wu, Qihan; Li, Xin; Dai, Jianfeng; Dai, Jianliang; Ji, Chaoneng; Xie, Yi; Mao, Yumin

    2005-04-01

    This study reports the cloning and characterization of a novel human phosphatidic acid phosphatase type 2 isoform cDNAs (PAP2d) from the foetal brain cDNA library. The PAP2d gene is localized on chromosome 1p21.3. It contains six exons and spans 112 kb of the genomic DNA. By large-scale cDNA sequencing we found two splice variants of PAP2d, PAP2d_v1 and PAP2d_v2. The PAP2d_v1 cDNA is 1722 bp in length and spans an open reading frame from nucleotide 56 to 1021, encoding a 321aa protein. The PAP2d_v2 cDNA is 1707 bp in length encoding a 316aa protein from nucleotide 56-1006. The PAP2d_v1 cDNA is 15 bp longer than the PAP2d_v2 cDNA in the terminal of the fifth exon and it creates different ORF. Both of the proteins contain a well-conserved PAP2 motif. The PAP2d_v1 is mainly expressed in human brain, lung, kidney, testis and colon, while PAP2d_v2 is restricted to human placenta, skeletal muscle, and kidney. The two splice variants are co-expressed only in kidney. PMID:16010976

  20. Engineering of the PapMV vaccine platform with a shortened M2e peptide leads to an effective one dose influenza vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carignan, Damien; Thérien, Ariane; Rioux, Gervais; Paquet, Geneviève; Gagné, Marie-Ève Laliberté; Bolduc, Marilène; Savard, Pierre; Leclerc, Denis

    2015-12-16

    The emergence of highly virulent influenza strains and the risks of pandemics as well as the limited efficiency of the current seasonal vaccines are important public health concerns. There is a major need for new influenza vaccines that would be broadly cross-protective. The ectodomain of matrix protein 2 (M2e) is highly conserved amongst different influenza strains and could be used as a broad spectrum antigen. To overcome its low immunogenicity we have fused a short peptide epitope derived from the human consensus sequence of M2e (amino acids 6-14, EVETPIRNE) to the N-terminus of papaya mosaic virus coat protein. The fusion harboring coat proteins were assembled around a single stranded RNA into virus-like particles (PapMV-sM2e). The resulting PapMV-sM2e rod-shaped particle was stable and indistinguishable from regular PapMV particles. A single intramuscular immunization with PapMV-sM2e was sufficient to mount appreciable levels of CD4 dependent M2e specific total IgG and IgG2a antibody in mice sera. PapMV-sM2e proved to be self-adjuvanting since the addition of PapMV as an exogenous adjuvant did not result in significantly improved antibody titers. In addition, we confirmed the adjuvant property of PapMV-sM2e using the trivalent inactivated flu vaccine as antigen and demonstrated that the newly engineered nanoparticles areas efficacious as an adjuvant than the original PapMV nanoparticles. Upon infection with a sub-lethal dose of influenza, PapMV-sM2e vaccinated animals were completely protected from virus induced morbidity and mortality. Mice immunized with decreasing amounts of PapMV-sM2e and challenged with a more stringent dose of influenza virus displayed dose-dependent levels of protection. Seventy percent of the mice immunized once with the highest dose of PapMV-sM2e survived the challenged. The survival of the mice correlated mainly with the levels of anti-M2e IgG2a antibodies obtained before the infection. These results demonstrate that PapMV-sM2e can be an important component of a broadly cross-reactive influenza vaccine. PMID:26549362

  1. Analysis of data obtained in two-phase flow tests of primary heat transport pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report analyzes data obtained in two-phase flow tests of primary heat transport pumps performed during the period 1980-1983. Phenomena which have been known to cause pump-induced flow oscillations in pressurized piping systems under two-phase conditions are reviewed and the data analyzed to determine whether any of the identified phenomena could have been responsible for the instabilities observed in those tests. Tentative explanations for the most severe instabilities are given based on those analyses. It is shown that suction pipe geometry probably plays an important role in promoting instabilities, so additional experiments to investigate the effect of suction pipe geometry on the stability of flow in a closed pipe loop under two-phase conditions are recommended

  2. Report of test and research results on atomic energy obtained in national institutes in fiscal 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As for the test and research on the utilization of atomic energy in national institutes, the budget was appropriated for the first time in fiscal year 1956, and since then, the many valuable results of research have been obtained so far in the diversified fields of nuclear fusion, safety research, the irradiation of foods, medicine and others, thus the test and research accomplished the large role for promoting the utilization of atomic energy in Japan. In this report, the gists of the results of the test and research on the utilization of atomic energy carried out by national institutes in fiscal year 1985 are collected. No.1 of this report was published in 1960, and this is No.26. It is desired to increase the understanding about the recent trend and the results of the test and research on atomic energy utilization with this book. The researches on nuclear fusion, engineering safety and environmental radioactivity safety, the irradiation of foods, the countermeasures against cancer, fertilized soil, the quality improvement of brewing and farm products, the protection of farm products and the improvement of breeding, diagnosis and medical treatment, pharmaceuticals, environmental hygiene, the application to physiology and pathology, radiochemistry, radiation measurement, process analysis, nuclear reactor materials, nuclear powered ships, civil engineering, radioactivation analysis and injury prevention are reported. (Kako, I.)

  3. Quantification of brake creep groan in vehicle tests and its relation with stick-slip obtained in laboratory tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neis, P. D.; Ferreira, N. F.; Poletto, J. C.; Matozo, L. T.; Masotti, D.

    2016-05-01

    This paper describes the development of a methodology for assessing and correlating stick-slip and brake creep groan. For doing that, results of tribotests are compared to data obtained in vehicle tests. A low velocity and a linear reduction in normal force were set for the tribotests. The vehicle tests consisted of subjecting a sport utility vehicle to three different ramp slopes. Creep groan events were measured by accelerometers placed on the brake calipers. The root mean square of the acceleration signal (QRMS parameter) was shown to be able to measure the creep groan severity resulting from the vehicle tests. Differences in QRMS were observed between front-rear and left-right wheels for all tested materials. Frequency spectrum analysis of the acceleration revealed that the wheel side and material type do not cause any significant shift in the creep groan frequency. QRMS measured in the vehicle tests presented good correlation with slip power (SP) summation. For this reason, SP summation may represent the "creep groan propensity" of brake materials. Thus, the proposed tribotest method can be utilized to predict the creep groan severity of brake materials in service.

  4. Perception and Experience of Primary Care Physicians on Pap Smear Screening for Women with Intellectual Disabilities: A Preliminary Finding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jin-Ding; Sung, Chang-Lin; Lin, Lan-Ping; Liu, Ta-Wen; Lin, Pei-Ying; Chen, Li-Mei; Chu, Cordia M.; Wu, Jia-Ling

    2010-01-01

    This study aims to establish evidence-based data to explore the perceptions and experience of primary care physicians in the Pap smear screening provision for women with intellectual disabilities (ID), and to analyze the associated factors in the delivery of screening services to women with ID in Taiwan. Data obtained by a cross-sectional survey…

  5. CLINICAL ASSESSMENT AND CORRILATION OF PAP SMEAR AND LIQUID BASED CYTOLOGY IN BAD CERVIX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khushboo

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available AIM: Aim of our study to analyze the prevalence of premalignant lesion based on Pap smear and liquid based cytology in patients of bad cervix. OBJECTIVE: To compare sensitivity and specificity of two methods for screening of bad cervix and to know IDR (increase detection rate of cervical cancer by conventional Pap smear and liquid based cytology. MATERIAL AND METHOD: 200 women attending Gynaecology OPD were random selection on the basis of inclusion criteria. All 200 selected women were subjected for down staging through per speculum examination for identification of bad cervix. Pap smears of all 200 selected women were taken and ensured that no local douche, antiseptic cream and no local internal examination was done on the day of test. The prepared smears were then stained according to Papanicolaou's technique. Liquid based cytology smears preparing by using cervical brush 1-1.5cm were inserted into the cervical os until the large outer bristles of the brush touch ectocervix. Data collected for sociodemographic, parity, down staging clinical examination Pap smear and LBC was organised, interpreted and analysis on appropriate statistical software. P value < 0.05 is considered significant RESULT: Analysis revealed that the maximum number of women in our study are from middle age group(31-40yrs, low socioeconomic status, married before 18 yrs, multipara, do not use any contraceptive, uneducated, urban, Muslim population.in this study more abnormal smear is seen in LBC as compared to pap smear. Sensitivity and specificity for LBC is more as compare to pap smear. CONCLUSION: In low resource setting like ours were facilities for radiology, chemo- radiotherapy and supportive care are limited or unavailable. It is important to identify which resources fill healthcare need most effectively and to consider alternative approaches, LBC is strongly advocated in the best interest of public health, by improving the quality of the sample and reducing the likelihood of false negative cytology result. Thus it will significantly improve early detection and treatment of cervical lesions and reducing morbidity and mortality due to cancer cervix

  6. Test plan: Air intake shaft performance test -- Addendum for obtaining cores in the Culebra for radionuclide retardation studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Core samples are needed for obtaining data on radionuclide retardation. The cores will be used to first determine local basic properties of Culebra rock such as permeability, structural integrity, fracture spacing, and fracture size. These quantities will then be used to design a laboratory experimental program to determine radionuclide retardation in a column flow apparatus using the cores obtained in this project. This addendum covers only the coring activities necessary to retrieve Culebra cores. The laboratory work will be documented in a separate test plan. It is anticipated that Culebra rock samples will be highly fractured, with a fracture spacing on the order of 2 to 3 inches To obtain representative core samples that are intact, horizontal cores about 6 inches in diameter and several feet long will be needed. These cores will provide a good indication of Culebra rock fracturing and provide several samples needed to conduct column flow experiments. If the rock is so fractured that only rubble is obtained, then the rubble will be used in the column experiments. In addition, as a byproduct of the coring operation, natural groundwater collected from the holes will be used to develop a synthetic brine for the laboratory experiments

  7. Cervix Cancer Diagnosis from Pap Smear Images Using Structure Based Segmentation and Shape Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lipi B. Mahanta

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available his work presents an approach for analysis of P AP s mear images of cervical region based on cell nuclei distribution and shape and size analysis. PAP smear test is an efficient and easy procedure to detect any abnor mality in cervical cells. But human observation is not always satisfying and it is a tedious task to manually analyze a large number of PAP smear images. The purpose of this study is to automate the screening process and to provide specific statistical data which will be helpful for detecting abnormalities in cervical region. The proposed approach is implemented in MATLAB, a high level, interactive environment for data visualization/analysis/computation. The MATLAB Image Processing Toolbox was used to segment the digital images and calculate various statistical data. By comparing cell nuclei distribution and taking into account the shape and size features MATLAB can be programmed to distinguish normal cervical cell to questionable ones.

  8. Tests with Inconel 600 to obtain quantitative stress-corrosion cracking data for evaluating service performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inconel 600 tubes in pressurized water reactor (PWR) steam generators form a pressure boundary between radioactive primary water and secondary water which is converted to steam and used for generating electricity. Under operating conditions the performance of alloy 600 has been good, but with some occasional small leaks resulting from stress corrosion cracking (SCC), related to the presence of unusually high residual or operating stresses. The suspected high stresses can result from either the deformation of tubes during manufacture, or distortion during abnormal conditions such as denting. The present experimental program addresses two specific conditions, i.e., (1) where deformation occurs but is no longer active, such as when denting is stopped and (2) where plastic deformation of the metal continues, as would occur during denting. Laboratory media consist of pure water as well as solutions to simulate environments that would apply in service; tubing from actual production is used in carrying out these tests. The environments include both normal and off chemistries for primary and secondary water. The results reported here were obtained in several different tests. The main ones are (1) split tube reverse U-bends, (2) constant extension rate tests (CERT), and (3) constant load. The temperature range covered is 290 to 3650C

  9. Designing for Dissemination: Lessons in Message Design From 1-2-3 Pap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Elisia L.; Head, Katharine J.; McGladrey, Margaret J.; Hoover, Anna G.; Vanderpool, Robin C.; Bridger, Colleen; Carman, Angela; Crosby, Richard A.; Darling, Elaine; Tucker-McLaughlin, Mary; Winterbauer, Nancy

    2016-01-01

    Despite a large number of evidence-based health communication interventions tested in private, public, and community health settings, there is a dearth of research on successful secondary dissemination of these interventions to other audiences. This article presents the case study of 1-2-3 Pap, a health communication intervention to improve human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination uptake and Pap testing outcomes in Eastern Kentucky, and explores strategies used to disseminate this intervention to other populations in Kentucky, North Carolina, and West Virginia. Through this dissemination project, we identified several health communication intervention design considerations that facilitated our successful dissemination to these other audiences; these intervention design considerations include (a) developing strategies for reaching other potential audiences, (b) identifying intervention message adaptations that might be needed, and (c) determining the most appropriate means or channels by which to reach these potential future audiences. Using 1-2-3 Pap as an illustrative case study, we describe how careful planning and partnership development early in the intervention development process can improve the potential success of enhancing the reach and effectiveness of an intervention to other audiences beyond the audience for whom the intervention messages were originally designed. PMID:25470444

  10. Significant pathologic findings in 41 Atypical Glandular Cell pap smears

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behtash N

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between atypical glandular cell (AGC on Pap smear and significant pathologic finding to tailor management protocols. Methods: Between 2002 and 2005, Among 26893 Pap smears 122 women with AGC Pap smears (prevalence=0.45% were referred to our colposcopy clinic. Forty one women underwent colposcopy directed biopsy, endocervical curettage, endometrial sampling and cervical conization to determine the cytologic and histologic correlations of AGC on pap smears. Results: A total of 122 women with AGC Pap smear were found. Only 41 women accepted to participate in the study and followed the workup procedures. The mean age of the patients was 46.92 ±11.48 years (range, 23-80 years. Of these patients 13 patients (31.7% were post menopause and 28 patients (68.2% were in reproductive age. We found 13 (31.7% significant pathologic findings including 4 (9.7% high grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HG-SIL, 3(7.3% low grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LG-SIL, 2(4.8% Endometrial hyperplasia, 1(2.4% Endometrial adenocarci-noma, 1(2.4% adenocarcinoma of cervix, 1(2.4% squamous cell carcinoma of cervix and 1(2.4% papillary serous tumor of ovary. There was not any significant difference in the prevalence of significant pathologic findings and subtype of squamous or adenomatous lesions between pre and postmenopausal group. Conclusion: AGC on Pap smear was associated with a clinically significant diagnosis in approximately one third of our cases. The women with a diagnosis of AGC on cervicovaginal smear are needed to be evaluated at least with colposcopy, endocervical and endometrial curettage. Clinicians should be careful about the significance of AGC in pap smears.

  11. A SEMI - AUTOMATED MORPHOMETRIC ASSESSMENT OF NUCLEI IN PAP SMEARS USING IMAGEJ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijayashree

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Carcinoma of cervix is the fourth commonest malignancy in women. Its incidence is progressively falling due to the routine use of Pap smears to detect precancerous lesions. However, routine Pap smear examination is time consuming and, as it is based on de scriptive morphological assessment, false positive or negative reports are likely to occur. Using morphometric techniques, several attempts have been made to improve the accuracy of reports. In the present study, we have used Image morphometric software an d some of its plugins to create a macro to analyse large number of cells at a time . MATERIALS AND METHODS: Using Image and three of its plugins, namely, BEEPS, Kuwahara filter and Mexican Hat filter, we created a macro to morphometrically analyse normal, r eactive and neoplastic Pap smears. We also compared the macro measurements with manual measurements. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Results obtained with macro showed strong positive correlation with manual measurement. Although the neoplastic nuclei were on an average larger than reactive/normal nuclei, there was considerable overlap. More than the enlargement, anisonucleosis (variability in the size appeared to be a better indicator of neoplasia. The macro that we developed works rapidly and gives results comp arable to manual measurements provided the smears and the photographs are technically acceptable.

  12. Trace element analysis - some tried and tested procedures for obtaining good quality data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Using modern XRF spectrometers, detection limits of <1ppm are easily attainable for many elements. But good quality trace element analysis requires software that will produce accurate, spectrally clean, net peak intensities and accurate corrections for inter-element matrix effects. Some of the procedures available in modern software are not capable of consistently producing high quality trace element data. This paper will present some tried and tested procedures for making accurate background corrections, intensity-based spectral overlap corrections from matrix elements, corrections for tube spectral impurities, and methods for correcting for inter-element matrix effects (absorption and enhancement). Most of the procedures have been used in the Geology Department, University of Cape Town for more than thirty years, and have been applied to trace element analyses of the NASA Apollo lunar samples, meteorites, rocks and soils of every description, river, estuarine and marine sediments, deep ocean ferromanganese nodules, environmental and plant samples, and to a number of the GEOPT proficiency test samples. The quality of the data obtainable will be demonstrated using inter-laboratory results from lunar soil analyses and from the GEOPT program. Copyright (2002) Australian X-ray Analytical Association Inc

  13. 14 CFR 61.307 - What tests do I have to take to obtain a sport pilot certificate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... sport pilot certificate? 61.307 Section 61.307 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... INSTRUCTORS Sport Pilots § 61.307 What tests do I have to take to obtain a sport pilot certificate? To obtain a sport pilot certificate, you must pass the following tests: (a) Knowledge test. You must pass...

  14. Molecular testing of human papillomavirus in cervical specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective was to improve the diagnosis of cervical neoplasia by early detection of human papillomavirus (HPV) in uterine cervix, by adding molecular testing of HPV using hybrid capture 2 (HC2) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) tests to Papanicoalou (Pap) test. One hundred women were enrolled in this study. The mean age (mean+-SD) was 41.97+- 8.76 years and range was 27-65 years. All women had undergone cervical cytological screening with cervical cytology, HPV DNA testing by HC2 and PCR, during the period from January to December 2006, at King Abdul-Aziz University Hospital (KAAUH) and King Fahd research Center, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. The results were obtained by HC2 for detection of HPV were 5(5%) high-risk HPV, one low-risk HPV (1%) and 94(94%) negative cases. The PCR detected only 4(4%) cases. Using the HC2 test as a reference, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive, negative predictive values and accuracy of base line Pap were 50, 85, 17.7, 96.4 and 83%; of final Pap smear were 100, 96.8, 66.7, 100, and 97% and for PCR were 66.7, 100, 100, 97.9 and 98%. The Pap test was repeated within a year for patients with abnormal Pap test with positive HPV DNA. Combined screening by cytology and HPV testing using both HC2 and PCR sensitively detects women with existing disease. The absence of HPV DNA provides reassurance that patients are unlikely to develop cancer for several years. We suggest using Pap with HC2 and PCR in screening programs to ensure that women with the double negative result at baseline might safely be screened at longer intervals. (author)

  15. Awareness of cervical cancer and Pap smear among nursing staff at a rural tertiary care hospital in Central India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S M Jain

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cancer cervix is the leading cause of cancer deaths in females in developing countries and one in five women suffering from cervical cancer lives in India. Aims: The aim of this study is to determine the awareness about cervical cancer and Pap smear among nurses working in a tertiary care institute. Study Setting and Design: Cross-sectional survey in a tertiary care institute. Materials and Methods: Nurses working at our institute excluding those who have worked or working in the Obstetrics and Gynecology department were provided with a pre-designed questionnaire testing their knowledge about cervical cancer. Results: Approximately, 86% were aware about cancer cervix and 69% were aware of a pre-cancerous stage. 42.3% were not aware of any risk factor and 27.6% were not aware of any symptom of cancer cervix. 86.2% were aware about Pap smear, but only 58.6% were aware that facilities of Pap smear were available at our hospital. Conclusions: Knowledge about cervical cancer and awareness of Pap smear as screening test was inadequate in nursing staff. Awareness programs about cervical cancer and screening are needed to increase awareness for this preventable condition. Recommendation: There is a need to arrange reorientation programs to sensitize nurses and establish cytology clinics to offer facilities for easily accessible and affordable screening.

  16. Nipple Aspirate Test Is No Substitute for Mammogram

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Atossa claimed that its test was "literally a Pap smear for breast cancer." According to FDA medical officer ... the agency, this claim is unsubstantiated. "The cervical Pap smear has a known clinical benefit supported by extensive ...

  17. Study on prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP) immunoradiometric assay kit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This coat-antibody-count PAP IRMA is a solid-phase immunoradiometric assay based on two strains of monoclonal antibodies, designed for the quantitative measurement of prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP) in serum. The minimal detectable concentration is 0.1 μg/L. The intra and inter coefficients of variation are 8.8%-9.6% and 7.7%-12.3%, respectively. The recovery is 96.3%-105.0% and the range of detection is 2.5-200.0 μg/L

  18. Pneumocephalus with BiPAP use after transsphenoidal surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopelovich, Jonathan C; de la Garza, Gabriel O; Greenlee, Jeremy D W; Graham, Scott M; Udeh, Chiedozie I; O'Brien, Erin K

    2012-08-01

    While the benefits of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) or bilevel positive airway pressure (BiPAP) for patients with obstructive sleep apnea are well described, reports in the literature of complications from its use are rare. A patient who received postoperative BiPAP after undergoing transsphenoidal craniopharyngioma resection developed severe pneumocephalus and unplanned intensive care unit admission. Although the pneumocephalus resolved with conservative management over two weeks, we propose caution in the use of CPAP postoperatively in patients undergoing procedures of the head and neck. PMID:22626688

  19. Continuous stress-induced dopamine dysregulation augments PAP-I and PAP-II expression in melanotrophs of the pituitary gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research highlights: → We focused on the rat pituitary intermediate lobe (IL) under continuous stress (CS). → CS induced PAP-I and PAP-II expression in melanotrophs of the IL. → This gene induction was triggered by CS-related dopamine dysregulation. → PAP-I and PAP-II may sustain homeostasis of the IL under CS. -- Abstract: Under continuous stress (CS) in rats, melanotrophs, the predominant cell-type in the intermediate lobe (IL) of the pituitary, are hyperactivated to secrete α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone and thereafter degenerate. Although these phenomena are drastic, the molecular mechanisms underlying the cellular changes are mostly unknown. In this study, we focused on the pancreatitis-associated protein (PAP) family members of the secretory lectins and characterized their expression in the IL of CS model rats because we had identified two members of this family as up-regulated genes in our previous microarray analysis. RT-PCR and histological studies demonstrated that prominent PAP-I and PAP-II expression was induced in melanotrophs in the early stages of CS, while another family member, PAP-III, was not expressed. We further examined the regulatory mechanisms of PAP-I and PAP-II expression and revealed that both were induced by the decreased dopamine levels in the IL under CS. Because the PAP family members are implicated in cell survival and proliferation, PAP-I and PAP-II secreted from melanotrophs may function to sustain homeostasis of the IL under CS conditions in an autocrine or a paracrine manner.

  20. Continuous stress-induced dopamine dysregulation augments PAP-I and PAP-II expression in melanotrophs of the pituitary gland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konishi, Hiroyuki, E-mail: konishi@med.osaka-cu.ac.jp [Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka (Japan); The 21st Century COE Program ' Base to Overcome Fatigue' , Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka (Japan); Department of Anatomy and Neuroscience, Nagoya University, Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya (Japan); Ogawa, Tokiko, E-mail: togawa@med.osaka-cu.ac.jp [Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka (Japan); The 21st Century COE Program ' Base to Overcome Fatigue' , Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka (Japan); Kawahara, Shinichi, E-mail: kawahara@med.osaka-cu.ac.jp [Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka (Japan); Matsumoto, Sakiko, E-mail: s-matsumoto@med.osaka-cu.ac.jp [Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka (Japan); Department of Anatomy and Neuroscience, Nagoya University, Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya (Japan); Kiyama, Hiroshi, E-mail: kiyama@med.osaka-cu.ac.jp [Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka (Japan); The 21st Century COE Program ' Base to Overcome Fatigue' , Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka (Japan); Department of Anatomy and Neuroscience, Nagoya University, Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya (Japan)

    2011-04-01

    Research highlights: {yields} We focused on the rat pituitary intermediate lobe (IL) under continuous stress (CS). {yields} CS induced PAP-I and PAP-II expression in melanotrophs of the IL. {yields} This gene induction was triggered by CS-related dopamine dysregulation. {yields} PAP-I and PAP-II may sustain homeostasis of the IL under CS. -- Abstract: Under continuous stress (CS) in rats, melanotrophs, the predominant cell-type in the intermediate lobe (IL) of the pituitary, are hyperactivated to secrete {alpha}-melanocyte-stimulating hormone and thereafter degenerate. Although these phenomena are drastic, the molecular mechanisms underlying the cellular changes are mostly unknown. In this study, we focused on the pancreatitis-associated protein (PAP) family members of the secretory lectins and characterized their expression in the IL of CS model rats because we had identified two members of this family as up-regulated genes in our previous microarray analysis. RT-PCR and histological studies demonstrated that prominent PAP-I and PAP-II expression was induced in melanotrophs in the early stages of CS, while another family member, PAP-III, was not expressed. We further examined the regulatory mechanisms of PAP-I and PAP-II expression and revealed that both were induced by the decreased dopamine levels in the IL under CS. Because the PAP family members are implicated in cell survival and proliferation, PAP-I and PAP-II secreted from melanotrophs may function to sustain homeostasis of the IL under CS conditions in an autocrine or a paracrine manner.

  1. Cytological patterns of cervical pap smears with histopathological correlation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhagya Lakshmi Atla

    2015-08-01

    Conclusion: Pap smear is simple, inexpensive and can be performed in the outpatient department. Hence, it should be recommended routinely as a method of improving reproductive health, early detection of premalignant and malignant cervical lesions. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(8.000: 1911-1916

  2. Missed Opportunities for Health Education on Pap Smears in Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayer, Angela M.; Nussbaum, Lauren; Cabrera, Lilia; Paz-Soldan, Valerie A.

    2011-01-01

    Despite cervical cancer being one of the leading causes of cancer-related deaths among women in Peru, cervical Pap smear coverage is low. This article uses findings from 185 direct clinician observations in four cities of Peru (representing the capital and each of the three main geographic regions of the country) to assess missed opportunities for…

  3. Genetic tests obtainable through pharmacies: the good, the bad, and the ugly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrinos, George P; Baker, Darrol J; Al-Mulla, Fahd; Vasiliou, Vasilis; Cooper, David N

    2013-01-01

    Genomic medicine seeks to exploit an individual's genomic information in the context of guiding the clinical decision-making process. In the post-genomic era, a range of novel molecular genetic testing methodologies have emerged, allowing the genetic testing industry to grow at a very rapid pace. As a consequence, a considerable number of different private diagnostic testing laboratories now provide a wide variety of genetic testing services, often employing a direct-to-consumer (DTC) business model to identify mutations underlying (or associated with) common Mendelian disorders, to individualize drug response, to attempt to determine an individual's risk of a multitude of complex (multifactorial) diseases, or even to determine a person's identity. Recently, we have noted a novel trend in the provision of private molecular genetic testing services, namely saliva and buccal swab collection kits (for deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) isolation) being offered for sale over the counter by pharmacies. This situation is somewhat different from the standard DTC genetic testing model, since pharmacists are healthcare professionals who are supposedly qualified to give appropriate advice to their clients. There are, however, a number of issues to be addressed in relation to the marketing of DNA collection kits for genetic testing through pharmacies, namely a requirement for regulatory clearance, the comparative lack of appropriate genetics education of the healthcare professionals involved, and most importantly, the lack of awareness on the part of both the patients and the general public with respect to the potential benefits or otherwise of the various types of genetic test offered, which may result in confusion as to which test could be beneficial in their own particular case. We believe that some form of genetic counseling should ideally be integrated into, and made inseparable from, the genetic testing process, while pharmacists should be obliged to receive some basic training about the genetic tests that they offer for sale. PMID:23835256

  4. Serum and urinary measurements of prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP) and prostatic specific antigen (PSA) in dogs Mensuraes srica e urinria de fosfatase cida prosttica e antgeno prosttico especfico em ces

    OpenAIRE

    R.L. Amorim; V.M.B.D. De Moura; G.W. Di Santis; Bandarra, E P; Padovani, C.

    2004-01-01

    Serum and urinary prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP) and prostatic specific antigen (PSA) from 20 dogs were measured. PAP and PSA tests were carried out in authomatized equipment with commercial kits used for humans. Mean PAP serum value was 0.7U/l and urinary 0.1U/l. Mean serum and urinary PSA were 0.005ng/dl and 0.004ng/dl, respectively. In vivo determination of these two biomarkers in dogs is a new form of diagnosis in veterinary medicine and these values should be correlated with the morpho...

  5. Comparison of fracture energy values obtained from 3PB, WST and CT test configurations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Holušová, Táňa; Seitl, Stanislav; Canteli, A.

    Zurich : Trans Tech Publications, 2014 - (Kotrasová, K.; Kormanikova, E.), s. 89-92 ISBN 978-3-03835-147-4. ISSN 1022-6680. - (Advanced Materials Research. 969). [SPACE 2013 - International Conference on Structural and Physical Aspects of Civil Engineering /2./. Štrbské Pleso (SK), 27.11.2013-29.11.2013] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP104/11/0833 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : Fracture energy * Compact tension * Three-point bending test * Wedge-splitting test * Cement -based composite Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics

  6. Intensity-interferometric test of nuclear collision geometries obtained from the Boltzmann-Uehling-Uhlenbeck equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two-proton correlation functions measured for the 14N+27Al reaction at E/A=75 MeV are compared to correlation functions predicted for collision geometries obtained from numerical solutions of the Boltzmann-Uehling-Uhlenbeck (BUU) equation. The calculations are in rather good agreement with the experimental correlation function, indicating that the BUU equation gives a reasonable description of the space-time evolution of the reaction

  7. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF COMPLEX MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OBTAINED IN TESTS ON FINISHED BOLTS AND TURNED SAMPLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. P. Gul

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The purpose of the work is provided by the system experimental study of the effect of strengthening the level of the ratio of complex mechanical properties of the finished bolts and peeled samples and analysis of the data on the basis of geometric and structural reinforcement. Methodology. A uniaxial tensile test was carried out on full-size bolts and the peeled samples to diameters of 10 mm and 8 mm at a testing machine FP - 100/1 recording full diagram of deformation and fracture. Findings. The level of strength of qualitatively and quantitatively has different effects on the characteristics of the ratio of resistance to plastic deformation and ductility characteristics ductile fracture resistance, determined on the finished bolts and peeled samples. At the same time, the analysis suggests that the combination of mechanical properties determined on finished bolts, the most adequate to their mechanical behavior during operation. This conclusion is particularly important for acceptance testing of bolts of strength class 8.8 or higher. Originality. For the first time experimentally shown that the system is functional cuts on specific metal products can have both hardening and softening effect on the characteristics of resistance to plastic deformation in terms of normal stress depending on the level of hardening and given an interpretation of the observed phenomena on the basis of changes in the ratio of the concentration of eg-tions and the degree of rigidity of the stress state in the cuts. Practical value. Limitation of mechanical tests are only willing bolts, other than greater consistency determines the properties of their structural strength bolts in the operation, reduce the overall time-consuming tests.

  8. Small punch test - the way how to obtain material mechanical properties from very small volumes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dymáček, Petr; Dobeš, Ferdinand

    Brno : Ústav fyziky materiálů AV ČR, v. v. i., 2015 - (Dlouhý, A.; Kunz, L.). s. 186-186 ISBN 978-80-87434-07-9. [ICSMA-17 International Conference on the Strength of Materials /17./. 09.08.2015-14.08.2015, Brno] Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : small punch test Subject RIV: JG - Metallurgy

  9. Complementary testing techniques applied to obtain the freeze-thaw resistance of concrete

    OpenAIRE

    Romero, H. L.; Enfedaque, A.; Gálvez, J. C.; Casati, M. J.

    2015-01-01

    Most of the standards that evaluate the resistance of concrete against freeze-thaw cycles (FTC) are based on the loss of weight due to scaling. Such procedures are useful but do not provide information about the microstructural deterioration of the concrete. The test procedure needs to be stopped after several FTCs for weighing the loss of material by scaling. This paper proposes the use of mercury-intrusion-porosimetry and thermogravimetric analysis for assessing the microstructural damage o...

  10. Report of test and research results on atomic energy obtained in national institutes in fiscal 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The test and research on atomic energy utilization in national institutions were begun in 1956, and valuable results have been produced in the fields of nuclear fusion, safety research, food irradiation, medicine and others, thus those have accomplished great roles for the promotion of atomic energy utilization in Japan. Atomic energy technology synthesizes various advanced technologies over wide technical domains, therefore at the time of its research and development, it is important to place emphasis on the creative and innovative regions which cause large technical innovation and in which the effect spreading to general science and technology can be expected. In addition to the test and research according to such recognition, also the basic technology of atomic energy field has been studied. At present foreign countries request Japan to contribute to the development of the world by creating the new technology and knowledge on atomic energy, and national institutions must meet the request. This is the report No.29, in which the results of the test and research in the fields of nuclear fusion, safety research, food irradiation, the countermeasures to cancer, agriculture, forestry and fishery, medicine, mining and industry, power utilization, construction, radioactivation analysis and advanced basic research, carried out in 1988 are summarized. (K.I.)

  11. Report of test and research results on atomic energy obtained in national institutes in fiscal 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As for the test and research on the utilization of atomic energy by national organizations, the budget was appropriated for the first time in fiscal year 1956. Since then, many valuable results of research have been produced in the diverse fields of nuclear fusion, safety research, food irradiation, medicine and others, in this way, the test and research have played large roles in the promotion of the utilization of atomic energy in Japan. This is the 24th report, in which the results of the test and research on the utilization of atomic energy carried out in fiscal year 1983 by national organizations are summarized. 5 researches on nuclear fusion, 19 researches on engineering safety and environmental radioactivity safety, 3 researches on food irradiation, 6 researches on the countermeasures to cancer, 19 researches on agriculture, forestry and fishery, 30 researches on medicine, pharmaceuticals and environmental hygiene, 6 researches on mining and industry, 6 researches on power reactors and nuclear ships, 1 research on agricultural water, 7 researches on activation analysis and 4 researches on injury prevention are reported. (Kako, I.)

  12. Report of test and research results on atomic energy obtained in national institutes in fiscal 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The test and research regarding the utilization of atomic energy carried out in national institutions have produced many valuable results in diverse fields so far, such as nuclear fusion, safety research, food irradiation and medicine, since the budget had been appropriated for the first time in 1956. It has accomplished large role in the promotion of atomic energy utilization in Japan. This report is volume 28, in which the results of the test and research on atomic energy utilization carried out by national institutions in fiscal year 1987 are summarized. It is hoped that the understanding about the recent trend and the results of the test and research on atomic energy utilization is further promoted by this report. The contents of this report are nuclear fusion; the research on engineering safety and environmental radioactivity safety; food irradiation; the countermeasures against cancer; fertilized soil, the improvement of quality, the protection of plants and the improvement of breeding in agriculture and fishery fields; diagnosis and medical treatment, pharmaceuticals, environmental hygiene and the application to physiology and pathology in medical field; radiation measurement and process analysis in mining and industry fields; nuclear reactor materials and nuclear-powered ships; civil engineering; radioactivation analysis; the research on the prevention of injuries; and the basic researches on materials and acessment and reduction of irradiation risk. (J.P.N.)

  13. Report of test and research results on atomic energy obtained in national institutes in fiscal 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As for the test and research on the utilization of atomic energy by national organizations, the budget was appropriated for the first time in fiscal year 1956. Since then, many valuable results of research have been produced in the diverse fields of nuclear fusion, safety research, food irradiation, medicine and others, in this way, the test and research have played large roles in the promotion of the utilization of atomic energy in Japan. This is the 23rd report, in which the results of the test and research on the utilization of atomic energy carried out in fiscal year 1982 by national organizations are summarized. 5 researches on nuclear fusion, 12 researches on engineering safety, 5 researches on environmental radioactivity safety, 3 researches on food irradiation, 5 researches on the countermeasures to cancer, 8 researches on soil fertilization, 4 researches on quality improvement, 7 researches on crop protection, 5 researches on the improvement of breeding, 8 researches on diagnosis and treatment, 8 researches on pharmaceuticals, 10 researches on the application to pathology, 6 researches on mining and industry, 6 researches on power reactors and nuclear ships, 1 research on underground water, 6 researches on activation analysis and 3 researches on injury prevention are reported. (Kako, I.)

  14. Advantages obtained in radiation protection when using computerized radiography tests - CR (digital) in processing plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the year 2000, the ARCtest initiated the development of the research for adapting the Computerized Radiography - CR, originally conceived for medical applications, for the Industry, trying initially to attend the requirements of the processing plants, concerning to the detection of deterioration mechanisms (evaluation of the piping integrity). Due to the obtained excellent results, the possibility of utilization the Computerized Radiography - CR in the radiographic inspection were studied during the shutdown of the Catalytic Cracking Unit of the PETROBRAS-REPLAN, specifically in the replacement of the CO boiler superheater, where a large number of the small diameter welded joints have been predicted

  15. Liquid-based cytology versus conventional cytology for evaluation of cervical Pap smears: Experience from the first 1000 split samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikrant Bhar Singh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Context and Aim: Screening programs using conventional cytology conventional Pap smear (CPS have successfully reduced cervical cancer, but newer tests like liquid-based cytology (LBC and human papillomavirus testing might enhance screening. The main aim of the present study was to assess the diagnostic accuracy of LBC versus CPS using "split samples." Materials and Methods: This was a prospective study comprising of 1000 consecutive cervical "split samples" over a period of 1 year. Split sample was obtained using cervex-brush. CPS was prepared from the brush and the brush head was suspended in the LBC vial and processed by SurePath™ LBC. Results: There were 4.3% unsatisfactory (U/S cases in CPS and 1.7% in LBC; the main cause is insufficient cells, and excess of blood in CPS. About 25/100 (2.5% split samples had epithelial abnormalities both in CPS and LBC (1.2%-atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance; 0.4%-low grade squamous intraepithelial lesion; 0.2%-high grade squamous intraepithelial lesion; 0.5%-squamous cell carcinoma; 0.1%-atypical glandular cells favouring neoplasia; 0.2%-adenocarcinoma. Inflammatory organisms were almost equally identified in both techniques but were better seen in LBC samples. Conclusions: LBC technique leads to significant reduction of U/S rate. LBC samples offered better clarity, uniform spread of smears, less time for screening and better handling of hemorrhagic and inflammatory samples. LBC had equivalent sensitivity and specificity to CPS.

  16. Bacterial vaginosis, aerobic vaginitis, vaginal inflammation and major Pap smear abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira-Baptista, P; Lima-Silva, J; Pinto, C; Saldanha, C; Beires, J; Martinez-de-Oliveira, J; Donders, G

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the impact of the vaginal milieu on the presence of abnormal Pap smears and a positive human papilloma virus (HPV) test. A cross-sectional study was conducted between June 2014 and May 2015, evaluating the vaginal discharge by fresh wet mount microscopy and comparing these data with Pap smear findings. Wet mount slides were scored for bacterial vaginosis (BV), aerobic vaginitis (AV), presence of Candida and Trichomonas vaginalis. Cytologic evaluation was done on all Pap smears according to the Bethesda criteria. The cobas© HPV Test (Roche) was performed for HPV detection. A total of 622 cases were evaluated. The mean age of the patients was 41.6 ± 10.65 years (range 21-75). Eighty-three women (13.3 %) had a cytology result worse than low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL). When comparing this group with the one with normal or minor [atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US) or LSIL] Pap smear abnormalities, there were no differences in the presence of Candida (32.5 % vs. 33.2 %, p = 1.0), absence of lactobacilli (38.6 % vs. 32.5 %, p = 0.32) or BV (20.5 % vs. 13.2 %, p = 0.09). On the other hand, moderate or severe inflammation (msI) (41.0 % vs. 28.8 %, p = 0,04), moderate or severe AV (msAV) (16.9 % vs. 7.2 %, p = 0.009) and msAV/BV (37.3 % vs. 20.0 %, p = 0.001) were more common in women with such major cervical abnormalities. No significant association was found between deviations of the vaginal milieu and high-risk HPV infection. The presence of msI or msAV, but not BV, is independently associated with an increased risk of major cervical cytological abnormalities, but not with HPV infection. PMID:26810061

  17. Report of test and research results on atomic energy obtained in national institutes in fiscal 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The tests and researches on the development and utilization of atomic energy in national laboratories were begun in 1956, and have accomplished the great role for the advance of the development and utilization of atomic energy in Japan by having produced many valuable results so far. Atomic energy has been utilized not only in the field of nuclear power but also in diverse fields, and in national laboratories, the research for expanding the development and utilization of atomic energy in medicine, agriculture, forestry, fishery, radioactivation analysis and others in addition the basic research on nuclear fusion have been advanced. Further expecting the pervasive effect to general science and technology, the development of integrated research are promoted from the viewpoint of new technical innovation and creative technology. The safety research of nuclear facilities have been carried out to keep them high level on the basis of the yearly program enacted by Nuclear Safety Commission. This is the report No. 33, in which the results of the test and research in the fields of nuclear fusion safety research, food irradiation, cancer countermeasures, agriculture, forestry, fishery, medicine, mining and manufacture, power utilization, construction, radioactivation analysis carried on in fiscal 1992 are summarized. (J.P.N.)

  18. Report of test and research results on atomic energy obtained in national institutes in fiscal 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The tests and researches on the development and utilization of atomic energy in national laboratories were begun in 1956, and have accomplished the great role for the advance of the development and utilization of atomic energy in Japan by having produced many valuable results so far. Atomic energy has been utilized in diverse fields, and also in national laboratories, the research for expanding the development and utilization of atomic energy in food irradiation, medicine, agriculture, forestry, fishery and others in addition to the basic research on nuclear fusion and safety have been advanced. Further expecting the pervasive effect to general science and technology, the development of basic technology and integrated research are promoted from the viewpoint of new techical innovation and creative technology. This is 31st report in which the results of the tests and researches carried out by national laboratories in fiscal year 1990 are summarized. Nuclear fusion, safety research, food irradiation, cancer countermeasures, agriculture, forestry, fishery, medicine, mining and manufacture, power utilization, construction, radioactivation analysis and so on were the main subjects. (K.I.)

  19. Making Sense of Your Pap and HPV Test Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your cervix. This is done using a special lens that makes your cervical cells look bigger (called ... by your doctor. ASC-US (ASK-us): This word stands for “Atypical Squamous Cells of Undetermined ...

  20. Mode I Critical Stress Intensity Factor of Medium - Density Fiberboard Obtained by Single-Edge - Notched Bending Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Yoshihara

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The Mode I critical stress intensity factor (KIc obtained by single-edge-notched bending (SENB tests of medium-density fiberboard (MDF was experimentally analyzed. In the SENB test, the critical load for crack propagation (Pc was determined from the relationship between load/loading-line displacement and load/crack opening displacement (COD. A double cantilever beam (DCB test was also conducted and the results were compared with those of SENB tests. The value of Mode I critical stress intensity factor was obtained by introducing an additional crack length, when the crack length ranged from 0.5 to 0.7 times the depth of the specimen. This range coincided well with that used to derive the appropriate KIc value in the single-edge-notched tension (SENT test, which was conducted using the specimens with a similar confi guration cut from the MDF panel used in this study.

  1. How to obtain J-R curve from one test on one sample

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Operational definition of J concept is first examined. Then it is shown that conventional methods of experimental determination of J values are based on the following assumption: if the load-deflexion curve is known for one value of the crack length it is possible to know the load-deflexion curve for any value of the crack length. This assumption is generalized with the help of scale functions and formula giving J are deduced. Attention is given to the effect of crack propagation on J values. The same assumption is used to extract the crack length from the load-deflexion curve. As the real crack lengths are known before propagation occurs and at the end of the test, it is possible to achieve a good calibration of the material characteristic

  2. Rationale and design of the iPap trial: a randomized controlled trial of home-based HPV self-sampling for improving participation in cervical screening by never- and under-screened women in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Organized screening based on Pap tests has substantially reduced deaths from cervical cancer in many countries, including Australia. However, the impact of the program depends upon the degree to which women participate. A new method of screening, testing for human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA to detect the virus that causes cervical cancer, has recently become available. Because women can collect their own samples for this test at home, it has the potential to overcome some of the barriers to Pap tests. The iPap trial will evaluate whether mailing an HPV self-sampling kit increases participation by never- and under-screened women within a cervical screening program. The iPap trial is a parallel randomized controlled, open label, trial. Participants will be Victorian women age 30–69 years, for whom there is either no record on the Victorian Cervical Cytology Registry (VCCR) of a Pap test (never-screened) or the last recorded Pap test was between five to fifteen years ago (under-screened). Enrolment information from the Victorian Electoral Commission will be linked to the VCCR to determine the never-screened women. Variables that will be used for record linkage include full name, address and date of birth. Never- and under-screened women will be randomly allocated to either receive an invitation letter with an HPV self-sampling kit or a reminder letter to attend for a Pap test, which is standard practice for women overdue for a test in Victoria. All resources have been focus group tested. The primary outcome will be the proportion of women who participate, by returning an HPV self-sampling kit for women in the self-sampling arm, and notification of a Pap test result to the Registry for women in the Pap test arm at 3 and 6 months after mailout. The most important secondary outcome is the proportion of test-positive women who undergo further investigations at 6 and 12 months after mailout of results. The iPap trial will provide strong evidence about whether HPV self-sampling could be used in Australia to improve participation in cervical screening for never-and under-screened women. ANZCTR Identifier: https://www.anzctr.org.au/Trial/Registration/TrialReview.aspx?id; UTN: U1111-1148-3885

  3. Complementary testing techniques applied to obtain the freeze-thaw resistance of concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romero, H. L.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Most of the standards that evaluate the resistance of concrete against freeze-thaw cycles (FTC are based on the loss of weight due to scaling. Such procedures are useful but do not provide information about the microstructural deterioration of the concrete. The test procedure needs to be stopped after several FTCs for weighing the loss of material by scaling. This paper proposes the use of mercury-intrusion-porosimetry and thermogravimetric analysis for assessing the microstructural damage of concrete during FTCs. Continuous strain measurement can be performed without stopping the FTCs. The combination of the above techniques with the freeze-thaw resistance standards provides better and more precise information about concrete damage. The proposed procedure is applied to an ordinary concrete, a concrete with silica fume addition and one with an air-entraining agent. The test results showed that the three techniques used are suitable and useful to be employed as complementary to the standards.Las normas para evaluar la resistencia del hormigón a los ciclos hielo-deshielo (CHD se basan habitualmente en la pérdida de peso por descascarillamiento. Son útiles, pero no proporcionan información sobre el deterioro microestructural del hormigón. Además, exigen detener el ensayo para pesar el material desprendido. Se propone el uso complementario de la porosimetría por intrusión de mercurio y el análisis termogravimétrico para evaluar el daño microestructural del hormigón durante los CHDs. La medida continua de las deformaciones puede hacerse sin detener los CHDs. La combinación de las técnicas enumeradas con las normas de ensayo proporciona información más completa sobre el daño del hormigón. El procedimiento propuesto se aplica a un hormigón convencional, a un hormigón con adición de humo de sílice y a otro con aireante. Los resultados de los ensayos mostraron que las tres técnicas usadas son útiles y adecuadas como complemento a las establecidas en las normas.

  4. STUDY OF CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE OF PAP SMEAR IN STD CLINICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parvathi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available AIM The objective of this study is to analyse the association between sexually transmitted diseases and cervical cytology by doing Papanicolaou (Pap smear in the female patients attending Sexually Transmitted Disease (STD Clinics. MATERIALS AND METHODS The present study was carried out on 200 female patients attending STD clinic Outpatient Department (OPD in King George Hospital (KGH for a period of 2 years. For all the patients Pap smears were taken. RESULTS A 39% of the cases had normal cytology, 26% had inflammatory cytology, 16% had mild dysplasia, 13.5% had moderate dysplasia, 5.5% had severe dysplasia. Higher incidence of cervical dysplasia was seen in patients with Genital Herpes and Genital warts. Higher incidence of cervical dysplasia (42.6% in 20 to 30 years age group women in comparsion with diminished incidence in (28.7% in 30 to 40 years age group. A 44.6% in Commercial Sex workers and women with history of sexual promiscuity had cervical dysplasia and 28.7% women having normal marital life had cervical dysplasia. We found higher number of cervical dysplasia in lower income group (37.8% and (42.6% in illiterates. CONCLUSIONS Pap smear should be done as a routine screening procedure in all female patients attending STD Clinics to detect early cervical neoplasia, which will help to reduce morbidity and mortality due to cancer cervix in sexually active reproductive age group women

  5. OTTO-PAP: An alternative option to the PBMR fuelling philosophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Once Through Then Out, Power Adjusted by Poison (OTTO-PAP) fuelling of a high temperature pebble-bed reactor offers a simple alternative to the MEDUL (Mehrfachdurchlauf = German for multi-pass) fuelling regime followed in pebble bed reactor designs to date. The prerequisite for a modular reactor unit of maximum power output, subject to observing passive safety characteristics is a sufficiently flat axial neutron flux profile. This is achieved by introducing B4C coated particles of pre-calculated size and packing density within the fuel spheres. In accordance with AVR operating practise the temperature profile is radially equalised by introducing a 2-zone core loading. Adding pure graphite spheres loosely into the centre column area of the core effectively reduced the maximum power in the middle. Increasing the reactor diameter is enabled by the introduction of noses. A 3-D geometric modeller developed in cylindrical co-ordinates enables a given flow description of the pebbles adjacent to the nose boundaries and in the vicinity of the shut down/control rods. After translation of the geometric data the neutronic behaviour of the reactor is followed in 3-D by the CITATION code. This study is aimed towards achieving an optimal core layout with a LEU (Low Enriched Uranium) fuel cycle. Physical properties of the OTTO-PAP, 150 MWt reference design is reported, while computations performed observe results obtained by the reference HTR-MODUL design. (author)

  6. Shaking table testing of a HTGR reactor core, comparison with the results obtained using a nonlinear mathematical model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two series of horizontal tests have been performed at Saclay on the shaking table VESUVE: sinusoidal test and time history response. Sinusoidal tests have shown the strongly nonlinear dynamic behavior of the core. The resonant frequency of the core is dependent on the level of the excitation. These phenomena have been explained by a computer code, which is a lumped mass nonlinear model. El Centro time history displacement at the level of PCRV was reproduced on the shaking table. The analytical model was applied to this excitation and good comparison was obtained for forces and velocities

  7. Intention to Obtain Genetic Testing for Melanoma among Individuals at Low to Moderate Risk for Hereditary Melanoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadaparampil, Susan T.; Azzarello, Lora; Pickard, Jennifer; Jacobsen, Paul B.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Melanoma is a serious skin cancer that has been on the rise in the United States. Some genetic component is apparent. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to identify demographic, clinical, attitudinal, and health belief factors associated with intention to obtain genetic testing for hereditary melanoma among unaffected first-degree

  8. A survey of awareness of Pap smear and cervical cancer vaccine among women at tertiary care centre in Eastern Uttar Pradesh India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjali Rani

    2015-04-01

    Conclusions: The awareness about Pap test and cervical cancer vaccine was very low specially in women staying in rural area. So if we really wanted to reduce cervical cancer then we have to increase the awareness among women by media, camps etc. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2015; 4(2.000: 439-441

  9. Combined surgical treatment for severe sleep apnoea, to improve BiPAP compliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Başal, Yeşim; Akyıldız, Utku Oğan; Eryilmaz, Aylin

    2015-01-01

    Positive airway pressure (PAP) devices are used in the treatment of obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS). In cases of PAP failure, many different surgical methods can be used for the treatment. The authors present an unusual case of a patient with Bi-level PAP (BiPAP)-intolerant severe OSAS who was treated with combined surgical methods. A 55-year-old man was treated with BiPAP due to OSAS; he was admitted to the clinic with nose stuffiness, respiratory distress and BiPAP adherence with tolerance and compliance problems. Septal deviation, concha hypertrophy, lateral pharyngeal band hypertrophy and Thornwaldt cyst were determined in the examination. Combined surgical methods were administered. The patient's apnoea hypopnoea index (AHI) was 72.8 in diagnostic polysomnography. Preoperative AHI was 7.3 and postoperative AHI was 2.3 while using BiPAP and, after the surgery, the BiPAP intolerance was eliminated. The authors suggest that a combination of different surgical methods would be an adjuvant treatment to increase BiPAP compliance. PMID:26546622

  10. Successful use of BiPAP in infants with congenital myotonic dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chau, Shuk-Kuen; Lee, So-Lun

    2013-04-01

    Reported herein are two cases of severe phenotype of congenital myotonic dystrophy (CDM) with presentation of respiratory insufficiency at birth. The infants were successfully managed with bi-level positive airway pressure (BiPAP) via nasal mask. The use of BiPAP in infants with CDM has not been reported before. The rationale for using BiPAP is discussed. BiPAP may be more effective than continuous positive airway pressure in managing respiratory insufficiency, especially in infants with the more severe phenotype of CDM. PMID:23679166

  11. Viscoplastic-dynamic analyses of small-scale fracture tests to obtain crack arrest toughness values for PTS conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reliable predictions of crack arrest at the high upper shelf toughness conditions involved in postulated pressurized thermal shock (PTS) events require procedures beyond those utilized in conventional fracture mechanics treatments. To develop such a procedure, viscoplastic-dynamic fracture mechanics finite element analyses, viscoplastic material characterization testing, and small-scale crack propagation and arrest experimentation are being combines in this research. The approach couples SwRI's viscoplastic-dynamic fracture mechanics finite element code VISCRK with experiments using duplex 4340/A533B steel compact specimens. The experiments are simulated by VISCRK computations employing the Bodner-Partom viscoplastic constitutive relation and the nonlinear fracture mechanics parameter T. The goal is to develop temperature-dependent crack arrest toughness values for A533B steel. While only room temperature KIa values have been obtained so far, these have been found to agree closely with those obtained from wide plate tests. (author)

  12. An iterative method to obtain the specimen-independent three-parameter Weibull distribution of strength from bending tests

    OpenAIRE

    Przybilla, Constanza Ariste; Fernndez Canteli, Alfonso Carlos; Castillo Ron, Enrique

    2011-01-01

    Brittle materials, such as glass and ceramics, usually present a large strength scatter. Among other probability distributions, the Weibull distribution is widely used to characterize their resistance. Often the two-parameter model is employed, omitting the consideration of a threshold stress, leading to a simplified estimation method. For the sake of generality the present work uses fracture data from bending tests to obtain a three-parameter Weibull distribution function valid for a uni-axi...

  13. New experimental limits on heavy neutrino mixing in 8B decay obtained with the BOREXINO counting test facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    If heavy neutrinos with mass mνH≥2me are emitted in the decays of 8B in the Sun, then decays νH→νL+e++e- should be observed. The results of background measurements with the BOREXINO Counting Test Facility have been used to obtain bounds on the number of these decays. As a result, new limits on the coupling |UeH|2 of a massive neutrino in the range of 1.1 to 12 MeV have been derived (|UeH|2≤10-3-10-5). The obtained limits on the mixing parameter are stronger than those obtained in the previous experiments using nuclear reactors and accelerators

  14. Conhecimento, atitude e prática do exame de Papanicolaou em mulheres com câncer de colo uterino Knowledge, attitudes, and practices related to the Pap smear among women with cervical cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvia Michelina Fernandes Brenna

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available O câncer de colo uterino apresenta alta mortalidade no Brasil, apesar dos programas para rastreamento. O objetivo deste estudo, de corte transversal, foi analisar conhecimento, atitude e prática do exame de Papanicolaou e entender a não adesão das mulheres a este exame. Foram entrevistadas 138 mulheres: noventa com neoplasia intra-epitelial de alto grau e 48 com câncer invasivo de colo uterino. As mulheres com câncer invasivo tiveram prática mais inadequada do exame. No entanto, independente do diagnóstico, mais de 80% delas referiram desmotivação/vergonha, 60% relataram que os médicos não examinavam e, cerca de 50% apontaram o tempo de espera para a consulta e a demora no agendamento como dificuldades para serem atendidas. Em geral, a prática do exame dependeu da iniciativa do médico e a periodicidade da coleta foi determinada pela procura de consulta devido a sintomas. As mulheres com 56 anos ou mais mostraram maior inadequação no conhecimento, na atitude e na prática. No entanto, aquelas com maior escolaridade conheciam melhor o exame. A maior idade e a menor escolaridade podem estar associados a não adesão das mulheres ao exame, porém as dificuldades sociais e econômicas para conseguir atendimento em saúde precisam ser consideradas para aumentar a prática do exame.Despite screening programs, Brazil has a high cervical cancer mortality rate. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to analyze knowledge, attitudes, and practices related to the Pap smear and to understand why women fail to submit to this screening test. A structured questionnaire was used to interview 138 women: 90 with high grade intraepithelial neoplasia and 48 with invasive cervical cancer. Inadequate practices were more frequent among women with invasive cancer. In terms of difficulties in obtaining medical care, more than 80% of women reported lack of motivation, 60% reported that physicians failed to conduct a complete physical examination, and some 50% reported that physicians' schedules were busy. Having a Pap smear usually depended on a physician's request and the woman being symptomatic. Women over than 56 years old showed more frequent inadequate knowledge, attitudes and practices. However, those with more schooling were more knowledgeable of the Pap smear procedure. Age and less schooling could be barriers against women participating in screening programs, but socioeconomic problems must also be considered for improving practices related to the Pap smear.

  15. Association of Oral Contraceptives and Abnormal Pap Smear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayedmohsen Sayednozadi

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available To assess the hypothesis that combined Oral Contraceptive (OCs increase the risk of cervical neoplasia, we conducted a multicenter Case-Control study in Mashhad, the capital of Khorasan province. Seventy-eight women with moderate to severe dysplasia at Pap smear as case group and one hundred fifty nine women with normal Pap smear were selected as the control group for evaluation. The both case and control groups were matched by age, parity and socioeconomic status. All of the women in this study were single partner as husband and no smoker. 30 percent of cases and 64.8 percent of controls were used OCs. The duration of OCs use was the same in both. The odds ratio for OCs consumption was 0.2 with 95% confidence interval 0.11-0.4 in Logistic regression analysis. In contrast to some other studies, our findings showed an association between OCs and cervical dysplasia and there was a protective effect of OCs for cervical dysplasia.

  16. Fluorescence Spectrum and Decay Measurement for Hsil VS Normal Cytology Differentiation in Liquid Pap Smear Supernatant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaitkuviene, A.; Gegzna, V.; Juodkazis, S.; Jursenas, S.; Miasojedovas, S.; Kurtinaitiene, R.; Rimiene, J.; Vaitkus, J.

    2009-06-01

    Cervical smear material contains endo and exocervical cells, mucus and inflammative, immune cells in cases of pathology. Just not destroyed keratinocytes lay on the glass for microscopy. Liquid cytology supernatant apart other diagnostics could be used for photodiagnostic. The spectroscopic parameters suitable for Normal and HSIL cytology groups supernatant differentiation are demonstrated. The dried liquid PAP supernatant fractions—sediment and liquid were investigated. Excitation and emission matrices (EEM), supernatant fluorescence decay measured under 280 nm diode short pulse excitation and fluorescence spectroscopy by excitation with 355 nm laser light were analyzed. The differences between Normal and HSIL groups were statistically proven in the certain spectral regions. Fluorescence decay peculiarities show spectral regions consisting of few fluorophores. Obtained results on fluorescence differences in Normal and HSIL groups' supernatant shows the potency of photodiagnosis application in cervical screening.

  17. Comparison of aerodynamic coefficients obtained from theoretical calculations wind tunnel tests and flight tests data reduction for the alpha jet aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guiot, R.; Wunnenberg, H.

    1980-01-01

    The methods by which aerodynamic coefficients are determined and discussed. These include: calculations, wind tunnel experiments and experiments in flight for various prototypes of the Alpha Jet. A comparison of obtained results shows good correlation between expectations and in-flight test results.

  18. Adolescents with Obstructive Sleep Apnea Adhere Poorly to Positive Airway Pressure (PAP), but PAP Users Show Improved Attention and School Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Beebe, Dean W; Byars, Kelly C.

    2011-01-01

    Background Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) is associated with medical and neurobehavioral morbidity across the lifespan. Positive airway pressure (PAP) treatment has demonstrated efficacy in treating OSA and has been shown to improve daytime functioning in adults, but treatment adherence can be problematic. There are nearly no published studies examining functional outcomes such as academic functioning in adolescents treated with PAP. This study was conducted as an initial step towards determin...

  19. Determining the interobserver reproducibility of Pap smears in the diagnosis of epithelial cell abnormalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izadi-Mood N

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available "n 800x600 Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";} Background: Cancer of uterine cervix is the second cause of death in women in the world and the most common cause in developing countries. Because the majority of women with invasive cervical cancer of the uterine have not previously undergone screening, many clinicians assume that Pap smear has a high degree of accuracy; but problems such as false positive and false negative interpretations, as well as interobserver variability have questioned its validity."n"nMethods : We retrieved 162 positive cervical smears that had been originally interpreted as ASC-US, ASC-H, LSIL, HSIL, SCC, AGC and adenocarcinoma from the cytology archives of Women's Hospital in Tehran, Iran. The slides were rescreened by an experienced pathologist and reclassified in the mentioned categories. All the 162 slides were reviewed by three more pathologists in a blind study using interpretative criteria utilized in their daily routine to evaluate interobserver reproducibility. To increase the level of interobserver agreement, the diagnostic categories were reduced to squamous Vs. glandular abnormalities and invasive (SCC and adenocarcinoma Vs. non-invasive abnormalities."n"nResults : The results obtained in this study indicated slight interobserver agreement (k=0.26. The most reproducible category was the invasive category (SCC in addition to adenocarcinoma and the least agreement was seen for HSIL (k=0.19. "n"nConclusion: This study showed that reproducibility of cytological interpretation of conventional Pap smears varies among interpretive categories and the overall interobserver agreement is slight. Since convening on the reduction of interobserver discrepancy in Pap smear interpretations necessitates more reliable information of interpretative variability, larger studies need to be undertaken.

  20. Roles of phagocytosis activating protein (PAP) in Aeromonas hydrophila infected Cyprinus carpio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wonglapsuwan, Monwadee; Kongmee, Pataraporn; Suanyuk, Naraid; Chotigeat, Wilaiwan

    2016-06-01

    Cyprinus carpio (koi) is one of the most popular ornamental fish. A major problem for C. carpio farming is bacterial infections especially by Aeromonas hydrophila. Previously studies had shown that the Phagocytosis Activating Protein (PAP) gene was involved in the innate immune response of animals. Therefore, we attempted to identify a role for the PAP gene in the immunology of C. carpio. The expression of the PAP was found in C. carpio whole blood and increased when the fish were stimulated by inactivated A. hydrophila. In addition, PAP-phMGFP DNA was injected as an immunostimulant. The survival rate and the phagocytic index were significantly increased in the A. hydrophila infected fish that received the PAP-phMGFP DNA immunostimulant. A chitosan-PAP-phMGFP nanoparticle was then developed and feeded into fish which infected with A. hydrophila. These fish had a significantly lower mortality rate than the control. Therefore, this research confirmed a key role for PAP in protection fish from bacterial infection and the chitosan-PAP-phMGFP nanoparticle could be a good prototype for fish immunostimulant in the future. PMID:26748248

  1. Cytological features of choricarcinoma in a Pap smear: A case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaowei; Wright, Jason D; Abellar, Rosanna G; Koehne de Gonzalez, Anne; Collins, Nikosa; Wright, Thomas C; Hamele-Bena, Diane

    2016-04-01

    Choriocarcinoma is an aggressive malignant trophoblastic tumor that mostly occurs during reproductive years. Cytological features of choriocarcinoma in gynecologic Pap smears have not been described. Herein, we report a case of choriocarcinoma in a Pap smear of a patient who had a history of choriocarcinoma with metastatic disease. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2016;44:324-328. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26712464

  2. World-Wide Indoor Exposure to Polyfluoroalkyl Phosphate Esters (PAPs) and other PFASs in Household Dust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, Ulrika; Krrman, Anna

    2015-12-15

    Human exposure to perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and other per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) is ongoing and in some cases increasing, despite efforts made to reduce emissions. The role of precursor compounds such as polyfluorinated phosphate esters (PAPs) has received increasing attention, but there are knowledge gaps regarding their occurrence and impact on human exposure. In this study, mono-, di-, and triPAPs, perfluorinated alkyl acids (PFAAs), saturated, and unsaturated fluorotelomer carboxylic acids (FTCA/FTUCAs), perfluoroalkane sulfonamides, and sulfonamidethanols (FOSA/FOSEs), and one fluorotelomer sulfonic acid (FTSA)) were compared in household dust samples from Canada, the Faroe Islands, Sweden, Greece, Spain, Nepal, Japan, and Australia. Mono-, di-, and triPAPs, including several diPAP homologues, were frequently detected in dust from all countries, revealing an ubiquitous spread in private households from diverse geographic areas, with significant differences between countries. The median levels of monoPAPs and diPAPs ranged from 3.7 ng/g to 1 023 ng/g and 3.6 ng/g to 692 ng/g, respectively, with the lowest levels found in Nepal and the highest in Japan. The levels of PAPs exceeded those of the other PFAS classes. These findings reveal the importance of PAPs as a source of PFAS exposure worldwide. PMID:26000882

  3. Aero thermal test results obtained on the n. C 5 EL 4 Cluster in the atmospheric pressure cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the framework of thermal studies on the EL-4 cluster, the full-scale tests at atmospheric pressure are designed to permit measurement of local values of the wall temperature, of the velocity and of the temperature in the fluid. The experimental results, obtained with the help of an original measuring apparatus, make it possible to follow the changes in these values along the cluster and to predict in much detail the in-pile thermal behaviour. In particular it is shown that changes in the wall temperature along the cluster are greatly influenced by disruption of the flow caused by grids and supports. (author)

  4. Relation between serum PAP (prostate acid phosphatase) and bone scintigraphy in prostatic cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seventy-seven patients with prostatic cancer were treated at our department in the last 5 years. Of these patients 30 cases were followed by bone scintigraphy and serum PAP. In 27 follow-up scintigraphy procedures changes of bone scintigraphy corresponded to changes in serum PAP levels. Changes of PAP levels did not always correspond to changes of scintigraphy, but almost all cases in which the level of PAP increased in a short period showed progression of bone metastasis. A 3-month interval between bone scintigraphy procedure in stage D2 prostatic cancer patients is generally recommended. However, we think that in prostatic cancer patients follow-up bone scintigraphy at regular short intervals is unnecessary if there is no change in serum PAP levels, symptoms or physical condition. Bone scintigraphy should be performed when the tumor marker changes rapidly or when any physical symptom appears. (author)

  5. Bone scintigraphy, plasma ALP, TAP and PAP in patients with prostatic cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study assessed the ability of bone scintigraphy, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), total acid phosphatase (TAP), and prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP) to diagnose bone metastasis in a series of 62 patients with histologically proven prostatic cancer. Abnormal uptake was seen on the bone scan in 49 patients (79 %). A final diagnosis of bone metastasis was made in 40 patients (65 %). The sensitivity and specificity were 100 % and 59 %, respectively, for bone scintigraphy; 50 % and 96 % for ALP; 65 % and 82 % for TAP; and 73 % and 77 % for PAP. For 40 patients with bone metastasis, all of the ALP, TAP, and PAP were positive in 17 patients (43 %) and negative in 8 patients (20 %). Higher levels of ALP, TAP, and PAP tended to be associated with more extensive bone metastasis. Although serological examination showed lower sensitivity than bone scintigraphy in the diagnosis of bone metastasis, PAP may be most frequently used as a screening procedure of bone metastasis. (Namekawa, K.)

  6. To Test or Not to Test? The Role of Attitudes, Knowledge, and Religious Involvement among U.s. Adults on Intent-to-Obtain Adult Genetic Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botoseneanu, Anda; Alexander, Jeffrey A.; Banaszak-Holl, Jane

    2011-01-01

    Genetic testing can advance cancer prevention if current screening behaviors improve. Increased prevalence of high-risk genotypes within specific religious groups, use of religious venues for recruiting to genetic screening, and ethical-religious considerations argue for exploring the role of religiosity in forming genetic testing decisions. This

  7. Factors related to the practice of breast self examination (BSE) and Pap smear screening among Malaysian women workers in selected electronics factories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chee, HL; Rashidah, S; Shamsuddin, K; Intan, O

    2003-05-28

    BACKGROUND: The Malaysian Ministry of Health promotes breast self-examination (BSE) for all women, and Pap smear screening every three years for all sexually active women ages 20 years and above. The objectives of this paper were to examine the practice of these two screening tests among women production workers in electronics factories, and to identify factors related to practice. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional survey of women production workers from ten electronics factories. Data was collected by a self-administered questionnaire from a total of 1,720 women. The chi-square test, odds ratio and binomial logistic regression were used in bivariate and multivariate analysis. RESULTS: Prevalence rates were 24.4% for BSE once a month, and 18.4% for Pap smear examination within the last three years. Women who were significantly more likely to perform BSE every month were 30 years and older, Malays, with upper secondary education and above, answered the BSE question correctly, and had a Pap smear within the last three years. The proportion of women who had a Pap smear within the last three years were significantly higher among those who were older, married, with young children, on the contraceptive pill or intra-uterine device, had a medical examination within the last five years, answered the Pap smear question correctly, and performed BSE monthly. CONCLUSION: Screening practice rates in this study were low when compared to national rates. Socio-demographic and health care factors significantly associated with screening practice are indicative of barriers which should be further understood so that more effective educational and promotional strategies could be developed. PMID:12769827

  8. Factors related to the practice of breast self examination (BSE and Pap smear screening among Malaysian women workers in selected electronics factories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shamsuddin K

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Malaysian Ministry of Health promotes breast self-examination (BSE for all women, and Pap smear screening every three years for all sexually active women ages 20 years and above. The objectives of this paper were to examine the practice of these two screening tests among women production workers in electronics factories, and to identify factors related to practice. Methods This was a cross-sectional survey of women production workers from ten electronics factories. Data was collected by a self-administered questionnaire from a total of 1,720 women. The chi-square test, odds ratio and binomial logistic regression were used in bivariate and multivariate analysis. Results Prevalence rates were 24.4% for BSE once a month, and 18.4% for Pap smear examination within the last three years. Women who were significantly more likely to perform BSE every month were 30 years and older, Malays, with upper secondary education and above, answered the BSE question correctly, and had a Pap smear within the last three years. The proportion of women who had a Pap smear within the last three years were significantly higher among those who were older, married, with young children, on the contraceptive pill or intra-uterine device, had a medical examination within the last five years, answered the Pap smear question correctly, and performed BSE monthly. Conclusion Screening practice rates in this study were low when compared to national rates. Socio-demographic and health care factors significantly associated with screening practice are indicative of barriers which should be further understood so that more effective educational and promotional strategies could be developed.

  9. A novel scheme for abnormal cell detection in Pap smear images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Tong; Wachman, Elliot S.; Farkas, Daniel L.

    2004-07-01

    Finding malignant cells in Pap smear images is a "needle in a haystack"-type problem, tedious, labor-intensive and error-prone. It is therefore desirable to have an automatic screening tool in order that human experts can concentrate on the evaluation of the more difficult cases. Most research on automatic cervical screening tries to extract morphometric and texture features at the cell level, in accordance with the NIH "The Bethesda System" rules. Due to variances in image quality and features, such as brightness, magnification and focus, morphometric and texture analysis is insufficient to provide robust cervical cancer detection. Using a microscopic spectral imaging system, we have produced a set of multispectral Pap smear images with wavelengths from 400 nm to 690 nm, containing both spectral signatures and spatial attributes. We describe a novel scheme that combines spatial information (including texture and morphometric features) with spectral information to significantly improve abnormal cell detection. Three kinds of wavelet features, orthogonal, bi-orthogonal and non-orthogonal, are carefully chosen to optimize recognition performance. Multispectral feature sets are then extracted in the wavelet domain. Using a Back-Propagation Neural Network classifier that greatly decreases the influence of spurious events, we obtain a classification error rate of 5%. Cell morphometric features, such as area and shape, are then used to eliminate most remaining small artifacts. We report initial results from 149 cells from 40 separate image sets, in which only one abnormal cell was missed (TPR = 97.6%) and one normal cell was falsely classified as cancerous (FPR = 1%).

  10. Clinical Implications of the Cervical Papanicolaou Test Results in the Management of Anal Warts in HIV-Infected Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luu, Hung N.; Amirian, E. Susan; Piller, Linda; Chan, Wenyaw; Scheurer, Michael E.

    2013-01-01

    The Papanicolaou test (or Pap test) has long been used as a screening tool to detect cervical precancerous/cancerous lesions. However, studies on the use of this test to predict both the presence and change in size of genital warts are limited. We examined whether cervical Papanicolaou test results are associated with the size of the largest anal wart over time in HIV-infected women in an on-going cohort study in the US. A sample of 976 HIV-infected women included in a public dataset obtained from the Womens Interagency HIV Study (WIHS) was selected for analysis. A linear mixed model was performed to determine the relationship between the size of anal warts and cervical Pap test results. About 32% of participants had abnormal cervical Pap test results at baseline. In the adjusted model, a woman with a result of Atypia Squamous Cell Undetermined Significance/Low-grade Squamous Intraepithelial Lesion (ASCUS/LSIL) had an anal wart, on average, 12.81 mm2 larger than a woman with normal cervical cytology. The growth rate of the largest anal wart after each visit in a woman with ASCUS/LSIL was 1.56 mm2 slower than that of a woman with normal cervical results. However, they were not significant (P = 0.54 and P = 0.82, respectively). This is the first study to examine the relationship between cervical Pap test results and anal wart development in HIV-infected women. Even though no association between the size of anal wart and cervical Pap test results was found, a screening program using anal cytology testing in HIV-infected women should be considered. Further studies in cost-effectiveness and efficacy of an anal cytology test screening program are warranted. PMID:24312348

  11. Pap smears for men: a vision of the future?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Oon, S F

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN) rarely receives as much publicity as its neighbouring orifice, the cervix. As in the cervix, intraepithelial neoplasias are precursors to cancer in the anal canal. AIN and cervical interstitial neoplasia (CIN) undergo dysplasia as a consequence of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. Since the advent of screening with the Pap smear in CIN, cervical cancer has plummeted to a fifth of its initial incidence. Anal cancer, however, has been rising, with a predilection for human immunodeficiency virus-infected men. HPV causes a squamous epithelial dysplasia and converts healthy tissue into AINs of increasing severity until anal cancer manifests. CLINICAL CASE: This article describes a clinical case of anogenital HPV infection refractory to medical and surgical therapy. It also describes an effective surgical excision technique associated with a good cosmetic outcome. CONCLUSIONS: The paper concludes by briefly discussing the implications of a national screening programme against AIN in the future.

  12. Molecular and biochemical characterization of AtPAP15, a purple acid phosphatase with phytase activity, in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuang, Ruibin; Chan, Kam-Ho; Yeung, Edward; Lim, Boon Leong

    2009-09-01

    Purple acid phosphatase (PAP) catalyzes the hydrolysis of phosphate monoesters and anhydrides to release phosphate within an acidic pH range. Among the 29 PAP-like proteins in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), AtPAP15 (At3g07130) displays a greater degree of amino acid identity with soybean (Glycine max; GmPHY) and tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) PAP (NtPAP) with phytase activity than the other AtPAPs. In this study, transgenic Arabidopsis that expressed an AtPAP15 promoterbeta-glucuronidase (GUS) fusion protein showed that AtPAP15 expression was developmentally and temporally regulated, with strong GUS staining at the early stages of seedling growth and pollen germination. The expression was also organ/tissue specific, with strongest GUS staining in the vasculature, pollen grains, and roots. The recombinant AtPAP purified from transgenic tobacco exhibited broad substrate specificity with moderate phytase activity. AtPAP15 T-DNA insertion lines exhibited a lower phytase and phosphatase activity in seedling and germinating pollen and lower pollen germination rate compared with the wild type and their complementation lines. Therefore, AtPAP15 likely mobilizes phosphorus reserves in plants, particularly during seed and pollen germination. Since AtPAP15 is not expressed in the root hair or in the epidermal cells, it is unlikely to play any role in external phosphorus assimilation. PMID:19633233

  13. Total sleep time obtained from actigraphy versus sleep logs in an academic sleep center and impact on further sleep testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Auger RR

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available R Robert Auger,1,2 Ranji Varghese,1 Michael H Silber,1,3 Nancy L Slocumb1 1Center for Sleep Medicine, 2Department of Psychiatry and Psychology, 3Department of Neurology, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Rochester, MN, USA Background: While actigraphy has been deemed ideal for the longitudinal assessment of total sleep time (TST by select groups, endorsement has not been universal and reimbursement is lacking, preventing its widespread use in clinical practice. This study compares longitudinal TST data obtained by actigraphy and logs preceding a clinical evaluation, and secondarily ascertains whether longitudinal TST impacts clinicians' decisions to proceed with further sleep testing. Methods: This was a retrospective, consecutive chart review spanning about 4 months in an academic sleep center. Eighty-four patients wore actigraphs in anticipation of clinical evaluations. Concomitant completion of sleep logs is routinely requested in this setting. Longitudinal TST data available in complete form was reviewed in a blinded fashion among a subset of these patients. A review of text from clinical notes of an expanded cohort with complete actigraphy data (regardless of the degree of completion of logs enabled determination of the frequency and rationale for cancellation of prescheduled sleep testing. Results: Of 84 actigraphy recordings, 90% produced complete data, and 30% produced fully completed logs. Among the subset with both available in complete form, significant mean TST differences were observed on weekends (7.06 2.18 hours versus 8.30 1.93 hours, P = 0.009, but not on weekdays (7.38 1.97 hours versus 7.72 1.62 hours, P = 0.450 for actigraphy and logs, respectively. Further analyses revealed poor agreement between the two measures, with predominantly increased TST estimation with logs. Among those with complete actigraphy data (logs, testing was cancelled in 11 (15%, eight of whom (73% presented with hypersomnia and three of whom (27% presented with insomnia. Determination of insufficient sleep time was cited as the primary reason for cancellation (64%. Conclusion: Actigraphy and sleep logs provided discrepant mean TST data on weekends only, and the latter predominantly estimated increased TST. Actigraphy was completed more reliably than logs. Longitudinal TST information influenced clinicians' decisions to proceed with further testing, particularly among patients presenting with hypersomnia. Keywords: sleep diaries, polysomnography, multiple sleep latency testing

  14. ["Where there's a woman, there's a Pap smear": the meanings assigned to cervical cancer prevention among women in Salvador, Bahia State, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rico, Ana María; Iriart, Jorge Alberto Bernstein

    2013-09-01

    This study focuses on the meanings assigned to practices for cervical cancer prevention among women from low-income neighborhoods in Salvador, Bahia State, Brazil. This was a qualitative study based on content analysis of semi-structured interviews with 15 women 24 to 68 years of age. The results showed high appreciation of the Pap smear test, performed as part of routine gynecological examination (but without the patient necessarily having biomedical knowledge of its role). Besides accessibility and quality of health services, other factors influence the way the women assign meaning to cervical cancer prevention. Moral values associated with sexuality and gender influence risk perception, adoption of preventive practices, and interpretation of cervical cytology results. The ongoing practice of the Pap smear test is part of the construction of femininity, which is associated with maturity and personal responsibility for self care in a context of medicalization of the female body. PMID:24068222

  15. Predictive permeability model of faults in crystalline rocks; verification by joint hydraulic factor (JH) obtained from water pressure tests

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Hamidreza Rostami Barani; Gholamreza Lashkaripour; Mohammad Ghafoori

    2014-08-01

    In the present study, a new model is proposed to predict the permeability per fracture in the fault zones by a new parameter named joint hydraulic factor (JH). JH is obtained from Water Pressure Test WPT) and modified by the degree of fracturing. The results of JH correspond with quantitative fault zone descriptions, qualitative fracture, and fault rock properties. In this respect, a case study was done based on the data collected from Seyahoo dam site located in the east of Iran to provide the permeability prediction model of fault zone structures. Datasets including scan-lines, drill cores, and water pressure tests in the terrain of Andesite and Basalt rocks were used to analyse the variability of in-site relative permeability of a range from fault zones to host rocks. The rock mass joint permeability quality, therefore, is defined by the JH. JH data analysis showed that the background sub-zone had commonly > 3 Lu (less of 5 × 10−5 m3/s) per fracture, whereas the fault core had permeability characteristics nearly as low as the outer damage zone, represented by 8 Lu (1.3 × 10−4 m3/s) per fracture, with occasional peaks towards 12 Lu (2 × 10−4 m3/s) per fracture. The maximum JH value belongs to the inner damage zone, marginal to the fault core, with 14–22 Lu (2.3 × 10−4 –3.6 × 10−4 m3/s) per fracture, locally exceeding 25 Lu (4.1 × 10−4 m3/s) per fracture. This gives a proportional relationship for JH approximately 1:4:2 between the fault core, inner damage zone, and outer damage zone of extensional fault zones in crystalline rocks. The results of the verification exercise revealed that the new approach would be efficient and that the JH parameter is a reliable scale for the fracture permeability change. It can be concluded that using short duration hydraulic tests (WPTs) and fracture frequency (FF) to calculate the JH parameter provides a possibility to describe a complex situation and compare, discuss, and weigh the hydraulic quality to make predictions as to the permeability models and permeation amounts of different zone structures.

  16. PAP-1, the mutated gene underlying the RP9 form of dominant retinitis pigmentosa, is a splicing factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PAP-1 is an in vitro phosphorylation target of the Pim-1 oncogene. Although PAP-1 binds to Pim-1, it is not a substrate for phosphorylation by Pim-1 in vivo. PAP-1 has recently been implicated as the defective gene in RP9, one type of autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa (adRP). However, RP9 is a rare disease and only two missense mutations have been described, so the report of a link between PAP-1 and RP9 was tentative. The precise cellular role of PAP-1 was also unknown at that time. We now report that PAP-1 localizes in nuclear speckles containing the splicing factor SC35 and interacts directly with another splicing factor, U2AF35. Furthermore, we used in vitro and in vivo splicing assays to show that PAP-1 has an activity, which alters the pattern of pre-mRNA splicing and that this activity is dependent on the phosphorylation state of PAP-1. We used the same splicing assay to examine the activities of two mutant forms of PAP-1 found in RP9 patients. The results showed that while one of the mutations, H137L, had no effect on splicing activity compared with that of wild-type PAP-1, the other, D170G, resulted in both a defect in splicing activity and a decreased proportion of phosphorylated PAP-1. The D170G mutation may therefore cause RP by altering splicing of retinal genes through a decrease in PAP-1 phosphorylation. These results demonstrate that PAP-1 has a role in pre-mRNA splicing and, given that three other splicing factors have been implicated in adRP, this finding provides compelling further evidence that PAP-1 is indeed the RP9 gene

  17. The evaluation of clinical application for measurement of serum PSA and PAP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The serum PSA and PAP were measured in 23 cases of prostatic carcinoma, 42 cases of benign prostatic hypertrophy and 21 cases of non-prostatic disease. Significant differences were found between prostatic carcinoma and benign prostatic hypertrophy or control group. According to the Decision Matrix for general clinical evaluation, the diagnostic index and availability of serum PSA and PAP were 135.8%, 138.3% and 0.36, 0.40, respectively. The study showed that the measurement of the serum PSA and PAP should be complementary each other for the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of prostatic carcinoma. Finally, it was considered that the measurement of the serum PSA is superior to that of PAP for therapeutic follow-up in patients with prostatic carcinoma

  18. Factors related to the practice of breast self examination (BSE) and Pap smear screening among Malaysian women workers in selected electronics factories

    OpenAIRE

    Shamsuddin K; Rashidah S; Chee HL; Intan O

    2003-01-01

    Abstract Background The Malaysian Ministry of Health promotes breast self-examination (BSE) for all women, and Pap smear screening every three years for all sexually active women ages 20 years and above. The objectives of this paper were to examine the practice of these two screening tests among women production workers in electronics factories, and to identify factors related to practice. Methods This was a cross-sectional survey of women production workers from ten electronics factories. Da...

  19. The Pap smear screening as an occasion for smoking cessation and physical activity counselling: effectiveness of the SPRINT randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Gorini Giuseppe; Carreras Giulia; Giordano Livia; Anghinoni Emanuela; Iossa Anna; Coppo Alessandro; Talassi Fiorella; Galavotti Maurizio; Chellini Elisabetta

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background The organized Cervical Cancer Screening Programme (CCSP) in Italy might represent an occasion to deliver smoking cessation (SC) counselling to women attending the Pap test examination. Evidence of effectiveness of physical activity (PA) promotion and intervention in adjunct to SC counselling is not strong. Objective of the SPRINT trial was to evaluate the effectiveness of a standard SC counselling intervention delivered by trained midwives in the CCSP, and whether the adju...

  20. Pap, gruel, and panada: early approaches to artificial infant feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obladen, Michael

    2014-01-01

    This paper collects information on artificial infant feeding published before 1860, the year when commercial formula became available. We have extensive artifactual evidence of thousands of feeding vessels since the Bronze Age. Special museum collections can be found in London, Paris, Cologne, Fécamp, Toronto, New Mexico, and elsewhere. The literature on the use of animal milk for infant feeding begins with Soranus in the 2nd century CE. Literature evidence from the very first printed books in the 15th century proves that physicians, surgeons, midwives, and the laity were aware of the opportunities and risks of artificial infant feeding. Most 17th to 19th century books on infant care contained detailed recipes for one or several of the following infant foods: pap, a semisolid food made of flour or bread crumbs cooked in water with or without milk; gruel, a thin porridge resulting from boiling cereal in water or milk, and panada, a preparation of various cereals or bread cooked in broth. During the 18th century, the published opinion on artificial feeding evolved from health concerns to a moral ideology. This view ignored the social and economic pressures which forced many mothers to forego or shorten breast-feeding. Bottle-feeding has been common practice throughout history. PMID:24577423

  1. Novel chromatin texture features for the classification of pap smears

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bejnordi, Babak E.; Moshavegh, Ramin; Sujathan, K.; Malm, Patrik; Bengtsson, Ewert; Mehnert, Andrew

    2013-03-01

    This paper presents a set of novel structural texture features for quantifying nuclear chromatin patterns in cells on a conventional Pap smear. The features are derived from an initial segmentation of the chromatin into bloblike texture primitives. The results of a comprehensive feature selection experiment, including the set of proposed structural texture features and a range of different cytology features drawn from the literature, show that two of the four top ranking features are structural texture features. They also show that a combination of structural and conventional features yields a classification performance of 0.954±0.019 (AUC±SE) for the discrimination of normal (NILM) and abnormal (LSIL and HSIL) slides. The results of a second classification experiment, using only normal-appearing cells from both normal and abnormal slides, demonstrates that a single structural texture feature measuring chromatin margination yields a classification performance of 0.815±0.019. Overall the results demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed structural approach and that it is possible to detect malignancy associated changes (MACs) in Papanicoloau stain.

  2. Crystal Structure of the P Pilus Rod Subunit PapA

    OpenAIRE

    Verger, Denis; Bullitt, Esther; Hultgren, Scott J.; Waksman, Gabriel

    2007-01-01

    P pili are important adhesive fibres involved in kidney infection by uropathogenic Escherichia coli strains. P pili are assembled by the conserved chaperoneusher pathway, which involves the PapD chaperone and the PapC usher. During pilus assembly, subunits are incorporated into the growing fiber via the donorstrand exchange (DSE) mechanism, whereby the chaperone's G1 ?-strand that complements the incomplete immunoglobulin-fold of each subunit is displaced by the N-terminal extension (Nte) o...

  3. “Cannon Balls or Pus Balls” in Pap Smears: A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Bodal, Vijay Kumar; Kaur, Sarbhjit; Bhagat, Ranjiv; Kaur, Rupinder; Bal, Manjit Singh

    2013-01-01

    A 50–year old female presented with the chief complaint of a discharge per vaginum, which was there for the past 15 days. A routine PAP smear was received in the Department of Pathology, Government Medical College, Patiala, India. After its fixation and staining, it was examined under the microscope. It showed the Trichomonas vaginalis infection, with the neutrophils forming cannon balls at places. Neutrophils in the PAP smear are a nonspecific finding, particularly if they are low in numbers...

  4. Inhibitory effects of a peptide-fusion protein (Latarcin-PAP1-Thanatin) against chikungunya virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothan, Hussin A; Bahrani, Hirbod; Shankar, Esaki M; Rahman, Noorsaadah Abd; Yusof, Rohana

    2014-08-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) outbreaks have led to a serious economic burden, as the available treatment strategies can only alleviate disease symptoms, and no effective therapeutics or vaccines are currently available for human use. Here, we report the use of a new cost-effective approach involving production of a recombinant antiviral peptide-fusion protein that is scalable for the treatment of CHIKV infection. A peptide-fusion recombinant protein LATA-PAP1-THAN that was generated by joining Latarcin (LATA) peptide with the N-terminus of the PAP1 antiviral protein, and the Thanatin (THAN) peptide to the C-terminus, was produced in Escherichia coli as inclusion bodies. The antiviral LATA-PAP1-THAN protein showed 89.0% reduction of viral plaque formation compared with PAP1 (46.0%), LATA (67.0%) or THAN (79.3%) peptides alone. The LATA-PAP1-THAN protein reduced the viral RNA load that was 0.89-fold compared with the untreated control cells. We also showed that PAP1 resulted in 0.44-fold reduction, and THAN and LATA resulting in 0.78-fold and 0.73-fold reductions, respectively. The LATA-PAP1-THAN protein inhibited CHIKV replication in the Vero cells at an EC50 of 11.2?g/ml, which is approximately half of the EC50 of PAP1 (23.7?g/ml) and protected the CHIKV-infected mice at the dose of 0.75mg/ml. We concluded that production of antiviral peptide-fusion protein in E. coli as inclusion bodies could accentuate antiviral activities, enhance cellular internalisation, and could reduce product toxicity to host cells and is scalable to epidemic response quantities. PMID:24929084

  5. Selective indication for positive airway pressure (PAP in sleep-related breathing disorders with obstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stasche, Norbert

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Positive airway pressure (PAP is the therapy of choice for most sleep-related breathing disorders (SRBD. A variety of PAP devices using positive airway pressure (CPAP, BiPAP, APAP, ASV must be carefully considered before application. This overview aims to provide criteria for choosing the optimal PAP device according to severity and type of sleep-related breathing disorder. In addition, the range of therapeutic applications, constraints and side effects as well as alternative methods to PAP will be discussed. This review is based on an analysis of current literature and clinical experience. The data is presented from an ENT-sleep-laboratory perspective and is designed to help the ENT practitioner initiate treatment and provide support. Different titration methods, current devices and possible applications will be described. In addition to constant pressure devices (CPAP, most commonly used for symptomatic obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA without complicating conditions, BiPAP models will be introduced. These allow two different positive pressure settings and are thus especially suitable for patients with cardiopulmonary diseases or patients with pressure intolerance, increasing compliance in this subgroup considerably. Compliance can also be increased in patients during first night of therapy, patients with highly variable pressure demands or position-dependent OSA, by using self-regulating Auto-adjust PAP devices (Automatic positive airway pressure, APAP. Patients with Cheyne-Stokes breathing, a subtype of central sleep apnoea, benefit from adaptive servo-ventilation (ASV, which analyzes breathing patterns continually and adjusts the actual ventilation pressure accordingly. This not only reduces daytime sleepiness, but can also influence heart disease positively. Therapy with positive airway pressure is very effective in eliminating obstruction-related sleep diseases and symptoms. However, because therapy is generally applied for life, the optimal PAP device must be carefully selected, taking into account side effects that influence compliance.

  6. Nutritional Composition of Five Varieties of Pap Commonly Consumed in Maroua (Far-North, Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ponka Roger

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the nutritional composition of five varieties of pap (cereal product commonly consumed in Maroua, city of the Far-North Region of Cameroon. The proximate composition (moisture, ash, protein, lipid, and crude fibre was determined by standard AOAC methods. Minerals (calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, iron, zinc, copper and manganese were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry and phosphorus was determined colorimetrically. Amino acid composition was determined by ion-exchange chromatography. All the pap varieties had a very high carbohydrate content (79.47-85.29 g/100 g dry matter. Appreciable levels of phosphorus and potassium were recorded in all the pap varieties (137.5-231.0 mg/100 g dry matter and 198.20-322.22 mg/100 g dry matter, respectively. Consumption of each pap (100 g by children 1-2 year old would meet 9.86-17.46% and 0.08-19.51% of their daily recommended intake respectively for protein and minerals. Leucine and glutamic acid were the most abundant essential amino acids and non-essential amino acids respectively in the pap. Essential amino acids in most of the pap samples met the recommended children requirement of the FAO/WHO/UNU for 1-2 year old children except methionine+cysteine and lysine.

  7. Incontinência urinária em mulheres que buscam exame preventivo de câncer de colo uterino: fatores sociodemográficos e comportamentais Incontinencia urinaria en mujeres que solicitan un examen preventivo de cáncer de cuello uterino: factores socio-demográficos y de comportamiento Urinary incontinence in women undergoing Pap smear test: socio-demographic and behavioral factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Luiz Cardoso

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo transversal objetivou investigar a associação entre, de um lado, fatores sociodemográficos e comportamentais e, de outro, a presença de incontinência urinária referida em 784 mulheres que buscam exame preventivo de câncer de colo uterino na Grande Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brasil. Foram obtidos dados sociodemográficos, estado de saúde, atividade física, constipação e índice de massa corporal, sendo utilizado o International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire-SF. A prevalência de incontinência urinária foi de 30,7% (16,5% perdiam urina uma vez por semana ou menos e 23,8% em pequena quantidade. Na regressão de Poisson bruta, estiveram associados à incontinência urinária os seguintes fatores: baixa escolaridade, renda por pessoa da família até um salário mínimo, etnia não caucasiana, excesso de peso corporal, pior autoavaliação do estado de saúde, constipação e idade. Após ajuste, seguindo modelo hierarquizado, permaneceram associados: escolaridade, etnia, estado de saúde e idade. A alta prevalência de incontinência urinária em mulheres que buscam exame de rastreamento do câncer de colo uterino justifica abordagens preventivas nesses espaços de atuação.Este estudio transversal tuvo como objetivo investigar la asociación entre factores socio-demográficos y de comportamiento con la presencia de incontinencia urinaria, informada por 784 mujeres que solicitaron un examen preventivo de cáncer de cuello uterino en el área metropolitana de Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brasil. Se obtuvieron datos socio-demográficos, estado de salud, actividad física, estreñimiento e índice de masa corporal, utilizándose el International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire-SF. La prevalencia de incontinencia urinaria fue de un 30,7% (16,5% perdían orina una vez por semana o menos y un 23,8% en pequeña cantidad. En la regresión de Poisson bruta se asoció a la incontinencia urinaria: la baja escolaridad; renta por persona de la familia de hasta un salario mínimo; etnia no caucásica; exceso de peso corporal; peor autoevaluación de estado de salud; estreñimiento y edad. Tras los ajustes, siguiendo un modelo jerarquizado, permanecieron asociados: escolaridad; etnia; estado de salud y edad. La alta prevalencia de incontinencia urinaria de mujeres que solicitaron un examen de indicios de cáncer de cuello uterino justifica aproximaciones preventivas en esos espacios.This cross-sectional study aimed to investigate the association between socio-demographic and behavioral factors and the presence of self-reported urinary incontinence in 784 women undergoing cervical cancer screening in Greater Florianópolis, Santa Catarina State, Brazil. Socio-demographic data, health status, physical activity, constipation, and body mass index were obtained, and the International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire-SF was used. Prevalence of urinary incontinence was 30.7% (16.5% reported leakage once a week or less and 23.8% losses in small volumes. Poisson univariate regression showed the following factors associated with urinary incontinence: lower education, lower income, non-white skin color, overweight, worse health status, constipation, and older age. After adjustment, according to a hierarchical model, schooling, ethnicity, health status, and age remained significantly associated. The high prevalence of urinary incontinence in women seeking Pap smear tests justifies preventive approaches in these areas of intervention.

  8. Time-dependent effect of p-Aminophenol (PAP) toxicity in renal slices and development of oxidative stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    p-Aminophenol (PAP), a metabolite of acetaminophen, is nephrotoxic. This study investigated PAP-mediated changes as a function of time that occur prior to loss of membrane integrity. Experiments further evaluated the development of oxidative stress by PAP. Renal slices from male Fischer 344 (F344) rats (N = 4-6) were exposed to 0.1, 0.25, and 0.5 mM PAP for 15-120 min under oxygen and constant shaking at 37 oC. Pyruvate-stimulated gluconeogenesis, adenine nucleotide levels, and total glutathione (GSH) levels were diminished in a concentration- and time-dependent manner prior to detection of a rise in lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) leakage. Glutathione disulfide (GSSG) levels were increased by PAP suggesting the induction of oxidative stress. Western blot analysis confirmed a rise in 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE)-adducted proteins in tissues exposed to 0.1 and 0.25 mM PAP for 90 min. The appearance of 4-HNE-adducted proteins at the 0.1 mM concentration of PAP occurred prior to development of increased LDH leakage. Pretreatment with 1 mM glutathione (GSH) for 30 min only partially reduced PAP toxicity as LDH values were less severely depleted relative to tissues not pretreated with GSH. In contrast, pretreatment for 15 min with 2 mM ascorbic acid completely protected against PAP toxicity. Further studies showed that ascorbic acid pretreatment prevented PAP-mediated depletion of GSH. In summary, PAP rapidly depletes GSH and adenine nucleotides and inhibits gluconeogenesis prior to a rise in LDH leakage. PAP induces oxidative stress as indicated by an increase in GSSG and 4-HNE-adducted proteins. Ascorbic acid pretreatment prevents PAP toxicity by maintaining GSH status

  9. Assessing the impact of common forensic presumptive tests on the ability to obtain results using a novel rapid DNA platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donachie, Gillian E; Dawnay, Nick; Ahmed, Romana; Naif, Sarah; Duxbury, Nicola J; Tribble, Nicholas D

    2015-07-01

    The rise of DNA evidence to the forefront of forensic science has led to high sample numbers being submitted for profiling by investigators to casework laboratories: bottleneck effects are often seen resulting in slow turnaround times and sample backlog. The ParaDNA(®) Screening and Intelligence Tests have been designed to guide investigators on the viability of potential sources of DNA allowing them to determine which samples should be sent for full DNA analysis. Both tests are designed to augment the arsenal of available forensic tests for end users and be used concurrently to those commonly available. Therefore, assessing the impact that common forensic tests have on such novel technology is important to measure. The systems were tested against various potential inhibitors to which samples may be exposed as part of the investigative process. Presumptive test agents for biological materials (blood, semen and saliva) and those used as fingerprint enhancement agents were both used. The Screening Test showed a drop in performance following application of aluminium powder and cyanoacrylate (CNA) on fingerprints samples; however this drop in performance was not replicated with high template DNA. No significant effect was observed for any agent using the Intelligence Test. Therefore, both tests stand up well to the chemical agents applied and can be used by investigators with confidence that system performance will be maintained. PMID:25864157

  10. 77 FR 72905 - Pipeline Safety: Random Drug Testing Rate; Contractor MIS Reporting; and Obtaining DAMIS Sign-In...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-06

    ... January 19, 2010, PHMSA published an Advisory Bulletin (75 FR 2926) implementing the annual collection of... Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration Pipeline Safety: Random Drug Testing Rate... for random drug testing, reminder for operators to report contractor MIS data, and new method...

  11. A recursive spectral selection scheme for unsupervised segmentation of multispectral Pap smear image sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Tong; Wachman, Elliot S.; Geyer, Stanley J.; Farkas, Daniel L.

    2004-07-01

    Efficient computer-aided cervical cancer detection can improve both the accuracy and the productivity of cytotechnologists and pathologists. Nuclear segmentation is essential to automated screening, and is still a challenge. We propose and demonstrate a novel approach to improving segmentation performance by multispectral imaging followed by unsupervised nuclear segmentation relying on selecting a useful subset of spectral or derived image features. In the absence of prior knowledge, feature selection can be negatively affected by the bias, present in most unsupervised segmentation, to erroneously segment out small objects, yielding ill-balanced class samples. To address this issue, we first introduce a new measurement, Criterion Vector (CV), measuring the distances between the segmentation result and the original data. This efficiently reduces the bias generated by feature selection. Second, we apply a novel recursive feature selection scheme, to generate a new feature subset based on the corresponding CV, ensuring that the correct part of the initial segmentation results is used to obtain better feature subsets. We studied the speed and accuracy of our two-step algorithm in analyzing a number of multispectral Pap smear image sets. The results show high accuracy of segmentation, as well as great reduction of spectral redundancy. The nuclear segmentation accuracy can reach over 90%, by selecting as few as 4 distinct spectra out of 30.

  12. Salt Repository Project: Data report on corrosion results obtained from excess-salt corrosion test Matrix 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The test discussed in this data report was directed at determining the response of the reference A216 grade WCA steel when it is exposed to anoxic excess-salt conditions at 1500C. The environment used in the test was intended to duplicate the intrusion brine scenario (i.e., the formation of brine by the intrusion of water from an outside source into the repository, with the formation of brine through dissolution of salt from the repository horizon). The salt-brine environment used in the test therefore reflected the expected gross salt composition of the repository horizon

  13. DNA sequences of three papA genes from uropathogenic Escherichia coli strains: evidence of structural and serological conservation.

    OpenAIRE

    Denich, K; Blyn, L B; Craiu, A; Braaten, B. A.; Hardy, J.; Low, D. A.; O'Hanley, P D

    1991-01-01

    Pyelonephritis-associated pili (Pap) are important in the pathogenesis of ascending, unobstructive Escherichia coli-caused renal infections because these surface bacterial organelles mediate digalactoside-specific binding to host uroepithelial cells. Pap are composed of many different polypeptides, of which only the tip proteins mediate specific binding. The PapA moiety polymerizes to form the bulk of the pilus structure and has been employed in vaccines despite its lack of Gal alpha(1-4)Gal ...

  14. Pokeweed antiviral protein (PAP) mutations which permit E.coli growth do not eliminate catalytic activity towards prokaryotic ribosomes.

    OpenAIRE

    Chaddock, J A; Lord, J M; Hartley, M R; Roberts, L M

    1994-01-01

    Pokeweed antiviral protein (PAP) has N-glycosidase activity towards both eukaryotic and prokaryotic ribosomes. This is in marked contrast with the A chains of type 2 ribosome inactivating proteins (RIPs) such as ricin and abrin, which inactivate only eukaryotic ribosomes. A recent report described spontaneous mutations in PAP that implicated specific amino acids to be involved in determining the activity of PAP towards prokaryotic ribosomes. As part of an ongoing study into RIP--ribosome inte...

  15. Detection of pap, sfa, afa, foc, and fim Adhesin-Encoding Operons in Uropathogenic Escherichia coli Isolates Collected From Patients With Urinary Tract Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahdar

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC with its virulence factors is the most prevalent cause of urinary tract infection (UTI. Objectives; This study aimed to determine the occurrence of fim, pap, sfa, and afa genes among 100 UPEC isolates collected from patients diagnosed with UTI. Materials and Methods A total of 100 UPEC isolates were obtained from urine samples of patients with UTI. The prevalence of 5 virulence genes encoding type 1 fimbriae (fimH, pili associated with pyelonephritis (pap, S and F1C fimbriae (sfa and foc and afimbrial adhesins (afa were determined through PCR method. We also investigated the phylogenetic background of all isolates. In addition, the distribution of adhesin-encoding operons between the phylogroups was assessed. Results The prevalence of genes encoding for fimbrial adhesive systems was 95% for fim, 57% for pap, 16% for foc, and 81% for sfa. The operons encoding for afa afimbrial adhesins were identified in 12% of isolates. The various combinations of detected genes were designated as virulence patterns. The fim gene, which occurred in strains from all phylogenetic groups (A, B1, B2, and D was evaluated and no significant differences were found among these groups. Conversely, significant differences were observed in relation to pap, afa, foc, and sfa operons. Conclusions These results indicate that the PCR method is a powerful genotypic assay for the detection of adhesin-encoding operons. Thus, this assay can be recommended for clinical use to detect virulent urinary E. coli strains, as well as epidemiological studies.

  16. CYTOLOGY OF UTERINE CERVIX BY PAP SMEAR: A STUDY FROM SOUTH INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preetha

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cervical cancer is the most common form of cancer in women in developing countries and the second most common form of cancer in women in the world as a whole. Three quarters of these women who develop CA Cervix live in developing countries. The dramatic reduction in the incidence of cervical cancer in developed countries is because of wide use of an effective cytological screening test, the Papanicolaou smear which can identify the pre-invasive forms of cervical neoplasia. OBJECTIVE: A prospective study to find out the prevalence of cervical intra epithelial lesion in women of reproductive age group. SETTINGS: 1000 women attending a teaching hospital in South India are studied for a period of one & half years. Pap smear was taken from them and were reported as per the Bethesda System of classification. RESULTS: Papanicolaou smear of 1000 patients were reported. Normal smears were seen in 39.9%, inflammatory smears in 53.1%.Intra epithelial lesions were found to be 3.5%. Low grade squamous intra epithelial lesions in 2%, High grade squamous Intra epithelial lesion in 0.9%. ASCUS 0.3% AGCUS 0.3%, Squamous cell carcinoma 0.3% Adeno Carcinoma 0.1%.

  17. Adoption of Evidence-Based Interventions in Local Health Departments: "1-2-3 Pap NC".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winterbauer, Nancy L; Bridger, Colleen M; Tucker, Ashley; Rafferty, Ann P; Luo, Huabin

    2015-08-01

    Descriptions of barriers and facilitators to adoption of evidence-based interventions in local health departments (LHDs) are limited. This study was conducted by the North Carolina Public Health Practice-Based Research Network to identify factors associated with adoption of an evidence-based human papillomavirus video intervention, "1-2-3 Pap NC," in North Carolina LHDs. A sequential mixed-method study design was used. Data from the 2013 National Profile of Local Health Departments were used to test associations between LHD characteristics and adoption of the intervention. Qualitative, key stakeholder interviews with LHD directors provided the context for quantitative data. Data collection and analysis continued from March 3, 2014, to September 15, 2014. Overall, 28% of North Carolina health jurisdictions (33 of 100 counties) implemented the intervention. Of the three channels used to deliver the intervention to clients, most LHDs opted to show the video in the exam room (42%), followed by website/other social media (36%) and video loop in the lobby/waiting room (22%). In logistic regression, gender of the director (female) was significantly and positively associated with adoption of the intervention (AOR=4.44, pimprove population health. Practice-based research can contribute to understanding facilitators and modifying barriers to this process. PMID:26190805

  18. Get Tested for Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Print This Topic En español Get Tested for Cervical Cancer Browse Sections The Basics Overview Cervical Cancer Pap ... Cervical Cancer 1 of 7 sections The Basics: Cervical Cancer What is cervical cancer? Cervical cancer is cancer ...

  19. Importance of a 5? Stem-Loop for Longevity of papA mRNA in Escherichia coli

    OpenAIRE

    Bricker, Angela L.; Belasco, Joel G.

    1999-01-01

    High-level expression of the major pilus subunit (PapA) of uropathogenic strains of Escherichia coli results in part from the unusually long lifetime of the mRNA that encodes this protein. Here we report that the longevity of papA mRNA derives in large measure from the protection afforded by its 5? untranslated region. This papA RNA segment can prolong the lifetime of an otherwise short-lived mRNA to which it is fused. In vivo alkylation studies indicate that, in its natural milieu, the papA ...

  20. 14 CFR 61.405 - What tests do I have to take to obtain a flight instructor certificate with a sport pilot rating?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... flight instructor certificate with a sport pilot rating? 61.405 Section 61.405 Aeronautics and Space..., FLIGHT INSTRUCTORS, AND GROUND INSTRUCTORS Flight Instructors With a Sport Pilot Rating § 61.405 What tests do I have to take to obtain a flight instructor certificate with a sport pilot rating? To obtain...

  1. Procedures for obtaining stress-strain curve including post-necking strain (applicability of testing method (IFD method) and estimation method (K-fit method) for stainless steels)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Testing and estimation procedures for obtaining true stress-strain curves of stainless steels were discussed in order to calculate load carrying capacity of nuclear power plant components by elastic-plastic finite element analyses. Type 316 stainless steel specimens of various degrees of cold working were subjected to tensile tests with different test speeds. It was shown that faster test speed reduced elongation and ultimate strength of the specimens. The strain on the specimen surface measured by the digital image correlation (DIC) technique exhibited an inhomogeneous strain distribution even when the strain was less than the uniform elongation (necking strain). The strain was elevated locally at the center of the specimen and its magnitude was about 1.2 times the nominal strain measured by an extensometer. A testing method (IFD method) has been developed to obtain the true stress-strain curve including post-necking strain by using an hourglass type specimen. In this study, the IFD method was improved so that it was applicable to the round-bar smooth specimens used for the tensile tests. Then, the stress-strain curves were estimated from the 0.2% proof and ultimate strengths by the K-fit method, which has been proposed by the current author. It was shown that K-fit method could estimate the stress-strain curves including the post-necking strain. Finally, a tensile test was carried out using a plate specimen with round notches. Elastic-plastic finite element analyses using the stress-strain curves estimated by the improved IFD method and K-fit method could simulate the deformation and strain distribution. The load carrying capacity obtained by the finite element analyses were almost equivalent to that obtained by the tensile test. However, the yielding load obtained by the finite element analyses were slightly higher than that obtained by the test due to the strain rate dependency of the stress-strain curve. (author)

  2. Reliability and Validity of Physiological Data Obtained Within a Cycle-Run Transition Test in Age-Group Triathletes

    OpenAIRE

    Veronica Vleck; Millet, Gregoire P.; Francisco Bessone Alves; David J. Bentley

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the validity and reliability of a sequential “Run-Bike-Run” test (RBR) in age-group triathletes. Eight Olympic distance (OD) specialists (age 30.0 ± 2.0 years, mass 75.6 ± 1.6 kg, run VO2max 63.8 ± 1.9 ml· kg-1· min-1, cycle VO2peak 56.7 ± 5.1 ml· kg-1· min-1) performed four trials over 10 days. Trial 1 (TRVO2max) was an incremental treadmill running test. Trials 2 and 3 (RBR1 and RBR2) involved: 1) a 7-min run at 15 km· h-1 (R1) plus a 1-min transition to 2) cycling to fa...

  3. Comparison of durability indicators obtained by Non Destructive Testing methods to monitor the durability of concrete structures

    OpenAIRE

    VILLAIN, Géraldine; Balayssac, Jean-Paul; Garnier, Vincent; Piwakowski, Bogdan; SALIN, Jean; Fardeau, Vincent; Dérobert, Xavier; COFFEC, Odile; Joubert, Anaëlle

    2014-01-01

    This paper deals with the use of non destructive testing methods (NDT) to assess indicators of concrete durability and mechanical properties of reinforced concrete structures. On site, NDT methods based on electromagnetic or ultrasonic wave propagation (such as radar, impact echo, ultrasonic transmission deviceÉ) are used because they are more or less sensitive to water content and mechanical properties depending on the method. It has been shown, in a former project [1, 2], that the NDT resul...

  4. Statistical Power and Estimation of Incidence Rate Ratios Obtained from BED Incidence Testing for Evaluating HIV Interventions among Young People

    OpenAIRE

    Auvert, Bertran; Mahiane, Guy Séverin; Lissouba, Pascale; Moreau, Thierry

    2011-01-01

    Background The objectives of this study were to determine the capacity of BED incidence testing to a) estimate the effect of a HIV prevention intervention and b) provide adequate statistical power, when used among young people from sub-Saharan African settings with high HIV incidence rates. Methods Firstly, after having elaborated plausible scenarios based on empirical data and the characteristics of the BED HIV-1 Capture EIA (BED) assay, we conducted statistical calculations to determine the...

  5. Constructing kinetics fatigue diagrams using testing results obtained on a machine with rigid loading for specimens of various thickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bending tests of 40KhS steel specimens, tempered at 200 and 500 deg C, are conducted to investigate the possible effects of specimen thickness on fatigue crack growth. Kinetic fatigue diagrams are constructed using the investigation results. An increase in crack growth with thickness is observed only in high-tempered specimens. Changes in specimen thickness do not affect crack growth in 40KhS low-tempered steel

  6. Cantilever beam test in Zr-2.5%Nb: Comparative study between pipe material obtained by laminating and wire drawing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Zr-2.5Nb alloy is used in the manufacture of pressure tubes for the CANDU nuclear power reactors. These tubes are subjected to severe service conditions: one o f them, the heavy water corrosion due to the coolant generates release of hydrogen, part of which ingress in the material raising its initial concentration and exposing them to a phenomena referred as delay hydrogen cracking. The results presented in this paper show the performance of a pressure tube of domestic manufacture under conditions of tension and hydrogen content in order to be compared with the behavior of a standard pressure tube in operation in the nuclear power plant. To do this is, cantilever notched and pre cracked samples were hydrided from both kinds of tubes. Each one of these samples was subjected to the cantilever beam test, which consists in a bending test performed in a furnace at 250oC. Starting from a stress intensity factor Ki which determines the propagation start of the crack, the growth is followed by the acoustic emission technique up to the arrest of the crack by controlling the bending load. This work presents the comparative data such as critical voltages, behavior of hydrides, and DHC parameters from both trials. Although the number of tests is reduced; results show a good performance of the tubes of domestic manufacture (author)

  7. Chemical fractionation tests on South African coal sources to obtain species-specific information on ash fusion temperatures (AFT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.C. van Dyk; L.L. Baxter; J.H.P. van Heerden; R.L.J. Coetzer [Sasol Technology, Sasolburg (South Africa). Syngas and Coal Technologies, R& amp; D Division

    2005-10-01

    Detailed coal and feedstock characteristics are essential to predict gasification performance when a specific coal source is to be gasified. One property that specifically gives detail information on the suitability of a coal source for gasification purposes is the ash fusion temperature (AFT). The AFT of a coal source indicates the extent to which ash agglomeration and ash clinkering are likely to occur within the gasifier. The principal aim of this paper is to obtain mineral species-specific information on ash properties and the specific affect on AFT. Chemical fractionation treatment resulted in coals having different mineral properties that can be used to explain the affect of specific minerals on the AFT of coal. The highest concentration and species of minerals were removed from the coal by acid leaching (HCl and HNO{sub 3}) where Al, Ca, Mg, Na and Fe were removed in high concentrations from the coal. The AFT of coal after leaching increased to {gt}1600{sup o}C. Based on the 95% confidence intervals depicted the following components can be highlighted as having a statistical significant effect on the AFT: Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, CaO, MgO, P{sub 2}O{sub 5} and SiO{sub 2}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} combination. When mineral ratio was used, the best correlation coefficient ) with AFT was obtained with the dolomite ratio. This is in agreement with the results obtained from the correlations between the AFT and the ash composition where CaO and MgO resulted in the best correlation with AFT. Results presented in this paper again highlights the fact and confirmed work from other researchers that ash composition (elemental analyses) on its own does not explain AFT behavior or commercial performance of coal accurately. 14 refs., 6 figs., 6 tabs.

  8. Obtaining and testing of the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungies inocula for the modification of radionuclides transport into the plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spores of the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungies have been isolaten from the plants collected at the Chernobyl zone. Selection of the plants were done due to their high radionuclides' accumulation ability and AM colonization level as well. These spores were used to start the inocula production for the plant treatment aimed to affect radionuclides transport. Spores identification was done based on their morphological and molecular features. Three different AM inocula with high potential to modify 90Sr and 137Cs transport at the phytoremediation experiments were obtained

  9. Comparison of visual field test results obtained through Humphrey matrix frequency doubling technology perimetry versus standard automated perimetry in healthy children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibel Kocabeyoglu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims : The aim of this study was to compare the visual field test results in healthy children obtained via the Humphrey matrix 24-2 threshold program and standard automated perimetry (SAP using the Swedish interactive threshold algorithm (SITA-Standard 24-2 test. Materials and Methods: This prospective study included 55 healthy children without ocular or systemic disorders who underwent both SAP and frequency doubling technology (FDT perimetry visual field testing. Visual field test reliability indices, test duration, global indices (mean deviation [MD], and pattern standard deviation [PSD] were compared between the 2 tests using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test and paired t-test. The performance of the Humphrey field analyzer (HFA 24-2 SITA-standard and frequency-doubling technology Matrix 24-2 tests between genders were compared with Mann-Whitney U-test. Results: Fifty-five healthy children with a mean age of 12.2 ± 1.9 years (range from 8 years to 16 years were included in this prospective study. The test durations of SAP and FDT were similar (5.2 ± 0.5 and 5.1 ± 0.2 min, respectively, P = 0.651. MD and the PSD values obtained via FDT Matrix were significantly higher than those obtained via SAP (P < 0.001, and fixation losses and false negative errors were significantly less with SAP (P < 0.05. A weak positive correlation between the two tests in terms of MD (r = 0.352, P = 0.008 and PSD (r = 0.329, P = 0.014 was observed. Conclusion: Children were able to complete both the visual test algorithms successfully within 6 min. However, SAP testing appears to be associated with less depression of the visual field indices of healthy children. FDT Matrix and SAP should not be used interchangeably in the follow-up of children.

  10. Concomitant Aspergillus Species Infection and Squamous Cell Carcinoma Diagnosed on Pap Smear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Prajwala; Goyal, Snigdha; Kaushal, Manju

    2016-01-01

    Concomitant infection with Aspergillus species and cervical squamous cell carcinoma in the female genital tract is a rare occurrence and attributed to the opportunistic nature of infection in the immunocompromised state due to the underlying malignancy. The contamination of smears with Aspergillus species should be excluded. The diagnosis of Aspergillus species infection along with squamous cell carcinoma was established on cervicovaginal pap smears in a 62-year-old female presented to gynecological clinic with complaints of stress urinary incontinence. Speculum examination revealed first-degree cervical descent. Smears showed features of squamous cell carcinoma along with fungal spores and fruiting body with hyphae of Aspergillus species. The presence of fruiting bodies and hyphae of Aspergillus species with coexisting squamous cell carcinoma is rare in routine pap smears. True infection needs to be distinguished from contamination by Aspergillus species. Early diagnosis can be established on routine cervicovaginal Pap smear examination. PMID:24272933

  11. Hydrological processes obtained on the plot scale under four simulated rainfall tests during the cycle of different crop systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ildegardis Bertol

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The cropping system influences the interception of water by plants, water storage in depressions on the soil surface, water infiltration into the soil and runoff. The aim of this study was to quantify some hydrological processes under no tillage cropping systems at the edge of a slope, in 2009 and 2010, in a Humic Dystrudept soil, with the following treatments: corn, soybeans, and common beans alone; and intercropped corn and common bean. Treatments consisted of four simulated rainfall tests at different times, with a planned intensity of 64 mm h-1 and 90 min duration. The first test was applied 18 days after sowing, and the others at 39, 75 and 120 days after the first test. Different times of the simulated rainfall and stages of the crop cycle affected soil water content prior to the rain, and the time runoff began and its peak flow and, thus, the surface hydrological processes. The depth of the runoff and the depth of the water intercepted by the crop + soil infiltration + soil surface storage were affected by the crop systems and the rainfall applied at different times. The corn crop was the most effective treatment for controlling runoff, with a water loss ratio of 0.38, equivalent to 75 % of the water loss ratio exhibited by common bean (0.51, the least effective treatment in relation to the others. Total water loss by runoff decreased linearly with an increase in the time that runoff began, regardless of the treatment; however, soil water content on the gravimetric basis increased linearly from the beginning to the end of the rainfall.

  12. RELIABILITY AND VALIDITY OF PHYSIOLOGICAL DATA OBTAINED WITHIN A CYCLE-RUN TRANSITION TEST IN AGE-GROUP TRIATHLETES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica Vleck

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the validity and reliability of a sequential "Run-Bike-Run" test (RBR in age-group triathletes. Eight Olympic distance (OD specialists (age 30.0 ± 2.0 years, mass 75.6 ± 1.6 kg, run VO2max 63.8 ± 1.9 ml·kg-1·min-1, cycle VO2peak 56.7 ± 5.1 ml·kg-1·min-1 performed four trials over 10 days. Trial 1 (TRVO2max was an incremental treadmill running test. Trials 2 and 3 (RBR1 and RBR2 involved: 1 a 7-min run at 15 km·h-1 (R1 plus a 1-min transition to 2 cycling to fatigue (2 W·kg-1 body mass then 30 W each 3 min; 3 10-min cycling at 3 W·kg-1 (Bsubmax; another 1-min transition and 4 a second 7-min run at 15 km·h-1 (R2. Trial 4 (TT was a 30-min cycle - 20-min run time trial. No significant differences in absolute oxygen uptake (VO2, heart rate (HR, or blood lactate concentration ([BLA] were evidenced between RBR1 and RBR2. For all measured physiological variables, the limits of agreement were similar, and the mean differences were physiologically unimportant, between trials. Low levels of test-retest error (i.e. ICC <0.8, CV<10% were observed for most (logged measurements. However [BLA] post R1 (ICC 0.87, CV 25.1%, [BLA] post Bsubmax (ICC 0.99, CV 16.31 and [BLA] post R2 (ICC 0.51, CV 22.9% were least reliable. These error ranges may help coaches detect real changes in training status over time. Moreover, RBR test variables can be used to predict discipline specific and overall TT performance. Cycle VO2peak, cycle peak power output, and the change between R1 and R2 (deltaR1R2 in [BLA] were most highly related to overall TT distance (r = 0.89, p < 0. 01; r = 0.94, p < 0.02; r = 0.86, p < 0.05, respectively. The percentage of TR VO2max at 15 km·h-1, and deltaR1R2 HR, were also related to run TT distance (r = -0.83 and 0.86, both p < 0.05

  13. Reliability Criteria for Testing the Goodness of the Activation Energy Values Obtained by the Peak Shape Methods in Thermoluminescence Experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Kitis

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to give some expressions able to give a criteria of acceptance for the activation energy values determined through the so called peak shape methods. The expressions are derived for both first and second order kinetics. Furthermore, using approximations concerning the peak temperature parameters, the reliability expressions are simplified for getting a more quickly criteria of acceptance. A table lists several data, from literature, concerning the activation energy determined for various Thermoluminescence materials; the experimental values are then tested using the criteria of acceptance showing the goodness of the method here presented in this research.

  14. Experience obtained with design qualification tests and design qualification approvals of installed measuring systems for radiation protection purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Installed dose ratemeters are used for continuous monitoring purposes. Their measuring capacities encompass up to 9 decades, and many instruments are equipped with automatic data recording systems. Almost every system has an alarm system sounding acoustic or optical alarm upon measured values exceeding a programmed threshold value. Measured data readout systems often are installed at a distance of up to several hundred meters from the measuring site, and frequently there are several probes sending their measured values to the recording system. Dose ratemeters for photon radiation have to be calibrated for specific measuring tasks defined by the calibration ordinance. The PTB since 1983 is the institute responsible for examination and approval of dose ratemeters and presents in this paper the rich experience obtained and the difficulties encountered with dose ratemeters equipped with microprocessors. (orig./CB)

  15. Thermal isocreep curves obtained during multi-axial creep tests on recrystallized Zircaloy-4 and M5™ alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zirconium alloys are widely used in the nuclear industry. Several components, such as cladding or guide tubes, undergo strong mechanical loading during and after their use inside the pressurized water reactors. The current requirements on higher fuel performances lead to the developing on new Zr based alloys exhibiting better mechanical properties. In this framework, creep behaviors of recrystallized Zircaloy-4 and M5™, have been investigated and then compared. In order to give a better understanding of the thermal creep anisotropy of Zr-based alloys, multi-axial creep tests have been carried out at 673 K. Using a specific device, creep conditions have been set using different values of β = σzz/σθθ, σzz and σθθ being respectively the axial and hoop creep stresses. Both axial and hoop strains are measured during each test which is carried out until stationary creep is stabilized. The steady-state strain rates are then used to build isocreep curves. Considering the isocreep curves, the M5™ alloy shows a largely improved creep resistance compared to the recrystallized Zircaloy-4, especially for tubes under high hoop loadings (0 < β < 1). The isocreep curves are then compared with simulations performed using two different mechanical models. Model 1 uses a von Mises yield criterion, the model 2 is based on a Hill yield criterion. For both models, a coefficient derived from Norton law is used to assess the stress dependence

  16. Thermal isocreep curves obtained during multi-axial creep tests on recrystallized Zircaloy-4 and M5™ alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rautenberg, M., E-mail: mrautenb@gmail.com [AREVA, AREVA NP, 10 rue Juliette Récamier, 69456 Lyon (France); CIRIMAT, CNRS/UPS/INPT, 4 allée Emile Monso, 31030 Toulouse (France); Poquillon, D. [CIRIMAT, CNRS/UPS/INPT, 4 allée Emile Monso, 31030 Toulouse (France); Pilvin, P. [LIMATB, University Bretagne-Sud, rue de Saint-Maudé, 56321 Lorient (France); Grosjean, C. [AREVA, AREVA NP, 10 rue Juliette Récamier, 69456 Lyon (France); CIRIMAT, CNRS/UPS/INPT, 4 allée Emile Monso, 31030 Toulouse (France); Cloué, J.M. [AREVA, AREVA NP, 10 rue Juliette Récamier, 69456 Lyon (France); Feaugas, X. [LEMMA, Université de La Rochelle, Avenue Michel Crépeau, 17042 La Rochelle (France)

    2014-04-01

    Zirconium alloys are widely used in the nuclear industry. Several components, such as cladding or guide tubes, undergo strong mechanical loading during and after their use inside the pressurized water reactors. The current requirements on higher fuel performances lead to the developing on new Zr based alloys exhibiting better mechanical properties. In this framework, creep behaviors of recrystallized Zircaloy-4 and M5™, have been investigated and then compared. In order to give a better understanding of the thermal creep anisotropy of Zr-based alloys, multi-axial creep tests have been carried out at 673 K. Using a specific device, creep conditions have been set using different values of β = σ{sub zz}/σ{sub θθ}, σ{sub zz} and σ{sub θθ} being respectively the axial and hoop creep stresses. Both axial and hoop strains are measured during each test which is carried out until stationary creep is stabilized. The steady-state strain rates are then used to build isocreep curves. Considering the isocreep curves, the M5™ alloy shows a largely improved creep resistance compared to the recrystallized Zircaloy-4, especially for tubes under high hoop loadings (0 < β < 1). The isocreep curves are then compared with simulations performed using two different mechanical models. Model 1 uses a von Mises yield criterion, the model 2 is based on a Hill yield criterion. For both models, a coefficient derived from Norton law is used to assess the stress dependence.

  17. New experimental limits on violations of the Pauli exclusion principle obtained with the Borexino Counting Test Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Pauli exclusion principle (PEP) has been tested for nucleons (n,p) in 12C and 16O nuclei, using the results of background measurements with the prototype of the Borexino detector, the Counting Test Facility (CTF). The approach consisted of a search for γ, n, p and/or α's emitted in a non-Paulian transition of 1P- shell nucleons to the filled 1S1/2 shell in nuclei. Similarly, the Pauli-forbidden β± decay processes were searched for. Due to the extremely low background and the large mass (4.2 tons) of the CTF detector, the following most stringent up-to-date experimental bounds on PEP violating transitions of nucleons have been established: τ(12C→12C+γ)>2.1.1027y, τ(12C→11B+p)>5.0.1026y, τ(12C(16O)→11C(15O)+n)>3.7.1026y, τ(12C→8Be+α)>6.1.1023y, τ(12C→12N+e-+νe)>7.6.1027y and τ(12C→12B+e++νe)>7.7.1027y, all at 90 % C.L. (orig.)

  18. New experimental limits on violations of the Pauli exclusion principle obtained with the Borexino Counting Test Facility

    CERN Document Server

    Back, H O; De Bari, A; De Bellefon, A; Bellini, G; Benziger, J; Bonetti, S; Buck, C; Caccianiga, B; Cadonati, L; Calaprice, F; Cecchet, G; Chen, M; Di Credico, A; Dadoun, O; D'Angelo, D; Derbin, A; Deutsch, M; Etenko, A; Von Feilitzsch, F; Fernholz, R; Ford, R; Franco, D; Freudiger, B; Galbiati, C; Gazzana, S; Giammarchi, M G; Goeger-Neff, M; Goretti, A; Grieb, C; Hampel, W; Harding, E; Hartmann, F X; Heusser, G; Ianni, A; Ianni, A M; De Kerret, H; Kiko, J; Kirsten, T; Kobychev, V V; Korga, G; Korschinek, G; Kozlov, Y; Kryn, D; Laubenstein, M; Lendvai, C; Leung, M; Litvinovich, E; Lombardi, P; Machulin, I; Malvezzi, S; Maneira, J; Manno, I; Manuzio, D; Manuzio, G; Masetti, F; Martemianov, A; Mazzucato, U; McCarty, K; Meroni, E; Mention, G; Miramonti, L; Monzani, M E; Muratova, V; Musico, P; Niedermeier, L; Oberauer, L; Obolensky, M; Ortica, F; Pallavicini, M; Papp, L; Perasso, L; Peiffer, P; Pocar, A; Raghavan, R S; Ranucci, G; Razeto, A; Sabelnikov, A; Salvo, C; Scardaoni, R; Schimizzi, D; Schönert, S; Simgen, H; Shutt, T A; Skorokhvatov, M; Smirnov, O; Sonnenschein, A; Sotnikov, A; Sukhotin, S; Suvorov, Y; Tarasenkov, V; Tartaglia, R; Testera, G; Vignaud, D; Vogelaar, R B; Vyrodov, V N; Wójcik, M; Zaimidoroga, O A; Zuzel, G

    2004-01-01

    The Pauli exclusion principle (PEP) has been tested for nucleons ($n,p$) in $^{12}C$ and $^{16}O$ nuclei, using the results of background measurements with the prototype of the Borexino detector, the Counting Test Facility (CTF). The approach consisted of a search for $\\gamma$, $n$, $p$ and/or $\\alpha$'s emitted in a non-Paulian transition of 1$P$- shell nucleons to the filled 1$S_{1/2}$ shell in nuclei. Similarly, the Pauli-forbidden $\\beta^{\\pm}$ decay processes were searched for. Due to the extremely low background and the large mass (4.2 tons) of the CTF detector, the following most stringent up-to-date experimental bounds on PEP violating transitions of nucleons have been established: $\\tau(^{12}C\\to^{12}\\widetilde{C}+\\gamma) > 2.1\\cdot10^{27}$ y, $\\tau(^{12}C\\to^{11}\\widetilde{B}+ p) > 5.0\\cdot10^{26}$ y, $\\tau(^{12}C(^{16}O)\\to^{11}\\widetilde{C}(^{15}\\widetilde{O})+ n) > 3.7 \\cdot 10^{26}$ y, $\\tau(^{12}C\\to^{8}\\widetilde{Be}+\\alpha) > 6.1 \\cdot 10^{23}$ y, $\\tau(^{12}C\\to^{12}\\widetilde{N}+ e^- + \\wid...

  19. First In-Core Measurement Results Obtained with the Innovative Mobile Calorimeter CALMOS inside the OSIRIS Material Testing Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear heating rate inside an MTR has to be known in order to design and to run irradiation experiments which have to fulfill target temperature constraints. This measurement is usually carried out by calorimetry [1, 2]. An innovative calorimetric system, CALMOS, has been studied and built in 2011 for the 70 MWth OSIRIS reactor operated by CEA. Thanks to a new calorimetric probe, associated to a specific displacement system, it provides measurements along the fissile height and above the core. The development of the calorimetric probe required the manufacturing and the irradiation of mock-ups in the ex-core area, where nuclear heating rate does not exceed 2 W.g-1. The calorimeter working mode, the different measurement procedures allowed with such a new probe and main modeling and experimental results have been already presented [3, 4]. In this paper, we present the first results obtained during several measurement campaigns carried out in 2012 and 2013 inside the OSIRIS core with the final device. For the first time, this new experimental measurement system was operated in nominal in-core thermo hydraulic conditions with nominal neutron and gamma fluxes (up to 6 W.g-1) in several experimental locations. After a brief presentation of the displacement system specificities, first nuclear heating distributions are presented and discussed. Experimental data were also used to upgrade the Finite Element model of the calorimeter in order to match measured temperatures with calculated ones. This model allowed to estimate a Kc correction factor which takes into account small nonlinearities when the heating rate is deduced from the calibration method. A comparison is made between nuclear heating rates determined from the probe calibration and from the zero method. In addition, an evaluation of the global uncertainty associated to the measurements is detailed. Finally, a global comparison is made with available measurements obtained from previous calorimeters. (authors)

  20. Relationships between Self-Efficacy and Pap Smear Screening in Iranian Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majdfar, Zahra; Khodadost, Mahmoud; Majlesi, Freshteh; Rahimi, Abbas; Shams, Mohsen; Mohammadi, Gohar

    2016-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the fourth common cancer among women worldwide. Pap smear screening has resulted in deceasing incidence of cervical cancer in developed countries but low uptake of Pap smear screening among women in developing countries is still a public health challenge. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to assess the relationship between self-efficacy and timely uptake of Pap smear among Iranian women. A total of 580 married women referred to primary health care centers covered administratively by Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences in Tehran were administered a questionnaire by trained staff. Data were analyzed with SPSS (version 16) software, using univariate and multivariate logistic regression. The mean age for participants was 33.1±8.8 years. There was a significant association between self-efficacy and Pap smear screening (PPap smear uptake (PPap smear uptake and level of self-efficacy (OR = 15.3 for intermediate and OR=7.4 for good level), duration of marriage (OR = 5.7 for 5-14 years and OR=10.4 for more than 15), age (OR =2.7 for 27-34 years and OR=7.4 for more than 35 years) and husband education level (OR=2.3 for more than 12 years of education). In multivariate analysis, significant associations persisted between Pap smear uptake and self-efficacy (OR = 23.8; 95% CI: 8.7, 65.5), duration of marriage (OR = 5.9; 95% CI: 2.8, 12.2), age (OR = 3.9; 95% CI: 1.2, 12.9) and husband's education (OR = 2.5; 95% CI: 2.0, 10.3). Efforts are needed to increase women's knowledge about cervical cancer and improve their self-efficacy and perceptions of the Pap smear screening in order to reduce cervical cancer incidence and mortality rates. PMID:27165236

  1. Combined Spinal Epidural Anaesthesia with BiPAP-Three Case Reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok Jadon

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We report three cases where BiPAP (bi-level positive airway pressure was used with CSEA (combined spinal epidural anaesthesia to over come the hypoventilation due to preoperative poor respiratory reserves and additive effect of sedation. Combination of BiPAP with spinal, epidural and CSEA have been used successfully in patients of severe COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease for various surgical procedures. This combination provides safe alternative to conventional general anaesthesia, as it avoids need for postoperative ventilatory support and its deleterious effects.

  2. Crystal structure of the P pilus rod subunit PapA

    OpenAIRE

    Verger, D.; Bullitt, E; Hultgren, S.J.; Waksman, G.

    2007-01-01

    P pili are important adhesive fibres involved in kidney infection by uropathogenic Escherichia coli strains. P pili are assembled by the conserved chaperone-usher pathway, which involves the PapD chaperone and the PapC usher. During pilus assembly, subunits are incorporated into the growing fiber via the donor-strand exchange (DSE) mechanism, whereby the chaperone's G(1) beta-strand that complements the incomplete immunoglobulin-fold of each subunit is displaced by the N-terminal extension (N...

  3. Study of cervical pap smears in a tertiary care hospital of south Gujarat, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemali J. Tailor

    2016-01-01

    Results: Total 1425 patients were screened; there were 1034 (72.56% abnormal Pap smears, with 354 (24.84% normal cases and 37 (2.59% unsatisfactory or inadequate samples. Total 27 (1.89% cases showed epithelial cell abnormalities. ASCUS was the most commonly found (40.74% epithelial cell abnormality out of 27 cases. Conclusions: Incidence of invasive cervical malignancy can be prevented if Pap screening program is effectively implemented in target population. [Int J Res Med Sci 2016; 4(1.000: 286-288

  4. Microspores irradiation in anther culture: testing a new technique to obtain mutations immediatly detected and fixed (Application to Nicotiana tabacum)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to consider the effects of microspores irradiation on embryo development, and in order to observe the morphological responses of haploid plantlets derived from androgenetic anthers to ionizing irradiation, 1000, 1500 and 2000r of gamma rays were delivered on anthers of Nicotiana tabacum (DL50 range calculated: 1500r). The cytological studies of embryo development revealed an apparent increase in irradiated microspores: cell division is stimulated but followed by an early mortality. A sharp rise in lethality effects was observed when gamma rays were applied beyond the seventh day of culture, when the proembryo contains an average of 4 cells. Morphological aberrations and colour changes in the Mo progeny derived from irradiated microspores are diverse. But after chromosome doubling and mutation checking out, all the plants were not recorded to have transmitted their aberrant characters. Thus, heritable character 'mutations) and not heritable character (variations) were obtained. The variations characters include dwarfing, excessive branching, fasciation and dichotomy of the stems, altered flower form, especially of petals. As to the leaves, they usually show induced changes in their colour (chlorotic areas, mosaic-colour changes, or an over-all colour changes), in their form (irregularity in outline) and in their texture (thickening, hairless leaf). Among the mutants, a monster tobacco, with excrescences on the leaves and the flowers is certainly the most conspicuous. But mutants also include altered leaf colour (over-all pale green) and altered flower colour, (dark red, clear pink, white)

  5. CNS activity of Pokeweed Anti-viral Protein (PAP in mice infected with Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis Virus (LCMV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tibbles Heather E

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Others and we have previously described the potent in vivo and in vitro activity of the broad-spectrum antiviral agent PAP (Pokeweed antiviral protein against a wide range of viruses. The purpose of the present study was to further elucidate the anti-viral spectrum of PAP by examining its effects on the survival of mice challenged with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV. Methods We examined the therapeutic effect of PAP in CBA mice inoculated with intracerebral injections of the WE54 strain of LCMV at a 1000 PFU dose level that is lethal to 100% of mice within 7–9 days. Mice were treated either with vehicle or PAP administered intraperitoneally 24 hours prior to, 1 hour prior to and 24 hours, 48 hours 72 hours and 96 hours after virus inoculation. Results PAP exhibits significant in vivo anti- LCMV activity in mice challenged intracerebrally with an otherwise invariably fatal dose of LCMV. At non-toxic dose levels, PAP significantly prolonged survival in the absence of the majority of disease-associated symptoms. The median survival time of PAP-treated mice was >21 days as opposed to 7 days median survival for the control (p = 0.0069. Conclusion Our results presented herein provide unprecedented experimental evidence that PAP exhibits antiviral activity in the CNS of LCMV-infected mice.

  6. Outline of test and research results obtained with research commissioning expense for peaceful use of atomic energy in fiscal 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report was compiled by the Atomic Energy Bureau, Science and Technology Agency. Six reports on radiation injury prevention, six reports on radiation utilization, and three reports on nuclear fuel cycle are collected, and the outline of respective tests and research is described. In radiation injury prevention, the scattering of radioisotopes, the evaluation of gaseous radioactive nuclides, the distribution and the behavior of natural and artificial radioactive nuclides, the risk estimation of delayed injuries and hereditary injuries due to low dose radiation, and the epidemiologic study of the group repeatedly exposed to low dose for radiation risk estimation were taken up. In radiation utilization, the hereditary safety of irradiated foods, the automation of the production of short life, RI-labeled compounds, the safety of radioisotope-using facilities in earthquakes, the techniques of treating radioactive wastes in RI utilization, the cleaning of radioactivity-contaminated things with organic solvent, and the facility for treating radioactive liquid using a new filter were studied. In nuclear fuel cycle, the behavior of uranium hexafluoride in fire, the dynamic concentrated management system for the information on safeguard measures and the low level radioactive wastes produced in fuel fabrication establishments were researched. (Kako, I.)

  7. Potential application of electronic nose in processed animal proteins (PAP detection in feedstuffs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dell'Orto V.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Electronic nose and olfactometry techniques represent a modern analytical approach in food industry since they could potentially improve quality and safety of food processing. The aim of this study was to evaluate possible application of electronic nose in PA P detection and recognition in feed. For this purpose 6 reference feedstuffs (CRA-W / UE STRAT F E E D Project were used. The basis of the test samples was a compound feed for bovine fortified with processed animal proteins ( PAP consisting of meat and bone meal (MBM and/or fish meal at different concentrations. Each feed sample was tested in glass vials and the odour profile was determined by the ten MOS (metal oxide semi-conductor sensors of the electronic nose. Ten different descriptors, representing each ten sensors of electronic nose, were used to characterise the odour of each sample. In the present study, electronic nose was able to discriminate the blank sample from all other samples containing PA P ( M B M , fish meal or both. Samples containing either 0.5% of MBM or 5% of fish meal were identified, while samples containing a high fish meal content (5% associated with a low MBM content (0.5% were not discriminated from samples containing solely fish meal at that same high level (5%. This latter indicates that probably the high fish meal level, in samples containing both MBM and fish meal, tended to mask MBM odour. It was also evident that two odour descriptors were enough to explain 72.12% of total variability in odour pattern. In view of these results, it could be suggested that electronic nose and olfactometry techniques can provide an interesting approach for screening raw materials in feed industry, even though further studies using a wider set of samples are needed.

  8. Automated segmentation and analysis of fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) signals in interphase nuclei of pap-smear specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xingwei; Zheng, Bin; Li, Shibo; Zhang, Roy R.; Li, Yuhua; Mulvihill, John J.; Chen, Wei R.; Liu, Hong

    2009-02-01

    Interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) technology is a potential and promising molecular imaging tool, which can be applied to screen and detect cervical cancer. However, manual FISH detection method is a subjective, tedious, and time-consuming process that results in a large inter-reader variability and possible detection error (in particular for heterogeneous cases). Automatic FISH image analysis aims to potentially improve detection efficiency and also produce more accurate and consistent results. In this preliminary study, a new computerized scheme is developed to automatically segment analyzable interaphase cells and detect FISH signals using digital fluorescence microscopic images acquired from Pap-smear specimens. First, due to the large intensity variations of the acquired interphase cells and overlapping cells, an iterative (multiple) threshold method and a feature-based classifier are applied to detect and segment all potentially analyzable interphase nuclei depicted on a single image frame. Second, a region labeling algorithm followed up a knowledge-based classifier is implemented to identify splitting and diffused FISH signals. Finally, each detected analyzable cell is classified as normal or abnormal based on the automatically counted number of FISH signals. To test the performance of this scheme, an image dataset involving 250 Pap-smear FISH image frames was collected and used in this study. The overall accuracy rate for segmenting analyzable interphase nuclei is 86.6% (360/424). The sensitivity and specificity for classifying abnormal and normal cells are 88.5% and 86.6%, respectively. The overall cell classification agreement rate between our scheme and a cytogeneticist is 86.6%. The testing results demonstrate the feasibility of applying this automated scheme in FISH image analysis.

  9. Deoxygenation and the blood volume signals in the flexor carpi ulnaris and radialis muscles obtained during the execution of the Mirallas's test of judo athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdaguer-Codina, Joan; Mirallas, Jaume A.

    1996-12-01

    The technique of execution of any movement in Judo is extremely important. The coaches want tests and tools easy to use and cheaper, to evaluate the progress of a judoist in the tatame. In this paper we present a test developed by Mirallas, which has his name 'Test of Mirallas' to evaluate the maximal power capacity of the judoist. The near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) signals were obtained to have a measurement of the metabolic work of the flexor carpi ulnaris and radialis muscles, during the execution of the ippon-seoi-nage movement, allowing this measurement to assess by NIRS the maximal oxygen uptake. Also obtained were tympanic, skin forehead, and biceps brachii temperatures during the test time and recovery phase to study the effects of ambient conditions and the post-exercise oxygen consumption. The deoxygenation and blood volume signals obtained gave different results, demonstrating the hypothesis of the coaches that some judoist do the execution of the ippon-seoi-nage movement correctly and the rest didn't. The heart rate frequency obtained in the group of judoist was between 190-207 bpm, and in the minute five of post-exercise was 114-137 bpm; the time employed in the MIrallas's test were from 7 feet 14 inches to 13 feet 49 inches, and the total of movements were from 199 to 409. The data obtained in the skin forehead, and skin biceps brachii confirms previous works that the oxygen consumption remains after exercise in the muscle studied. According to the results, the test developed by Mirallas is a good tool to evaluate the performance of judoist any time, giving better results compared with standard tests.

  10. Comparative study of visual inspection of the cervix by 3% acetic acid (VIA versus Pap smear by Bethesda method in sexually active women aged 25-50 years as an equally or more effective cervical cancer screening method in a low resource setup

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohit Rajendra Saraogi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cervical cancer is the most common cancer in Indian women and is a preventable cancer. Pap smear being an expensive screening test, increased emphasis is being laid on the development of a reliable and cost effective screening method for cervical cancer. This study aims at early detection of cervical dysplastic lesions using a simple and cost-effective screening test like visual inspection of cervix with 3% acetic acid (VIA and comparing its diagnostic efficacy with the more expensive Pap screening by Bethesda method. Methods: Ours was a prospective study carried out on a 100 sexually active women aged 25-50 years, coming to our OPD. The women were subjected to both a VIA and Pap smear. All Pap and VIA positive women were subjected to a cervical biopsy, whose histopathological report was taken as the gold standard. Results: In our study the sensitivity of VIA was more than that of cytology (100% versus 66.67% but the specificity was significantly lesser (47.83% compared to the 73.91%. The negative predictive value of VIA was comparable with Pap smear (100% and 85% respectively as was the positive predictive value (42.86% and 50%. However the diagnostic accuracy of VIA was lower than that of Pap smear (66.67% and 81.25% in our study. Conclusions: In this study VIA was found to have efficacy comparable to Pap smear in screening cervical cancer. Thus we recommend that VIA could be used as an alternative screening tool to detect early cervical dysplasia - especially in poor resource settings. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2014; 3(3.000: 688-691

  11. Expression Pattern of Class B Gene PAP3 in Flower Development of Pepper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Li

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Class B gene APETALA3 (AP3 plays a key role in the development of petals and stamens. Here, we investigated the expression pattern of PAP3 gene (genbank accession number: HM104635 in the buds of cytoplasmic male sterility line 121A and its near-isogenic restorer line 121C at four developmental stages and analyzed the possible association between Class B genes and cytoplasmic male sterility of pepper. Semi-quantitative PCR and quantitative real-time RT-PCR (qRT-PCR as well as RNA in situ hybridization showed increased expression of PAP3 at late phase of anther development and its higher expression in restorer line compared with sterility line indicating PAP3’s role at late developmental stage of anther and suppressed expression in sterility line. RNA in situ hybridization showed Class B gene features: high abundance in stamen and petal; lower expression in pistil; no expression in sepal. Results of transient expression in onion epidermal cells also showed PAP3 localized in the nucleus, which is consistent with the expression pattern of transcription factors of MADS-box gene family.

  12. Frequency and patterns of abnormal Pap smears in Sudanese women with infertility: What are the perspectives?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed O Almobarak

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions: Epithelial cell abnormalities are significantly higher in women with infertility as compared with fertile women. Importantly, inflammatory smears were reported two times more than in the controls. We recommend pap smear as a routine practice for all women assessed for infertility problems. Further studies are necessary to evaluate the incidence of human papilloma virus infections in infertile women with abnormal cervical cytology.

  13. Global Transcriptomic Analysis of Interactions between Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Bacteriophage PaP3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xia; Chen, Canhuang; Shen, Wei; Huang, Guangtao; Le, Shuai; Lu, Shuguang; Li, Ming; Zhao, Yan; Wang, Jing; Rao, Xiancai; Li, Gang; Shen, Mengyu; Guo, Keke; Yang, Yuhui; Tan, Yinling; Hu, Fuquan

    2016-01-01

    The interactions between Bacteriophage (phage) and host bacteria are widespread in nature and influences of phage replication on the host cells are complex and extensive. Here, we investigate genome-wide interactions of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) and its temperate phage PaP3 at five time points during phage infection. Compared to the uninfected host, 38% (2160/5633) genes of phage-infected host were identified as differentially expressed genes (DEGs). Functional analysis of the repressed DEGs revealed infection-stage-dependent pathway communications. Based on gene co-expression analysis, most PaP3 middle genes were predicted to have negative impact on host transcriptional regulators. Sub-network enrichment analysis revealed that adjacent genes of PaP3 interacted with the same host genes and might possess similar functions. Finally, our results suggested that during the whole infection stage, the early genes of PaP3 had stronger regulatory role in host gene expression than middle and late genes, while the host genes involved amino acid metabolism were the most vulnerable targets of these phage genes. This work provides the basis for understanding survival mechanisms of parasites and host, and seeking phage gene products that could potentially be used in anti-bacterial infection. PMID:26750429

  14. CstF-64 and 3'-UTR cis-element determine Star-PAP specificity for target mRNA selection by excluding PAPα.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandala, Divya T; Mohan, Nimmy; A, Vivekanand; Ap, Sudheesh; G, Reshmi; Laishram, Rakesh S

    2016-01-29

    Almost all eukaryotic mRNAs have a poly (A) tail at the 3'-end. Canonical PAPs (PAPα/γ) polyadenylate nuclear pre-mRNAs. The recent identification of the non-canonical Star-PAP revealed specificity of nuclear PAPs for pre-mRNAs, yet the mechanism how Star-PAP selects mRNA targets is still elusive. Moreover, how Star-PAP target mRNAs having canonical AAUAAA signal are not regulated by PAPα is unclear. We investigate specificity mechanisms of Star-PAP that selects pre-mRNA targets for polyadenylation. Star-PAP assembles distinct 3'-end processing complex and controls pre-mRNAs independent of PAPα. We identified a Star-PAP recognition nucleotide motif and showed that suboptimal DSE on Star-PAP target pre-mRNA 3'-UTRs inhibit CstF-64 binding, thus preventing PAPα recruitment onto it. Altering 3'-UTR cis-elements on a Star-PAP target pre-mRNA can switch the regulatory PAP from Star-PAP to PAPα. Our results suggest a mechanism of poly (A) site selection that has potential implication on the regulation of alternative polyadenylation. PMID:26496945

  15. Spatial structure of oligopeptide PAP(248-261), the N-terminal fragment of the HIV enhancer prostatic acid phosphatase peptide PAP(248-286), in aqueous and SDS micelle solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blokhin, Dmitriy S.; Filippov, Andrei V.; Antzutkin, Oleg N.; Karataeva, Farida Kh.; Klochkov, Vladimir V.

    2014-07-01

    Prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP) is an enzyme that facilitates infection of cells by HIV. Its peptide fragment PAP(248-286) forms amyloid fibrils known as SEVI, which enhance attachment of the virus by viral adhesion to the host cell prior to receptor-specific binding via reducing the electrostatic repulsion between the membranes of the virus and the target cell. The secondary structure of PAP(248-286) in aqueous and SDS solutions can be divided into an N-terminal disordered region, an α-helical central part and an α/310-helical C-terminal region (Nanga et al., 2009). In this work, we used NMR spectroscopy to study the spatial structure of the isolated N-terminal fragment of PAP(248-286), PAP(248-261) (GIHKQKEKSRLQGG), in aqueous and SDS micelle solutions. Formation of a PAP(248-261)-SDS complex was confirmed by chemical shift alterations in the 1H NMR spectra of the peptide, as well as by the signs and values of Nuclear Overhauser Effect (NOE). In addition, the PAP(248-261) peptide does not form any specified secondary structure in either aqueous or SDS solutions.

  16. Nursing and Respiratory Collaboration Prevents BiPAP-Related Pressure Ulcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acorda, Darlene E

    2015-01-01

    In early 2012, an increase in the incidence of BiPAP-related pressure ulcers was noted in the progressive care unit of a large pediatric facility. An interdisciplinary team of nursing and respiratory staff and leadership formed a collaborative to address the gaps in practice, recommend, and implement evidence-based interventions using a quality improvement model. Interventions included piloting new masks, changing the skin barrier from a hydrocolloid dressing to a foam dressing and using a template for better fit, including skin assessments every 4 hours as part of nursing and respiratory therapists' workflow, and implementing a notification process that included Wound Ostomy Continence Nurses, respiratory, and nursing leadership for any redness of skin noted. Weekly rounding and communication by nursing and respiratory leadership ensured consistency and sustainability of practice. Aside from implementation of interventions, the primary focus was to develop a collaborative relationship between nursing and respiratory teams for shared ownership and accountability of patients on BiPAP support. Three months after the implementation of interventions, the occurrence of BiPAP-related pressure ulcers decreased from eleven in the first three quarters to one occurrence in the fourth quarter of fiscal year (FY) 2012. In 2013, the occurrence decreased to five for the entire fiscal year. Since the end of FY 2013, there has only been one occurrence of a BiPAP-related pressure ulcer in the progressive care unit. Close collaboration between respiratory and nursing has been the primary factor in decreasing BiPAP-related pressure ulcers. An important lesson learned is that interdisciplinary collaboration leads to improved patient outcomes. PMID:25921961

  17. CIR, a corepressor of CBF1, binds to PAP-1 and effects alternative splicing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have reported that PAP-1, a product of a causative gene for autosomal retinitis pigmentosa, plays a role in splicing. In this study, CIR, a protein originally identified as a CBF1-interacting protein and reported to act as a transcriptional corepressor, was identified as a PAP-1 binding protein and its function as a splicing factor was investigated. In addition to a basic lysine and acidic serine-rich (BA) domain and a zinc knuckle-like motif, CIR has an arginine/serine dipeptide repeat (RS) domain in its C terminal region. The RS domain has been reported to be present in the superfamily of SR proteins, which are involved in splicing reactions. We generated CIR mutants with deletions of each BA and RS domain and studied their subcellular localizations and interactions with PAP-1 and other SR proteins, including SC35, SF2/ASF, and U2AF35. CIR was found to interact with U2AF35 through the BA domain, with SC35 and SF2/ASF through the RS domain, and with PAP-1 outside the BA domain in vivo and in vitro. CIR was found to be colocalized with SC35 and PAP-1 in nuclear speckles. Then the effect of CIR on splicing was investigated using the E1a minigene as a reporter in HeLa cells. Ectopic expression of CIR with the E1a minigene changed the ratio of spliced isoforms of E1a that were produced by alternative selection of 5'-splice sites. These results indicate that CIR is a member of the family of SR-related proteins and that CIR plays a role in splicing regulation

  18. Knowledge, attitude and practice related to the pap smear test among users of a primary health unit Conocimiento, actitud y práctica relacionada al examen de colposcopia entre usuarias de una unidad básica de salud Conhecimento, atitude e prática relacionada ao exame colpocitológico entre usuárias de uma unidade básica de saúde

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Teixeira Moreira Vasconcelos

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available This KAP (knowledge, attitude and practice study, carried out from February to June 2008, aimed to evaluate the knowledge, attitude and practice regarding the Pap smear test among users of a primary health unit (PHU and to verify any association with sociodemographic variables. The sample was comprised of 250 women. The knowledge, attitude and practice related to the examination were adequate in 40.4%, 28% and 67.6% of respondents, respectively. The results demonstrate higher proportions of adequate knowledge and attitude with schooling (>9 years and age (>35 years. It is essential to seek specific answers regarding this issue in order to direct integrated actions of health education, thus ensuring greater access, adhesion and return of the women for the examination results.Estudio tipo encuesta CAP (conocimiento, actitud y práctica realizado en el período de febrero a junio de 2008, en el cual se objetivó evaluar el conocimiento, la actitud y la práctica del examen de colposcopia entre usuarias de una unidad básica de salud (UBS y verificar su asociación con variables sociodemográficas. La muestra estuvo constituida por 250 mujeres. El conocimiento, la actitud y la práctica sobre el examen fueron adecuadas en 40,4%, 28% y 67,6% de las entrevistadas, respectivamente. Los resultados encontrados evidenciaron proporciones más altas de conocimiento y actitud adecuados con la escolaridad (> 9 años y edad (> 35 años. Es esencial buscar respuestas específicas sobre esta problemática a fin de dirigir acciones integradas de educación en salud, garantizando, así, el mayor acceso, adhesión y retorno de las mujeres al examen.Este é um estudo tipo inquérito CAP (conhecimento, atitude e prática, realizado no período de fevereiro a junho de 2008, no qual se objetivou avaliar o conhecimento, a atitude e a prática do exame colpocitológico entre usuárias de uma unidade básica de saúde (UBS e verificar sua associação com variáveis sociodemográficas. A amostra foi composta por 250 mulheres. O conhecimento, a atitude e a prática sobre o exame foram adequados em 40,4, 28 e 67,6% das entrevistadas, respectivamente. Os resultados encontrados evidenciaram proporções mais altas de conhecimento e atitude adequados com escolaridade (>9 anos e idade (>35 anos. É essencial buscar respostas específicas a respeito dessa problemática, a fim de direcionar ações integradas de educação em saúde, garantindo, assim, o maior acesso, adesão e retorno das mulheres ao exame.

  19. Test of irradiation of tellurium oxide for obtaining iodine-131 by dry distillation; Prueba de irradiacion de dioxido de telurio para obtener yodo-131 por destilacion seca

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alanis M, J. [ININ, Departamento de Materiales Radiactivos, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2003-07-15

    With the purpose of optimizing to the maximum independently the work of the reactor of those mathematical calculations of irradiation that are already optimized, now it corresponds to carry out irradiation tests in the different positions with their respective neutron fluxes that it counts the reactor for samples irradiation. Then, it is necessary to carry out the irradiation of the tellurium dioxide through cycles, with the purpose of observing the activity that it goes accumulating in each cycle and this way to obtain an activity of the Iodine-131 obtained when finishing the last cycle. (Author)

  20. Pap pili as a vector system for surface exposition of an immunoglobulin G-binding domain of protein A of Staphylococcus aureus in Escherichia coli.

    OpenAIRE

    Steidler, L; Remaut, E; Fiers, W.

    1993-01-01

    Fusion genes between papA, the gene coding for the major Pap pilus subunit, and fragments coding for an immunoglobulin G-binding domain of the Staphylococcus aureus protein A were constructed in such a way that the spa fragments were inserted following either codon 7 or 68 of the coding sequence for the mature portion of PapA. Peptides in the area of amino acids 7 and 68 of PapA are localized at the external side of the pilus. A set of pL expression plasmids containing papA and derivatives su...

  1. Frequency and organization of papA homologous DNA sequences among uropathogenic digalactoside-binding Escherichia coli strains.

    OpenAIRE

    Denich, K; Craiu, A; Rugo, H; Muralidhar, G; O'Hanley, P.

    1991-01-01

    The frequency of selected papA DNA sequences among 89 digalactoside-binding, uropathogenic Escherichia coli strains was evaluated with 12 different synthetic 15-base probes corresponding to papA genes from four digalactoside-binding piliated recombinant strains (HU849, 201B, and 200A). The papA probes encode amino acids which are common at the carboxy terminus of all strains, adjacent to the proximal portion of the intramolecular disulfide loop of strain 210B, or predicted to constitute the t...

  2. Production of perfluorinated carboxylic acids (PFCAs) from the biotransformation of polyfluoroalkyl phosphate surfactants (PAPS): exploring routes of human contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Eon, Jessica C; Mabury, Scott A

    2007-07-01

    Perfluorinated acids are detected in human blood world-wide, with increased levels observed in industrialized areas. The origin of this contamination is not well understood. A possible route of exposure, which has received little attention experimentally, is indirect exposure to perfluorinated acids through ingestion of chemicals applied to food contact paper packaging. The current investigation quantified the load of perfluorinated acids to Sprague-Dawley rats upon exposure to polyfluoroalkyl phosphate surfactants (PAPS), nonpolymeric fluorinated surfactants approved for application to food contact paper products. The animals were administered a single dose at 200 mg/kg by oral gavage of 8:2 fluorotelomer alcohol (8:2 FTOH) mono-phosphate (8:2 monoPAPS), or the corresponding di-phosphate (8:2 diPAPS), with blood taken over 15 days post-dosing to monitor uptake, biotransformation, and elimination. Upon completion of the time-course study the animals were redosed using an identical dosing procedure, with sacrifice and necropsy 24 h after the second dosing. Increased levels of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), along with both 8:2 PAPS congeners, were observed in the blood of the dosed animals. In the 8:2 monoPAPS-dosed animals, 8:2 monoPAPS and PFOA blood concentrations peaked at 7900 +/- 1200 ng/g and 34 +/- 4 ng/g respectively. In the 8:2 diPAPS-dosed animals, 8:2 diPAPS peaked in concentration at 32 +/- 6 ng/g, and 8:2 monoPAPS and PFOA peaked at 900 +/- 200 ng/g and 3.8 +/- 0.3 ng/g, respectively. Several established polyfluorinated metabolites previously identified in 8:2 FTOH metabolism studies were also observed in the dosed animals. Consistent with other fluorinated contaminants, the tissue distributions showed increased levels of both PFOA and the 8:2 PAPS congeners in the liver relative to the other tissues measured. Previous investigations have found that PAPS can migrate into food from paper packaging. Here we link ingestion of PAPS with in vivo production of perfluorinated acids. PMID:17695932

  3. Psychological impact, support and information needs for women with an abnormal Pap smear: comparative results of a questionnaire in three European countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Anna

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Extensive information on cervical cancer is currently available. Its effectiveness in reducing anxiety in women receiving abnormal Pap tests is not clear. We investigated current practices of communicating abnormal Pap results to evaluate women's reactions and determine the sources of information they use subsequently. Methods A self-administered questionnaire-based study was performed in 1475 women in France, Spain and Portugal who had received an abnormal Pap smear result in the 12 months prior to completing the questionnaire. Questions covered methods of communication of the result, emotional reactions, support received (from the physician and entourage, and information sources, using pre-specified check box options and rating scales. Data were analyzed by country. Results Pap test results were mostly communicated by phone to Spanish women (76%, while physician letters were common in France (59% and Portugal (36%. Frequent reactions were anxiety, panic and stress, which were less common in Spanish women than their French and Portuguese counterparts. After discussing with their physician, half of the participants were worried, despite rating highly the psychological support received. Over 90% of women in each country discussed their results with family or friends. Partners provided a high level of support. Overall, the abnormal diagnosis and consequences had a low to medium impact on daily, professional and family life and their relationships with their partner. Impact was higher in Spanish women than the French or Portuguese. Information on the diagnosis and its treatment was rated average, and nearly 80% of participants wanted more information, notably French women. Preferred sources were the physician and the Internet. Conclusions Women expressed a strong wish for more information about cervical cancer and other HPV-related diseases, and that their physician play a major role in its provision and in support. There was a heavy reliance on the close entourage and the Internet for information, highlighting the need for dissemination of accurate material. Differences between countries suggest information management strategies may need to be tailored to different geographical regions.

  4. “Cannon Balls or Pus Balls” in Pap Smears: A Case Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodal, Vijay Kumar; Kaur, Sarbhjit; Bhagat, Ranjiv; Kaur, Rupinder; Bal, Manjit Singh

    2013-01-01

    A 50–year old female presented with the chief complaint of a discharge per vaginum, which was there for the past 15 days. A routine PAP smear was received in the Department of Pathology, Government Medical College, Patiala, India. After its fixation and staining, it was examined under the microscope. It showed the Trichomonas vaginalis infection, with the neutrophils forming cannon balls at places. Neutrophils in the PAP smear are a nonspecific finding, particularly if they are low in numbers or if they are seen in the premenstrual and the menstrual phases. The neutrophils which are adherent to the squamous cells are called “cannon balls” or “pus balls”, which are common in the Chlamydia infection. This case is being presented because of the presence of these rare morphological structures i.e. “cannon balls” or “pus balls”. PMID:24086888

  5. Value of high-risk human papillomavirus 16 deoxyribonucleic acid testing with cytological entities in peri and postmenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veena Kashyap

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions: There is not much variation in HPV 16 positive cases in peri and postmenopausal women. By combining HPV DNA testing with Pap smear more cases having potential for pre-cancer lesions may be detected; however, HPV test cannot replace the Pap smear in low resource setting.

  6. No increased risk for cervical cancer after a broader definition of a negative pap smear

    OpenAIRE

    Rebolj, Matejka; Van Ballegooijen, Marjolein; van Kemenade, Folkert; Looman, Caspar; Boer, Rob; Habbema, Dik

    2008-01-01

    The definition of minimal relevant Pap smear abnormality is crucial for balancing the beneficial effects of screening (prevented mortality) with negative side-effects (the high positivity rate). After inflammation ceased to be defined as a borderline abnormal smear outcome in The Netherlands in 1996, the proportion of these smears dropped from 10% to less than 2%. Because this may have caused a loss in smear sensitivity, we analysed the changes in the incidence of cervical cancer after a nega...

  7. Pap screening clinics with native women in Skidegate, Haida Gwaii. Need for innovation.

    OpenAIRE

    Calam, B.; Norgrove, L.; D. Brown; Wilson, M. A.

    1999-01-01

    PROBLEM ADDRESSED: First Nations women in British Columbia, especially elders, are underscreened for cancer of the cervix compared with the general population and are much more likely to die of the disease than other women. OBJECTIVE OF PROGRAM: To develop a pilot program, in consultation with community representatives, to address the Pap screening needs of First Nations women 40 years and older on a rural reserve. MAIN COMPONENTS OF PROGRAM: Identification of key links to the population; con...

  8. Enhanced tree-classifier performance by inversion with application to pap smear screening data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, E. T. Y.; Lee, James; Nelson, Alan C.

    1993-07-01

    In this paper, we present an inversion method to enhance a binary decision tree classifier using boundary search of training samples. We want to enhance the training at those points which are close to the boundaries. Selection of these points is based on the Euclidean distance from those centroids close to classification boundaries. The enhanced training using these selected data was compared with training using randomly selected samples. We also applied this method to improve the classification of pap smear screening data.

  9. Obese womens barriers to mammography and Pap smear: The possible role of personality

    OpenAIRE

    Friedman, Asia M.; Hemler, Jennifer R.; Rossetti, Elisa; Clemow, Lynn P.; Ferrante, Jeanne M.

    2012-01-01

    Obese women are at increased risk of developing and dying from cancer, but are less likely than non-obese women to receive cancer screening examinations. Our qualitative study explores obese womens barriers to Pap smears and mammograms in greater depth than previous research. We also seek to understand why some obese women undergo screening while others do not. A purposive sample of moderately to severely obese women over age 40 was recruited from community-based organizations, health clinic...

  10. Associations of demographic variables and the Health Belief Model constructs with Pap smear screening among urban women in Botswana

    OpenAIRE

    McFarland, Ditsapelo M

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Papanicolaou (Pap) smear services are available in most urban areas in Botswana. Yet most women in such areas do not screen regularly for cancer of the cervix. The purpose of this article is to present findings on the associations of demographic variables and Health Belief Model constructs with Pap smear screening among urban women in Botswana. Sample and methods The study included a convenience sample of 353 asymptomatic women aged 30 years and older who were living in Gaborone, Bots...

  11. Associations of demographic variables and the Health Belief Model constructs with Pap smear screening among urban women in Botswana

    OpenAIRE

    McFarl; DM

    2013-01-01

    Ditsapelo M McFarland College of Nursing and Public Health, Adelphi University, Garden City, NY, USA Purpose: Papanicolaou (Pap) smear services are available in most urban areas in Botswana. Yet most women in such areas do not screen regularly for cancer of the cervix. The purpose of this article is to present findings on the associations of demographic variables and Health Belief Model constructs with Pap smear screening among urban women in Botswana. Sample and methods: The study included a...

  12. Avaliação das expectativas de auto-eficácia nos papéis da carreira: O Inventário de Crenças de Auto-Eficácia Relativamente aos Papéis da Carreira

    OpenAIRE

    Cardoso, Paulo

    2010-01-01

    After the application of the Inventário de Crenças de Auto-eficácia Relativamente aos Papéis da Carreira (Vale 1997; ICARPC: Portuguese acronym for Self-Efficacy Beliefs Related to Career Roles Inventory) to a sample of 1005 Portuguese high school students, 488 grade 9 and 517 grade 12, the psychometric characteristics of ICARPC are analysed. The results confirm the ones obtained in previous research and support ICARPC’s reliability and validity. The practical implications of these findings...

  13. The Pap smear screening as an occasion for smoking cessation and physical activity counselling: effectiveness of the SPRINT randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorini Giuseppe

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The organized Cervical Cancer Screening Programme (CCSP in Italy might represent an occasion to deliver smoking cessation (SC counselling to women attending the Pap test examination. Evidence of effectiveness of physical activity (PA promotion and intervention in adjunct to SC counselling is not strong. Objective of the SPRINT trial was to evaluate the effectiveness of a standard SC counselling intervention delivered by trained midwives in the CCSP, and whether the adjunct of a PA counselling to the SC counselling might increase quit rates. Methods/Design We undertook a randomized controlled trial of 1,100 women undergoing the Pap examination in the three study centres Florence, Turin, and Mantua: 363 were randomly assigned to the SC counselling arm, 366 to the SC + PA counselling arm, and 371 to the control group. The intervention was a standard brief SC counselling combined with a brief counselling on increasing PA, and was tailored according to the Di Clemente-Prochaska motivational stages of change for SC and/or PA. Primary outcomes were quit rates, improvement in the motivational stages of change for SC, and reduced daily cigarette consumption. Analysis was by intention to treat. Results Participants randomized in both intervention arms and in the preparation stage of change for SC doubled their likelihood of quitting at 6-month follow-up in comparison to controls (odds ratio [OR]=2.1, 95% confidence interval [95% CI]:1.0-4.6. Moreover, participants in the intervention arms and in the contemplation stage were more likely to reduce their daily cigarette consumption after the intervention (OR=1.8, 95% CI:1.1-3.0. Our study did not show any effect of PA counselling on various outcomes. Conclusions Smoking cessation counselling delivered by midwives to smokers in preparation and contemplation stages of change during the Pap-smear screening was effective and should be recommended, given the high number of women attending the cervical cancer screening programme in Italy. Moreover, the daily number of women invited for the Pap-smear examination should be slightly lowered, in order to let midwives deliver SC counselling to smokers. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN52660565

  14. PANICLE PHYTOMER2 (PAP2), encoding a SEPALLATA subfamily MADS-box protein, positively controls spikelet meristem identity in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Kaoru; Maekawa, Masahiko; Miyao, Akio; Hirochika, Hirohiko; Kyozuka, Junko

    2010-01-01

    In rice panicle development, new meristems are generated sequentially in an organized manner and acquire their identity in a time- and position-dependent manner. In the panicle of the panicle phytomer2-1 (pap2-1) mutant, the pattern of meristem initiation is disorganized and newly formed meristems show reduced competency to become spikelet meristems, resulting in the transformation of early arising spikelets into rachis branches. In addition, rudimentary glumes and sterile lemmas, the outermost organs of the spikelet, elongate into a leafy morphology. We propose that PAP2 is a positive regulator of spikelet meristem identity. Map-based cloning revealed that PAP2 encodes OsMADS34, a member of the SEPALLATA (SEP) subfamily of MADS-box proteins. PAP2/OsMADS34 belongs to the LOFSEP subgroup of MADS-box genes that show grass-specific diversification caused by gene duplication events. All five SEP subfamily genes in rice are expressed exclusively during panicle development, while their spatial and temporal expression patterns vary. PAP2 expression starts the earliest among the five SEP genes, and a low but significant level of PAP2 mRNA was detected in the inflorescence meristem, in branch meristems immediately after the transition, and in glume primordia, consistent with its role in the early development of spikelet formation. Our study provides new evidence supporting the hypothesis that the genes of the LOFSEP subgroup control developmental processes that are unique to grass species. PMID:19933267

  15. Serum and urinary measurements of prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP and prostatic specific antigen (PSA in dogs Mensurações sérica e urinária de fosfatase ácida prostática e antígeno prostático específico em cães

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.L. Amorim

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Serum and urinary prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP and prostatic specific antigen (PSA from 20 dogs were measured. PAP and PSA tests were carried out in authomatized equipment with commercial kits used for humans. Mean PAP serum value was 0.7U/l and urinary 0.1U/l. Mean serum and urinary PSA were 0.005ng/dl and 0.004ng/dl, respectively. In vivo determination of these two biomarkers in dogs is a new form of diagnosis in veterinary medicine and these values should be correlated with the morphological lesion of the prostate gland.Realizaram-se mensurações sérica e urinária de fosfatase ácida prostática (PAP e antígeno prostático específico (PSA de 20 cães. Os testes de PAP e PSA foram feitos em um equipamento automatizado, com o uso de kits comerciais para humanos. A média de PAP sérico foi de 0,7U/l e urinário 0,U/l. As médias do PSA sérico e urinário foram 0,005ng/dL e 0,004ng/dl, respectivamente. A determinação do dois biomarcadores in vivo é uma nova opção de diagnóstico na medicina veterinária e os valores obtidos devem ser correlacionados com a lesão morfológica da próstata.

  16. Cloning, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction studies of Escherichia coli PapD-like protein (EcpD)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Escherichia coli PapD-like protein (EcpD), from uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC), which is a periplasmic chaperon of Yad fimbriae was cloned, overexpressed, purified and crystallized. The crystals obtained diffracted X-rays to 1.67 Å resolution and belonged to space group C2221. Many Gram-negative bacteria are characterized by hair-like proteinaceous appendages on their surface known as fimbriae. In uropathogenic strains of Escherichia coli, fimbriae mediate attachment by binding to receptors on the host cell, often contributing to virulence and disease. E. coli PapD-like protein (EcpD) is a periplasmic chaperone that plays an important role in the proper folding and guiding of Yad fimbrial proteins to the outer membrane usher protein in a process known as pilus biogenesis. EcpD is essential for pilus biogenesis in uropathogenic E. coli and plays an important role in virulence. In the present study, EcpD was cloned, overexpressed, purified and crystallized by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. The crystals diffracted to 1.67 Å resolution and belonged to the orthorhombic space group C2221, with unit-cell parameters a = 100.3, b = 127.6, c = 45.9 Å. There was a single molecule in the asymmetric unit and the corresponding Matthews coefficient was calculated to be 3.02 Å3 Da−1, with 59% solvent content. Initial phases were determined by molecular replacement

  17. Comparison of analytical predictions and verification flight test results for the performance of the Spacelab environmental control and life support subsystem as obtained during the 1st mission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loser, H

    1985-12-01

    The environmental control and life support subsystem (ECLS) of the Spacelab module provides various functions which can be assigned to its various branches as follows: Thermal insulation from the external environment is achieved by the passive thermal control subsystem (PTCS). Rejection of the heat produced by the Spacelab subsystem equipment and by the various experiments is the task of the active thermal control subsystem (ATCS). Life support in the form of cabin air ventilation, oxygen/carbon dioxide partial pressure control; total pressure and air temperature/humidity control is achieved by the life support subsystem (LSS). In the first part of the paper a brief description of the various elements and loops forming the Spacelab ECLS will be given by discussing the PTCS, ATCS and LSS in some detail. Objective of the verification flight test program--as implied in the title already--is the verification of major requirements the ECLS has to comply with. Those requirements will then be comprehensively discussed in the second part of the paper. A description of the analytical approach is given in the third part of the paper. However, only those areas will be addressed which were included in the verification flight test program. A brief description of the flight instrumentation, the data transmission and collection follows then in the fourth part of the paper. In the fifth part of the paper the approach to select and compile flight test data obtained during the first mission (Shuttle flight STS 9) from November 28 till December 8, 1983 is illustrated. Flight test data are compared with the analytical predictions in form of examples. In the sixth and last portion of the paper the actual/measured performance is compared with the requirements, and conclusions are drawn with respect to comprehensiveness/accuracy of the flight test verification and the compliance of the Spacelab actual performance with the requirements. PMID:11542823

  18. The Anal Pap Smear: Cytomorphology of squamous intraepithelial lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arain Shehla

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anal smears are increasingly being used as a screening test for anal squamous intraepithelial lesions (ASILs. This study was undertaken to assess the usefulness and limitations of anal smears in screening for ASILs. Methods The cytomorphological features of 200 consecutive anal smears collected in liquid medium from 198 patients were studied and findings were correlated with results of surgical biopsies and/or repeat smears that became available for 71 patients within six months. Results Adequate cellularity was defined as an average of 6 or more nucleated squamous cells/hpf. A glandular/transitional component was not required for adequacy. Dysplastic cells, atypical parakeratotic cells and bi/multinucleated cells were frequent findings in ASIL while koilocytes were infrequent. Smears from LSIL cases most frequently showed mildly dysplastic and bi/multinucleate squamous cells followed by parakeratotic cells (PK, atypical parakeratotic cells (APK, and koilocytes. HSIL smears contained squamous cells with features of moderate/severe dysplasia and many APKs. Features of LSIL were also found in most HSIL smears. Conclusions In this study liquid based anal smears had a high sensitivity (98% for detection of ASIL but a low specificity (50% for predicting the severity of the abnormality in subsequent biopsy. Patients with cytologic diagnoses of ASC-US and LSIL had a significant risk (46–56% of HSIL at biopsy. We suggest that all patients with a diagnosis of ASC-US and above be recommended for high resolution anoscopy with biopsy.

  19. Technique for determination of the number of PapA units in an E. Coli P pilus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Magnus; Fllman, Erik; Uhlin, Bernt E.; Axner, Ove

    2006-02-01

    Optical tweezers have previously been used to characterize the force-vs.-elongation dependence of the PapA rod of uropathogenic E. coli P pili. It was found that the PapA rod elongates in several elongation regions. In the two first, the elongation originates from an elastic stretching and a sequential unfolding of the layer-to-layer bonds (and thereby of the helical structure). Region III is characterized by an elongation that originates from an elastic stretching and an opening of the head-to-tail bonds in the linearized PapA rod. The opening of these bonds takes place in a random order, wherefore the response in this region is affected by entropy. Since the entropic softening of a macromolecule depends on the number of units, the shape of this region can be used to assess the number of PapA units. We provide in this work a recipe for how this can be done solely from the form of region III. An advantage with this technique is that it does not require a continuous monitoring of the elongation of a single PapA rod from unstretched conditions, which often is difficult because of simultaneous multi-pili binding; it suffices to detect it in the third region at which binding often is mediated by only one pilus. Another advantage is that it does not require any prior knowledge about (or assessment of) any physical entity of the PapA rod; the number of PapA units can be assessed solely from the shape of the curve in the third elongation region.

  20. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate rapidly remodels PAP85-120, SEM1(45-107), and SEM2(49-107) seminal amyloid fibrils

    OpenAIRE

    Castellano, Laura M.; Hammond, Rebecca M.; Holmes, Veronica M; Weissman, Drew; Shorter, James

    2015-01-01

    Semen harbors amyloid fibrils formed by proteolytic fragments of prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP248-286 and PAP85-120) and semenogelins (SEM1 and SEM2) that potently enhance HIV infectivity. Amyloid but not soluble forms of these peptides enhance HIV infection. Thus, agents that remodel these amyloid fibrils could prevent HIV transmission. Here, we confirm that the green tea polyphenol, epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), slowly remodels fibrils formed by PAP248-286 termed SEVI (semen derived ...

  1. Dissection of a redox relay: H2O2-dependent activation of the transcription factor pap1 through the peroxidatic tpx1-thioredoxin cycle

    OpenAIRE

    Isabel A. Calvo; Susanna Boronat; Alba Domènech; Sarela García-Santamarina; José Ayté; Elena Hidalgo

    2013-01-01

    In fission yeast, the transcription factor Pap1 undergoes H2O2-dependent oxidation that promotes its nuclear accumulation and the activation of an antioxidant gene program. However, the mechanisms that regulate the sensitivity and selectivity of Pap1 activation by peroxides are not fully understood. Here, we demonstrate that the peroxiredoxin Tpx1, the sensor of this signaling cascade, activates the otherwise unresponsive Pap1 protein once the main cytosolic reduced thioredoxin, Trx1, becomes...

  2. Automated detection and analysis of fluorescent in situ hybridization spots depicted in digital microscopic images of Pap-smear specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xingwei; Zheng, Bin; Li, Shibo; Zhang, Roy; Mulvihill, John J.; Chen, Wei R.; Liu, Hong

    2009-03-01

    Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) technology has been widely recognized as a promising molecular and biomedical optical imaging tool to screen and diagnose cervical cancer. However, manual FISH analysis is time-consuming and may introduce large inter-reader variability. In this study, a computerized scheme is developed and tested. It automatically detects and analyzes FISH spots depicted on microscopic fluorescence images. The scheme includes two stages: (1) a feature-based classification rule to detect useful interphase cells, and (2) a knowledge-based expert classifier to identify splitting FISH spots and improve the accuracy of counting independent FISH spots. The scheme then classifies detected analyzable cells as normal or abnormal. In this study, 150 FISH images were acquired from Pap-smear specimens and examined by both an experienced cytogeneticist and the scheme. The results showed that (1) the agreement between the cytogeneticist and the scheme was 96.9% in classifying between analyzable and unanalyzable cells (Kappa=0.917), and (2) agreements in detecting normal and abnormal cells based on FISH spots were 90.5% and 95.8% with Kappa=0.867. This study demonstrated the feasibility of automated FISH analysis, which may potentially improve detection efficiency and produce more accurate and consistent results than manual FISH analysis.

  3. Use of data obtained from core tests in the design and operation of spent brine injection wells in geopressured or geothermal systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jorda, R.M.

    1980-03-01

    The effects of formation characteristics on injection well performance are reviewed. Use of data acquired from cores taken from injection horizons to predict injectivity is described. And methods for utilizing data from bench scale testing of brine and core samples to optimize injection well design are presented. Currently available methods and equipment provide data which enable the optimum design of injection wells through analysis of cores taken from injection zones. These methods also provide a means of identifying and correcting well injection problems. Methods described in this report are: bulk density measurement; porosity measurement; pore size distribution analysis; permeability measurement; formation grain size distribution analysis; core description (lithology) and composition; amount, type and distribution of clays and shales; connate water analysis; consolidatability of friable reservoir rocks; grain and pore characterization by scanning electron microscopy; grain and pore characterization by thin section analysis; permeability damage and enhancement tests; distribution of water-borne particles in porous media; and reservoir matrix acidizing effectiveness. The precise methods of obtaining this information are described, and their use in the engineering of injection wells is illustrated by examples, where applicable. (MHR)

  4. Comparison of the Novel Human Papillomavirus 4 Auto-capillary Electrophoresis Test with the Hybrid Capture 2 Assay and with the PCR HPV Typing Set Test in the Detection of High-Risk HPV Including HPV 16 and 18 Genotypes in Cervical Specimens

    OpenAIRE

    Hong, Jin Hwa; Song, Seung Hun; Kim, Jong Kee; Han, Jeong Hyun; Lee, Jae Kwan

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the novel human papillomavirus (HPV) detection method, the HPV 4 Auto-capillary Electrophoresis (ACE) test with the hybrid capture (HC) 2 assay for the detection of high-risk HPVs. In addition, we compared the HPV 4 ACE test with the polymerase chain reaction HPV Typing Set test for the detection of HPV 16 and HPV 18 genotypes. One hundred ninety-nine cervical swab samples obtained from women with previous abnormal Pap smears were subjected to testing with...

  5. PapARt : interactive 3D graphics and multi-touch augmented paper for artistic creation

    OpenAIRE

    Laviole, Jérémy; Hachet, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Standard physical pen-and-paper creation and computer graphics tools tend to evolve in separate tracks. In this paper, we propose a new interface, PapARt, that bridges the gap between these two worlds. We developed a system that allow users to visualize, ma- nipulate and edit a 3D scene projected onto a paper sheet. Using multitouch and tangible interfaces, users can directly interact with the 3D scene to prepare their drawings. Then, thanks to the pro- jection of the 3D scene directly on the...

  6. Women who take pap smear in Fortaleza - social and sexual characterization. 

    OpenAIRE

    Camila Félix Américo; Lydia Vieira Freitas; Levânia Maria Benevides Dias; Ana Carolina Maria Araújo Chagas; Thaís Marques Lima; Escolástica Rejane Ferreira Moura; Ana Karina Bezerra Pinheiro

    2009-01-01

    Considering the epidemiological relevance and the mortality of Uterine Cervix Cancer, the aim of this study is know the gynecological profile of women who take Pap smear in a basic unit of a metropolitan area. This is an exploratory study, with quantitative approach and traversal outlining which took place in a Center of Natural C...

  7. KAJIAN KEBIJAKAN PENGGUNAAN DATA PAP-SMEAR IBU RUMAH TANGGA DALAM SURVEILANS INFEKSI MENULAR SEKSUAL PADA KELOMPOK RISIKO RENDAH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arief Hargono

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Latar Belakang: Kasus Infeksi Menular Seksual (IMS pada kelompok risiko rendah mengalami peningkatan. Analisisdata PKBI Jawa Timur 2004–2009 menunjukkan peningkatan kasus IMS melalui pemeriksaan pap-smear pada ibu rumahtangga. Kajian kebijakan penggunaan data pap-smear dilakukan sebagai bahan pengembangan surveilans IMS padakelompok risiko rendah. Metode: Riset kualitatif dengan kaidah analisis kebijakan dari Walt dan Gilson yang meliputiaktor, konteks, isi dan proses. Penelitian dilakukan di Jakarta, Jawa Barat, Jawa Timur, Kepulauan Riau dan Bali. Informanadalah pelaksana surveilans IMS dan pap-smear dinas kesehatan propinsi, dinas kesehatan kota, rumah sakit, puskesmas,balai pengobatan dan LSM. Pengumpulan data menggunakan Focus Group Disscussion (FGD dan study dokumen. Datadianalisis dengan cara content analysis. Hasil: Aktor yang berperan dalam surveilans adalah unit surveilans epidemiologipusat hingga di daerah. Unit tersebut didukung oleh institusi pelaksana surveilans IMS dan pap-smear yang meliputipemerintah, swasta dan masyarakat. Faktor situasional data kesehatan dan penelitian memperlihatkan meningkatnyakejadian IMS pada ibu rumah tangga. Faktor struktural di masyarakat menunjukkan surveilans IMS sudah dilaksanakandan masyarakat merasakan pentingnya informasi kejadian IMS pada kelompok risiko rendah. Isi kebijakan meliputi fokusdeteksi dini dan pencegahan IMS pada ibu rumah tangga, penggunaan data dan informasi kegiatan pemeriksaan ibu rumahtangga dan pengembangan surveilans IMS menggunakan data pap-smear. Saran: Fokus pencegahan dan mengatasi penyebaran penyakit IMS diperluas pada kelompok risiko rendah yaitu ibu rumah tangga. Memperkuat sistem dan jejaringsurveilans epidemiologi IMS dan HIV/AIDS sebagai upaya pemantauan terus menerus pada masalah IMS.

  8. Alpha particle effects as a test domain for PAP, a Plasma Apprentice Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new type of computational tool under development, employing techniques of symbolic computation and artificial intelligence to automate as far as possible the research activities of a human plasma theorist, is described. Its present and potential uses are illustrated using the area of the theory of alpha particle effects in fusion plasmas as a sample domain. (orig.)

  9. Evaluation of two transport aircraft and several ground test vehicle friction measurements obtained for various runway surface types and conditions. A summary of test results from joint FAA/NASA Runway Friction Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yager, Thomas J.; Vogler, William A.; Baldasare, Paul

    1990-01-01

    Tests with specially instrumented NASA Boeing 737 and 727 aircraft together with several different ground friction measuring devices were conducted for a variety of runway surface types and conditions. These tests are part of joint FAA/NASA Aircraft/Ground Vehicle Runway Friction Program aimed at obtaining a better understanding of aircraft ground handling performance under adverse weather conditions and defining relationships between aircraft and ground vehicle tire friction measurements. Aircraft braking performance on dry, wet, snow and ice-covered runway conditions is discussed as well as ground vehicle friction data obtained under similar runway conditions. For a given contaminated runway surface condition, the correlation between ground vehicles and aircraft friction data is identified. The influence of major test parameters on friction measurements such as speed, test tire characteristics, type and amount of surface contaminant, and ambient temperature are discussed. The effect of surface type on wet friction levels is also evaluated from comparative data collected on grooved and ungrooved concrete and asphalt surfaces.

  10. An Approach to More Accurate Model Systems for Purple Acid Phosphatases (PAPs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernhardt, Paul V; Bosch, Simone; Comba, Peter; Gahan, Lawrence R; Hanson, Graeme R; Mereacre, Valeriu; Noble, Christopher J; Powell, Annie K; Schenk, Gerhard; Wadepohl, Hubert

    2015-08-01

    The active site of mammalian purple acid phosphatases (PAPs) have a dinuclear iron site in two accessible oxidation states (Fe(III)2 and Fe(III)Fe(II)), and the heterovalent is the active form, involved in the regulation of phosphate and phosphorylated metabolite levels in a wide range of organisms. Therefore, two sites with different coordination geometries to stabilize the heterovalent active form and, in addition, with hydrogen bond donors to enable the fixation of the substrate and release of the product, are believed to be required for catalytically competent model systems. Two ligands and their dinuclear iron complexes have been studied in detail. The solid-state structures and properties, studied by X-ray crystallography, magnetism, and Mössbauer spectroscopy, and the solution structural and electronic properties, investigated by mass spectrometry, electronic, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), and Mössbauer spectroscopies and electrochemistry, are discussed in detail in order to understand the structures and relative stabilities in solution. In particular, with one of the ligands, a heterovalent Fe(III)Fe(II) species has been produced by chemical oxidation of the Fe(II)2 precursor. The phosphatase reactivities of the complexes, in particular, also of the heterovalent complex, are reported. These studies include pH-dependent as well as substrate concentration dependent studies, leading to pH profiles, catalytic efficiencies and turnover numbers, and indicate that the heterovalent diiron complex discussed here is an accurate PAP model system. PMID:26196255

  11. No increased risk for cervical cancer after a broader definition of a negative Pap smear

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rebolj, Matejka; van Ballegooijen, Marjolein; van Kemenade, Folkert; Looman, Caspar; Boer, Rob; Habbema, J Dik F

    2008-01-01

    The definition of minimal relevant Pap smear abnormality is crucial for balancing the beneficial effects of screening (prevented mortality) with negative side-effects (the high positivity rate). After inflammation ceased to be defined as a borderline abnormal smear outcome in The Netherlands in...... 1996, the proportion of these smears dropped from 10% to less than 2%. Because this may have caused a loss in smear sensitivity, we analysed the changes in the incidence of cervical cancer after a negative Pap smear. All negative smears made at ages 30-64 in 1990-1995 (n = 1,546,252) and 1998-2006 (n...... = 3,552,716), registered in the national registry of histo- and cytopathology (PALGA), were followed for up to 9 years. During follow-up of the 1990-1995 smears, 377 women developed cervical cancer within 5,232,959 woman-years at risk, while during the follow-up of the 1998-2006 smears, 619 women...

  12. Reversible thiol oxidation in the H2O2-dependent activation of the transcription factor Pap1

    OpenAIRE

    Calvo, Isabel A.; Ayt?? del Olmo, Jos??; Hidalgo Hernando, Elena

    2013-01-01

    Reversible thiol oxidation is both a mark of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) toxicity and an initiator of signalling events. H2O2 sensors contain exposed and reactive cysteine residues, which become transiently oxidized as an activation mechanism. In fission yeast, the Pap1 (pombe AP-1) transcription factor is normally cytosolic, and upon H2O2 stress it undergoes post-translational modifications impairing its nuclear export; genetic evidences suggested the formation of a disulphide bond in Pap1 as a...

  13. Knowledge and practice of breast self examination and Pap smear screening among a group of electronics women workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chee, H L; Rashidah, S; Shamsuddin, K; Zainiyah, S Y

    2003-08-01

    A total of 486 Malaysian women electronics workers participated in a study of reproductive health knowledge and cancer screening. The practice of Breast Self Examination (BSE) was found to be related to educational attainment; while ever having had a Pap smear was found to be related to being older than 30 years old, being ever married, living with family or relatives, and not staying in hostels. Knowledge on reproductive health was found to be higher for older women, married women, living with family or relatives, not staying in hostels, ever having done BSE and ever having had a Pap smear. PMID:14750370

  14. Group B Streptococcal Septic Arthritis of the Shoulder and Potential Association with Pelvic Examination and PAP Smear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daner, William E.; Meeks, Brett D.; Foster, William C.; Boardman, Norman D.

    2016-01-01

    Group B streptococcal (GBS) infection of a native joint in a nonpregnant adult is uncommon. While many women are colonized with this flora, it rarely becomes pathogenic in its adult host. GBS associated joint infections have been reported, most of which have been related to hematogenous seeding from unknown sources. To our knowledge, there are no published case reports of a GBS joint infection in association with a pelvic exam and Papanicolaou (PAP) smear. In this case report, we present a case of GBS sepsis of a native shoulder, possibly resulting from a routine pelvic exam and PAP smear. PMID:26981299

  15. Group B Streptococcal Septic Arthritis of the Shoulder and Potential Association with Pelvic Examination and PAP Smear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daner, William E; Meeks, Brett D; Foster, William C; Boardman, Norman D

    2016-01-01

    Group B streptococcal (GBS) infection of a native joint in a nonpregnant adult is uncommon. While many women are colonized with this flora, it rarely becomes pathogenic in its adult host. GBS associated joint infections have been reported, most of which have been related to hematogenous seeding from unknown sources. To our knowledge, there are no published case reports of a GBS joint infection in association with a pelvic exam and Papanicolaou (PAP) smear. In this case report, we present a case of GBS sepsis of a native shoulder, possibly resulting from a routine pelvic exam and PAP smear. PMID:26981299

  16. Oligoribonuclease is a common downstream target of lithium-induced pAp accumulation in Escherichia coli and human cells

    OpenAIRE

    Mechold, Undine; OGRYZKO, VASILY; Ngo, Saravuth; Danchin, Antoine

    2006-01-01

    We identified Oligoribonuclease (Orn), an essential Escherichia coli protein and the only exonuclease degrading small ribonucleotides (5mer to 2mer) and its human homologue, small fragment nuclease (Sfn), in a screen for proteins that are potentially regulated by 3′-phosphoadenosine 5′-phosphate (pAp). We show that both enzymes are sensitive to micromolar amounts of pAp in vitro. We also demonstrate that Orn can degrade short DNA oligos in addition to its activity on RNA oligos, similar to wh...

  17. Enhancement of chlorogenic acid production in hairy roots of Platycodon grandiflorum by over-expression of an Arabidopsis thaliana transcription factor AtPAP1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuan, Pham Anh; Kwon, Do Yeon; Lee, Sanghyun; Arasu, Mariadhas Valan; Al-Dhabi, Naif Abdullah; Park, Nam Il; Park, Sang Un

    2014-01-01

    To improve the production of chlorogenic acid (CGA) in hairy roots of Platycodon grandiflorum, we induced over-expression of Arabidopsis thaliana transcription factor production of anthocyanin pigment (AtPAP1) using an Agrobacterium rhizogenes-mediated transformation system. Twelve hairy root lines showing over-expression of AtPAP1 were generated. In order to investigate the regulation of AtPAP1 on the activities of CGA biosynthetic genes, the expression levels of seven P. grandiflorum CGA biosynthetic genes were analyzed in the hairy root line that had the greatest accumulation of AtPAP1 transcript, OxPAP1-1. The introduction of AtPAP1 increased the mRNA levels of all examined CGA biosynthetic genes and resulted in a 900% up-regulation of CGA accumulation in OxPAP1-1 hairy roots relative to controls. This suggests that P. grandiflorum hairy roots that over-express the AtPAP1 gene are a potential alternative source of roots for the production of CGA. PMID:25153629

  18. Enhancement of Chlorogenic Acid Production in Hairy Roots of Platycodon grandiflorum by Over-Expression of An Arabidopsis thaliana Transcription Factor AtPAP1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pham Anh Tuan

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available To improve the production of chlorogenic acid (CGA in hairy roots of Platycodon grandiflorum, we induced over-expression of Arabidopsis thaliana transcription factor production of anthocyanin pigment (AtPAP1 using an Agrobacterium rhizogenes-mediated transformation system. Twelve hairy root lines showing over-expression of AtPAP1 were generated. In order to investigate the regulation of AtPAP1 on the activities of CGA biosynthetic genes, the expression levels of seven P. grandiflorum CGA biosynthetic genes were analyzed in the hairy root line that had the greatest accumulation of AtPAP1 transcript, OxPAP1-1. The introduction of AtPAP1 increased the mRNA levels of all examined CGA biosynthetic genes and resulted in a 900% up-regulation of CGA accumulation in OxPAP1-1 hairy roots relative to controls. This suggests that P. grandiflorum hairy roots that over-express the AtPAP1 gene are a potential alternative source of roots for the production of CGA.

  19. Preliminary interpretations of geologic results obtained from boreholes UE25a-4, -5, -6, and -7, Yucca Mountain, Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since 1978, the USGS (US Geological Survey) has been providing technical assistance in characterizing suitable rock masses at or contiguous to the NTS (Nevada Test Site) for long-term storage of high-level nuclear waste. Current efforts have been focused on investigating Yucca Mountain, a volcanic highland situated along the western boundary of NTS in southern Nevada. Detailed stratigraphic and structural studies have been in progress along a northeastern segment of the highland in a wedge-shaped area bounded by Basin and Range faults, most of which trend north-northeast. A series of four locally steep-walled, nearly parallel, linear washes transect the northeastern half of the area of interest and display trends similar to major faults to the northeast. Prior to the present study, drill hole UE25a-1, located about 1600 feet southeast of the edge of the area of interest, was cored to a depth of 2500 feet. Subsurface information derived from the upper 500 feet of this drill hole is included in this report to compare with recently acquired data. Surface electrical surveys have been conducted by both the University of Utah and the USGS perpendicular to the trend of the washes in an attempt to better understand factors that have influenced the present drainage pattern. Preliminary data of both pole-dipole and dipole-dipole resistivity/IP electrical methods indicate numerous vertical and horizontal discontinuities between adjacent resistive bodies that strongly suggest a broad zone of faulting, fracturing, and (or) brecciation. To verify the existence of structural discontinuities suggested by the linear washes and electrical anomalies, a drilling program was initiated in June 1979, to obtain geologic information within the southernmost of four northwest-trending washes

  20. Sensitive valence structures of [(pap)(2)Ru(Q)](n) (n = +2, +1, 0, -1, -2) with two different redox noninnocent ligands, Q = 3,5-Di-tert-butyl-N-aryl-1,2-benzoquinonemonoimine and pap = 2-phenylazopyridine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Dipanwita; Mondal, Tapan Kumar; Mobin, Shaikh M; Lahiri, Goutam Kumar

    2009-10-19

    The complexes [(pap)(2)Ru(Q)]ClO(4), [1]ClO(4)-[4]ClO(4), with two different redox noninnocent ligands, Q = 3,5-di-tert-butyl-N-aryl-1,2-benzoquinonemonoimine (-aryl = m-(Cl)(2)C(6)H(3) (1(+)), C(6)H(5) (2(+)), m-(OCH(3))(2)C(6)H(3) (3(+)), and m-((t)Bu)(2)C(6)H(3) (4(+))) and pap = 2-phenylazopyridine, have been synthesized and characterized using various analytical techniques. The single-crystal X-ray structure of the representative [2]ClO(4).C(7)H(8) exhibits multiple intermolecular C-H...O hydrogen bondings and C-H...pi interactions. The C1-O1 = 1.287(4) (density functional theory, DFT, 1.311) and C6-N1 = 1.320(4) (DFT, 1.353) A and intraring bond distances associated with the sensitive quinine (Q) moiety along with the azo(pap) bond distances, N3-N4 = 1.278(4) (DFT, 1.297) and N6-N7 = 1.271(4) (DFT, 1.289) A, in 2(+) justify the [(pap)(2)Ru(II)(Q(*-))](+) valence configuration at the native state of 1(+)-4(+). Consequently, Mulliken spin densities on Q, pap, and Ru in 2(+) are calculated to be 0.8636, 0.1040, and 0.0187, respectively, and 1(+)-4(+) exhibit free radical sharp EPR spectra and one weak and broad transition around 1000 nm in CH(3)CN due to interligand transition involving a singly occupied molecular orbital (SOMO) of Q(*-) and the vacant pi* orbital of pap. Compounds 1(+)-4(+) undergo a quasi-reversible oxidation and three successive reductions. The valence structure of the electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR)-inactive oxidized state in 1(2+)-4(2+) has been established as [(pap)(2)Ru(II)(Q degrees )](2+) instead of the alternate formalism of antiferromagnetically coupled [(pap)(2)Ru(III)(Q(*-))](2+) on the basis of the DFT calculations on the optimized 2(+), which predict that the singly occupied molecular orbital is primarily composed of Q with 77% contribution. Accordingly, the optimized structure of 2(2+) predicts shorter C1-O1 (1.264) and C6-N1 (1.317 A) distances and longer Ru1-O1 (2.080) and Ru1-N1 (2.088 A) distances. Compounds 1(2+)-4(2+) exhibit the lowest energy transitions around 600 nm, corresponding to Ru(dpi)/Q(pi) --> pap(pi*). The presence of two sets of strongly pi-acceptor ligands, pap and Q, in 1(2+)-4(2+) stabilizes the Ru(II) state to a large extent such that the further oxidation of {Ru(II)-Q degrees } --> {Ru(III)-Q degrees } has not been detected within +2.0 V versus a saturated calomel electrode. The EPR-inactive reduced states 1-4 have been formulated as [(pap)(2)Ru(II)(Q(2-))] over the antiferromagnetically coupled alternate configuration, [(pap)(pap(*-))Ru(II)(Q(*-))]. The optimized structure of 2 predicts sensitive C1-O1 and C6-N1 bond distances of 1.337 and 1.390 A, respectively, close to the doubly reduced Q(2-) state, whereas the N horizontal lineN distances of pap, N3-N4 = 1.299 and N6-N7 = 1.306 A, remain close to the neutral state. In corroboration with the doubly reduced Q(2-) state, 1-4 exhibit a moderately strong interligand pi(Q(2-)) --> pi*(pap) transition in the near-IR region near 1300 nm. The subsequent two reductions are naturally centered around the azo functions of the pap ligands. PMID:19769396

  1. Interpretação de dados obtidos em testes de vigor para a comparação qualitativa entre lotes de sementes de milho Interpretation of data obtained in vigor tests for quality comparison among corn seed lots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Martins

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desta pesquisa foi estudar, em lotes de sementes de milho, a possibilidade de estabelecer relações entre os dados de vigor obtidos em laboratório com os verificados no campo. Para tanto, foram utilizados 28 lotes (tratamentos de sementes de milho (cv. Al Bandeirante padronizadas em relação ao grau de umidade, à largura, ao comprimento e à germinação. Posteriormente, foram conduzidos testes de vigor em laboratório (conjunto A: frio sem solo, envelhecimento acelerado, germinação sob estresse hídrico e comprimentos da raiz, da parte aérea e da plântula com variações na disponibilidade hídrica e em campo (conjunto B: emergência das plântulas. Para a comparação entre as médias, foi utilizado o teste de Tukey a 5% de probabilidade; complementarmente, os lotes receberam pontuações obedecendo a ordenação hierárquica de desempenho verificada em cada avaliação, segundo critérios de classificações estatística e absoluta, para serem agrupados de acordo com o desempenho verificado nos conjuntos (A e B de testes. A interpretação de dados de vigor, oriundos de um conjunto de testes, adquire complexidade diretamente proporcional aos números de testes e de lotes colocados em comparação. Nessa situação, a classificação absoluta supera a classificação estatística nas tarefas de hierarquizar qualitativamente lotes de sementes de milho, segundo o desempenho geral, e de quantificar o relacionamento entre as respostas provenientes dos testes de laboratório com as obtidas em campo.The objective of this research was to study, using corn seed lots, the possibility of establishing relations between vigor data obtained in the laboratory with those observed in the field. To do so, twenty eight corn seed lots (treatments of the Al Bandeirante open-pollinated variety were standardized regarding seed moisture content, width, length and germination. Afterwards, seed vigor tests were conducted in the laboratory (group A: modified cool germination test; accelerated aging; germination under variations in water availability; radicle, shoot and seedling length under variations in water availability and in the field (group B: seedling emergence. In order to compare means the 5% Tukey test was used; in addition, the seed lots were assigned points according to a ranking order of performance observed in each evaluation, following criteria of absolute and statistical classifications, so to group them in order of performance in the A and B test groups. Interpretation of vigor data resulting from a group of tests acquires a complexity directly proportional to the number of tests and lots being compared. In this way, the use of absolute classification surpasses the statistical classification in the tasks of qualitatively ranking corn seed lots according to their general performance and, in addition, quantifies the relationship among the responses observed in the laboratory with those obtained in the field

  2. CIEMAT Interlaboratories Comparison of the Results obtained in the Proficiency Test Run by IAEA; Comparacion Interlaboratorios del CIEMAT de los Resultados Obtenidos en la Prueba de Capacitacion de Analisis de Transuranicos en Cenizas propocionadas por el OIEA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gasco, C.; Anton, M. P.; Alvarez, A.; Navarro, N.; Meral, J.; Gonzalez, A.; Higueras Lafaja, E. [Ciemat. Madrid (Spain)

    2000-07-01

    This report contains the results obtained by two different laboratories from CIEMAT after participating in the Proficiency Test organised by IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency) in 1999. This test involves the analysis of fly ashes containing natural radionuclides and different amounts of added transuranics. The extraction techniques, counting methods and results obtained are detailed. This type of test are used for the labs to achieve their accreditation and check the reliability of the procedures routinely employed. (Author) 4 refs.

  3. Pap Smear Diagnosis Using a Hybrid Intelligent Scheme Focusing on Genetic Algorithm Based Feature Selection and Nearest Neighbor Classification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marinakis, Yannis; Dounias, Georgios; Jantzen, Jan

    2009-01-01

    The term pap-smear refers to samples of human cells stained by the so-called Papanicolaou method. The purpose of the Papanicolaou method is to diagnose pre-cancerous cell changes before they progress to invasive carcinoma. In this paper a metaheuristic algorithm is proposed in order to classify t...... other previously applied intelligent approaches....

  4. A heterodimer of human 3'-phospho-adenosine-5'-phosphosulphate (PAPS) synthases is a new sulphate activating complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    3'-Phospho-adenosine-5'-phosphosulphate (PAPS) synthases are fundamental to mammalian sulphate metabolism. These enzymes have recently been linked to a rising number of human diseases. Despite many studies, it is not yet understood how the mammalian PAPS synthases 1 and 2 interact with each other. We provide first evidence for heterodimerisation of these two enzymes by pull-down assays and Foerster resonance energy transfer (FRET) measurements. Kinetics of dimer dissociation/association indicates that these heterodimers form as soon as PAPSS1 and -S2 encounter each other in solution. Affinity of the homo- and heterodimers were found to be in the low nanomolar range using anisotropy measurements employing proteins labelled with the fluorescent dye IAEDANS that - in spite of its low quantum yield - is well suited for anisotropy due to its large Stokes shift. Within its kinase domain, the PAPS synthase heterodimer displays similar substrate inhibition by adenosine-5'-phosphosulphate (APS) as the homodimers. Due to divergent catalytic efficacies of PAPSS1 and -S2, the heterodimer might be a way of regulating PAPS synthase function within mammalian cells.

  5. Expression and Purification of the Uropathogenic Escherichia coli PapG Protein and its Surface Absorption on Lactobacillus reuteri: Implications for Surface Display System Vaccines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashrafi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC is one of the most common bacteria that can cause urinary tract infections (UTIs. Unfortunately, no human vaccine against UTIs has been developed. Therefore, it is necessary to develop an efficient and safe vaccine that is able to induce mucosal and systemic immune responses. The use of lactic acid bacteria as a delivery system is a promising method to induce the immune system. Objectives The aim of this study was to establish Lactobacillus reuteri harboring the E. coli PapG antigen on its surface. Materials and Methods In this study, the gene encoding PapG was fused to the AcmA gene (which encodes an anchor protein in Lactobacillus and cloned into the pEX A vector. The PapG.AcmA fusion gene was digested with BamHI and NdeI and sub-cloned into the pET21a expression vector at the digestion sites. Subsequently, the recombinant plasmids (pET21a-PapG.AcmA and pET21a-PapG were transformed into the E. coli Origami strain using the calcium chloride method and the fusion protein was expressed under 1 mM IPTG induction. The expression of the fusion protein was confirmed by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE and western blotting. Purification of the PapG and PapG.AcmA proteins was carried out using a Ni-NTA column, and surface adsorption was estimated on Lactobacillus. Finally, surface localization of the fusion protein was verified by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Results The PapG.AcmA fusion was successfully sub-cloned in the pET21a expression vector. The expression of PapG and PapG.AcmA proteins in the E. coli Origami strain was indicated as protein bands in SDS-PAGE and confirmed by western blotting. In addition, the fusion protein was displayed on the surface of L. reuteri. Conclusions In conclusion, we developed a method to express the PapG.AcmA protein on the surface of Lactobacillus. This is the first report on the successful application of lactic acid bacteria displaying the PapG.AcmA fusion protein. It will be interesting to determine the immune responses against the PapG protein in near future using this surface display strategy.

  6. Charging and discharging tests for obtaining an accurate dynamic electro-thermal model of high power lithium-ion pack system for hybrid and EV applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mihet-Popa, Lucian; Camacho, Oscar Mauricio Forero; Nørgård, Per Bromand

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a battery test platform including two Li-ion battery designed for hybrid and EV applications, and charging/discharging tests under different operating conditions carried out for developing an accurate dynamic electro-thermal model of a high power Li-ion battery pack system. The...

  7. A Novel Mogi Type True Triaxial Testing Apparatus and Its Use to Obtain Complete Stress-Strain Curves of Hard Rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xia-Ting; Zhang, Xiwei; Kong, R.; Wang, G.

    2016-05-01

    A true triaxial apparatus (TTA) was designed and fabricated at Northeastern University, Shenyang, China, by modifying the original Mogi type testing apparatus to emulate three-dimensional stress paths in deep mining and tunneling excavations. Such an apparatus can be used to investigate deformation and brittle failure behaviors of hard rocks as well as the cause of rockbursts. The novel TTA can capture the post-peak behavior of a 50 × 50 × 100 mm3 specimen. Technical improvements such as a considerable increase of the stiffness of the loading frames were implemented to deal with difficulties in TTA testing. The accuracy of the volume change measurement was improved and a combined pneumatic and hydraulic technique was applied to create a "floating" vertical loading frame. The end friction effect and the loading gap effect were evaluated using a series of tests. Repeatability tests, brittle failure tests in a loading stress path and an unloading stress path (unloading of σ 3) were carried out on granite specimens to verify the performance of the TTA. The test results show that the apparatus achieves its original design goal.

  8. The effect of a 10-week complex training programme, utilising optimal PAP recovery duration, on the sprint, power and agility capabilities of elite academy footballers

    OpenAIRE

    Harsley, Paul; Bishop, Daniel; Gee, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Complex training alternates a high-load strength exercise (85%> of 1RM) with an explosive or plyometric exercise, set-to-set, in the same session. This method is supported by the assumption of a post-activation-potentiation (PAP) of the neuromuscular system. Acute PAP has been shown to occur at 8-min following the performance of high-load exercise (Kilduff et al., 2008). However, the effect of the implementation of this practice (8-min PAP recovery period) within a prolonged training...

  9. Preliminary Results Obtained from Flight Test of a Rocket Model Having the Tail Only of the Grumman XF10F Airplane Configuration, TED No. NACA DE 354

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, William N.; Edmondson, James L.

    1950-01-01

    A flight test was made to determine the servoplane effectiveness and stability characteristics of the free-floating horizontal stabilizer to be used on the XF10F airplane. The results of this test indicate that servoplane effectiveness is practically constant through the speed range up to a Mach number of 1.15, and the stabilizer static stability is satisfactory. A loss of damping occurs over a narrow Mach number range near M = 1.0, resulting in dynamic instability of the stabilizer in this narrow range. Above M = 1.0 there is a gradual positive trim change of the stabilizer.

  10. Comparison between SRAM SEE cross-sections from ion beam testing with those obtained using a new picosecond pulsed laser facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A laser system has been designed to be capable of delivering large numbers of pulses across a micro-chip die under computer control, so as rapidly to generate upset and latch-up cross-section curves, in order to provide an efficient screening tool for SEE (single event effect) susceptibility. The system has been automated to make screening of parts for use in an SEE environment fast, efficient and inexpensive. A comparison between ion beam test results and laser test results has been used to develop initial calibrations between laser energy and LET (linear energy transfer)

  11. Impact of an incremental running test on jumping kinematics in endurance runners: can jumping kinematic explain the post-activation potentiation phenomenon?

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Pinillos, Felipe; Molina-Molina, Alejandro; Latorre-Román, Pedro Á

    2016-06-01

    This study aimed to determine whether kinematic data during countermovement jump (CMJ) might explain post-activation potentiation (PAP) phenomenon after an exhausting running test. Thirty-three trained endurance runners performed the Léger Test; an incremental test which consists of continuous running between two lines 20 m apart. CMJ performance was determined before (pre-test) and immediately after the protocol (post-test). Sagittal plane, video of CMJs was recorded and kinematic data were obtained throughout 2-Dimensional analysis. In addition to the duration of eccentric and concentric phases of CMJ, hip, knee and ankle angles were measured at four key points during CMJ: the lowest position of the squat, take-off, landing, and at the lowest position after landing. Additionally, heart rate was monitored, and rate of perceived exertion was recorded at post-test. Analysis of variance revealed a significant improvement in CMJ (p = 0.002) at post-test. Cluster analysis grouped according to whether PAP was experienced (responders group: RG, n = 25) or not (non-responders group: NRG, n = 8) relative to CMJ change from rest to post-test. RG significantly improved (p < 0.001) the performance in CMJ, whereas NRG remained unchanged. Kinematic data did not show significant differences between RG and NRG. Thus, the data suggest that jumping kinematic does not provide the necessary information to explain PAP phenomenon after intensive running exercises in endurance athletes. PMID:27052545

  12. The Correlation of Blood Test Results with the Data Obtained from MRI Images during the Determination of Pathology in Small Bones

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Marcon, P.; Bartušek, Karel; Šprláková, A.; Dohnal, P.

    Berlin : IEEE, 2014, s. 490-493. ISBN 978-80-214-4983-1. ISSN 1805-5435. [TSP 2014. International Conference on Telecommunications and Signal Processing /37./. Berlín (DE), 01.07.2014-03.07.2014] R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP102/12/1104 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : blood test results * bone * correlation * MRI images Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers

  13. A generalization of Bertrand's test

    OpenAIRE

    Amirali Tabatabai Adnani; Ali Reza; Mehdi Morovati

    2014-01-01

    One of the most practical routine tests for convergence of a positive series makes use of the ratio test. If this test fails, we can use Rabbe's test. When Rabbe's test fails the next sharper criteria which may sometimes be used is the Bertrand's test. If this test fails,we can use a generalization of Bertrand's test and such tests can be continued in nitely. For simplicity, we call ratio test, Rabbe's test, Bertrand's test as the Bertrand's test of order 0, 1 and 2, respectively. In this pap...

  14. Perception of cervical cancer screening among Japanese university students who have never had a pap smear: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshima, Sumiko; Maezawa, Masaji

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to explore attitudes towards cervical cancer screening among Japanese university students who had never had a Pap smear. Four focus-group discussions, each with 15 female university students, took place in November and December 2009. Discussions were recorded and transcripts were analyzed to extract attitudes of young women towards cervical cancer screening. The four themes that emerged were: i) a low sense of reality about cervical cancer; ii) a lack of knowledge about both cervical cancer and Pap smears; iii) a lack of motivation to get screened, and iv) a reluctance to visit the gynecologist. Participants who were interested in undergoing screening for cervical cancer cited the influence of conversations with friends and family, a diagnosis of cancer within their family, and relevant information from the media. The results indicate the importance of getting young women more interested in cervical cancer screening and overcoming their tendency to avoid visiting a gynecologist. PMID:23991995

  15. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate rapidly remodels PAP85-120, SEM1(45-107), and SEM2(49-107) seminal amyloid fibrils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellano, Laura M.; Hammond, Rebecca M.; Holmes, Veronica M.; Weissman, Drew; Shorter, James

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Semen harbors amyloid fibrils formed by proteolytic fragments of prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP248-286 and PAP85-120) and semenogelins (SEM1 and SEM2) that potently enhance HIV infectivity. Amyloid but not soluble forms of these peptides enhance HIV infection. Thus, agents that remodel these amyloid fibrils could prevent HIV transmission. Here, we confirm that the green tea polyphenol, epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), slowly remodels fibrils formed by PAP248-286 termed SEVI (semen derived enhancer of viral infection) and also exerts a direct anti-viral effect. We elucidate for the first time that EGCG remodels PAP85-120, SEM1(45-107), and SEM2(49-107) fibrils more rapidly than SEVI fibrils. We establish EGCG as the first small molecule that can remodel all four classes of seminal amyloid. The combined anti-amyloid and anti-viral properties of EGCG could have utility in preventing HIV transmission. PMID:26319581

  16. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate rapidly remodels PAP85-120, SEM1(45-107, and SEM2(49-107 seminal amyloid fibrils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura M. Castellano

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Semen harbors amyloid fibrils formed by proteolytic fragments of prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP248-286 and PAP85-120 and semenogelins (SEM1 and SEM2 that potently enhance HIV infectivity. Amyloid but not soluble forms of these peptides enhance HIV infection. Thus, agents that remodel these amyloid fibrils could prevent HIV transmission. Here, we confirm that the green tea polyphenol, epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG, slowly remodels fibrils formed by PAP248-286 termed SEVI (semen derived enhancer of viral infection and also exerts a direct anti-viral effect. We elucidate for the first time that EGCG remodels PAP85-120, SEM1(45-107, and SEM2(49-107 fibrils more rapidly than SEVI fibrils. We establish EGCG as the first small molecule that can remodel all four classes of seminal amyloid. The combined anti-amyloid and anti-viral properties of EGCG could have utility in preventing HIV transmission.

  17. Analyses of the accuracy of calculated results obtained by CONTAIN 2.0 code for the KAEVER aerosol tests - ISP44

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CONTAIN 2.0 code has been employed to simulate the KAEVER Test series K123A, K148A, K186A, K188A that were proposed as International Standard Problem-44 by OECD/CSNI, and the accuracy of the calculation results has been analyzed. All of these tests were conducted to investigate the behavior of the aerosol depletion with steam condensing on the particle surface under highly saturated steam conditions. The code predicts considerably slower aerosol depletion than the experiment for the CsOH aerosol which is highly hygroscopic, and also showed very similar results for the CsI aerosol which is moderately hygroscopic. For the Ag aerosol which is non-hygroscopic, however, the code predicts much faster depletion compared with the experimental data. For the mixed aerosol of hygroscopic CsOH and non-hygroscopic Ag, the calculation results show the same depletion pattern for both components, which is different from usual anticipation, and do show remarkably slower depletion compared with the experimental data

  18. Group B Streptococcal Septic Arthritis of the Shoulder and Potential Association with Pelvic Examination and PAP Smear

    OpenAIRE

    William E. Daner; Brett D. Meeks; Foster, William C.; Norman D. Boardman

    2016-01-01

    Group B streptococcal (GBS) infection of a native joint in a nonpregnant adult is uncommon. While many women are colonized with this flora, it rarely becomes pathogenic in its adult host. GBS associated joint infections have been reported, most of which have been related to hematogenous seeding from unknown sources. To our knowledge, there are no published case reports of a GBS joint infection in association with a pelvic exam and Papanicolaou (PAP) smear. In this case report, we present a ca...

  19. Celtic Explorer Cruise 0716, 19-25 Jun 2007. Time-series observations at the PAP Observatory

    OpenAIRE

    Lampitt, R. S.

    2007-01-01

    The main objective of this very short cruise was to refurbish the PAP observatory (NE Atlantic), a long term study site at which a variety of observations have been made over the past 20 years with increasing levels of intensity and sophistication. In addition to this a small number of other observations were made and samples collected. In order to increase public awareness of observational oceanography film interviews were carried out and a daily web diary maintained.

  20. PANICLE PHYTOMER2 (PAP2), encoding a SEPALLATA subfamily MADS-box protein, positively controls spikelet meristem identity in rice

    OpenAIRE

    Kobayashi, Kaoru; Maekawa, Masahiko; Miyao, Akio; Hirochika, Hirohiko; Kyozuka, Junko

    2009-01-01

    In rice panicle development, new meristems are generated sequentially in an organized manner and acquire their identity in a time- and position-dependent manner. In the panicle of the panicle phytomer2-1 (pap2-1) mutant, the pattern of meristem initiation is disorganized and newly formed meristems show reduced competency to become spikelet meristems, resulting in the transformation of early arising spikelets into rachis branches. In addition, rudimentary glumes and sterile lemmas, the outermo...

  1. Estrogen staining in breast carcinoma by PAP methods compared to CEA and ferritin staining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osamu, K; Takashi, M; Yohichi, T; Yasuo, U; Tetsuro, Y; Yoshiro, F; Toshio, T

    1987-01-01

    The aims of this paper are to demonstrate the stainability of estrogen, CEA, and ferritin in breast carcinomas, fibroadenomas, and fibrocystic diseases; to examine whether the findings of endogenous estrogen using the immunohistochemical detection method are related to estrogen receptor (ER) assays; and to determine whether the stainability of estrogen, CEA, and ferritin were related to the prognosis of breast carcinomas. In breast cancer, the stainability of estrogen using the peroxidase-antiperoxidase (PAP) method was positively correlated with the dextran-coated charcoal (DCC) assay for ER. In breast cancers, the percentage of positive staining was 46% for estrogen, 48% for CEA, and 47% for ferritin. With all three stains, significant differences were observed between cancer and benign diseases. Cases that were both positive for estrogen staining and negative for CEA showed a good prognosis after the recurrence of disease. Our data suggest that the immunohistochemical staining of estrogen, CEA, and ferritin might predict the biological behavior of breast carcinomas and be a prognostically useful indicator of breast cancer patients. PMID:2436774

  2. Prevalence of HPV Infection and Its Association with Cytological Abnormalities of Pap Smears in Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Jamali Zavarei Jamali Zavarei

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Human papillomavirus infection is one of the most common genital infections. More than 100 types of this virus have been identified, and most of them are capable of infecting the genital mucosa. Human papillomavirus is in association with cancerous and precancerous lesions of the cervix; some types like HPV 16 and 18 are highly carcinogenic, some types like HPV 31 and 33 are moderately and some types like HPV 6 and 11 are mildly carcinogenic. In this research, the relationship between cytological changes of the squamous epithelial cells and the presence of HPV infections in our cases has been assessed."nMethods: In this prospective study, we collected 681 samples from women admitted to different hospitals and private gynecological clinics in Tehran, during the years 2003-2005. Two specimens were collected from each patient; one for a Pap smear study and the other for PCR assay in order to detect HPV."nResults: Out of our 681 samples, 600 specimens were suitable for PCR assay, and 34 cases were HPV positive in PCR assay. This means that 5.7 percent of our patients were infected with HPV."nConclusion: HPV infection is common in Iran and is nearly identical to European countries such as Germany, and Spain. Also, we found that using PCR assay in order to detect the presence of HPV viruses in vaginal discharges can be very helpful.

  3. Analysis of the F Antigen-Specific papA Alleles of Extraintestinal Pathogenic Escherichia coli Using a Novel Multiplex PCR-Based Assay

    OpenAIRE

    James R. Johnson; Stell, Adam L.; Scheutz, Flemming; O'Bryan, Timothy T.; Russo, Thomas A.; Carlino, Ulrike B.; Fasching, Caludine; Kavle, Justine; van Dijk, Linda; Gaastra, Wim

    2000-01-01

    Polymorphisms in PapA, the major structural subunit and antigenic determinant of P fimbriae of extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli, are of considerable epidemiological, phylogenetic, and immunotherapeutic importance. However, to date, no method other than DNA sequencing has been generally available for their detection. In the present study, we developed and rigorously validated a novel PCR-based assay for the 11 recognized variants of papA and then used the new assay to assess the pre...

  4. Self-reported history of Pap-smear in HIV-positive women in Northern Italy: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghinelli Florio

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The incidence of invasive cervical cancer in HIV-positive women is higher than in the general population. There is evidence that HIV-positive women do not participate sufficiently in cervical cancer screening in Italy, where cervical cancer is more than 10-fold higher in women with AIDS than in the general population. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the history of Pap-smear in HIV-positive women in Italy in recent years. We also examined the sociodemographic, clinical, and organizational factors associated with adherence to cervical cancer screening. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted between July 2006 and June 2007 in Emilia-Romagna region (Northern Italy. All HIV-positive women who received a follow-up visit in one of the 10 regional infectivology units were invited to participate. History of Pap-smear, including abnormal smears and subsequent treatment, was investigated through a self-administered anonymous questionnaire. The association between lack of Pap-smear in the year preceding the interview and selected characteristics was assessed by means of odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals adjusted for study centre and age. Results A total of 1,002 HIV-positive women were interviewed. Nine percent reported no history of Pap-smear, and 39% had no Pap-smear in the year prior to the date of questionnaire (last year. The lack of Pap-smear in the last year was significantly associated with age Three hundred five (34% women reported a previous abnormal Pap-smear, and of the 178 (58% referred for treatment, 97% complied. Conclusions In recent years the self-reported history of Pap-smear in HIV-positive women, in some public clinics in Italy, is higher than previously reported, but further efforts are required to make sure cervical cancer screening is accessible to all HIV-positive women.

  5. Using probabilistic record linkage methods to identify Australian Indigenous women on the Queensland Pap Smear Register: the National Indigenous Cervical Screening Project

    OpenAIRE

    Whop, Lisa J; Diaz, Abbey; Baade, Peter; Garvey, Gail; Cunningham, Joan; Brotherton, Julia M. L.; Canfell, Karen; Valery, Patricia C.; O'Connell, Dianne L; Taylor, Catherine; Moore, Suzanne P; Condon, John R

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the feasibility and reliability of record linkage of existing population-based data sets to determine Indigenous status among women receiving Pap smears. This method may allow for the first ever population measure of Australian Indigenous women's cervical screening participation rates. Setting/participants A linked data set of women aged 20–69 in the Queensland Pap Smear Register (PSR; 1999–2011) and Queensland Cancer Registry (QCR; 1997–2010) formed the Initial Study Co...

  6. Interpretation of Actinide-Distribution Data Obtained from Non-Destructive and Destructive Post-Test Analyses of an Intact-Core Column of Culebra Dolomite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US DOE, with technical assistance from Sandia National Laboratories, has successfully received EPA certification and opened the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), a nuclear waste disposal facility located approximately 42 km east of Carlsbad, New Mexico. Performance assessment analyses indicate that human intrusions by inadvertent, intermittent drilling for resources provide the only credible mechanisms for releases of radionuclides from the disposal system. In modeling long-term brine releases, subsequent to a drilling event, potential migration pathways through the permeable layers of rock above the Salado formation were analyzed. Major emphasis is placed on the Culebra Member of the Rustler Formation because this is the most transmissive geologic layer overlying the WIPP site. In order to help quantify parameters for the calculated releases, radionuclide transport experiments have been earned out using intact-core columns obtained from the Culebra dolomite member of the Rustler Formation within the WIPP site. This paper deals primarily with results of analyses for 241Pu and 241Am distributions developed during transport experiments in one of these cores. Transport experiments were done using a synthetic brine that simulates Culebra brine at the core recovery location (the WIPP air-intake shaft--AIS). Hydraulic characteristics (i.e., apparent porosity and apparent dispersion coefficient) for intact-core columns were obtained via experiments using the conservative tracer 22Na. Elution experiments carried out over periods of a few days with tracers 232U and 239Np indicated that these tracers were weakly retarded as indicated by delayed elution of the species. Elution experiments with tracers 241Pu and 241Am were attempted, but no elution of either species has been observed to date, including experiments of many months' duration. In order to quantify retardation of the non-eluted species 241Pu and 241Am after a period of brine flow, non-destructive and destructive analyses of one intact-core column were carried out to determine distribution of these actinides in the rock. Analytical results indicate that the majority of the 241Am remained very near the injection surface of the core (possibly as a precipitate), and that the majority of the 241Pu was dispersed with a very high apparent retardation value. The 241Pu distribution is interpreted using a single-porosity advection-dispersion model, and an approximate retardation value is reported

  7. Papanicolaou na pós-menopausa: fatores associados a sua não realização Factors associated with lack of Pap smear screening in a group of postmenopausal Brazilian women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila Cristina Rocha Brischiliari

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar os fatores de risco relacionados à não realização do exame de Papanicolaou entre as mulheres que vivenciam a menopausa. Neste estudo de base populacional, composto de mulheres de 45-69 anos, residentes na área urbana de Maringá, Paraná, Brasil, foram avaliadas 456 mulheres no período da menopausa, as quais apresentaram uma média de 58,7 ± 5,7 anos, sendo 48,0 ± 5,0 anos a idade média do início da menopausa. A maior parte relatou ter até sete anos de estudo, apresentava companheiro, realizava atividade remunerada, era sedentária e não usuária de terapia de reposição hormonal. A cobertura de rastreamento de Papanicolaou foi de 84,5%. Após ajuste por análise multivariada, a faixa etária de 45-69 anos, ocupação remunerada, sem consulta ao ginecologista no último ano e sem realização de mamografia nos últimos dois anos foram associadas à não realização do exame. Os esforços para melhorar o rastreamento do câncer de colo do útero devem estar focados no conhecimento das mulheres e na diminuição dos fatores contribuintes para a não realização do exame de Papanicolaou.This study aimed to analyze risk factors for lack of Pap smear screening among menopausal women. This population-based study evaluated 456 women 45-69 years of age (mean 58.7; SD 5.7, with age at menopause 48.0 years (SD 5.0 living in the urban area of Maringá, Paraná State, Brazil. Most reported having 7 years of schooling or less, were married or living with a partner, had paid work, were sedentary, and were not on hormone replacement therapy. Coverage of Pap smear screening was 84.5%. After adjustment by multivariate analysis, the 45-69-year age bracket, paid work, no visit to the gynecologist in the previous year, and no mammogram in the two previous years were statistically associated with lack of Pap smear screening. Efforts to improve cervical cancer screening should focus on women's knowledge and reduce the factors that hinder women from performing Pap smear tests.

  8. Comparison of Hematologic and Biochemical Test Results in Blood Samples Obtained by Jugular Venipuncture Versus Nail Clip in Moluccan Cockatoos (Cacatua moluccensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Tracy D; Lejnieks, Daniel V; Koepke, Hoyt; Grimson, Fiona; Szucs, Jennifer; Omaits, Kerri; Lane, Rosalie

    2015-12-01

    In birds, blood samples are often collected from the jugular, medial metatarsal, and basilic vein. Samples are sometimes collected by toe nail clip, but concerns to avoid drawing blood from the nail include pain after nail clips for blood collection, potential differences in complete blood count (CBC) results, and potential contamination with uric acid values. To compare differences in biochemical and hematologic values in blood samples obtained by jugular venipuncture versus toenail clip, blood samples were collected from Moluccan cockatoos (Cacatua moluccensis) (N = 23) and sent to a commercial laboratory for routine CBCs and serum biochemical analysis. Results showed good agreement between venipuncture and nail clip blood samples in red blood cell count, packed cell volume, heterophil count and percentage, lymphocyte count and percentage, aspartate aminotransferase, chloride, creatine phosphokinase, glucose, lactate dehydrogenase, total protein, and uric acid values. Constant bias was found in values of bile acids, cholesterol, and hemoglobin. Proportional bias toward higher values in the jugular sample were found in total white blood cell (WBC) count and inorganic phosphorus. Serum calcium plots revealed a proportional bias toward higher values in the toe nail blood when values were increased. Results suggest some differences in WBC count, bile acids, calcium, cholesterol, hemoglobin, and phosphorus values between blood samples collected by jugular venipuncture and samples collected by toe nail clip, but the differences are mostly minor and, with the possible exception of inorganic phosphorus and marginally elevated or very low WBC counts, are unlikely to affect the use or interpretation of the avian blood panel. PMID:26771320

  9. Noninvasive mechanical ventilation with BiPAP therapy for comatose exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease through an endotracheal tube: is it justified?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esquinas A

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Antonio Esquinas,1 Ritesh Agarwal21Intensive Care Unit, Hospital Morales Meseguer, Murcia, Spain; 2Department of Pulmonary Medicine, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, IndiaWe read with interest the paper by Rawat et al1 related to the role of bilevel positive airway pressure (BiPAP delivered via endotracheal tube in unconscious patients suffering from acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in a real-world situation. Although the authors provide some justification for the use of BiPAP through an endotracheal tube, we believe that this technique is fraught with complications and should not be routinely employed. In fact, three patients failed BiPAP therapy, two patients received conventional invasive ventilation, and one patient failed to respond to BiPAP. Thus, almost 30% of patients either failed or showed no evidence for benefit of BiPAP. Further, the authors provide no data on the amount of leakage that was present while administering BiPAP therapy. The authors also do not provide details on whether the nurses/chest therapist administered intermittent manual bag ventilation. Ideally, the authors should have referred the patients on manual bag ventilation to another public health center where facilities for invasive ventilation are available free of cost.View original paper by Rawat and colleagues.

  10. Dissection of a Redox Relay: H2O2-Dependent Activation of the Transcription Factor Pap1 through the Peroxidatic Tpx1-Thioredoxin Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel A. Calvo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In fission yeast, the transcription factor Pap1 undergoes H2O2-dependent oxidation that promotes its nuclear accumulation and the activation of an antioxidant gene program. However, the mechanisms that regulate the sensitivity and selectivity of Pap1 activation by peroxides are not fully understood. Here, we demonstrate that the peroxiredoxin Tpx1, the sensor of this signaling cascade, activates the otherwise unresponsive Pap1 protein once the main cytosolic reduced thioredoxin, Trx1, becomes transiently depleted. In other words, Pap1 works as an alternative electron donor for oxidized Tpx1. We have trapped the very transient Tpx1-Pap1 intermediate in cells depleted in Trx1, as we show here using mass spectrometry. Recycling of Tpx1 by Trx1 is required for the efficient signaling to Pap1, suggesting that the complete cycle of H2O2 scavenging by Tpx1 and further recycling of oxidized Tpx1 by Trx1 is required for full downstream activation of the redox cascade.

  11. Relationship between Demographic Characteristic, Knowledge and Attitude of Fertile Aged Women in Seeking Pap Smear Services at Sukawati II Community Health Centre, Gianyar Regency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martini .

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and purpose: Pap smear coverage in 2011 at Sukawati II Health Centre was only 0.39% (17 peoplewhich is well below the district target of 85%. This is in fact a decrease from 2009 (1.12%/49 people and 2010(0.73%/32 people. This study was aimed to examine the relationship between demographics, knowledge, and attitudesof reproductive aged women, including sexual behavior and pap smear seeking behavior.Methods: Research used a cross-sectional survey with sample of 50 people of reproductive aged women fromSukawati II Health Center, not pregnant and literate. Data was collected through structured questionnaire interviewand secondary data from healthcare center records. Data were analysed using univariate, bivariate (chi-squared testand multivariate analysis (logistic regression.Results: Bivariate analysis indicated that education (p=0.006, financial status (p=0.024, knowledge (p=0.006 andattitude (p=0.001 were significantly associated with pap smear practices. The multivariate analysis showed that onlythe attitude of women that related to actions with a pap smear with OR=12 (95%CI: 2.31-62.46.Conclusion: The attitude of reproductive aged women is associated to pap smear practices in Sukawati II HealthCentre, Gianyar Regency.Keywords: pap smear, characteristics, knowledge, attitudes, health centers

  12. Diacyltransferase Activity and Chain Length Specificity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis PapA5 in the Synthesis of Alkyl β-Diol Lipids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Touchette, Megan H.; Bommineni, Gopal R.; Delle Bovi, Richard J.; Gadbery, John; Nicora, Carrie D.; Shukla, Anil K.; Kyle, Jennifer E.; Metz, Thomas O.; Martin, Dwight W.; Sampson, Nicole S.; Miller, W. T.; Tonge, Peter J.; Seeliger, Jessica C.

    2015-09-08

    Although classified as Gram-positive bacteria, Corynebacterineae possess an asymmetric outer membrane that imparts structural and thereby physiological similarity to more distantly related Gram-negative bacteria. Like lipopolysaccharide in Gram-negative bacteria, lipids in the outer membrane of Corynebacterineae have been associated with the virulence of pathogenic species such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). For example, Mtb strains that lack long, branched-chain alkyl esters known as dimycocerosates (DIMs) are significantly attenuated in model infections. The resultant interest in the biosynthetic pathway of these unusual virulence factors has led to the elucidation of many of the steps leading to the final esterification of the alkyl beta-diol, phthiocerol, with branched-chain fatty acids know as mycocerosates. PapA5 is an acyltransferase implicated in these final reactions. We here show that PapA5 is indeed the terminal enzyme in DIM biosynthesis by demonstrating its dual esterification activity and chain-length preference using synthetic alkyl beta-diol substrate analogues. Applying these analogues to a series of PapA5 mutants, we also revise a model for the substrate binding within PapA5. Finally, we demonstrate that the Mtb Ser/Thr kinase PknB modifies PapA5 on three Thr residues, including two (T196, T198) located on an unresolved loop. These results clarify the DIM biosynthetic pathway and suggest possible mechanisms by which DIM biosynthesis may be regulated by the post-translational modification of PapA5.

  13. Fatores associados no realizao do exame de Papanicolaou: um estudo de base populacional no Municpio de Campinas, So Paulo, Brasil Factors associated with women's failure to submit to Pap smears: a population-based study in Campinas, So Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivian Mae Schmidt Lima Amorim

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar a prevalncia da no realizao do exame de Papanicolaou segundo variveis scio-econmicas, demogrficas e de comportamentos relacionados sade, em mulheres com 40 anos ou mais de idade, residentes no Municpio Campinas, So Paulo, Brasil. O estudo foi do tipo transversal, de base populacional em uma amostra de 290 mulheres. Os fatores associados no realizao do Papanicolaou, encontrados na anlise multivariada, foram: ter de 40 a 59 anos, ser preta/parda, ter escolaridade de at 4 anos. Entre os motivos alegados por quem nunca realizou o Papanicolaou destacam-se: achar desnecessrio (43,5%, sentir vergonha (28,1% e 13,7% por dificuldades relacionadas aos servios. O SUS foi responsvel por 43,2% dos exames de Papanicolaou realizados. Verificou-se a existncia de discriminao racial e social na realizao do exame, o que enfatiza a necessidade de intervenes que garantam melhor cobertura e ateno s mulheres mais vulnerveis incidncia e mortalidade por cncer do colo do tero.This study analyzes the prevalence of non-submittal to Pap smears according to socioeconomic, demographic, and health-related behavioral variables in women 40 years or older in Campinas, So Paulo State. This was a cross-sectional population-based study with a sample of 290 women. Based on multivariate analysis, factors associated with not having Pap smears were: age (40-59 years, race/ethnicity (black or mixed-race, and schooling (< 4 years. The following reasons were cited for not having Pap smears: considered unnecessary (43.5%, embarrassment (28.1%, and barriers related to health services (13.7%. The Unified National Health System performed 43.2% of the reported Pap smears. Health services should promote more equitable access to the health care system and improve the quality of care for women, since Pap smears are an effective tool against cervical cancer. The study confirmed that women's failure to obtain Pap smears is associated with social and racial inequality, placing these women at increased risk of cervical cancer.

  14. Sanger Sequencing for BRCA1 c.68_69del, BRCA1 c.5266dup and BRCA2 c.5946del Mutation Screen on Pap Smear Cytology Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sin Hang; Zhou, Shaoxia; Zhou, Tianjun; Hong, Guofan

    2016-01-01

    Three sets of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primers were designed for heminested PCR amplification of the target DNA fragments in the human genome which include the site of BRCA1 c.68_69del, BRCA1 c.5266dup and BRCA2 c.5946del respectively, to prepare the templates for direct Sanger sequencing screen of these three founder mutations. With a robust PCR mixture, crude proteinase K digestate of the fixed cervicovaginal cells in the liquid-based Papanicolaou (Pap) cytology specimens can be used as the sample for target DNA amplification without pre-PCR DNA extraction, purification and quantitation. The post-PCR products can be used directly as the sequencing templates without further purification or quantitation. By simplifying the frontend procedures for template preparation, the cost for screening these three founder mutations can be reduced to about US $200 per test when performed in conjunction with human papillomavirus (HPV) assays now routinely ordered for cervical cancer prevention. With this projected price structure, selective patients in a high-risk population can be tested and each provided with a set of DNA sequencing electropherograms to document the absence or presence of these founder mutations in her genome to help assess inherited susceptibility to breast and ovarian cancer in this era of precision molecular personalized medicine. PMID:26867194

  15. Sanger Sequencing for BRCA1 c.68_69del, BRCA1 c.5266dup and BRCA2 c.5946del Mutation Screen on Pap Smear Cytology Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sin Hang; Zhou, Shaoxia; Zhou, Tianjun; Hong, Guofan

    2016-01-01

    Three sets of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primers were designed for heminested PCR amplification of the target DNA fragments in the human genome which include the site of BRCA1 c.68_69del, BRCA1 c.5266dup and BRCA2 c.5946del respectively, to prepare the templates for direct Sanger sequencing screen of these three founder mutations. With a robust PCR mixture, crude proteinase K digestate of the fixed cervicovaginal cells in the liquid-based Papanicolaou (Pap) cytology specimens can be used as the sample for target DNA amplification without pre-PCR DNA extraction, purification and quantitation. The post-PCR products can be used directly as the sequencing templates without further purification or quantitation. By simplifying the frontend procedures for template preparation, the cost for screening these three founder mutations can be reduced to about US $200 per test when performed in conjunction with human papillomavirus (HPV) assays now routinely ordered for cervical cancer prevention. With this projected price structure, selective patients in a high-risk population can be tested and each provided with a set of DNA sequencing electropherograms to document the absence or presence of these founder mutations in her genome to help assess inherited susceptibility to breast and ovarian cancer in this era of precision molecular personalized medicine. PMID:26867194

  16. Sanger Sequencing for BRCA1 c.68_69del, BRCA1 c.5266dup and BRCA2 c.5946del Mutation Screen on Pap Smear Cytology Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sin Hang Lee

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Three sets of polymerase chain reaction (PCR primers were designed for heminested PCR amplification of the target DNA fragments in the human genome which include the site of BRCA1 c.68_69del, BRCA1 c.5266dup and BRCA2 c.5946del respectively, to prepare the templates for direct Sanger sequencing screen of these three founder mutations. With a robust PCR mixture, crude proteinase K digestate of the fixed cervicovaginal cells in the liquid-based Papanicolaou (Pap cytology specimens can be used as the sample for target DNA amplification without pre-PCR DNA extraction, purification and quantitation. The post-PCR products can be used directly as the sequencing templates without further purification or quantitation. By simplifying the frontend procedures for template preparation, the cost for screening these three founder mutations can be reduced to about US $200 per test when performed in conjunction with human papillomavirus (HPV assays now routinely ordered for cervical cancer prevention. With this projected price structure, selective patients in a high-risk population can be tested and each provided with a set of DNA sequencing electropherograms to document the absence or presence of these founder mutations in her genome to help assess inherited susceptibility to breast and ovarian cancer in this era of precision molecular personalized medicine.

  17. Constitutive equations of Li2TiO3 and Li4SiO4 pebble Beds obtained by means of standard triaxial tests: implementation of the model in a FEM code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the ITER operation, some Test Breeding Modules (TBM) will be tested in the equatorial ports of the reactor. Presently, these TBM are being developed in different research centres in the world. The Helium-Cooled Pebble Bed (HCPB) blanket is one of two breeder blanket concepts developed in Europe. The HCPB uses Beryllium pebbles as neutron multiplier and. Li4SiO4 or Li2TiO3 pebbles as breeder material. The analysis of the breeding blanket is complex for the geometry as well as for the loading conditions. Advanced computer codes are needed in order to determine the reliability of the different designs. In this context the mechanical characterisation of pebble beds is important in order to simulate their behaviour. This paper illustrates the standard tests, performed in order to obtain the effective properties of the pebble beds, and the implementation of a constitutive model of the granular material in a FEM code. Several Authors have analyzed the pebble bed by meand uniaxial compression tests (oedometer tests). This test permits to obtain an effective displacement- load law under lateral constraint, but no data are obtained about the pebble bed shear resistance or about the three-dimensional behaviour of the bed. In the soil (made of sand, gravel or clay) qualification, triaxial tests are used for determining all their constitutive properties. In these test the soil is loaded by axial and lateral loads which can be varied independently. The measurement of the load and the displacement in both the directions permits to obtain the material constants f the constitutive models elaborated for describing the soil behaviour. The classic soil models are the Cam-Clay model and the Drucker-Prager with cap model. These models are implemented in several commercial FEM codes and they could be easily used for simulating the pebble beds. But the pebble bed behaviour is different from that of the soil. The soil models describe in detail the behaviour dependent on the water pressure and on the drainage conditions. These aspects have not any meaning for the pebble bed. Moreover the soil consolidation is different from the creep of the pebble bed. The paper demonstrates the limits of applying the soil model to the pebble bed. In fact the triaxial tests have been simulated numerically by means a commercial FEM code considering the classic soil models and the material constants obtained by the tests. Moreover the paper emphasizes the relative importance of the material constants (about 10), contained in the classic soil model, in order to fit the experimental results of the tests on the pebble beds. (orig.)

  18. Effect of an antepartum Pap smear on the coverage of a cervical cancer screening programme: a population-based prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thoresen Steinar Ø

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Almost one-third of Norwegian women aged 25–69 years invited to have a Pap smear do not attend during the recommended period, and thus constitute a population with high-risk of cervical cancer (CC. Since the incidence of precancerous lesions of the cervix peak with occurrence of pregnancies within the same decade in women aged 25 to 35 years of age, antepartum care presents an opportunity to offer a Pap smear thereby increasing the coverage of the programme. The study objective was to describe the effect of the antepartum Pap smear on the coverage of a cytological CC screening programme. Methods Among 2 175 762 women resident in Norway in 31.12.1996, all women who gave birth in 1996–7 were identified from the Medical Birth Registry of Norway. Attendance to the cervical cancer screening was assessed by linkage to the Cytology Registry separately for the pregnant and non-pregnant women cohorts. The results were stratified by age, history of previous Pap smear and history of invitation to the CC screening programme. Logistic regression was used to estimate the relative probabilities of having a Pap smear adjusted for age, screening history, and time since invitation, for pregnant and non-pregnant women, respectively. Results 69% of the pregnant women had a Pap smear during one year of follow-up since beginning of the pregnancy with the majority taken during the antepartum period. Irrespectively of age or history of having a Pap smear, pregnant women were 4.3 times more likely to have a Pap smear during follow-up compared to non-pregnant women. 63.2% of the pregnant women had a smear as response to the invitation letter compared to 28.7% of the non-pregnant women, OR = 2.1 (95% CI 1.9 to 2.4. As an indication of "over-screening", 5397 pregnant women (57.8% with a smear shortly before the start of follow-up also had a new Papsmear, compared to 83 023 (32.3% in non-pregnant. Conclusion Pap smear screening during pregnancy increases the coverage of the CC screening programme. The contribution of the antepartum Pap smear to "over-screening" exists but its effect is modest in countries where women on average become pregnant after the start of recommended age of screening.

  19. Prevalence of high-risk human papillomavirus types 16 and 18 in healthy women with cytologically negative pap smear in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safaei Akbar

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Because human papillomavirus (HPV is one of the causal factors in cervical cancer, understanding the epidemiology of this infection is an important step towards developing strategies for prevention. Materials and Methods: We evaluated the prevalence of high-risk human papillomavirus Types 16 and 18 in cervical samples from 402 healthy women with normal Pap smears by testing with type-specific primers in the polymerase chain reaction. Participants were seen at two gynecological clinics affiliated to the Shiraz University of Medical Sciences in Iran. Result: The prevalence of positive HPV findings was 5.5%; high-risk HPV human papillomavirus Type 16 prevalence was 2% and no patient harbored HPV-18. The prevalence of HPV was 4.5% in younger age group and gradually increased to 20% in the 4 th decade. Conclusion: The prevalence of high-risk HPV was highest in the youngest women and gradually decreased with age. Overall, the prevalence of HPV in our population is low.

  20. Simultaneous measurements of glutathione and activated sulphate (PAPS) synthesis rates and the effects of selective inhibition of glutathione conjugation or sulphation of acetaminophen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalhoff, K; Poulsen, H E

    1993-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of the hepatotoxic drug acetaminophen (AA) on the synthesis rates of glutathione (GSH), activated sulphate (PAPS; adenosine 3'-phosphate 5'-phosphosulphate) and the AA metabolites AA-GSH and AA-sulphate after selective inhibition of GSH biosynthesis or sulphation in isolated rat hepatocytes. Selective inhibition of the two interdependent metabolic pathways was accomplished by buthionine sulphoximine (BSO) and 2,6-dichloro-4-nitrophenol (DCNP). The synthesis rates of GSH and PAPS were determined simultaneously by a previously described method based on trapping of radioactivity (35S) in the pre-labelled GSH and PAPS pools. Pre-incubation with 10 mM BSO for 30 min depleted GSH by 38% (P < 0.05) and PAPS by 27% (P < 0.05). The depletion resulted in increased PAPS synthesis at low, non-toxic [5-19 nmol/(10(6) cells.min)] (P < 0.05) and at high, toxic [7-30 nmol/10(6) cells.min)] (P < 0.05) AA concentrations. In both cases sulphur is diverted from GSH biosynthesis to sulphoxidation and PAPS synthesis, thereby maintaining the PAPS pool and preserving the sulphation capacity. This corresponds to the finding that AA sulphation was unaffected by BSO irrespective of AA concentration [6 vs 5 and 20 vs 17 nmol/(10(6) cells.hr), respectively]. Even though the GSH synthesis was halved after BSO pre-incubation, the GSH conjugating capacity of AA was well preserved. Incubation with 200 microM DCNP and 5 mM AA diminished PAPS synthesis from 24 to 10 nmol/(10(6) cells.min) (P < 0.02) and reduced AA-sulphate synthesis by 67% compared to experiments without DCNP incubation [4.8 vs 14.7 nmol/(10(6) cells.hr)] (P < 0.05). GSH and AA-GSH synthesis rates did not change compared to control experiments in which sulphation was not inhibited [1165 vs 1487 nmol/(10(6) cells.min), respectively] and [1.7 vs 1.7 nmol/(10(6) cells.hr), respectively]. This indicates that increased sulphur availability due to decreased PAPS synthesis is unable to raise the cysteine pool and stimulate the gamma-glutamyl cycle and GSH synthesis. PMID:8347163

  1. Value of high-risk human papillomavirus 16 deoxyribonucleic acid testing with cytological entities in peri and postmenopausal women

    OpenAIRE

    Veena Kashyap; Suresh Hedau

    2013-01-01

    Background: Genital human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is a sexually transmitted disease that is caused by HPV. Some types of HPV, called high-risk (HR) types may cause cell changes that sometimes lead to cervical cancer. HPV screening has been proposed for symptomatic female population; however, Pap test is the main stay in low resource setting. Aim: To detect HR HPV 16 positivity in perimenopausal and postmenopausal women and its association with cytological entities diagnosed on Pap ...

  2. Value of high-risk human papillomavirus 16 deoxyribonucleic acid testing with cytological entities in peri and postmenopausal women

    OpenAIRE

    Kashyap, Veena; Hedau, Suresh

    2013-01-01

    Background: Genital human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is a sexually transmitted disease that is caused by HPV. Some types of HPV, called high-risk (HR) types may cause cell changes that sometimes lead to cervical cancer. HPV screening has been proposed for symptomatic female population; however, Pap test is the main stay in low resource setting. Aim: To detect HR HPV 16 positivity in perimenopausal and postmenopausal women and its association with cytological entities diagnosed on Pap smea...

  3. Protein profile study of Pap smear and tissue of cervix by high performance liquid chromatography: laser induced fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sujatha, N.; Rai, Lavanya; Kumar, Pratap; Krishnanand, B. R.; Mahato, K. K.; George, Sajan D.; Kartha, V. B.; C, Santhosh

    2007-02-01

    HPLC combined with laser induced fluorescence provides a very sensitive method for the separation and identification of the many proteins present in clinical samples. Protein profiles of clinical samples like Pap smear and tissue samples, from subjects with cervical cancer and normal volunteers, were recorded using HPLC-LIF. The protein profiles were analyzed by Principal Component Analysis (PCA). The profiles were characterized by parameters like scores of the factors, sum of squared residuals, and Mahalanobis Distance, derived from PCA. Parameters of each sample were compared with those of a standard set and Match/ No Match results were generated. Good discrimination between normal and malignant samples was achieved with high sensitivity and specificity.

  4. Identification of Proteins and Peptide Biomarkers for Detecting Banned Processed Animal Proteins (PAPs) in Meat and Bone Meal by Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marbaix, Hélène; Budinger, Dimitri; Dieu, Marc; Fumière, Olivier; Gillard, Nathalie; Delahaut, Philippe; Mauro, Sergio; Raes, Martine

    2016-03-23

    The outbreak of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) in the United Kingdom in 1986, with processed animal proteins (PAPs) as the main vector of the disease, has led to their prohibition in feed. The progressive release of the feed ban required the development of new analytical methods to determine the exact origin of PAPs from meat and bone meal. We set up a promising MS-based method to determine the species and the source (legal or not) present in PAPs: a TCA-acetone protein extraction followed by a cleanup step, an in-solution tryptic digestion of 5 h (with a 1:20 protein/trypsin ratio), and mass spectrometry analyses, first without any a priori, with a Q-TOF, followed by a targeted triple-quadrupole analysis. Using this procedure, we were able to overcome some of the major limitations of the official methods to analyze PAPs, detecting and identifying prohibited animal products in feedstuffs by the monitoring of peptides specific for cows, pigs, and sheep in PAPs. PMID:26943838

  5. One year of Seaglider dissolved oxygen concentration profiles at the PAP site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binetti, Umberto; Kaiser, Jan; Heywood, Karen; Damerell, Gillian; Rumyantseva, Anna

    2015-04-01

    Oxygen is one of the most important variables measured in oceanography, influenced both by physical and biological factors. During the OSMOSIS project, 7 Seagliders were used in 3 subsequent missions to measure a multidisciplinary suite of parameters at high frequency in the top 1000 m of the water column for one year, from September 2012 to September 2013. The gliders were deployed at the PAP time series station (nominally at 49 N 16.5 W) and surveyed the area following a butterfly-shaped path. Oxygen concentration was measured by Aanderaa optodes and calibrated using ship CTD O2 profiles during 5 deployment and recovery cruises, which were in turn calibrated by Winkler titration of discrete samples. The oxygen-rich mixed layer deepens in fall and winter and gets richer in oxygen when the temperature decreases. The spring bloom did not happen as expected, but instead the presence of a series of small blooms was measured throughout spring and early summer. During the summer the mixed layer become very shallow and oxygen concentrations decreased. A Deep Oxygen Maximum (DOM) developed along with a deep chlorophyll maximum during the summer and was located just below the mixed layer . At this depth, phytoplankton had favourable light and nutrient conditions to grow and produce oxygen, which was not subject to immediate outgassing. The oxygen concentration in the DOM was not constant, but decreased, then increased again until the end of the mission. Intrusions of oxygen rich water are also visible throughout the mission. These are probably due to mesoscale events through the horizontal transport of oxygen and/or nutrients that can enhance productivity, particularly at the edge of the fronts. We calculate net community production (NCP) by analysing the variation in oxygen with time. Two methods have been proposed. The classical oxygen budget method assumes that changes in oxygen are due to the sum of air-sea flux, isopycnal advection, diapycnal mixing and NCP. ERA-Interim provides climatological data to calculate air-sea gas exchange fluxes based on wind-speed parameterisations of the gas exchange coefficient. The second method exploits the high frequency of the measurements to determine the increment of oxygen over time during daylight hours to measure NCP. Together with the O2 concentration decrease during the night (due to community respiration), this method also allows us to derive gross oxygen production rates. The results of these two methods are compared.

  6. Pancreatitis-associated protein (HIP/PAP) gene expression is upregulated in NOD mice pancreas and localized in exocrine tissue during diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baeza, N; Sanchez, D; Christa, L; Guy-Crotte, O; Vialettes, B; Figarella, C

    2001-01-01

    We have previously shown a specific significant overexpression in the exocrine pancreatic tissue of two members of the regenerating gene multifamily: reg I and reg II in the non-obese diabetic (NOD) mouse during active diabetogenesis. To strengthen the hypothesis that the overexpression of these genes may represent a defence of the acinar cell against pancreatic endocrine agression, we studied the pancreatic expression and the localization of another member of this family: the pancreatitis-associated protein (PAP) in NOD mice under the same conditions. We found that NOD mice present significantly higher PAP mRNA levels than control IOPS-OF1 mice. There is no difference between female NOD mice which progressively develop type I diabetes between 100 and 200 days and male NOD mice which are protected. The only difference observed was in function of the age of onset of diabetes. Before 180 days, the PAP mRNA levels were similar to those found in NOD males and nondiabetic females, but above 180 days the levels of PAP mRNA increased significantly. More importantly immunohistological studies demonstrate a striking difference in the protein localization between normal or nondiabetic NOD mice and diabetic NOD mice. If the protein is mainly detected in the islet cells in the absence of diabetes, a specific and intense expression of PAP was observed in the acinar cells of diabetic NOD mice. In conclusion, our data demonstrates that the acinar cells may react to a long-lasting pancreatic endocrine aggression by an induction of PAP and underlines the existence of a symbiotic relationship between endocrine and exocrine tissue. PMID:11842280

  7. Cobertura do exame de Papanicolaou no Brasil e seus fatores determinantes: uma revisão sistemática da literatura Coverage of the Pap smear in Brazil and its determining factors: a systematic literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Felipe Leite Martins

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: apresentar o panorama da cobertura do exame de Papanicolaou no Brasil, com ênfase nos seus fatores determinantes. MÉTODOS: foram pesquisadas as bases de dados "on line" LILACS (Literatura Latino-Americana e do Caribe em Ciências da Saúde, MEDLINE - 1966 a 2004 (Literatura Internacional em Ciências da Saúde, PAHO (Acervo da Biblioteca da Organização Pan-Americana de Saúde e WHOLIS (Sistema de Informação da Biblioteca da OMS. A revisão foi ampliada por meio da busca a referências bibliográficas dos estudos relevantes, solicitação de estudos publicados e não publicados a especialistas e outras fontes. Foram selecionados artigos que preenchiam os seguintes critérios: ser um estudo transversal, ter sido realizado no Brasil, conter informações sobre a cobertura do exame Papanicolaou (alguma vez na vida ou nos últimos três anos ou sobre seus fatores determinantes. Foram excluídas as duplicidades e os artigos sem resumo. Um total de 13 artigos foram selecionados atendendo a esses critérios. RESULTADOS: são poucos os estudos sobre a cobertura do exame de Papanicolaou no Brasil. A maioria concentra-se nas grandes cidades das regiões Sul e Sudeste do país. Além da escassez, existe pouca padronização metodológica em relação à amostragem e perfil das mulheres a serem investigadas, o que torna difícil a comparação entre si. Estas diferenças metodológicas devem ter contribuído para a grande variabilidade nas coberturas encontradas. Entretanto, apesar de todos os problemas, observa-se tendência de aumento temporal no percentual de mulheres que foram submetidas a pelo menos um exame de Papanicolaou: os dois únicos estudos realizados nos anos 80 mostram coberturas de 55,0 e 68,9% na vida, ao passo que um inquérito domiciliar realizado em 15 capitais e no Distrito Federal entre 2002 e 2003 apresenta valores que variam de 73,4 a 92,9%; porém, dois estudos de abrangência nacional realizados em 2003 apresentaram coberturas abaixo de 70,0% nos últimos três anos. Por outro lado, algumas variáveis foram mais freqüentemente observadas nas mulheres não submetidas ao exame de Papanicolaou: ter baixo nível socioeconômico, ter baixa escolaridade, ter baixa renda familiar e pertencer às faixas etárias mais jovens. CONCLUSÃO: os dados aqui apresentados apontam para desigualdades regionais na cobertura do exame de Papanicolaou na população feminina brasileira e para a necessidade de intervenção junto àqueles fatores a ela associados.PURPOSE: to present an overview of the coverage of the Pap smear in Brazil, emphasizing the determinant factors associated with failure of women to submit to the test. METHODS: the literature was reviewed using the LILACS (Latin-American and Caribbean Literature in Sciences of the Health, MEDLINE - 1966 to 2004 (International Literature in Sciences of the Health, PAHO (Collection of the Library of the Pan-American Organization of Health, and WHOLIS (System of Information of the Library of OMS databases. The review was enlarged through the search of bibliographical references of relevant studies, request for published and unpublished studies by specialists, and other sources. Articles that fulfilled the following criteria were selected: to be a cross-sectional study, carried out in Brazil, including information about periodicity of the Pap test (some time in life or in the last three years and/or containing information about factors associated with failure of women to submit to the test. Duplicates and articles without summary were excluded. A total of 13 articles fulfilling these criteria were selected. RESULTS: there are few studies on the coverage of Pap smear in Brazil. Most of them are concentrated in the big cities of the South and Southeast regions of the country. Besides the shortage, little methodological standardization exists in relation to the sampling and profile of the investigated women, which turns difficult the comparison among them. These methodological differences must have contributed to the great variability found in the coverage. However, in spite of all of the problems, a trend of time series increase is observed in the percentage of women who had at least one Pap smear in life. The two studies accomplished in the eighties showed coverage of 55.0 and 68.9% some time in life, while a household survey carried out in 2002 and 2003 presented values that varied from 73.4 to 92.9%; however, two studies of national inclusion presented estimates below 70.0% in the last three years. On the other hand, some variables were associated with the women's failure to submit to the Pap smear: low socioeconomic level, low education, low family income, and to belong to the younger age groups. CONCLUSION: the data here presented point to regional inequalities in the coverage of the Pap smear in the Brazilian female population and to the need of intervention targeted to those factors associated with women's failure to submit to the Pap smear.

  8. Análise da cobertura e dos exames colpocitológicos não retirados de uma Unidade Básica de Saúde Análisis de la cobertura y de los exámenes de papanicolaou no retirados de una Unidad Basica de Salud Analysis of coverage and of the pap test exams not retired of a Basic Health Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Teixeira Moreira Vasconcelos

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Analisar a cobertura e os exames colpocitológicos não retirados de uma Unidade de Saúde. Pesquisa documental retrospectiva, na qual foram avaliados os dados de cobertura de 2007 e os 225 exames realizados e não retirados da unidade até janeiro de 2008. Para a análise estatística foi aplicado o cálculo da freqüência das variáveis pesquisadas. A média mensal de exames realizados foi de 102,6 exames. A cobertura do exame em 2007 foi de 11,22% entre as mulheres de 25 a 59 anos. Dos 938 exames realizados entre fevereiro e novembro de 2007, 225 (23,98% mulheres não receberam o resultado. A maioria das mulheres (67,5%, que realizou o exame e não retornou, tinha até 30 anos de idade. O não retorno das mulheres para receber o resultado do exame dificulta o acompanhamento, a integralidade e continuidade da assistência, contribuindo para uma intervenção em fases mais avançadas da doença.Analizar la cobertura y los resultados de los exámenes colpocitológicos no retirados de una Unidad de Salud. Investigación documental retrospectiva, en la que fueron evaluados los datos de cobertura de 2007 y las 225 pruebas realizadas y no retiradas en la unidad hasta enero de 2008. Para el análisis estadístico se utilizó el cálculo de la frecuencia de las variables estudiadas. El promedio mensual de exámenes efectuados fue 102,6. La cobertura del examen en 2007 fue del 11,22% entre las mujeres de 25 a 59 años. Sobre los 938 análisis realizados entre febrero y noviembre de 2007, 225 (23,98% mujeres no retiraron el resultado. La mayoría de las mujeres (67,5% que llevaron a cabo el examen y no retornaron tenían 30 años de edad o menos. El no retorno de la mujer a recibir el resultado del examen dificulta el seguimiento, la integralidad y la continuidad de la atención, lo cual aumenta la posibilidad de una intervención en etapas más avanzadas de la enfermedad.To analyze the coverage and the colpocytology exams that were not collected from a Health Center. This is a retrospective documentary study, in which the data were evaluated for coverage of 2007 and all 225 tests that were performed but were not collected by the patients unit until January 2008. Statistical analysis was performed using the frequency of the studied variables. The average monthly number of tests was 102.6 examinations. The coverage of the examination in 2007 was 11.22% among women with 25 to 59 years of age. Of the 938 tests conducted between February and November 2007, 225 (23.98% women did not receive the result. Most women (67.5% who performed the examination and had not returned were 30 years old or younger. The women's attitude of not returning to collect their exam results increases the difficulty of follow up, and providing comprehensive and continuity of care, contributing with an intervention in advanced stages of the disease.

  9. Identification of Phase-I Metabolites of the Kv1.3 Blocker PAP-1 (5-(4-Phenoxybutoxy)psoralen) in the Rat

    OpenAIRE

    Hao, Bin; Chen, Zhong-Wei; Zhou, Xiang-Jun; Zimin, Pavel I.; Miljanich, George P.; Wulff, Heike; Wang, Yong-xiang

    2010-01-01

    PAP-1 (5-(4-phenoxybutoxy)psoralen), a potent small-molecule blocker of the voltage-gated potassium Kv1.3 channel, is currently in pre-clinical development for psoriasis. The present study was undertaken to identify the major phase-I metabolites of PAP-1 in rats. Following oral administration at 50 mg/kg, bile, plasma, urine and feces were collected, and separated by reversed-phase HPLC after sample preparation by solid-phase extraction. Five phase-I metabolites, i.e., 5-(oxybutyric-acid)psor...

  10. Study of the role of Pap1 as a sensor of H2O2 and as a transcriptional activator of stress responses in Schizosaccharimyces pombe

    OpenAIRE

    Calvo Arnedo, Mar??a Isabel, 1983-

    2012-01-01

    En el laboratorio se utiliza como sistema modelo la levadura Schizosaccaromyces pombe para poder estudiar la respuesta a estr??s oxidativo. Las dos rutas principales de respuesta a estr??s oxidativo son las del factor de transcripci??n Pap1 y la de la MAP quinasa Sty1. Cuando aplicamos a la c??lula bajas dosis de H2O2, Pap1 que se encuentra en el citoplasma en estado reducido, sufre un cambio conformacional, se oxida, y activo viaja al n??cleo, donde se une a diferentes promotores para activa...

  11. Potential coverage of circulating HPV types by current and developing vaccines in a group of women in Bosnia and Herzegovina with abnormal Pap smears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salimovi?-Bei?, I; Huki?, M

    2015-09-01

    The objectives of this study were to identify human papillomavirus (HPV) genotypes in a group of Bosnian-Herzegovinian women with abnormal cytology and to assess their potential coverage by vaccines. HPVs were identified by multiplex real-time PCR test (HPV High Risk Typing Real-TM; Sacace Biotechnologies, Italy) of 105 women with an abnormal cervical Pap smear and positive high-risk (HR) HPV DNA screening test. The most common genotypes in the study were HPV-16 (326%, 48/147), HPV-31 (143%, 21/147), HPV-51 (95%, 14/147) and HPV-18 (75%, 11/147). The overall frequency of HR HPV-16 and/or HPV-18, covered by currently available vaccines [Gardasil (Merck & Co., USA) and Cervarix; (GlaxoSmithKline, UK)] was lower than the overall frequency of other HPVs detected in the study (401%, 59/174, P = 0017). Group prevalence of HR HPVs targeted by a nine-valent vaccine in development (code-named V503) was higher than total frequency of other HPVs detected (680%, 100/147, P Development of cervical cytological abnormalities was independent of the presence of multiple infections (? 2 = 0598, P = 0741). Compared to other HPVs, dependence of cervical diagnosis and HPV-16, -18 (P = 0008) and HPV-16, -18, -31 (P = 0008) infections were observed. Vaccines targeting HR HPV-16, -18 and -31 might be an important tool in the prevention of cervical disease in Bosnia and Herzegovina. PMID:25578155

  12. Results obtained at Saturne

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The proton scattering results obtained in the synchrotron Saturne are summarized: target, reaction, energy of the incident proton, nature of the levels studied, limits of the transfer momentum range measured, and corresponding elastic scattering cross-sections

  13. Evaluation of the Biofire FilmArray BioThreat-E Test (v2.5) for Rapid Identification of Ebola Virus Disease in Heat-Treated Blood Samples Obtained in Sierra Leone and the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weller, Simon A; Bailey, Daniel; Matthews, Steven; Lumley, Sarah; Sweed, Angela; Ready, Derren; Eltringham, Gary; Richards, Jade; Vipond, Richard; Lukaszewski, Roman; Payne, Phillippa M; Aarons, Emma; Simpson, Andrew J; Hutley, Emma J; Brooks, Tim

    2016-01-01

    Rapid Ebola virus (EBOV) detection is crucial for appropriate patient management and care. The performance of the FilmArray BioThreat-E test (v2.5) using whole-blood samples was evaluated in Sierra Leone and the United Kingdom and was compared with results generated by a real-time Ebola Zaire PCR reference method. Samples were tested in diagnostic laboratories upon availability, included successive samples from individual patients, and were heat treated to facilitate EBOV inactivation prior to PCR. The BioThreat-E test had a sensitivity of 84% (confidence interval [CI], 64% to 95%) and a specificity of 89% (CI, 73% to 97%) in Sierra Leone (n = 60; 44 patients) and a sensitivity of 75% (CI, 19% to 99%) and a specificity of 100% (CI, 97% to 100%) in the United Kingdom (n = 108; 70 patients) compared to the reference real-time PCR. Statistical analysis (Fisher's exact test) indicated there was no significant difference between the methods at the 99% confidence level in either country. In 9 discrepant results (5 real-time PCR positives and BioThreat-E test negatives and 4 real-time PCR negatives and BioThreat-E test positives), the majority (n = 8) were obtained from samples with an observed or probable low viral load. The FilmArray BioThreat-E test (v2.5) therefore provides an attractive option for laboratories (either in austere field settings or in countries with an advanced technological infrastructure) which do not routinely offer an EBOV diagnostic capability. PMID:26537445

  14. Process for obtaining uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is concerned with an improvement to the process for obtaining ammonium diuranate from a solution which contains uranyl fluoride and hydrofluoric acid, by the addition of an ammonium hydroxide solution. A great excess of ammonium hydroxide is avoided in the new process, and one obtains all the uranium present. This is achieved by varying the quantities added with exact control of the pH value at the time. The detailed description also discusses the probable conversion rates. (UWI)

  15. A new optical method of continuously analysing the surface properties of a single pendant drop while obtaining quality bulk spectral and refractive index measurements of the liquid-under-test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The classical stalagmometer has been replaced by the tensiometer to measure surface properties from drop volume. From the drop period T1, converted into volume, the surface properties of the liquid can be obtained. In the fibre drop analyser the use of the graphical signal (tensiotrace), significantly extends the measurement potential of the tensiometer by providing additional measurands. This instrument produces a series of peaks. The third-order reflection is known as 'the tensiopeak-period' t3, and accurately predicts the value of the drop period. The results of an experimental study confirm the relationship between T1 and t3 for a wide range of liquids and are supported by ray-tracing modeling. Very sensitive and high quality bulk UV-visible spectra and refractive index measurements can be obtained from the drop-under-test.

  16. Preliminary Results Obtained from Flight Test of a 1/7-Scale Rocket-Powered Model of the Grumman XF10F Airplane Configuration in the Swept-Wing Condition, TED No. NACA DE 354

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, William N.

    1951-01-01

    A flight investigation of a 1/7-scale rocket-powered model of the XF10F Grumman XFl0F airplane in the swept-wing configuration has been made. The purpose of this test was to determine the static longitudinal stability, damping in pitch, and longitudinal control effectiveness of the airplane with the center of gravity at 20 percent of the wing mean aerodynamic chord. Only a small amount of data was obtained from the test because, immediately after booster separation at a Mach number of 0.88, the configuration was directionally unstable and diverged in sideslip. Simultaneous with the sideslip divergence, the model became longitudinally unstable at 3 degree angle of attack and -6 degree sideslip and diverged in pitch to a high angle of attack. During the pitch-up the free-floating horizontal tail became unstable at 5 degree angle of attack and the tail drifted against its positive deflection limit.

  17. DEVELOPMENT OF A PEROXIDASE-ANTIPEROXIDASE (PAP) TECHNIQUE FOR THE IDENTIFICATION OF HAEMOPHILUS-SOMNUS IN PNEUMONIC CALF LUNGS IN DENMARK

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tegtmeier, Conny; Jensen, N.E.; Jensen, H.E.

    A peroxidase-antiperoxidase (PAP) technique was developed for the identification of Haemophilus somnus bacteria in lung tissues of calves. Antisera raised against somatic and wall antigens of a Danish and American strain of H. somnus were produced. Experimentally infected murine tissues were used...

  18. Cervical pap smear study and its utility in cancer screening to specify the strategy for cervical cancer control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandakini M Patel, Amrish N Pandya, Jigna Modi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to explore various lesions of Uterine cervix [inflammatory and growth], to find out target age group in which screening efforts can be concentrated for early detection as well as reduction of the incidence of cervical cancer, in our set up. Patients in the age group 15-50 and 50-78 years with various complaints were screened during June 2006 to December 2007. Total 995 patients were studied. Slides were fixed in 95% ethyl alcohol and stained with Pap stain. Slides were reported according to The 2001 Bethesda System, by cytopathologists. Out of 995 patients studied, 940 showed inflammation and other benign lesions. 55 patients showed premalignant and malignant lesions. Premalignant lesions were present in 30-50 year of age group.

  19. Links between surface productivity and deep ocean particle flux at the Porcupine Abyssal Plain (PAP sustained observatory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Frigstad

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study we present hydrography, biogeochemistry and sediment trap observations between 2003 and 2012 at Porcupine Abyssal Plain (PAP sustained observatory in the northeast Atlantic. The time series is valuable as it allows for investigation of the link between surface productivity and deep ocean carbon flux. The region is a perennial sink for CO2, with an average uptake of around 1.5 mmol m−2 d−1. The average monthly drawdowns of inorganic carbon and nitrogen were used to quantify the net community production (NCP and new production, respectively. Seasonal NCP and new production were found to be 4.57 ± 0.27 mol C m−2 and 0.37 ± 0.14 mol N m−2. The Redfield ratio was high (12, and the production calculated from carbon was higher than production calculated from nitrogen, which is indicative of carbon overconsumption. The export ratio and transfer efficiency were 16 and 4%, respectively, and the site thereby showed high flux attenuation. Particle tracking was used to examine the source region of material in the sediment trap, and there was large variation in source regions, both between and within years. There were higher correlations between surface productivity and export flux when using the particle-tracking approach, than by comparing with the mean productivity in a 100 km box around the PAP site. However, the differences in correlation coefficients were not significant, and a longer time series is needed to draw conclusions on applying particle tracking in sediment trap analyses.

  20. In vitro studies of the genotoxic effects of bitumen and coal-tar fume condensates: comparison of data obtained by mutagenicity testing and DNA adduct analysis by 32P-postlabelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Méo, M; Genevois, C; Brandt, H; Laget, M; Bartsch, H; Castegnaro, M

    1996-08-14

    Bitumens contain traces of polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs), a part of which will end up in the fumes emitted during hot handling of bitumen-containing products, e.g. during roadpaving. Although exposure of workers to these fumes is low, it might lead to health problems. Studies on bitumen fume condensates (BFCs) showed weak to moderate mutagenic activities, but studies on DNA adduct formation have not been reported. Therefore, a study was initiated in which fumes were generated from two road grade bitumens, in such a way that they were representative of the fumes produced in the field. The combined vapour/particulates were tested in vitro for their ability to produce DNA adducts and in modified Ames mutation assays, using a number of different strains. An attempt was made to relate the results to chemical data, such as the content of a number of individual polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and with a measure for the total PAC content. As a reference material fume condensate from coal-tar (coal-tar pitch volatiles; CTPV) were subjected to the same tests. All fume condensates tested were mutagenic to all strains and induced the formation of DNA adducts. The patterns of DNA adducts, obtained by 32P-postlabelling, arising from the BFCs were qualitatively different from the patterns of adducts obtained from the CTPVs, implying qualitative differences in the nature of the compounds responsible for the formation of these adducts. This is corroborated by the observation that for BFCs quantitative adduct levels are higher than would be expected based on the PAH content. These data thus indicate that the PAHs analysed are not the sole components responsible for adduct formation from BFCs, but that an important contribution comes from other (hetero- and/or substituted-) PACs. PMID:8760390

  1. Role of BiPAP applied through endotracheal tube in unconscious patients suffering from acute exacerbation of COPD: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dua R

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Jagdish Rawat,1 Girish Sindhwani,1 Debasis Biswas,2 Ruchi Dua11Department of Pulmonary Medicine, 2Department of Microbiology, Himalayan Institute of Medical Sciences, Swami Ram Nagar, Jolly Grant, Dehradun, Uttarakhand, IndiaBackground and objectives: Mechanical ventilation is the recommended treatment in unconscious patients with acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and hypercapenic respiratory failure. But, in resource-poor countries, many of these patients are not able to afford this treatment due to financial constraints. The main aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness, safety and cost-effectiveness of bilevel positive airway pressure (BiPAP applied via endotracheal tube in such patients.Methods: Twenty patients with acute exacerbation of COPD and altered sensorium, who were unable to afford ventilatory support, were intubated and BiPAP therapy was provided to these patients through the endotracheal tube. The outcome of these patients was studied.Results: The BiPAP success rate and hospital mortality were 85% (17/20 and 15% (3/20 respectively. BiPAP failure was associated with high sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA score at the time of admission (P = 0.002. Improvement in Glasgow coma scale (GCS score (P < 0.001, pH (P = 0.001, PaCO2 (partial pressure of carbon dioxide (P < 0.001, respiratory rate (P < 0.001, and SOFA score (P = 0.001 was observed among the responders following 2 hours of therapy. Only one of the responders developed aspiration pneumonitis, as a complication. The daily cost of BiPAP therapy was 8.75 times lower than the average cost of mechanical ventilation.Conclusion: This pilot study reveals that this treatment modality could be a safe, cost-effective and efficacious method of treatment in unconscious patients with acute exacerbation of COPD.Keywords: bilevel positive air way pressure, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, hypercapenic respiratory failure

  2. Bacterial curli protein promotes the conversion of PAP248-286 into the amyloid SEVI: cross-seeding of dissimilar amyloid sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Kevin; Brender, Jeffrey R; Monde, Kazuaki; Ono, Akira; Evans, Margery L; Popovych, Nataliya; Chapman, Matthew R; Ramamoorthy, Ayyalusamy

    2013-01-01

    Fragments of prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP248-286) in human semen dramatically increase HIV infection efficiency by increasing virus adhesion to target cells. PAP248-286 only enhances HIV infection in the form of amyloid aggregates termed SEVI (Semen Enhancer of Viral Infection), however monomeric PAP248-286 aggregates very slowly in isolation. It has therefore been suggested that SEVI fiber formation in vivo may be promoted by exogenous factors. We show here that a bacterially-produced extracellular amyloid (curli or Csg) acts as a catalytic agent for SEVI formation from PAP248-286 at low concentrations in vitro, producing fibers that retain the ability to enhance HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) infection. Kinetic analysis of the cross-seeding effect shows an unusual pattern. Cross-seeding PAP248-286 with curli only moderately affects the nucleation rate while significantly enhancing the growth of fibers from existing nuclei. This pattern is in contrast to most previous observations of cross-seeding, which show cross-seeding partially bypasses the nucleation step but has little effect on fiber elongation. Seeding other amyloidogenic proteins (IAPP (islet amyloid polypeptide) and A?1-40) with curli showed varied results. Curli cross-seeding decreased the lag-time of IAPP amyloid formation but strongly inhibited IAPP elongation. Curli cross-seeding exerted a complicated concentration dependent effect on A?1-40 fibrillogenesis kinetics. Combined, these results suggest that the interaction of amyloidogenic proteins with preformed fibers of a different type can take a variety of forms and is not limited to epitaxial nucleation between proteins of similar sequence. The ability of curli fibers to interact with proteins of dissimilar sequences suggests cross-seeding may be a more general phenomenon than previously supposed. PMID:23638387

  3. Bacterial curli protein promotes the conversion of PAP248-286 into the amyloid SEVI: cross-seeding of dissimilar amyloid sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Hartman

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Fragments of prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP248-286 in human semen dramatically increase HIV infection efficiency by increasing virus adhesion to target cells. PAP248-286 only enhances HIV infection in the form of amyloid aggregates termed SEVI (Semen Enhancer of Viral Infection, however monomeric PAP248-286 aggregates very slowly in isolation. It has therefore been suggested that SEVI fiber formation in vivo may be promoted by exogenous factors. We show here that a bacterially-produced extracellular amyloid (curli or Csg acts as a catalytic agent for SEVI formation from PAP248-286 at low concentrations in vitro, producing fibers that retain the ability to enhance HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus infection. Kinetic analysis of the cross-seeding effect shows an unusual pattern. Cross-seeding PAP248-286 with curli only moderately affects the nucleation rate while significantly enhancing the growth of fibers from existing nuclei. This pattern is in contrast to most previous observations of cross-seeding, which show cross-seeding partially bypasses the nucleation step but has little effect on fiber elongation. Seeding other amyloidogenic proteins (IAPP (islet amyloid polypeptide and A?1?40 with curli showed varied results. Curli cross-seeding decreased the lag-time of IAPP amyloid formation but strongly inhibited IAPP elongation. Curli cross-seeding exerted a complicated concentration dependent effect on A?1?40 fibrillogenesis kinetics. Combined, these results suggest that the interaction of amyloidogenic proteins with preformed fibers of a different type can take a variety of forms and is not limited to epitaxial nucleation between proteins of similar sequence. The ability of curli fibers to interact with proteins of dissimilar sequences suggests cross-seeding may be a more general phenomenon than previously supposed.

  4. Trends of Human Papillomavirus Testing in Cervical Cancer Screening at a Large Academic Cytology Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelan, Darcy F.; Boitnott, John K.; Clark, Douglas P.; Dubay, Lisa C.; Gravitt, Patti E.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To estimate time trends of actual provider use of human papillomavirus (HPV) testing in cervical cancer screening by using laboratory and administrative data from the Johns Hopkins Hospital Division of Cytopathology in Baltimore, Maryland. METHODS In this ecologic trend study, we analyzed 178,510 Pap specimen records and 12,221 HPV tests among 85,048 patients from 2001 to 2007. Monthly frequencies and proportions of HPV reflex testing and HPV cotesting with Pap (stratified by patient ages 30 and older and 1829 years) were calculated. Time trends of monthly HPV testing proportions were analyzed using joinpoint regression methods. RESULTS From April 2002, when the American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology added HPV reflex testing to its guidelines, to December 2007, the monthly the proportion of reflex testing was 95.8%. From February 2004, when the society added HPV cotesting with Pap among women aged 30 years or older to its guidelines, to December 2007, the overall proportion HPV cotesting with Pap among patients aged 30 years or older was 7.8% (compared with 4.9% among patients 1829 years [P<.01]). The highest proportion of HPV cotesting among women aged 30 years or older, 15%, was observed in September 2006, and the trend later plateaued around 13%. The monthly proportions of HPV reflex testing and cotesting with Pap changed significantly over time. CONCLUSION These data reveal that a small percentage of women aged 30 years or older received HPV cotesting with Pap, thus identifying a significant opportunity for providers to improve patient care in cervical cancer prevention. PMID:21775844

  5. Reflection of the changes in properties of pressure vessel metal due to irradiation, recovery annealing and re-irradiation in the character of fractures obtained in Charpy impact testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pressure vessel steels of Russian and American origin were investigated by raster electron microscopy (fractography), optical microscopy (metallography) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The influence of Russian weld macrostructure parameters on the data obtained by Charpy test was revealed. Possible appearance of brittle intergranular components in fracture surfaces of sub-size Charpy specimen made of Russian weld metal with phosphorus content greater than 0.04% was shown when tested at temperatures close to the upper shelf level. Recovery annealing at 475 deg.C, for 15 hours did not induce reduction of the brittle intergranular component while recovery of DBTT was observed. This confirmed that the contribution of radiation induced intergranular phosphorus segregation to embrittlement of pressure vessel steels is not significant. The presence of ductile intergranular component in fractures of specimens made of Russian and American steels confirmed the possibility of radiation induced intragranular phosphorus segregation to precipitate/matrix interfaces. In accordance with the properties recovery due to annealing, the successive reduction of ductile intergranular component fraction in fracture surfaces indicates that the contribution of radiation induced ill-treating phosphorus segregation to radiation embrittlement of pressure vessel steels is valuable

  6. In vitro studies of the genotoxic effects of bitumen and coal-tar fume condensates: comparison of data obtained by mutagenicity testing and DNA adduct analysis by {sup 32}P-postlabelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Meo, M.; Genevois, C.; Brandt, H.; Laget, M.; Bartsch, H.; Castegnaro, M. [Laboratoire de Biogenotoxicologie et Mutagenese Environnementale, Marseille (France). Faculte de Pharmcie

    1996-08-14

    Bitumens contain traces of polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs), a part of which will end up in fumes emitted during hot handling of bitumen-containing products, e.g. during road paving. Exposure of workers to these fumes might lead to health problems. Studies on bitumen fume condensates (BFCs) showed mutagenic activities, but studies on DNA adduct formation have not been reported. Thus a study was initiated in which fumes were generated from two road grade bitumens which were representative of the fumes produced in the field. The combined vapour/particulates were tested in vitro for their ability to produce DNA adducts and in modified Ames mutation assays. Results were related to chemical data, such as the content of a number of individual polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and with a measure for total PAC content. As a reference material fume condensate from coal tar (coal-tar pitch volatiles; CTPV) were subjected to the same tests. All fume condensates were tested were mutagenic to all strains and induced the formation of DNA adducts. The patterns of DNA adducts arising from the BFCs were qualitatively different from the patterns of adducts obtained from the CTPVs, implying qualitative differences in the nature of the compounds responsible for their formation. This is corroborated by the observation that for BFCs quantitative adduct levels are higher than would be expected based on the PAH content. These data thus indicate that the PAHs analysed are not the sole components responsible for adduct formation from BFCs, but that an important contribution comes from other (hetero- and/or substituted-) PACs. 32 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  7. CodY Regulates the Activity of the Virulence Quorum Sensor PlcR by Controlling the Import of the Signaling Peptide PapR in Bacillus thuringiensis

    OpenAIRE

    Slamti, Leyla; LEMY, Christelle; Henry, Cline; Guillot, Alain; Huillet, Eugnie; Lereclus, Didier

    2016-01-01

    In Gram-positive bacteria, cellcell communication mainly relies on cytoplasmic sensors of the RNPP family. Activity of these regulators depends on their binding to secreted signaling peptides that are imported into the cell. These quorum sensing regulators control important biological functions in bacteria of the Bacillus cereus group, such as virulence and necrotrophism. The RNPP quorum sensor PlcR, in complex with its cognate signaling peptide PapR, is the main regulator of virulence in B....

  8. CodY Regulates the Activity of the Virulence Quorum Sensor PlcR by Controlling the Import of the Signaling Peptide PapR in Bacillus thuringiensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slamti, Leyla; Lemy, Christelle; Henry, Céline; Guillot, Alain; Huillet, Eugénie; Lereclus, Didier

    2016-01-01

    In Gram-positive bacteria, cell–cell communication mainly relies on cytoplasmic sensors of the RNPP family. Activity of these regulators depends on their binding to secreted signaling peptides that are imported into the cell. These quorum sensing regulators control important biological functions in bacteria of the Bacillus cereus group, such as virulence and necrotrophism. The RNPP quorum sensor PlcR, in complex with its cognate signaling peptide PapR, is the main regulator of virulence in B. cereus and Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt). Recent reports have shown that the global stationary phase regulator CodY, involved in adaptation to nutritional limitation, is required for the expression of virulence genes belonging to the PlcR regulon. However, the mechanism underlying this regulation was not described. Using genetics and proteomics approaches, we showed that CodY regulates the expression of the virulence genes through the import of PapR. We report that CodY positively controls the production of the proteins that compose the oligopeptide permease OppABCDF, and of several other Opp-like proteins. It was previously shown that the pore components of this oligopeptide permease, OppBCDF, were required for the import of PapR. However, the role of OppA, the substrate-binding protein (SBP), was not investigated. Here, we demonstrated that OppA is not the only SBP involved in the recognition of PapR, and that several other OppA-like proteins can allow the import of this peptide. Altogether, these data complete our model of quorum sensing during the lifecycle of Bt and indicate that RNPPs integrate environmental conditions, as well as cell density, to coordinate the behavior of the bacteria throughout growth. PMID:26779156

  9. Tobacco expressing pap1 increases the responses to par and uv-a by enhancing soluble sugars and flavonoids and elevating plant protections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Five lines of transgenic tobacco over-expressing Production of Anthocyanin Pigment 1 (PAP1) cDNA were analysis of metabolic response against the radiation and their protection of the plant under tissue culture condition. PAP1 transgenic and wild type (WT) plants were treated with the radiations of photosynthetically activate radiation (PAR) or PAR combined with UV-A. All lines of transgenic significantly increased in amounts of p-coumaric acid, naringenin apigenin more than WT under both treatments. Additional UV-A radiating to plant rose up kaempferol content in WT plant (1.5 times) and in PAP1 transgenics (1.8 times). These transgenic plants treated under both conditions had also increased anthocyanin substances (pelargonidin) with significant value after compared to WT. Content of total soluble sugar (TSS) was related to the content of total flavonoids in transgenic. PAR combined with UV-A had a lower induction of the electrolyte leakage percentage and malondialdehyde (MDA) level in the transgenic leaf tissue compared to WT tissue. The metabolic substance levels were considered on its protection of plant cells. In transgenic tissue, the enhancement of apigenin level strongly diminished the increase level of electrolyte leakage while the levels of TSS, p-coumaric acid and naringinin less affected. Moreover, the increase levels of kaempferol and pelargonidin associated with the decrease level of MDA, while the TSS level reversely responded. The PAP1 transgenic increased response of light by adaptation of their metabolites (TSS, p-coumaric acid and flavonoids) consequently enhance parameter indicating protections of the cell. (author)

  10. Self-Reports of Pap Smear Screening in Women with Physical Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jin-Ding; Chen, Shih-Fan; Lin, Lan-Ping; Sung, Chang-Lin

    2011-01-01

    We collected self reported rate of cervical smear testing to examine the affecting factors in women with physical disabilities in the study, to define the reproductive health care for this group of people. The study population recruited 521 women with physical disabilities aged more than 15 years who were officially registered as having physical…

  11. Citologia vaginal a fresco na gravidez: correlação com a citologia corada pela técnica de Papanicolaou Fresh wet mount in pregnancy: correlation with Pap smears

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amadeu Ramos da Silva Filho

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: analisar o conteúdo vaginal utilizando o exame citológico a fresco na primeira consulta pré-natal em mulheres com ou sem queixas genitais e correlacionar os resultados com os encontrados na citologia corada pela técnica de Papanicolaou. A microscopia direta durante a gravidez deve ser valorizada e reconhecida como método propedêutico capaz de diagnosticar, de forma imediata, 90% dos casos de vaginose bacteriana, candidose e tricomonose. MÉTODOS: estudo prospectivo em 216 gestantes, selecionadas em ambulatório de pré-natal no período de 30 de outubro de 2001 a 12 de novembro de 2002. Foram colhidas duas amostras do conteúdo existente no fundo de saco vaginal posterior e depositadas em lâminas de vidro para microscopia. Sobre a primeira e a segunda amostra eram colocadas uma gota de NaCl a 0,9% e uma de KOH a 10%, respectivamente. Adicionalmente, em todas as grávidas determinou-se o pH vaginal e realizaram-se os testes de produção das aminas com odores de pescado. O material era examinado ao microscópio em aumentos de 100 vezes, 400 vezes e excepcionalmente 1000 vezes. Foram realizados esfregaços cervicovaginais para citologia corada pelo método de Papanicolaou. A correlação entre os resultados dos métodos citológicos empregados foi realizada pelo cálculo do coeficiente kappa, que avalia a concordância para variáveis qualitativas. RESULTADOS: o encontro nos esfregaços a fresco de flora bacteriana normal foi de 51,8, representando o aspecto citológico mais observado e sem correspondência com os 3,7% apurados na microscopia corada. No exame citológico direto foram observados 30,9% de vaginose bacteriana e 7,9% de candidose. Todavia, no Papanicolaou não foi encontrada tal equivalência, sendo as porcentagens de 0,7 e 24,3%, respectivamente. A ausência de correlação no diagnóstico de colpite bacteriana inespecífica na microscopia direta (17,5% e corada (51,3% talvez deva-se ao subdiagnóstico de vaginose neste último método propedêutico. Os diagnósticos de tricomoníase observados em ambos os métodos citológicos (3,7 e 2,7% traduzem a baixa prevalência destes parasitas na gestação. O cálculo do índice kappa para avaliação da concordância entre os dois procedimentos citológicos nos diversos achados microbiológicos demonstrou baixa correlação nos diagnósticos da vaginose bacteriana e colpites bacterianas inespecíficas, bem como na identificação da flora vaginal normal. CONCLUSÕES: embora a citologia corada apresente melhor acurácia no diagnóstico de fungos não formadores de micélios, a citologia direta a fresco demonstrou ser melhor avaliador dos elementos não epiteliais dos esfregaços vaginais. Entretanto, a microscopia corada pela técnica de Papanicolaou, por permitir melhor apreciação das células epiteliais cervicovaginais, representa o mais importante instrumento revelador das agressões e reações nucleocitoplasmáticas.PURPOSE: to analyze vaginal contents using the fresh wet mount of a cytological exam in the first prenatal visit of women with or without genital complaints and correlate the conclusion with the results from the Pap smears. Microscopy during pregnancy should be valued and recognized as a method capable of providing immediate diagnosis in 90% of bacterial vaginosis, candidiasis and trichomoniasis cases. METHODS: a prospective study was performed in 216 pregnant women selected from the prenatal department of a public hospital, between October 30, 2001 and November 12, 2002. Two samples were collected from the posterior vaginal vault and deposited onto two separate microscope slides. To one slide, a droplet of 0.9% NaCl was applied and to the other, a droplet of 10% KOH. Both slides were covered with a coverslip for immediate microscopic evaluation. Tests were perfomed in one drop of the material to examine pH and whiff. The microscopic examination of the material was carried out at a 100X, 400X and exceptionally 1000X magnification. Pap smears were performed in all pregnant patients. The correlation between the results of the utilized cytological methods was perfomed by the kappa coefficient, which evaluates the concordance for quality variables. RESULTS: the findings of the normal vaginal microflora in the fresh wet mount were 7.8%, representing the most observed cytological aspect, and without correspondence with the 3.70% verified by the Pap smears. In the fresh wet mount, bacterial vaginosis was found in 30.9% and candidiasis in 7.9% of the cases. However, in the Pap smears no similar event occurred, the diagnosis being 0.7 and 24.3%, respectively. The absence of a diagnosis correlation of nonspecific bacterial vaginitis by direct microscopy (17.5% and Pap smears (51.3% is probably due to the undervalued diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis by the latter method. The diagnosis of trichomonas vaginalis observed in both cytological methods (3.70 and 2.78% represents a low prevalence of these parasites in the course of pregnancy. The kappa coefficient between the two cytological procedures in the several microbiological findings showed low correlation of the diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis with nonspecific vaginitis, as well as the normal vaginal flora. CONCLUSIONS: although the Pap smear presents the best accuracy of the diagnosis of yeast without pseudomycelium, the fresh wet mount has shown to be a better appraiser of nonepithelial cells the vaginal smears. Because Pap smears allow a better evaluation of vaginal epithelial cells, they represent the most important tool to show the aggressions and reactions of the nucleus and cytoplasm.

  12. AUTOFLUORESCENCE IN PAP STAIN IN THE SPUTUM OF SUSPECTED PULMONARY TUBERCULOSIS AND COMPARE WITH OTHER AFB STAINS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mani

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Tuberculosis is an infectious disease caused by mycobacterium tuberculosis. It primarily affect lungs and can also affect intestine, meninges, bones and Joints, lymph node, skin and other tissues of the body. There are various methods for the diagnosis of tuberculosis, such as sputum examination of tubercular bacilli by Ziehl-Neelsen staining, demonstration of tubercular bacilli by Auramine–Rhodamine staining and culture in LJ medium. Papanicolaou stain is widely used in routine cytological evaluation of samples derived from the respiratory tract and eosin to be responsible for the autofluorescence. MATERIAL AND METHOD Present study was done clinically suspected tubercular patients from January to July 2015. On all received samples ZN stain, fluorescent stain and PAP stain was applied. RESULT Among the clinically suspected patients 650 (35.35% was diagnosed with tuberculosis. Male-to-female ratio was 2.76:1, Tuberculosis was diagnosed in 315 (16.75% cases with Ziehl-Neelsen staining with fluorescent staining in 611 (32.79% cases and Autofluorescence in 650 (35.35% cases. CONCLUSION In present study, fever was chief clinical complaint. Males are more diagnosed with tuberculosis than females. Autofluorescent staining is slightly more sensitive than the Auramine–Rhodamine and more ZN staining in demonstration of AFB in the samples.

  13. A construção social dos papéis sexuais femininos Feminine sex-roles social construction

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    Eros DeSouza

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Esta revisão é uma tentativa de produzir uma representação holística, mas não exaustiva, dos papéis sexuais femininos no Brasil. Começamos traçando o papel histórico-político das mulheres do Brasil Colonial até o movimento feminista moderno, enfocando três questões correntes: planejamento familiar, creches e violência contra a mulher. A seguir, examinamos as normas culturais do machismo e do marianismo. Finalmente, discutimos os avanços que as mulheres fizeram no Brasil na última década (desde a Constituição de 1988, chamando a atenção para uma questão que tem sido grandemente ignorada: o assédio sexual.This review is an attempt to provide a holistic, but by no means exhaustive, picture of gender roles in Brazil. We begin by tracing the historical-political role of women from colonial Brazil through the modern women’s movement, highlighting three current issues: family planning, child care, and violence against women. Next, we examine the cultural norms of machismo and marianismo. Finally, we discuss the strides women have made in Brazil in the last decade (since the Consitution of 1988, calling attention to one issue that has been largely ignored: sexual harassment.

  14. Complete Genome Sequence of pAP13, a Large Linear Plasmid of a Brevibacterium Strain Isolated from a Saline Lake at 4,200Meters above Sea Level in Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Dib, Julian Rafael; Schuldes, Jrg; Thrmer, Andrea; Farias, Mara E.; Daniel, Rolf; Meinhardt, Friedhelm

    2013-01-01

    pAP13 is an 89-kb linear plasmid hosted by Brevibacterium sp. strain Ap13, an actinobacterium isolated from the feces of a flamingo from an extremely high-altitude lake in Argentina. Because of the ecological importance of the genus Brevibacterium, the absolute lack of information concerning Brevibacterium linear plasmids, and the possible ecological significance of this unusual plasmid, pAP13 was completely sequenced, including the inversely oriented termini.

  15. Obtaining zircaloy powder through hydriding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zirconium alloys are good options for the metal matrix in dispersion fuels for power reactors due to their low thermal neutron absorption cross-section, good corrosion resistance, good mechanical strength and high thermal conductivity. A necessary step for obtaining such fuels is producing Zr alloy powder for the metal matrix composite material. This article presents results from the Zircaloy-4 hydrogenation tests with the purpose to embrittle the alloy as a first step for comminuting. Several hydrogenation tests were performed and studied through thermogravimetric analysis. They included H2 pressures of 25 and 50 kPa and temperatures ranging between from 20 to 670 deg C. X-ray diffraction analysis showed in the hydrogenated samples the predominant presence of ZrH2 and some ZrO2. Some kinetics parameters for the Zircaloy-4 hydrogenation reaction were obtained: the time required to reach the equilibrium state at the dwell temperature was about 100 minutes; the hydrogenation rate during the heating process from 20 to 670 deg C was about 21 mg/h, and at constant temperature of 670 deg C, the hydride rate was about 1.15 mg/h. The hydrogenation rate is largest during the heating process and most of it occurs during this period. After hydrogenated, the samples could easily be comminuted indicating that this is a possible technology to obtain Zircaloy powder. The results show that only few minutes of hydrogenation are necessary to reach the hydride levels required for comminuting the Zircaloy. The final hydride stoichiometry was between 2.7 and 2.8 H for each Zr atom in the sample (author)

  16. Identification of hemostatic genes expressed in human and rat leg muscles and a novel gene (LPP1/PAP2A suppressed during prolonged physical inactivity (sitting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zderic Theodore W

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Partly because of functional genomics, there has been a major paradigm shift from solely thinking of skeletal muscle as contractile machinery to an understanding that it can have roles in paracrine and endocrine functions. Physical inactivity is an established risk factor for some blood clotting disorders. The effects of inactivity during sitting are most alarming when a person develops the enigmatic condition in the legs called deep venous thrombosis (DVT or “coach syndrome,” caused in part by muscular inactivity. The goal of this study was to determine if skeletal muscle expresses genes with roles in hemostasis and if their expression level was responsive to muscular inactivity such as occurs in prolonged sitting. Methods Microarray analyses were performed on skeletal muscle samples from rats and humans to identify genes associated with hemostatic function that were significantly expressed above background based on multiple probe sets with perfect and mismatch sequences. Furthermore, we determined if any of these genes were responsive to models of physical inactivity. Multiple criteria were used to determine differential expression including significant expression above background, fold change, and non-parametric statistical tests. Results These studies demonstrate skeletal muscle tissue expresses at least 17 genes involved in hemostasis. These include the fibrinolytic factors tetranectin, annexin A2, and tPA; the anti-coagulant factors TFPI, protein C receptor, PAF acetylhydrolase; coagulation factors, and genes necessary for the posttranslational modification of these coagulation factors such as vitamin K epoxide reductase. Of special interest, lipid phosphate phosphatase-1 (LPP1/PAP2A, a key gene for degrading prothrombotic and proinflammatory lysophospholipids, was suppressed locally in muscle tissue within hours after sitting in humans; this was also observed after acute and chronic physical inactivity conditions in rats, and exercise was relatively ineffective at counteracting this effect in both species. Conclusions These findings suggest that skeletal muscle may play an important role in hemostasis and that muscular inactivity may contribute to hemostatic disorders not only because of the slowing of blood flow per se, but also potentially because of the contribution from genes expressed locally in muscles, such as LPP1.

  17. Comportamentos relacionados à decisão de compra de papéis Bovespa: a influência do message framing no pequeno investidor mineiro

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    Jersone Tasso Moreira Silva

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo tem por objetivo geral analisar o comportamento de compra de Papéis na Bovespa pelo investidor belo horizontino, a partir das mudanças no valor de sua riqueza financeira. A pesquisa caracteriza-se como exploratória, sendo que no aspecto da abordagem do problema, o trabalho foi desenvolvido em duas fases: uma qualitativa exploratória e outra quantitativa descritiva por meio da análise de variância com aplicação do teste ANOVA. Investigaram-se os efeitos do framing positivo versus o framing negativo, na mensagem transmitida, através de textos que compõem o questionário respondido pelos entrevistados. O questionário foi aplicado a investidores mineiros composto por clientes de uma corretora de valores de Belo Horizonte, bem como professores da área de finanças que ministram disciplinas da área de mercado de capitais em universidades de Belo Horizonte. Neste estudo a maioria dos entrevistados do grupo framing positivo é do sexo masculino, com faixa etária acima de 40 anos. Demonstrou-se que a mensagem estruturada positivamente (enfatizando os ganhos da prevenção ao risco foi mais persuasiva do que a mensagem estruturada negativamente (enfatizando as perdas da não prevenção ao risco e do que a mensagem informativa (do grupo controle. A hipótese de que a informação positiva tem maior impacto do que a informação negativa equivalente vai de encontro com as propriedades da função valor da Teoria dos Prospects. Conclui-se, portanto, que um determinado investidor, munido de informações de caráter positivo, enfatizando os aspectos positivos da mensagem, sinta-se incentivado e superconfiante a investir em ações.

  18. Characterisation of drug resistance of nosocomial ESBL-producing E. coli isolates obtained from a Turkish university hospital between 2009 and 2012 by pulsed field gel electrophoresis and antibiotic resistance tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karagöz, Alper; Sunnetcioglu, Mahmut; Ceylan, M Resat; Bayram, Yasemin; Yalcin, Gozde; Kocak, Nadir; Suvak, Burak; Andac, Cenk A

    2016-03-01

    In this study, drug resistance of 28 ESBL-producing Escherichia coli isolates obtained from 144 patients hospitalized at the Yüzüncüyil University Hospital at Van (YUH), Turkey, between 2009 and 2012 were characterized by pulsed field gel electrophoresis and antibiotic susceptibility tests. Antibiotic resistance profile was determined by Phoenix automated system (BD, USA). The ratio of ESBL-producing E. coli strains was determined to be 19.4% (28 out of 144 E. coli isolates). It was determined that the anaesthesiology, paediatrics and thoracic medicine intensive care units in YUH were cross-contaminated between 2009 and 2012 by ESBL-producing E. coli strains, which is a sign of nosocomial infection in YUH. Analysis of PFGE results gave rise to two main PFGE profiles, profile-A with four subprofiles and profile-B with three subprofiles, where profile-A predominates over profile-B (14%). Comparison of the antibiotic resistance profile with the PFGE profile yielded similarities while some differences also exist due to either identical restriction enzyme cutting sites with slightly different genetic sequences in between the cutting sites or newly formed restriction enzyme cutting sites that do not affect antibiotic resistance genes. Enterobacteriaceae, particularly E. coli, have developed resistance in YUH by producing ESBLs against oxyimino and non-oxyimino cephalosporins, and penicillin-type antibiotics. Therefore, more effective antibiotics such as cefoxitin or cefoperazone-sulbactam should be used for the treatment of future nosocomial infections in YUH while hospital staff should take care with hygiene, such as hand washing. PMID:27031893

  19. Reexamination of the present stress state of the Atera fault system, central Japan, based on the calibrated crustal stress data of hydraulic fracturing tests obtained by measuring the tensile strength of rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Futoshi; Mizoguchi, Kazuo; Fukuyama, Eiichi; Omura, Kentaro

    2010-04-01

    To investigate past faulting activity and the present physical state of intraplate faults in Japan, we reexamined the crustal stress measured by hydraulic fracturing tests (HFTs) incorporating the tensile strength of rocks. The tensile strength was measured by fracturing hollow cylindrical rock samples which were obtained close to the Atotsugawa, the Atera, and the Rokko-Awaji fault systems in central Japan, where in situ stress measurements had been conducted with HFTs. The measured tensile strength data reveal that the reopening pressure was obviously biased in the conventional HFT with a large compliance system. We reestimated the reopening pressure using the measured tensile strength and recalculated the in situ stress around the Atera fault system. We found that the shear stress decreases toward the fault. Although the past long-term slip direction of the Atera fault system has been considered to be left-lateral from the geomorphological features, the reestimated stress suggests that the present slip direction is right-lateral, a finding that is also supported by the present-day horizontal crustal deformation observed by triangulation and GPS surveys. The amount of accumulated right-lateral dislocation estimated from the stress data using the dislocation model of Okada (1992) was 2.1 m. Because the current slip rate from the GPS survey is 1.9 ± 1.4 mm/yr, the accumulation period of the right-lateral dislocation becomes approximately 1100 ± 800 years if the slip rate is stable. This estimation suggests that during the latest earthquake the Atera fault system underwent right-lateral dislocation.

  20. Examen oftálmico para trámite de la licencia de conducción en Santiago de Cuba Ophthalmic test for the procedure to obtain a driving licence in Santiago de Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eglis Esteban García Alcolea

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó la experiencia acumulada durante los años 2003-2009 por la Comisión Municipal de Chequeo Oftalmológico de Santiago de Cuba; grupo de trabajo evaluador de los aspirantes a obtener la licencia de conducción, que radica en el Policlínico Docente "Frank País García". En tal sentido, el examen ocular a los presuntos futuros conductores reviste suma importancia, de modo que constituye una gran responsabilidad, tanto para el médico como para los interesados, que esa revisión de la agudeza visual se realice con la calidad requerida y periódicamente para brindar una mayor seguridad en la vía pública. En el municipio de Santiago de Cuba, donde se dispone de vastos conocimientos prácticos al respecto y capital humano capacitado, se han logrado buenos resultados hasta el 2010; éxito en esta esfera que se ha extendido a las restantes comisiones de la provincia y contribuido a alcanzar la excelencia en los servicios.The experience gathered during the years 2003-2009 from the Municipal Committee of Ophthalmic Examination in Santiago de Cuba was assessed; this work group is settled in the Teaching General Hospital "Frank País Garcia" and evaluates the candidates for obtaining a driving license. In this way, the ophthalmic test to the presumptive future drivers involves great significance, so it constitutes a great responsibility for both, the doctor and the interested person, to carry out this ophthalmic examination with the required quality and periodically, to provide a major safety in the public highway. In the municipality of Santiago de Cuba, where wide practical knowledge on the topic and qualified human staff is stipulated. Good results have been achieved up to 2010 in Santiago de Cuba municipality where wide practical knowledge and qualified human staff exist; and this success was broaden to the other committees of the province, which has contributed to reach excellence on the services.

  1. ROLE OF HUMAN PAPILLOMA VIRUS IN ETIOLOGY OF CERVICAL INTRAEPITHELIAL NEOPLASIA (CIN & CARCINOMA CERVIX BY PAP SMEARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahendra

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The causal role of human papilloma virus in all cancers of uterine cervix has been confirmed. HPV infection of uterine cervix is associated with development of a spectrum of benign and malignant epithelial lesions. Morphological changes in the ep ithelial cells associated with HPV have been reported in up to 91 % of women with invasive and intraepithelial neoplasia. With over 120 specific types described, type 16 and 18 are linked mainly to cervical neoplasia. Human papilloma virus although necessa ry but is not a sufficient cause. There are cofactors necessary for progression from cervical HIV infection to cancer. Long term use of hormonal contraceptives, high parity, socio - economic status, tobacco smoking, and young age at coitus has been identifie d as established cofactors. PAP smear has become a routine method of cervical cancer screening and its clinical utilization has certain limitations like false negative rate (Elovainio et al, 1999 reported 20%. Colposcopy (introduced in 1925 by Hans Hinsel mann as an adjunct to cytology possibly increases the accuracy of cervical cancer detection to almost 100%. It evaluates changes in terminal vascular network that reflects biochemical and metabolic changes in tissue that are earliest changes in developmen t of cancer cervix. It is an O. P. D. procedure, no prior preparation or anesthesia required. Follow up of patients by HPV DNA detection can be used as an adjunctive to cytology preventing the requirement of unnecessary invasive interventions. Detection of Human Papilloma Virus by polymerase chain reaction along with screening by cytology can augment our ability to diagnose the cases in its early stage which will prove useful in preventing the cases of carcinoma cervix.

  2. An Investigation of the Relationship Between Readiness Test Scores for Kindergarten Children and Achievement Scores Obtained at the End of Grades One and Two. S.S.T.A. Research Centre Report No. 62.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warkentin, Lena

    The primary purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between Metropolitan Readiness Test (MRT) scores in kindergarten (MRTK) and grade one (MRT1) with the reading scores of the Canadian Tests of Basic Skills (CTBS) at the end of grades one (CTBSR1) and two (CTBSR2). A secondary purpose of the study was to determine whether the…

  3. EBUS-TBNA Provides Highest RNA Yield for Multiple Biomarker Testing from Routinely Obtained Small Biopsies in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Patients - A Comparative Study of Three Different Minimal Invasive Sampling Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Schmid-Bindert, Gerald; Wang, Yongsheng; Jiang, Hongbin; Sun, Hui; HENZLER, THOMAS; Wang, Hao; Pilz, Lothar R.; Ren, Shengxiang; Zhou, Caicun

    2013-01-01

    Background Multiple biomarker testing is necessary to facilitate individualized treatment of lung cancer patients. More than 80% of lung cancers are diagnosed based on very small tumor samples. Often there is not enough tissue for molecular analysis. We compared three minimal invasive sampling methods with respect to RNA quantity for molecular testing. Methods 106 small biopsies were prospectively collected by three different methods forceps biopsy, endobronchial ultrasound (EBUS) guided tran...

  4. Crystal structures of human sulfotransferases SULT1B1 and SULT1C1 complexed with the cofactor product adenosine-3'- 5'-diphosphate (PAP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dombrovski, Luidmila; Dong, Aiping; Bochkarev, Alexey; Plotnikov, Alexander N. (Toronto)

    2008-09-17

    Cytosolic sulfotransferases (SULTs), often referred as Phase II enzymes of chemical defense, are a superfamily of enzymes that catalyze the transfer of a sulfonate group from 3{prime}-phosphoadenosine 5{prime}-phosphosulfate (PAPS) to an acceptor group of substrates. This reaction modulates the activities of a large array of small endogenous and foreign chemicals including drugs, toxic compounds, steroid hormones, and neurotransmitters. In some cases, however, SULTs activate certain food and environmental compounds to mutagenenic and carcinogenic metabolites. Twelve human SULTs have been identified, which are partitioned into three families: SULT1, SULT2 and SULT4. The SULT1 family is further divided in four subfamilies, A, B, C, and E, and comprises eight members (1A1, 1A2, 1A3, 1B1, 1C1, 1C2, 1C3, and 1E1). Despite sequence and structural similarity among the SULTs, the family and subfamily members appear to have different biological function. SULT1 family shows substrate-binding specificity for simple phenols, estradiol, and thyroid hormones, as well as environmental xenobiotics and drugs. Human SULT1B1 is expressed in liver, colon, small intestine, and blood leukocytes, and shows substrate-binding specificity to thyroid hormones and benzylic alcohols. Human SULT1C1 is expressed in the adult stomach, kidney, and thyroid, as well as in fetal kidney and liver. SULT1C1 catalyzes the sulfonation of p-nitrophenol and N-hydroxy-2-acetylaminofluorene in vitro. However, the in vivo function of the enzyme remains unknown. We intend to solve the structures for all of the SULTs for which structural information is not yet available, and compare the structural and functional features of the entire SULT superfamily. Here we report the structures of two members of SULT1 family, SULT1B1 and SULT1C1, both in complex with the product of the PAPS cofactor, adenosine-3{prime}-5{prime}-diphosphate (PAP).

  5. Static Longitudinal and Lateral Stability and Control Data Obtained from Tests of a 1/15-Scale Model of the Goodyear XZP5K Airship, TED No. NACA DE 211

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, Michael D.

    1956-01-01

    Static longitudinal and lateral stability and control data are presented of an investigation on a l/15-scale model of the Goodyear XZP5K airship over a pitch and yaw range of +/-20 deg and 0 deg to 30 deg, respectively, for various rudder and elevator deflections. Two tail configurations of different plan forms were tested and wake and boundary-layer surveys were conducted. Testing was conducted in the Langley full-scale tunnel at a Reynolds number of approximately 16.5 x 10(exp 6) based on hull length, and corresponds to a Mach number of about 0.12.

  6. Tamizaje en cáncer cervical: conocimiento de la utilidad y uso de citología cervical en México Cervical cancer screening: knowledge of Pap smear benefits and utilization in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José A Aguilar-Pérez

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Identificar y evaluar los factores que predisponen a la utilización de la prueba de Papanicolaou en la población que usa el servicio del Programa Nacional de Detección Oportuna de Cáncer en México. MÉTODOS: Se realizó un estudio del tipo transversal de enero de 1997 a diciembre de 1998, en la Ciudad de México; se incluyeron a 2.107 mujeres en edad reproductiva que acudieron a un servicio de planificación familiar, las cuáles respondieron a un cuestionario con preguntas sobre características: sociodemográficas, factores de riesgo reproductivo asociados a cáncer cervical, historia de vida sexual, uso de métodos anticonceptivos, conocimiento de la utilidad y utilización del Papanicolaou. Para el análisis de los datos se construyeron modelos multivariados de regresión logística no condicional. RESULTADOS: Los predisponentes de utilización del programa de detección oportuna de cáncer en esta población fueron: el conocimiento de la utilidad del Papanicolaou incrementó en seis veces más la posibilidad de utilización (IC 95% 4,70-7,67; el antecedente de utilización de dos o más métodos de planificación familiar (OR=2,38; IC 95% 1,75-3,24; el antecedente de historia de infección vaginal (OR=2,18; IC 95% 1,73-2,75, y la aceptación del esposo para la realización de exploraciones ginecológicas (OR=1,56; IC 95% 1,07-2,29. CONCLUSIONES: La implementación de programas educativos en la prevención de cáncer, deberán incluir la utilidad de las pruebas de detección. En México, en mujeres en edad reproductiva utilización de la prueba de Papanicolaou se ofrece predominantemente en forma oportunista, por lo que el antecedente de utilización de los Servicios de Salud es un determinante para la utilización del Programa de Detección Oportuna de Cáncer Cervical. Estos resultados muestran la necesidad de ampliar la promoción a la salud de este programa a las mujeres de alto riesgo, incluyendo a sus parejas sexuales.OBJECTIVE: To identify and evaluate the predisposing factors regarding the utilization of the Pap smears in the population seen in the Cervical Cancer Screening Program in Mexico METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted from January 1997 through December 1998 in Mexico city. A questionnaire was applied to a total of 2,107 women of reproductive age who attended a family planning program and data was collected regarding the following topics: social-demographics, reproductive risk factors associated with cervical cancer, sexual behavior and partner history, birth control, knowledge about Pap smear' benefits, and its utilization. Statistic analysis was conducted using Student´s test and non-conditional multiple logistic regression model for determining significance. RESULTS: The predisposing factors were: knowledge about Pap smear's benefits (OR=6.00, CI 95% 4.70-7.67, history of using at least two birth control methods (OR=2.38, CI 95% 1.75-3.24, previous history of vaginal infection (OR=2.18, CI 95% 1.73-2.75, sexual partner's approval of gynecological examinations (OR=1.56, CI 95% 1.07-2.29. CONCLUSIONS: Educational programs on cancer prevention in this population should include the benefits of screening tests. Pap smears for Mexican women of reproductive age are mostly offered opportunely. The previous use of health services is a determinant factor for the utilization of the Cervical Cancer Screening Program. These results show the need to strengthen health promotion programs to women at high risk of cervical cancer and their sexual partners.

  7. Comparison of Pap Smear Quality With Anatomical Spatula Method and the Common Method (Spatula‐ Cytobrush: A Single Blind Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soleimani M

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cervical cancer is the third most common cancer in women in the world. Papanicolaou smear is known as a standard test for cervical cancer screening; however, the most important challenge is high rates of false negative results. The aim of this study was to compare the quality of smears obtained by anatomical spatula and spatula-cytobrush. The most important factor in false negative result is inappropriate tool of sampling. Methods: One hundred married women participated in this single blind clinical trial. All participants were interviewed; two samples were obtained from every participant: one with spatula-cytobrush and another one with anatomical spatula. All slides were encoded and were assessed by two pathologists. Then, data were analyzed by means of kappa coefficient. Results: Cell adequacy was 96.1 % in anatomical spatula method and 91.2 % in spatula-cytobrush method (p= 0.016. The rates for endocervical cells and metaplasia cells in anatomical spatula method were 70.6% and 24.5% respectively and these amounts were 69.6% and 24.5% respectively in the spatula-cytobrush method (p 0.05. Regarding infection and inflammatory reactions there was no statistically significant difference between two methods (p>0.05. Conclusion: Based on our findings in this study, results of sampling with anatomical spatula method were more acceptable and better than those with spatulacytobrush sampling.

  8. Equilibration of [3H]glucosamine and [35S]sulfate with intracellular pools of UDP-N-acetylhexosamine and 3'-phosphoadenosine-5'-phosphosulfate (PAPS) in cultured fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nucleotides and sugar nucleotides were extracted from cultures of human fibroblasts with perchloric acid, separated by isotachophoresis, and quantified by uv absorption analysis at 254 nm. ATP (936 pmol/micrograms DNA) was, as expected, the dominating nucleotide pool. The energy charge was estimated to 0.9. The UDP-N-acetylhexosamine pool was also a very prominent compound (596 pmol/micrograms DNA). After incubation of fibroblasts with [3H]glucosamine, more than 95% of the acid-soluble radioactivity was found in the UDP-N-acetylhexosamine pool. Incubation with [35S]sulfate resulted in the incorporation of [35S]sulfate into 3'-phosphoadenosine-5'-phosphosulfate (PAPS). The latter could, however, only be measured as radioactivity, as the amount was too small to be quantified as total mass. Pulse-labeling of fibroblasts with [35S]sulfate and [3H]glucosamine from 5 min to 16 h showed that [35S]PAPS was equilibrated in less than 10 min, while [3H]glucosamine required a longer time, 2-4 h, to attain a steady state with UDP-N-acetylhexosamine. [14C]Glucose required approximately the same time as [3H]glucosamine to reach steady state with UDP-acetylhexosamine, which suggests that the reason for the long equilibration time is the slow turnover of this pool

  9. The occupational roles of women with anorexia nervosa Los papeles ocupacionales de mujeres con anorexia nervosa Os papéis ocupacionais de mulheres com anorexia nervosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Maria Quiles-Cestari

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This study’s objective was to understand how occupational roles of individuals with anorexia nervosa are configured. The sample was composed of a control group and 11 adult women with anorexia nervosa being cared for by the Eating Disorders Care Group in a hospital in Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brazil. Socio-demographic and anthropometric data were collected and the Role Checklist was applied. The results revealed a significant loss of roles for women with anorexia nervosa in relation to the performance of the roles worker, friend, and amateur/hobbyist, supporting the idea that psychosocial harm may arise from this eating disorder. The evaluation of occupational roles in the treatment of eating disorders is an important strategy for planning Occupational Therapy activities and supporting the creation of healthier spaces to enable individuals to resume occupational roles, and acquire independence and autonomy.El objetivo es entender como figuran los papeles ocupacionales de las personas con anorexia nervosa. La casuística fue compuesta por 11 personas diagnosticadas en tratamiento en el Grupo de Asistencia en Trastornos Alimentares de un Hospital de Ribeirão Preto-Brasil y un grupo control. Se recogieron variables sociodemográficas, antropométricas y por la “Lista de Identificación de Papeles Ocupacionales”. Los resultados muestran hubo cambio, con pérdida de papeles debido a la anorexia nerviosa, con pérdida de los papeles de trabajador, voluntario, amigo y pasatiempo amador, corroborando los perjuicios psicosociales derivados de este trastorno. La evaluación de los papeles ocupacionales en el tratamiento de los trastornos alimentares es una estrategia importante para la planificación de la terapia ocupacional por la concesión de subvenciones para crear ambientes más saludables, donde las posibilidades de crear el rescate de los papeles ocupacionales, la independencia y autonomía.O objetivo desta pesquisa foi compreender como se configuram os papéis ocupacionais de pessoas com anorexia nervosa. A casuística foi composta por 11 mulheres adultas, diagnosticadas em tratamento no grupo de assistência em transtornos alimentares de um hospital de Ribeirão Preto, Brasil, e por um grupo-controle. Foram coletados dados sociodemográficos, antropométricos e aplicada a Lista de Identificação de Papéis Ocupacionais. Os resultados mostraram que houve alteração significativa nas mulheres com anorexia nervosa, com perda de papéis em relação ao padrão de desempenho do papel de trabalhador, voluntário, amigo e passatempo/amador, corroborando os prejuízos psicossociais decorrentes desse transtorno mental. A avaliação dos papéis ocupacionais no tratamento dos transtornos alimentares é estratégia importante para o planejamento de atividades de Terapia Ocupacional, fornecendo subsídios para a construção de espaços mais saudáveis, onde o fazer cria possibilidades de resgate dos papéis ocupacionais, independência e autonomia.

  10. What women want. Women's preferences for the management of low-grade abnormal cervical screening tests: a systematic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Maria Eiholm; Lynge, E; Rebolj, M

    2012-01-01

    Pap smears. In all but two studies testing other situations, women more often expressed a preference for active follow-up than for observation; however, women appeared to be somewhat more willing to accept observation if reassured of the low risk of cervical cancer. Conclusions Even for low...

  11. Using probabilistic record linkage methods to identify Australian Indigenous women on the Queensland Pap Smear Register: the National Indigenous Cervical Screening Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Abbey; Baade, Peter; Garvey, Gail; Cunningham, Joan; Brotherton, Julia M L; Canfell, Karen; Valery, Patricia C; O'Connell, Dianne L; Taylor, Catherine; Moore, Suzanne P; Condon, John R

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the feasibility and reliability of record linkage of existing population-based data sets to determine Indigenous status among women receiving Pap smears. This method may allow for the first ever population measure of Australian Indigenous women's cervical screening participation rates. Setting/participants A linked data set of women aged 20–69 in the Queensland Pap Smear Register (PSR; 1999–2011) and Queensland Cancer Registry (QCR; 1997–2010) formed the Initial Study Cohort. Two extracts (1995–2011) were taken from Queensland public hospitals data (Queensland Hospital Admitted Patient Data Collection, QHAPDC) for women, aged 20–69, who had ever been identified as Indigenous (extract 1) and had a diagnosis or procedure code relating to cervical cancer (extract 2). The Initial Study Cohort was linked to extract 1, and women with cervical cancer in the initial cohort were linked to extract 2. Outcome measures The proportion of women in the Initial Cohort who linked with the extracts (true -pairs) is reported, as well as the proportion of potential pairs that required clerical review. After assigning Indigenous status from QHAPDC to the PSR, the proportion of women identified as Indigenous was calculated using 4 algorithms, and compared. Results There were 28 872 women (2.1%) from the Initial Study Cohort who matched to an ever Indigenous record in extract 1 (n=76 831). Women with cervical cancer in the Initial Study Cohort linked to 1385 (71%) records in extract 2. The proportion of Indigenous women ranged from 2.00% to 2.08% when using different algorithms to define Indigenous status. The Final Study Cohort included 1 372 823 women (PSR n=1 374 401; QCR n=1955), and 5 062 118 records. Conclusions Indigenous status in Queensland cervical screening data was successfully ascertained through record linkage, allowing for the crucial assessment of the current cervical screening programme for Indigenous women. Our study highlights the need to include Indigenous status on Pap smear request and report forms in any renewed and redesigned cervical screening programme in Australia. PMID:26873047

  12. From the definition of silicosis at the 1930 Johannesburg conference to the blurred boundaries between pneumoconioses, sarcoidosis, and pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Michel; Chemarin, Cecile; Cavalin, Catherine; Catinon, Mikael; Rosental, Paul-André

    2015-11-01

    The 1930 International Labour Office Conference on silicosis in Johannesburg identified silicosis by setting a medicolegal framework to its nosology: as with other occupational illnesses, its medical content was fixed under economic pressure. This article follows a reading of all the proceedings of this conference (debates and reports of experts) to examine their potential impact on the etiology and nosology of other diseases, specifically sarcoidosis and pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP), "idiopathic" diseases in which inorganic particles may be involved. We propose renewed study of the role of inorganic particles in these diseases. To do this, we propose to mobilize detection means such as mineralogical analysis and electron microscopy and in depth interviewing that are currently seldom used in France, in order to establish diagnosis and the potential occupational and environmental origin of these diseases. PMID:26509752

  13. Ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration of a posterior neck dedifferentiated liposarcoma with MDM2 fluorescence in situ hybridization performed on a Pap-stained smear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zreik, Riyam; Soyalp, Krystal; Ruiz, Steve; Ward, Russell; Dobin, Sheila; Chen, Xiangbai; Liu, Lina; Rao, Arundhati

    2015-04-01

    Head and neck liposarcomas, while rare, tend to be subcutaneous and well-differentiated. Dedifferentiated liposarcomas of the head and neck are exceedingly rare in the literature. We present a case of a dedifferentiated liposarcoma arising in the soft tissue of the posterior neck of an 86-year-old man and diagnosed by fine-needle aspiration. Aspirate smears showed a dual population of atypical lipomatous and spindled cells. MDM2 (murine double minute 2) amplification was demonstrated on a Pap-stained smear using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of MDM2 FISH amplification in a liposarcoma performed on an aspirate smear. PMID:25132684

  14. Methods of obtaining thermodynamic data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The types of thermodynamic data needed to predict behavior of high temperature systems such as an overheated nuclear reactor in which the fuel has been exposed to water and oxygen are discussed. Procedures for obtaining the needed data are reviewed. 14 refs

  15. Employment Obtaining and Business Starting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Jian

    2009-01-01

    The implementation of business starting education in higher vocational colleges is of important and realistic meanings for cultivating advanced technology application-type talents and for releasing the employment obtaining pressure of higher vocational students. Based on the analysis on the employment situation of higher vocational graduates, this

  16. Obtaining Public Records: Reporter Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Betsy

    2013-01-01

    Obtaining public records is essential to covering public education. Fortunately, the law is on the side of reporters: Public agencies generally must disclose their records to the public and to the media--with important exceptions. Public agencies are often reluctant to hand over records, however, even when the law clearly says they should.

  17. High risk human papillomavirus type 16 and 18 infection in the cervical lesions of women with epithelial cell abnormality in Pap smear: A cytohistomorphologic association in Bangladeshi women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urmila Banik

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to find out the extent of high-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV type 16/18 infection in the cervical tissue of women with epithelial cell abnormality in Pap smear and to establish an association between hrHPV type 16/18 infection and cytohistomorphology. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out in 1699 patients who went through Pap smear examination. Prevalence of epithelial cell abnormality was calculated. Forty eight of these women underwent routine histopathology and 47 were evaluated for human papillomavirus (HPV type 16/18 by polymerase chain reaction assay. Results: Total 139 women revealed epithelial cell abnormality. Histopathology showed simple inflammation to malignancy. HPV type 16/18 infection was detected in 40.42% (19/47 of the patients. Individually type 16 and 18 were positive in 7 (14.9% cases each and dual infection with type 16 and 18 were seen in 5 (10.6% cases. While cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 1 (CIN 1 and < CIN 1 lesions showed 18.75% (3 out of 16 and 35% (7 out of 20 positivity respectively, ≥CIN 2 lesions revealed positivity of 81.82% (9 out of 11. Eighty percent HPV 16/18 positivity was seen in women of < 30 years of age. Conclusion: The findings of this study will contribute to HPV 16/18 knowledge in Bangladesh that will be useful in assessing the success of current vaccines with limited type spectra and augmenting cervical cancer screening strategies.

  18. Color canals modification with canny edge detection and morphological reconstruction for cell nucleus segmentation and area measurement in normal Pap smear images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riana, Dwiza; Dewi, Dyah Ekashanti Octorina; Widyantoro, Dwi H.; Mengko, Tati Latifah R.

    2014-03-01

    This paper presents a cell nucleus segmentation and area measurement of Pap smear images by means of modification of color canals with Canny edge detection and morphological reconstruction methods. Cell nucleus characterization plays an important role for classifying the degree of abnormality in cervical cancer. The aim of this work is to find the matched measurement method with the manual nucleus area measurement. In this work, we utilized pap smear single cell images from Herlev data bank in RGB mode. The cell images were selected from 90 normal class subjects that include: Normal Superficial, Normal Intermediate, and Normal Columnar classes. The nucleus of each cell image was cropped manually to localize from the cytoplasm. The color canals modification was performed on each cropped nucleus image by, first, separating each R, G, B, and grayscale canals, then implementing addition operation based on color canals (R+G+B, R+G, R+B, G+B, and grayscale). The Canny edge detection was applied on those modifications resulting in binary edge images. The nucleus segmentation was implemented on the edge images by performing region filling based on morphological reconstruction. The area property was calculated based on the segmented nucleus area. The nucleus area from the proposed method was verified to the existing manual measurement (ground truth) of the Herlev data bank. Based on thorough observation upon the selected color canals and Canny edge detection. It can be concluded that Canny edge detection with R+G+B canal is the most significant for all Normal classes (r 0,305, p-value 0.05). While for Normal Superficial and Normal Intermediate, Canny edge detection is significant for all RGB modifications with (r 0.414 - 0.817 range, , p-value 0.05), and for Normal Columnar, Canny edge detection is significant for R+B canal (r 0.505, p-value 0.05).

  19. The Pap smear screening as an occasion for smoking cessation and physical activity counselling: baseline characteristics of women involved in the SPRINT randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chellini Elisabetta

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gender-specific smoking cessation strategies have rarely been developed. Evidence of effectiveness of physical activity (PA promotion and intervention in adjunct to smoking cessation programs is not strong. SPRINT study is a randomized controlled trial (RCT designed to evaluate a counselling intervention on smoking cessation and PA delivered to women attending the Italian National Health System Cervical Cancer Screening Program. This paper presents study design and baseline characteristics of the study population. Methods/Design Among women undergoing the Pap examination in three study centres (Florence, Turin, Mantua, participants were randomized to the smoking cessation counselling [S], the smoking cessation + PA counselling [S + PA], or the control [C] groups. The program under evaluation is a standard brief counselling on smoking cessation combined with a brief counselling on increasing PA, and was delivered in 2010. A questionnaire, administered before, after 6 months and 1 year from the intervention, was used to track behavioural changes in tobacco use and PA, and to record cessation rates in participants. Discussion Out of the 5,657 women undergoing the Pap examination, 1,100 participants (55% of smokers were randomized in 1 of the 3 study groups (363 in the S, 366 in the S + PA and 371 in the C groups. The three arms did not differ on any demographic, PA, or tobacco-use characteristics. Recruited smokers were older, less educated than non-participant women, more motivated to quit (33% vs.9% in the Preparation stage, p p p Trial registration number ISRCTN: ISRCTN52660565

  20. Electrochemical Genotoxicity Assay Based on a SOS/umu Test Using Hydrodynamic Voltammetry in a Droplet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuharu Sugawara

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The SOS/umu genotoxicity assay evaluates the primary DNA damage caused by chemicals from the ?-galactosidase activity of S. typhimurium. One of the weaknesses of the common umu test system based on spectrophotometric detection is that it is unable to measure samples containing a high concentration of colored dissolved organic matters, sediment, and suspended solids. However, umu tests with electrochemical detection techniques prove to be a better strategy because it causes less interference, enables the analysis of turbid samples and allows detection even in small volumes without loss of sensitivity. Based on this understanding, we aim to develop a new umu test system with hydrodynamic chronoamperometry using a rotating disk electrode (RDE in a microliter droplet. PAPG when used as a substrate is not electroactive at the potential at which PAP is oxidized to p-quinone imine (PQI, so the current response of chronoamperometry resulting from the oxidation of PAP to PQI is directly proportional to the enzymatic activity of S. typhimurium. This was achieved by performing genotoxicity tests for 2-(2-furyl-3-(5-nitro-2-furyl-acrylamide (AF-2 and 2-aminoanthracene (2-AA as model genotoxic compounds. The results obtained in this study indicated that the signal detection in the genotoxicity assay based on hydrodynamic voltammetry was less influenced by the presence of colored components and sediment particles in the samples when compared to the usual colorimetric signal detection. The influence caused by the presence of humic acids (HAs and artificial sediment on the genotoxic property of selected model compounds such as 4-nitroquinoline-N-oxide (4-NQO, 3-chloro-4-(dichloromethyl-5-hydroxy-2(5H-furanone (MX, 1,8-dinitropyrene (1,8-DNP and 1-nitropyrene (1-NP were also investigated. The results showed that the genotoxicity of 1-NP and MX changed in the presence of 10 mg?L1 HAs. The genotoxicity of tested chemicals with a high hydrophobicity such as 1,8-DNP and 1-NP were decreased substantially with the presence of 1 g?L1 sediment. This was not observed in the case of genotoxins with a low log Kow value.

  1. Moessbauer Characterization of Rust Obtained in an Accelerated Corrosion Test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have performed drying-humectation cyclical processes (CEBELCOR) on eight A36 low carbon steel coupons in NaCl solutions containing 1x10-2 M and 1x10-1 M concentrations. The main purpose of these experiments is to contribute to the understanding of the conditions for akaganeite formation. Additionally, and with the idea to perform a complete characterization of the rust, this work also considers the formation of other iron oxide phases. The corrosion products were characterized by Moessbauer spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction techniques. Gravimetric analysis demonstrates that the coupons presented high corrosion rates. Magnetite/maghemite was common in the rust stuck to the steel surface, whereas akaganeite was present only in traces. In the rust collected from the solutions, i.e., the rust that goes away from the metal surface easily, a magnetite/maghemite was not present and akaganeite showed up in larger quantities. These results support the idea that high concentrations of Cl- ions are required for the akaganeite formation. We concluded that akaganeite is not easily bonded to the rust layer; this may lead to the formation of a less protective rust layer and to higher corrosion rates.

  2. Organoclays obtaining starting up of clays sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clays have several applications in many areas of fields of technology, however, modification of these materials using organic compounds can be performed to obtain further hydrophobic materials, for applications in the adsorption of organic pollutants. This study aimed to analyze the effects of modifying two clays using sodium quaternary ammonium surfactants through ion exchange reaction process, in obtaining organoclays. The samples with sodium and organoclays were characterized by the techniques of X-ray diffraction (XRD), Infrared Spectroscopy in the region (IV), Gravimetric and Differential Thermal Analysis (DTA / TG) and organic adsorption tests. The results show that the process of obtaining organoclay is efficient, and materials have the potential for future applications in removing organic contaminants. (author)

  3. The Insecticides Obtained from Turpentine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Pestana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Over a period of millions of years there has been a close association, evolution and adaptation between plants and insects. The plants have developed terpenes and their derivatives for their own protection and pollination. The insects interact with these substances, ingesting and using them or their biosynthesized derivatives for their own bio-regulation. They have used them as sex hormones, growth and development hormones and pheromones of behaviour such as feeding, aggregation, alarm, and defence. It is also known that turpentine (the volatile fraction of the pine resin, obtained by its distillation and some of its derivatives have in their constitution substances known as insecticides. This article reviews the most important products - the thiocyanates, the chlorinated terpenes, the chrysanthemum-carboxylic acids, the terpenes and derivatives and the terpene polymers - discussing their main characteristics, chemical synthesis, advantages and disadvantages.

  4. Cada cuánto me tengo que hacer la prueba de Papanicoláu (How Often to Get a Pap Test)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-01-10

    El cáncer de cuello uterino ha disminuido en los Estados Unidos, pero cada año se le diagnostica a más de 12,000 mujeres y 4,000 mueren. Este podcast habla sobre la importancia de las pruebas de Papanicoláu.  Created: 1/10/2013 by MMWR.   Date Released: 11/4/2013.

  5. The Pap Test and Bethesda 2014. "The reports of my demise have been greatly exaggerated." (after a quotation from Mark Twain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayar, Ritu; Wilbur, David C

    2015-01-01

    The history of 'The Bethesda System' for reporting cervical cytology goes back almost 3 decades. This terminology and the process that created it have had a profound impact on the practice of cervical cytology for laboratorians and clinicians alike. The Bethesda conferences and their ensuing output have also set the stage for standardization of terminology across multiple organ systems, including both cytology and histology, have initiated significant research in the biology and cost-effective management for human papillomavirus-associated anogenital lesions, and, finally, have fostered worldwide unification of clinical management for these lesions. Herein, we summarize the process and rationale by which updates were made to the terminology in 2014 and outline the contents of the new, third edition of the Bethesda atlas and corresponding website. PMID:25997404

  6. The Pap Test and Bethesda 2014: "The reports of my demise have been greatly exaggerated. (after a quotation from Mark Twain)".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayar, Ritu; Wilbur, David C

    2015-07-01

    The Bethesda System for gynecologic cytopathology has standardized reporting terminology over the past quarter of a century. In doing so, it has allowed for improved communication among practitioners around the world, facilitated large research projects and clinical trials, and has provided the basis from which uniformly accepted risk-based management strategies have been developed. Over time, changes in terminology and the underlying science require revisions, and the third edition of the Bethesda "Atlas" is the result of a yearlong effort to provide such an update. New material was developed and proposed via an Internet bulletin board, allowing for wide commentary that was compiled and incorporated. New images were collected, which comprised many new examples of equivocal presentations and mimics. New background material on the scientific basis supporting the terminology categories, the most current management algorithms, and comprehensive references were included. The effort completely refurbishes this standard reference that forms an inexpensive and, therefore, widely available resource for the world's cytology community. PMID:25943863

  7. Seguimiento de mujeres con anormalidad citológica de cuello uterino, en Colombia Following-up females having an abnormal Pap smear in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Wiesner

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo Evaluar el acceso y la oportunidad al diagnóstico y al tratamiento que tienen las pacientes con lesiones cervicales de alto grado o cáncer de acuerdo con el reporte citológico, en Colombia entre junio 2005 a junio del 2006. Metodología Estudio retrospectivo mediante encuestas a una muestra de mujeres con anormalidad citológica residentes de cuatro departamentos de Colombia seleccionados por conveniencia en relación con diferentes tasas de mortalidad. Se realizó análisis descriptivo y se compararon las diferencias entre los departamentos. Resultados El 27 % de las mujeres con lesiones de alto grado o invasoras no tuvieron acceso a alguno de los servicios diagnósticos o terapéuticos por razones de tipo administrativo de los servicios de salud, razones clínicas y culturales de las mujeres. Discusión Un elemento crítico que explica el bajo impacto en la mortalidad por cáncer de cuello uterino en la mayoría de los países de Latino América es la disociación entre actividades de tamización y las de tratamiento.Objective Evaluating the opportunity and access to diagnosis and treatment for females having had an abnormal Pap smear (high-grade epithelial lesion and cervical cancer in Colombia from June 2005 to June 2006. Materials and Methods This was a retrospective appraisal using a semi-closed survey of females having had an abnormal Pap smear with high squamous intraepithelial lesions or cervical cancer living in four Colombian departments. These areas were conveniently selected according to their different mortality rates. A descriptive analysis was made and the departments’ differences compared. Results It was found that 27 % of females having high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion or cervical cancer had no access to any of the diagnostic or therapeutic services. Health service administration problems and clinical and cultural ones affecting the females in the study could explain such results. Discussion Follow-up care after abnormal cytology was very poor and could explain the lack of cervical cancer screening’s impact in Colombia and in most Latin-American countries.

  8. Obtaining railpad properties via dynamic mechanical analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oregui, M.; de Man, A.; Woldekidan, M. F.; Li, Z.; Dollevoet, R.

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, we propose combining dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) and the time-temperature superposition principle to determine various railpad dynamic properties. Having accurate information regarding the dynamic properties of a railpad is a fundamental requirement for designing tracks and understanding track deterioration. By testing three different railpad types, we demonstrate that the dynamic behavior of railpads over a wide frequency range can be successfully obtained under different preloads and temperatures if time-temperature superposition can be applied. To investigate railpad aging, worn railpads taken from a mainline in the Netherlands are tested. In this case, worn railpads are softer and possess a lower damping capacity than new railpads. In addition to performing these measurements, a Prony series material model is proposed to reproduce the dynamic behavior of railpads. The Prony series model is in good agreement with the measurements. Measured railpad dynamic properties and the corresponding Prony series numerical model provide valuable information for track design and modeling.

  9. Analysis and comparison of the effects of N-BiPAP and Bubble-CPAP in treatment of preterm newborns with the weight of below 1500 grams affiliated with respiratory distress syndrome: A randomised clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Sadeghnia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nowadays, establishment of nCPAP and surfactant administration is considered to be the first level of intervention for newborns engaged in the process of Respiratory Distress Syndrome (RDS. In order to decrease the side effects of the nCPAP management placed in noninvasive-non-cycled respiratory support. Noninvasive-cycled respiratory support mechanism have been developed such as N-BiPAP. Therefore, we compared N-BiPAP with Bubble-CPAP in a clinical trial. Materials and Methods: This research was done as an on newborns weighing less than 1500 grams affiliated with RDS. A3 The total number of newborns was 70. Newborns were divided into two groups with the sample size of 35 patients in each, according to odd and even document numbers. One group was treated with N-BiPAP and the other with Bubble-CPAP. Patients were compared according to the length of treatment with noninvasive respiratory support, length of oxygen intake, number of surfactant doses administered, need for invasive mechanical ventilation, apnea, patent ductus arteriosus (PDA, chronic lung disease, intraventricular hemorrhage, pneumothorax, and death. Data was recorded and compared. Results: The average duration for noninvasive respiratory support and the average time of need to complementary oxygen was not significantly different in both groups (P value > 0.05. Need for invasive ventilation, also chronic lung disease, intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH, pneumothorax, need for the next dose of surfactant, and the death rate did also have no meaningful difference. (P value > 0.05. Conclusion: In this research N-BiPAP did not show any obvious clinical preference over the Bubble-CPAP in treatment of newborns weighing less than 1500 grams and affiliated with RDS.

  10. Identidade narrativa: papéis familiares e de gênero na perspectiva de meninas ciganas

    OpenAIRE

    Adolfo Pizzinato

    2014-01-01

    This article aims to present the way that some gypsy girls in the metropolitan area of Barcelona (Spain) evaluate the family and gender roles, from an intra and intercultural point of view (in relation to non-Roma - paya - culture). To obtain these data, group interviews with girls between seven and nine years old were organized, participating in extra-curricular educational activities at a Roma association of their city. The results indicates an evaluation strongly influenced by traditional ...

  11. Regulation of Expression of Uropathogenic Escherichia coli Nonfimbrial Adhesin TosA by PapB Homolog TosR in Conjunction with H-NS and Lrp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engstrom, Michael D; Mobley, Harry L T

    2016-01-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are a major burden to human health. The overwhelming majority of UTIs are caused by uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) strains. Unlike some pathogens, UPEC strains do not have a fixed core set of virulence and fitness factors but do have a variety of adhesins and regulatory pathways. One such UPEC adhesin is the nonfimbrial adhesin TosA, which mediates adherence to the epithelium of the upper urinary tract. The tos operon is AT rich, resides on pathogenicity island aspV, and is not expressed under laboratory conditions. Because of this, we hypothesized that tosA expression is silenced by H-NS. Lrp, based on its prominent function in the regulation of other adhesins, is also hypothesized to contribute to tos operon regulation. Using a variety of in vitro techniques, we mapped both the tos operon promoter and TosR binding sites. We have now identified TosR as a dual regulator of the tos operon, which could control the tos operon in association with H-NS and Lrp. H-NS is a negative regulator of the tos operon, and Lrp positively regulates the tos operon. Exogenous leucine also inhibits Lrp-mediated tos operon positive regulation. In addition, TosR binds to the pap operon, which encodes another important UPEC adhesin, P fimbria. Induction of TosR synthesis reduces production of P fimbria. These studies advance our knowledge of regulation of adhesin expression associated with uropathogen colonization of a host. PMID:26755158

  12. Patterns of epithelial cell abnormalities in Pap smears and its clinicopathological and demographic association: a descriptive study from Visakhapatnam city, Andhra Pradesh, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bhagya Lakshmi

    2014-02-01

    Results: Among the 194 women, in 8 subjects, the smears collected were unsatisfactory for evaluation. Analysis was done in the remaining 186 subjects. Among the latter, in 83.9%, the smears were negative for intraepithelial lesions (NIEL and 16.1% revealed epithelial cell abnormalities (ECA. Among those with ECA, Atypical cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS was identified in 66.67%, Low grade squamous intraepithelial lesions(LSIL in 16.67%, Atypical squamous cells-cannot exclude HSIL (ASC-H and Atypical glandular cells-not otherwise specified (AGC-NOS in 6.67% each and High grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL in 3.33%. Epithelial cell abnormalities were more common in women in the age group of 30-60 years (80%, they were more common in those with age at marriage between 13-18 years (63.3% and in those with age at first child birth between 15-19 years (56.7%. Conclusions: Therefore there is a need for Pap screening at regular intervals through camp based approach in these populations to motivate the women, increase their awareness, ensure follow up and referral and timely intervention in appropriate cases. [Int J Res Med Sci 2014; 2(1.000: 300-305

  13. Role of visual inspection of cervix with acetic acid and high risk human papilloma virus DNA testing in screening for cervical cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neha Gami

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: To evaluate the role of VIA alone and in combination with high risk Human Papilloma virus DNA testing as a screening test for cervical dysplasia and cancer. Methods: 400 symptomatic patients from the gynecology outpatient department were screened using Pap smear and VIA. HPV DNA testing was done for 62 VIA positive and 100 VIA negative women. Colposcopy was done for all women. Those found positive on any or all of the screening tests were subjected to cervical biopsy. The results were analysed for PAP, VIA, HPV and a combined test using VIA and HPV both. Results: VIA had the highest sensitivity (91% to detect any grade of dysplasia. The sensitivity of the combination test (VIA + HPV was 80.6% which was lower than that of VIA (91% and also lower than that of HR HPV DNA detection (86%. The specificity of the combination test (VIA + HPV was 68.3 % which was significantly higher than that of VIA alone (39% (p = 0.000 and also higher than that for HPV DNA detection when used alone (56%. Pap smear had the highest specificity (95.12 % but sensitivity was much lower at 52.7 %. Conclusions: VIA is a highly sensitive screening test. The main disadvantage is its low specificity. However the combination test of VIA + HR HPV testing overcomes this and at the same time maintains a high sensitivity. Thus a test which combines VIA plus HR HPV testing is better screening method than either of the three tests (VIA, HPV, PAP done alone. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2013; 2(2.000: 152-156

  14. Uso del Papanicolaou en mujeres que acuden al programa de detección oportuna de cáncer cérvico-uterino: un acercamiento a la satisfacción con el servicio Use of Pap in women attending early detection of cervical cancer: an approach to meeting the service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Vega Chávez

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: describir la satisfacción de las usuarias con el servicio de detección oportuna de cáncer cérvico-uterino a través del análisis de indicadores y características socio-demográficas. Metodología: estudio descriptivo. Participan 101 mujeres que se someten al Papanicolaou entre junio y julio de 2007 en 13 centros de salud urbanos de la Jurisdicción 1 de la Secretaría de Salud de San Luis Potosí, México. Se aplica una encuesta con tres apartados: características socio-demográficas, indicadores del uso del servicio y nivel de satisfacción. Resultados: la edad promedio de las mujeres es de 36 años, 42.6% tienen secundaria, 80.2% son casadas y 54.5% están afiliadas al Seguro Popular. Sus conocimientos acerca de la prueba del Papanicolaou y el cáncer son adecuados (51.5% y 76.2%, respectivamente, mientras que la accesibilidad a la prueba de tamizaje es adecuada en un 67.3%; las mujeres que más se presentan a la prueba por primera vez son las de 18 a 30 años y las casadas; asisten en menor proporción las de 51 a 61 años. El nivel de satisfacción es alto respecto al tiempo de espera, 66.3%; consideran la información completa, veraz, oportuna y comprensible 78.2%, y encuentran adecuado el trato 87.1%, Conclusiones: las usuarias están satisfechas con el servicio. En este estudio no se encuentra asociación entre la utilización de la prueba del Papanicolaou y la satisfacción de las usuarias; sin embargo, hay asociación entre la primera cita y la edad para realizarse el tamizaje y entre el estado civil y la edad de la primera cita al Papanicolaou.Objetive: to describe the satisfaction of service users with the timely detection of cervical cancer through the analysis of indicators and socio-demographic characteristics. Methodology: descriptive study. 101 women participate; they have PAP test in July 2007 in 13 urban health centers from San Luis Potosi Health Department Jurisdiction 1. Socio-demographic characteristics and use of service indicators are measured, including also satisfaction level. Results: the average age is 36 years old. Maximum level of education is ninth grade (42.6% and 54.5% of the participants have Popular Insurance; 80.2% are married; the women that more attend for the first time are the youngest (18-31 years, and the married ones; and the ones that attend less are those between 51 and 61 years old. Those that are more willing for the first time are the married ones; and the ones with less attendance are the divorced, separated and widows. General knowledge about PAP test and uterine cervix cancer is adequate in 51.5% and 76.2%, respectively, whereas the accessibility is adequate in 67.3%. Satisfaction level was high on waiting time (66.3%; with complete, truthful, opportune, and understandable information (78.2%, as well as an appropriate treatment from health personal (87.1% and accessibility (80.2%. Conclusions: the users are satisfied with the service. In this article we find that Papanicolaou test is not associated with women satisfaction. Age and marital status are associated to the appointment for the PAP.

  15. Equity of access to Pap smears: population-based study in Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivian Mae Schmidt Lima Amorim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of the Papanicolaou exam among women aged 20 to 59 years in the city of Campinas (state of São Paulo, Brazil and to analyze associations between this test and affiliation to private health insurance plans as well as socioeconomic/demographic variables and health-related behavior. METHOD: To do so, a population-based, cross-sectional study was carried out. Statistical analyses took the study design into account. RESULTS: Despite the significant socioeconomic differences between women with and without private health plans, no differences between these groups were found regarding having been submitted to the Papanicolaou test. In fact no differences were found as to socioeconomic and health variables analyzed. Among all variables analyzed, only marital status was significantly associated with having undergone the test. The Brazilian public health system accounted for 55.7% of the exams. CONCLUSION: The present findings indicate social equity in the city of Campinas regarding the preventive exam for cervical cancer in the age group studied.

  16. Data Obtained from Prototype Wave Dragon in Nissum Bredning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tedd, James William; Curie, Marie; Kofoed, Jens Peter

    This report is a product of the Project: Sea Testing and Optimisation of Power Production on a Scale 1:4.5 Test Rig of the Offshore Wave Energy Converter Wave Dragon. This report aims to provide access for the project partners to the raw data obtained from the testing period in Nissum Bredning...

  17. Barriers for Compliance to Breast, Colorectal, and Cervical Screening Cancer Tests among Hispanic Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda-Diaz, Christine; Betancourt, Elba; Ruiz-Candelaria, Yelitza; Hunter-Mellado, Robert F

    2016-01-01

    Hispanics are less likely to undergo screening tests for colorectal cancer and cervical cancer than non-Hispanic whites. Compliance with mammography, fecal occult blood testing (FOBT), colonoscopy, and cervical smears (PAP) and barriers for compliance were studied. A descriptive study was performed with 194 ambulatory patients while they attended routine medical visits. Women are more likely than men to undergo a colonoscopy. Conversely, FOBT was most likely reported by men. Reasons for compliance with FOBT differed by gender. Men were most likely to avoid FOBT due to lack of knowledge whereas women reported that physicians do not recommend the procedure. Both men and women reported that lack of physician's recommendation was their primary reason for not undergoing a colonoscopy. Men tend to report lack of knowledge about colonoscopy procedure. A higher mammogram utilization rate was reported by women older than 40 years. PAP smears were reported by 74% of women older than 21 years. The major reasons for avoiding mammography and PAP tests were having a busy schedule, fear, and feeling uncomfortable during the procedure. In a multivariate regression analysis, occupational status was found to be a predictor for compliance with FOBT and colonoscopy. PMID:26703676

  18. Barriers for Compliance to Breast, Colorectal, and Cervical Screening Cancer Tests among Hispanic Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Miranda-Diaz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Hispanics are less likely to undergo screening tests for colorectal cancer and cervical cancer than non-Hispanic whites. Compliance with mammography, fecal occult blood testing (FOBT, colonoscopy, and cervical smears (PAP and barriers for compliance were studied. A descriptive study was performed with 194 ambulatory patients while they attended routine medical visits. Women are more likely than men to undergo a colonoscopy. Conversely, FOBT was most likely reported by men. Reasons for compliance with FOBT differed by gender. Men were most likely to avoid FOBT due to lack of knowledge whereas women reported that physicians do not recommend the procedure. Both men and women reported that lack of physician’s recommendation was their primary reason for not undergoing a colonoscopy. Men tend to report lack of knowledge about colonoscopy procedure. A higher mammogram utilization rate was reported by women older than 40 years. PAP smears were reported by 74% of women older than 21 years. The major reasons for avoiding mammography and PAP tests were having a busy schedule, fear, and feeling uncomfortable during the procedure. In a multivariate regression analysis, occupational status was found to be a predictor for compliance with FOBT and colonoscopy.

  19. Barriers for Compliance to Breast, Colorectal, and Cervical Screening Cancer Tests among Hispanic Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda-Diaz, Christine; Betancourt, Elba; Ruiz-Candelaria, Yelitza; Hunter-Mellado, Robert F.

    2015-01-01

    Hispanics are less likely to undergo screening tests for colorectal cancer and cervical cancer than non-Hispanic whites. Compliance with mammography, fecal occult blood testing (FOBT), colonoscopy, and cervical smears (PAP) and barriers for compliance were studied. A descriptive study was performed with 194 ambulatory patients while they attended routine medical visits. Women are more likely than men to undergo a colonoscopy. Conversely, FOBT was most likely reported by men. Reasons for compliance with FOBT differed by gender. Men were most likely to avoid FOBT due to lack of knowledge whereas women reported that physicians do not recommend the procedure. Both men and women reported that lack of physician’s recommendation was their primary reason for not undergoing a colonoscopy. Men tend to report lack of knowledge about colonoscopy procedure. A higher mammogram utilization rate was reported by women older than 40 years. PAP smears were reported by 74% of women older than 21 years. The major reasons for avoiding mammography and PAP tests were having a busy schedule, fear, and feeling uncomfortable during the procedure. In a multivariate regression analysis, occupational status was found to be a predictor for compliance with FOBT and colonoscopy. PMID:26703676

  20. Chronic constipation - the role of clinical assessment and colorectal physiologic tests to obtain an etiologic diagnosis O papel da avaliação clínica e dos testes de fisiologia colo-reto anal no diagnóstico etiológico da constipação intestinal crônica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Lacerda-Filho

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Diagnosis of subtypes of chronic constipation has been considered difficult to achieve even in specialized centers. Although colorectal physiologic tests have brought an important contribution, it remains unclear in which patients these tests should be indicated for. AIMS: This study aims to establish a differential diagnosis for chronic constipation cases using clinical assessment and physiologic tests and to identify clinical parameters that could predict which patients need physiologic tests. METHODS: One hundred and seventy nine patients (83% females; mean age, 45 with chronic constipation according to Rome II criteria were initially treated by dietary advice and functional reeducation and those unresponsive (110 or 61.5% were submitted to colonic transit time, defecography, anorectal manometry and electromyography, as needed. RESULTS: A differential diagnosis was achieved in 63.6% of patients tested. However, 61.5% of 179 patients with chronic constipation (69 with no need to tests and 40 with normal tests have etiologic diagnosis established only on clinical basis. Irritable bowel syndrome (32%, pelvic floor dysfunction (29% and functional constipation due to faulty diet and life style habits (22% were the main causes of chronic constipation. Alternating constipation and nausea/vomiting were symptoms significantly related to the diagnosis of irritable bowel syndrome; younger age, larger intervals between bowel movements, occurrence of fecal impaction and necessity of enema were related to the diagnosis of non-chagasic megacolon and digital assistance to evacuate and large rectocele or spastic pelvic floor on rectal exam were associated to pelvic floor dysfunction. Patients with long-standing constipation, fecal impaction, abdominal pain not eased after defecation, necessity for enemas, digital assistance and evidence of rectocele tended to be in need for physiologic tests to define the cause of chronic constipation. CONCLUSIONS: The etiologic diagnosis of chronic constipation can be achieved in most of patients on a clinical basis and some symptoms may be significantly related to specific diagnoses. Indications for physiologic tests should be based on specific clinical parameters.RACIONAL: O diagnóstico dos subtipos de constipação crônica tem sido considerado difícil de ser estabelecido, mesmo em centros especializados. Embora os testes fisiológicos tenham trazido uma importante contribuição, ainda há dúvidas quanto as suas indicações. OBJETIVOS: Estabelecer o diagnóstico diferencial em casos de constipação crônica através da avaliação clínica e da utilização de testes fisiológicos, procurando-se identificar parâmetros clínicos que poderiam predizer quais pacientes necessitariam de tais testes. MÉTODOS: Cento e setenta e nove pacientes (83% do sexo feminino; média de idade de 45 anos com constipação crônica de acordo com os critérios de Roma II foram inicialmente tratados com medidas dietéticas e reeducação funcional e aqueles que não responderam (110 ou 61,5% foram submetidos a tempo de trânsito colônico, defecografia, manometria anorretal e eletromiografia, de acordo com apresentação clínica da constipação crônica. RESULTADOS: O diagnóstico etiológico foi obtido em 63.6% dos pacientes testados. Entretanto, em 61,5% (69 que não necessitaram dos testes e 40 que tiveram testes normais, o diagnóstico etiológico foi estabelecido em bases clínicas. A síndrome do intestino irritável (32%, a disfunção do assoalho pélvico (29% e a constipação funcional secundária a inadequação dietética e de hábitos de vida (22% foram os principais diagnósticos etiológicos da constipação crônica. A alternância de constipação e a presença de náuseas/vômitos estiveram significativamente relacionadas ao diagnóstico de síndrome do intestino irritável; idade precoce, grandes intervalos entre as evacuações, ocorrência de impactação fecal e necessidade de enemas estiveram relacionadas ao diagnóstico de megacólon não-chagásico, enqu

  1. Comportamiento de las citologías orgánicas alteradas en un área de salud Behavior of organic altered Pap in one health area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Eulalia Prieto Herrera

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: el cáncer de útero es, después del cáncer de mama, el que más frecuentemente afecta a la mujer. La detección y tratamiento temprano de las lesiones premalignas garantizan la durabilidad de esta afección. Objetivo: conocer el comportamiento de las citologías orgánicas alteradas en un área de salud. Métodos: se realizó un estudio descriptivo, transversal y retrospectivo en el Policlínico Este del municipio Camagüey en el período de enero de 2005 a diciembre de 2010. El universo estuvo constituido por las 189 mujeres que presentaron citologías orgánicas anormales en el período antes señalado. Se recogieron variables como: grupo de edades, resultados de las citologías orgánicas según toma de muestra, edad de las primeras relaciones sexuales, número de partos, diagnóstico citológico de infección por virus del papiloma humano (VPH. Resultados: poco menos de la mitad de las mujeres inició las relaciones sexuales antes de los 18 años (46,56 % y la mayoría tenía entre 1 y 3 partos (83,06 %. El 56,08 % de las pacientes presentaron infección por VPH. Conclusiones: predominaron las pacientes con neoplasia intraepitelial cervical II, el año 2006 fue el de mayor incidencia de lesiones de cuello uterino.Introduction: uterine cancer is the type of cancer which most frequently affects women after breast cancer. The early detection and treatment of pre-malignant damage guarantees the durability of this condition. Objective: to understand the behavior of organic altered Pap in one health area. Methods: a descriptive, cross-sectional and retrospective study was conducted I, the eastern polyclinic in Camagüey municipality from January 2005 to December 2010. The sample consisted of 189 women who had abnormal Pap organic in the aforementioned period. Variables were collected such as: age group, organic cytology results according to sampling, age of first intercourse, parity, cytological diagnosis of infection with human papillomavirus (HPV. Results: slightly less than half of these women had their first sex intercourse before the age of 18 (46.56 % and most had had 1-3 births (83.06 %. 56.08 % of these patients had HPV infection. Conclusions: cervical intraepithelial neoplasia II was predominant in these patients. The highest incidence of cervical lesions occurred in 2006.

  2. Electrolytic Hydrogen obtaining by a photovoltaic source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At present, the developed countries allocate large funds for the financing of some global programs for fundamental and applicative research for development of hydrogen non-conventional production technologies. One of these technologies is the photo-assisted electrolysis. This technology is adopted in the research, which results are presented in this paper. The experimental model includes as basic equipment 100 W photovoltaic source, electrolysis battery press filter type, control unit of the electric energy discharged, accumulator, hydrogen storage unit. Five types of material have been tested for the electrolysis cell diaphragm: asbestos; Netrom- unwoven material from fibers of polypropylene; ion changing composite membrane - polysulfone support with an active layer of sulfonated poly-sulfone (PSS/PSJ) and poly-sulfone support with an active layer of sulfonated poly-eter cetone (SPEEK/PSf); ion-exchange membrane made from sulfonated poly-eter cetone (SPEEK). The graphics and results from the test system are presented. The analysis of the experimental results lead to the establishment of the optimal configuration of battery and of the operational conditions of the assembly. The experimental results give the opportunity to obtain electrolytic hydrogen with a photovoltaic source, in an efficient system, and promote the Romanian research at a level of a demonstrative installation

  3. Hydrological processes obtained on the plot scale under four simulated rainfall tests during the cycle of different crop systems / Processos hidrolgicos obtidos em escala de parcela sob quatro testes de chuva simulada, durante o ciclo de diferentes sistemas de cultivo do solo

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ildegardis, Bertol; Roger Robert, Ramos; Fabrcio Tondello, Barbosa; Julio Csar, Ramos; Douglas Henrique, Bandeira; Mitsui Shinosaka, Tanaka.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available O sistema de cultivo influencia a interceptao de gua pelas plantas, a armazenagem de gua nas depresses do terreno, a infiltrao de gua no solo e o escoamento superficial. Este trabalho objetivou quantificar alguns processos hidrolgicos em sistemas de cultivo do solo realizados em contorno no [...] declive, em 2009 e 2010, em um Cambissolo Hmico alumnico, cuja rea foi mantida sem preparo prvio do solo, nos seguintes tratamentos: solteiros - milho, soja e feijo; e consorciados - milho e feijo. Os tratamentos foram submetidos a quatro testes de chuva simulada, em pocas distintas, com intensidade planejada de 64 mm h-1 e durao de 90 min. O primeiro teste foi aplicado 18 dias aps a semeadura e, os demais, aos 39, 75 e 120 dias, aps o primeiro. Os diferentes momentos de aplicao das chuvas e os diferentes estdios do ciclo das culturas influenciaram o teor de gua no solo antecedente s chuvas, o tempo de incio e o de pico da enxurrada e, com isso, os processos hidrolgicos de superfcie. A lmina de enxurrada e a de gua interceptada pela vegetao + infiltrada no solo + armazenada superficialmente no solo sofreram a influncia dos sistemas de cultivo e das chuvas aplicadas nas diferentes pocas. O cultivo de milho foi o tratamento mais eficaz no controle do escoamento superficial, com uma razo de perda de gua de 0,38, equivalente a 75 % da razo de perda de gua apresentada pelo feijo (0,51), que foi o tratamento menos eficaz em relao aos demais sistemas de cultivo. A perda total de gua na forma de enxurrada decresceu linearmente com o aumento do tempo de incio da enxurrada, independentemente do tratamento, enquanto o teor de gua no solo em base gravimtrica aumentou linearmente do incio ao final da chuva. Abstract in english The cropping system influences the interception of water by plants, water storage in depressions on the soil surface, water infiltration into the soil and runoff. The aim of this study was to quantify some hydrological processes under no tillage cropping systems at the edge of a slope, in 2009 and 2 [...] 010, in a Humic Dystrudept soil, with the following treatments: corn, soybeans, and common beans alone; and intercropped corn and common bean. Treatments consisted of four simulated rainfall tests at different times, with a planned intensity of 64 mm h-1 and 90 min duration. The first test was applied 18 days after sowing, and the others at 39, 75 and 120 days after the first test. Different times of the simulated rainfall and stages of the crop cycle affected soil water content prior to the rain, and the time runoff began and its peak flow and, thus, the surface hydrological processes. The depth of the runoff and the depth of the water intercepted by the crop + soil infiltration + soil surface storage were affected by the crop systems and the rainfall applied at different times. The corn crop was the most effective treatment for controlling runoff, with a water loss ratio of 0.38, equivalent to 75 % of the water loss ratio exhibited by common bean (0.51), the least effective treatment in relation to the others. Total water loss by runoff decreased linearly with an increase in the time that runoff began, regardless of the treatment; however, soil water content on the gravimetric basis increased linearly from the beginning to the end of the rainfall.

  4. Stimulation of glucose uptake in murine soleus muscle and adipocytes by 5-(4-phenoxybutoxypsoralen (PAP-1 may be mediated by Kv1.5 rather than Kv1.3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert A. Ngala

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Kv1 channels are shaker-related potassium channels that influence insulin sensitivity. Kv1.3−/− mice are protected from diet-induced insulin resistance and some studies suggest that Kv1.3 inhibitors provide similar protection. However, it is unclear whether blockade of Kv1.3 in adipocytes or skeletal muscle increases glucose uptake. There is no evidence that the related channel Kv1.5 has any influence on insulin sensitivity and its expression in adipose tissue has not been reported. PAP-1 is a selective inhibitor of Kv1.3, with 23-fold, 32-fold and 125-fold lower potencies as an inhibitor of Kv1.5, Kv1.1 and Kv1.2 respectively. Soleus muscles from wild-type and genetically obese ob/ob mice were incubated with 2-deoxy[1-14C]-glucose for 45 min and formation of 2-deoxy[1-14C]-glucose-6-phosphate was measured. White adipocytes were incubated with D-[U-14C]-glucose for 1 h. TNFα and Il-6 secretion from white adipose tissue pieces were measured by enzyme-linked-immunoassay. In the absence of insulin, a high concentration (3 µM of PAP-1 stimulated 2-deoxy[1-14C]-glucose uptake in soleus muscle of wild-type and obese mice by 30% and 40% respectively, and in adipocytes by 20% and 50% respectively. PAP-1 also stimulated glucose uptake by adipocytes at the lower concentration of 1 µM, but at 300 nM, which is still 150-fold higher than its EC50 value for inhibition of the Kv1.3 channel, it had no effect. In the presence of insulin, PAP-1 (3 µM had a significant effect only in adipocytes from obese mice. PAP-1 (3 µM reduced the secretion of TNFα by adipose tissue but had no effect on the secretion of IL-6. Expression of Kv1.1, Kv1.2, Kv1.3 and Kv1.5 was determined by RT-PCR. Kv1.3 and Kv1.5 mRNA were detected in liver, gastrocnemius muscle, soleus muscle and white adipose tissue from wild-type and ob/ob mice, except that Kv1.3 could not be detected in gastrocnemius muscle, nor Kv1.5 in liver, of wild-type mice. Expression of both genes was generally higher in liver and muscle of ob/ob mice compared to wild-type mice. Kv1.5 appeared to be expressed more highly than Kv1.3 in soleus muscle, adipose tissue and adipocytes of wild-type mice. Expression of Kv1.2 appeared to be similar to that of Kv1.3 in soleus muscle and adipose tissue, but Kv1.2 was undetectable in adipocytes. Kv1.1 could not be detected in soleus muscle, adipose tissue or adipocytes. We conclude that inhibition of Kv1 channels by PAP-1 stimulates glucose uptake by adipocytes and soleus muscle of wild-type and ob/ob mice, and reduces the secretion of TNFα by adipose tissue. However, these effects are more likely due to inhibition of Kv1.5 than to inhibition of Kv1.3 channels.

  5. Prevalência de alterações no exame citológico do colo do útero em pacientes com lúpus eritematoso sistêmico Prevalence of abnormal pap smears in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo Rodi Carvalho Barros

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: estudos sugerem que mulheres com lúpus eritematoso sistêmico (LES apresentam maior taxa de anormalidades no exame citológico do esfregaço cervical quando comparadas com a população geral. OBJETIVO: estudar a prevalência de anormalidades no exame citológico de Papanicolaou de pacientes com LES, procurando correlacionar o seu aparecimento com tempo de doença, uso de medicamentos imunossupressores e perfil de auto-anticorpos. MÉTODO: foram analisados 76 exames citológicos de pacientes do sexo feminino, portadoras de LES, e de 80 mulheres saudáveis. Nas pacientes com lúpus, foram verificados: tempo de doença, uso de anticoncepcionais, uso anterior de citostáticos (ciclofosfamida, azatioprina e metotrexato, antimaláricos e presença dos anticorpos anti-RO, anti-LA, anti-DNA. RESULTADO: a prevalência de alterações do Papanicolaou foi maior no grupo das pacientes com LES quando comparada com controles (9,4% versus 1,2%, p = 0,03. Não se encontrou associação entre o aparecimento de Papanicolaou alterado e o uso de ciclofosfamida (p = 1,0, metotrexato (p = 0,58, azatioprina (p = 1,0, antimaláricos (p = 0,051, tempo de doença (p = 0,85, exposição, nem com perfil de auto-anticorpos estudado. CONCLUSÃO: existe maior prevalência de alterações do exame citológico de esfregaço vaginal em pacientes com LES na população estudada, a qual não depende do tempo da doença, uso de agentes imunossupressores e presença de anti-RO, anti-LA ou anti-DNA.BACKGROUND: studies have suggested that patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE have increased risk of developing abnormal results in Pap smears, when compared to the general population. OBJECT: to check the prevalence of abnormal Pap smears in patients with SLE compared to the general population relating it with disease duration, use of immunosuppressive and antimalarial agents and autoantibody profile. METHOD: we studied Pap smears of 76 patients with SLE and 80 healthy controls. In patients with SLE we assessed disease duration, use of cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, azathioprine, antimalarials and the presence of anti-RO, anti-LA and anti-DNA. RESULT: the prevalence of abnormal Pap smears was higher in the SLE group than controls (9.4% versus 1.2%, p = 0.03. No relationship was found between abnormal Pap smears and cyclophosphamide (p = 1.0, methotrexate (p = 0.58, azathioprine (p = 1.0 or antimalarial use (p = 0.051, disease duration (p = 0.85, neither with any of the studied auto antibodies. CONCLUSION: there is a higher prevalence of abnormal Pap smears in the studied SLE population than in normal people that is independent of the duration of the disease, use of immunosupressive medication or presence of autoantibodies.

  6. An EPR experiment testing the non-separability of the $K^{0} \\overline{K^{0}}$ wave function

    CERN Document Server

    Apostolakis, Alcibiades J; Backenstoss, Gerhard; Bargassa, P; Behnke, O; Benelli, A; Bertin, V; Blanc, F; Bloch, P; Carlson, P J; Carroll, M; Cawley, E; Chardin, G; Chertok, M B; Cody, A; Dejardin, M; Derré, J; Ealet, A; Eleftheriadis, C; Ferreira-Marques, R; Fetscher, W; Fidecaro, Maria; Filipcic, A; Francis, D; Fry, J; Gabathuler, Erwin; Gamet, R; Gerber, H J; Go, A; Guyot, C; Haselden, A; Hayman, P J; Henry-Coüannier, F; Hollander, R W; Hubert, E; Jon-And, K; Kettle, P R; Kochowski, Claude; Kokkas, P; Kreuger, R; Le Gac, R; Leimgruber, F; Mandic, I; Manthos, N; Marel, Gérard; Mikuz, M; Miller, J; Montanet, François; Müller, A; Nakada, Tatsuya; Pagels, B; Papadopoulos, I M; Pavlopoulos, P; Policarpo, Armando; Polivka, G; Rickenbach, R; Roberts, B L; Ruf, T; Schäfer, M; Schaller, L A; Schietinger, T; Schopper, A; Schune, P; Tauscher, Ludwig; Thibault, C; Touchard, F; Touramanis, C; van Eijk, C W E; Vlachos, S; Weber, P; Wigger, I; Wolter, M; Yéche, C; Zavrtanik, D

    1998-01-01

    The EPR-type strangeness correlation in the \\PKz \\PaKz ~system produced in the reaction $\\Pap \\Pp \\rightarrow \\PKz \\PaKz$ at rest has been tested using the CPLEAR detector. The strangeness was tagged via strong interaction with absorbers away from the creation point. The results are consistent with the QM non-separability of the wave function and exclude a spontaneous wave-function factorisation at creation (CL $> 99.99\\%$).

  7. Mechanisms of Obtaining Membership of Farmer Collectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debin HOU

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper puts forward the corresponding solutions and suggestions through analyzing mechanisms of obtaining membership of farmer collectives in the normative sense, and aiming at the plight of obtaining farmer collective membership.

  8. Advising patients about obtaining genomic profiles

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Donna T.; Shepherd, Lois L.

    2011-01-01

    Neurologists, as all physicians, should begin to familiarize themselves with elements of genomic medicine to help their patients navigate the promises and pitfalls of obtaining genomic profiles. The neurologist should encourage a realistic assessment of the patient's expectations regarding the genetic information to be provided and apprise the patient of the challenges involved in obtaining interpretable, clinically useful information. A review of risks of obtaining genomic information is equ...

  9. Bainite obtaining in cast iron with carbides castings

    OpenAIRE

    S. Pietrowski; G. Gumienny

    2010-01-01

    In these paper the possibility of upper and lower bainite obtaining in cast iron with carbides castings are presented. Conditions, when in cast iron with carbides castings during continuous free air cooling austenite transformation to upper bainite or its mixture with lower bainte proceeds, have been given. A mechanism of this transformation has been given, Si, Ni, Mn and Mo distribution in the eutectic cell has been tested and hardness of tested castings has been determined.

  10. Bainite obtaining in cast iron with carbides castings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Pietrowski

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In these paper the possibility of upper and lower bainite obtaining in cast iron with carbides castings are presented. Conditions, when in cast iron with carbides castings during continuous free air cooling austenite transformation to upper bainite or its mixture with lower bainte proceeds, have been given. A mechanism of this transformation has been given, Si, Ni, Mn and Mo distribution in the eutectic cell has been tested and hardness of tested castings has been determined.

  11. 38 CFR 21.5725 - Obtaining benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Obtaining benefits. 21... benefits. (a) Actions required of the individual. In order to obtain benefits under the educational assistance and subsistence allowance program, an individual must— (1) File a claim for benefits with VA,...

  12. Identification of pathogens and virulence profile of Rhodococcus equi and Escherichia coli strains obtained from sand of parks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.C. Fernandes

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The identification of pathogens of viral (Rotavirus, Coronavirus, parasitic (Toxocara spp. and bacterial (Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp., Rhodococcus equi origin shed in feces, and the virulence profile of R. equi and E. coli isolates were investigated in 200 samples of sand obtained from 40 parks, located in central region of state of Sao Paulo, Brazil, using different diagnostic methods. From 200 samples analyzed, 23 (11.5% strains of R. equi were isolated. None of the R. equi isolates showed a virulent (vapA gene or intermediately virulent (vapB gene profiles. Sixty-three (31.5% strains of E. coli were identified. The following genes encoding virulence factors were identified in E. coli: eae, bfp, saa, iucD, papGI, sfa and hly. Phylogenetic classification showed that 63 E. coli isolates belonged to groups B1 (52.4%, A (25.4% and B2 (22.2%. No E. coli serotype O157:H7 was identified. Eggs of Toxocara sp. were found in three parks and genetic material of bovine Coronavirus was identified in one sample of one park. No Salmonella spp. and Rotavirus isolates were identified in the samples of sand. The presence of R. equi, Toxocara sp, bovine Coronavirus and virulent E. coli isolates in the environment of parks indicates that the sanitary conditions of the sand should be improved in order to reduce the risks of fecal transmission of pathogens of zoonotic potential to humans in these places.

  13. Treatment of biomass to obtain ethanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunson, Jr., James B.; Elander, Richard T.; Tucker, III, Melvin P.; Hennessey, Susan Marie

    2011-08-16

    Ethanol was produced using biocatalysts that are able to ferment sugars derived from treated biomass. Sugars were obtained by pretreating biomass under conditions of high solids and low ammonia concentration, followed by saccharification.

  14. 47 CFR 54.615 - Obtaining services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... provided under 54.621, that the requester cannot obtain toll-free access to an Internet service provider... thing of value; (6) If the service or services are being purchased as part of an aggregated...

  15. Advising patients about obtaining genomic profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Donna T; Shepherd, Lois L

    2011-12-01

    Neurologists, as all physicians, should begin to familiarize themselves with elements of genomic medicine to help their patients navigate the promises and pitfalls of obtaining genomic profiles. The neurologist should encourage a realistic assessment of the patient's expectations regarding the genetic information to be provided and apprise the patient of the challenges involved in obtaining interpretable, clinically useful information. A review of risks of obtaining genomic information is equally important. Discrimination, loss of privacy, receiving inaccurate or unwanted information, and learning information that may create obligations to disclose to others are all possibilities. As genomic research and direct-to-consumer opportunities to obtain genomic information expand, reliance on personal physicians for ethical advice based on current advancements in genomic profiling should be anticipated. PMID:23634354

  16. DIFFUSION COATINGS OBTAINED IN BORIDING MEDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Kukhareva

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Powder media for boriding of high saturating capacity have been developed in the paper. Treatment in the powder media has made it possible to obtain diffusion coatings on steel surface which are characterized by higher set  of operational characteristics in comparison with coatings obtained in conventional boriding mixtures. Peculiar features pertaining to formation of the developed coatings have been investigated in the paper.

  17. Obtaining and thermodynamic properties of lithium hydrofluoride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Present article is devoted to obtaining and thermodynamic properties of lithium hydrofluoride. Thus, the conditions of obtaining lithium hydrofluoride by interaction of concentrated solutions of hydrofluoric acid and lithium carbonate are defined. The enthalpy of above mentioned reaction by means of solution calorimetry method is defined as well. On the basis of experimental and reference data the enthalpy value of lithium hydrofluoride formation is evaluated. (author)

  18. Neural methods for obtaining fuzzy rules

    OpenAIRE

    Benítez Sánchez, José Manuel; Blanco Morón, Armando; Delgado Calvo-Flores, Miguel; Requena Ramos, Ignacio

    1996-01-01

    In previous papers, we presented an empirical methodology based on Neural Networks for obtaining fuzzy rules which allow a system to be described, using a set of examples with the corresponding inputs and outputs. Now that the previous results have been completed, we present another procedure for obtaining fuzzy rules, also based on Neural Networks with Backpropagation, with no need to establish beforehand the labels or values of the variables that govern the system

  19. Method for obtaining melanins and use thereof

    OpenAIRE

    Jarén-Galán, Manuel; Garrido Fernández, J.; Negro, Juan José

    2009-01-01

    The invention relates to a method for obtaining and subsequently quantifying melanin pigments, characterised in that it includes the following steps: initial alkaline treatment, separation of pheomelanins, production of a dry eumelanin concentrate by means of precipitate washing and subsequent centrifugation, dissolution of the dry eumelanin concentrate by means of time-controlled alkaline oxidation, and neutralisation of the solutions in order to obtain dry concentrates of pheomelanin and ps...

  20. Obtaining useful information from expert based sources.

    OpenAIRE

    Slawson, D. C.; Shaughnessy, A. F.

    1997-01-01

    Clinicians rely heavily on expert based systems-consultation with colleagues, journal reviews and textbooks, and continuing education activities-to obtain new information. The usefulness of sources such as these depends on the relevance and validity of the information and the work it takes to obtain it. Useful information can be distinguished from the useless by asking three questions: Does the information focus on an outcome that my patients care about? Is the issue common to my practice, an...

  1. Obtaining gravitational models from planetary ephemeris

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez Martín, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    Ephemerides describe the position and velocity of a celestial object as a function of time. The ephemerides data are obtained by solving the fundamental equations of motion of the body, which is obtained by applying the fundamental laws of motion postulated by Keppler and Newton. The objective of this project is to build a software package that manages JPL ephemerides. With this software, we will can select planets or natural satellites contained in the ephemerides file and we will can work w...

  2. Finite oscillator obtained through finite frame quantization

    OpenAIRE

    Cotfas, Nicolae; Dragoman, Daniela

    2013-01-01

    The Hamiltonian of the harmonic oscillator is usually defined as a differential operator, but an integral representation can be obtained by using the coherent state quantization. The finite frame quantization is a finite counterpart of the coherent state quantization and it allows us to define a finite oscillator by starting from the integral representation of the harmonic oscillator. Our purpose is to investigate the oscillator obtained in this way, and to present a possible application to t...

  3. STANDARDIZATION OF PROTHROMBIN TIME TEST AND EVALUATION OF QUALITY OF PATIENT MANAGEMENT WITH WARFARIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.H ZARGARZADEH

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. The most common mode of monitoring anticoagulation therapy is the use of prothrombin time (PT. There exist several methods for reporting results of PT. These include prothrombin time in seconds, prothrombin activity percent, prothrombin time ratio, prothrombin index and international normalized ratio (INR. Different sensitivities of thromboplastins along with various methods of performing the PT test and also different ways of reporting the results of tests have led into discrepancies in lab values among different laboratories which in turn has made appropriate pharmacotherapy with anticoagulation drugs quite difficult. In this study, we have compared different methods of reporting PT results and in vestigated the quality of patient management with warfarin. Methods. In this study twenty three blood samples of normal individuals and thirty nine patients under warfarin therapy were collected and PT (INR was measured. Also, PT kits by Biomerieux/France and the PT kit prepared by our team were compared during these measurements. The method of measuring PT was Manual tilt tube technique. Comparison of different modes of reporting PT was done by linear regression analysis. Results. Comparison of the obtained regression lines on PT, PAP, PTR and INR by using the two kits show that INR is independent of the sensitivity of thromboplastin. By considering the recommended therapeutic range of INR, we found that only thirty one percent with Boimerieux kit and twenty eight percent with the prepared PT kit were in the therapeutic range. Eleven percent of patients were sub therapeutic shown by the two kits and fifty eight percent and sixty one percent were above therapeutic range using the Biomerieux kit and the prepared kit, respectively. Discussion. Standardization of PT can be done most accurately through reporting PT by INR. The noticeable percentage of patients out of therapeutic range confirmed by both kits shows the inappropriate management of patients receiving warfarin.

  4. Comparações entre três critérios de adoção de papéis sexuais no brinquedo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Aparecida Trevisan Zamberlan

    1980-11-01

    Full Text Available Tendo em vista a importância ão controle cultural sobre o atributo sexo no desenvolvimento infantil, realizou-se este trabalho que teve por objetivo geral caracterizar alguns critérios de adoção de papéis sexuais no brinquedo. Como objetivo adicional foi discutida a validade de cada critério e a inter-relação entre os mesmos. Constituiram-se amostras específicas para cada critério. No Critério I, foram sujeitos 75 crianças, sendo 50 de la. e 2a. séris e 15 adultos com formação universitária completa. Todas as crianças freqüentavam escolas públicas e toda a amostra pertencia à classe média. O material utilizado consistiu de 25 slides de brinquedos, projetados para a atribuição de rótulos sexuados e assexuados. Os resultados apontaram pequenas diferenças nas atribuições conferidas aos brinquedos pelos grupos de crianças de la. e 2a. e de 4a. a 5a. séries. Nas comparações das crianças e adultos houve mais diferenças estaticamente sigficantes do que nas comparações de crianças entre si No Critério II, serviram como sujeitos 60 crianças, 50% de cada sexo, com idades de 9 a 10 anos. O procedimento consistiu em assinalar os jogos, brinquedos e atividades comumente adotados por crianças, dentre uma lista de 50 itens Os resultados mostraram proporções bem diferenciadas e significantes para 50% dos 24 itens de escolhas comuns, sendo que dos itens restantes alguns foram apontados exclusivamente por meninas, e outros, exclusivamente por meninos. No Critério III, foram sujeitos 100 crianças, sendo 40 de 4a. série e 60 de 3a. séria, 50% de cada sexo. Os procedimentos consistiram em fazer atribuições ou a fazer escolhas de itens relativos a brinquedos, listados em 10 pares. Os resultados apontaram poucas diferenças nas atribuições conferidas aos brinquedos por meninos e meninas, entretanto, havendo diferenças significantes para todos os itens escolhidos.Having in mind the importance of cultural control over the sex attribute in child development, this research was done having as a general aim the characterization of some adoption criteria of sex-roles in playing. Specific samples were used for each criterion. For Criterion, I, 75 children were studied, being 50 of them attending first and second grades; 25, attending fourth and fifth grades, and also 15 undergraduate adults. All these children and adults belong ed to middle class. The material used was 25 slides of toys wich were projected to be labeled as sexual or asexual. The results pointed little differences in labeling of toys between the groups of children attending first and second grades, and fourth and fifth grades. The results between the groups of children and group adults pointed more significant differences in the attributions than the results of comparison between the two groups of children. For Criterion II, 60 children from 9 to 10 years old, 50%of each sex, were studied. This criterion consisted of making evident the games, plays and activities usually adopted by children within a list of 50 items. The results showed clear and significant proportions for 50% of the 24 items of common choices, and some of the remaining items were pointed exclusively by girls, and others, exclusively by boys. For Criterion III, 100 children were studied: 40 children attended fourth grade and 60 attended third grade, being 50% of each sex. The procedures consisted of labeling and making choices of toy items listed in ten pairs. The results showed little differences in the choice of items by boys and girls.

  5. Obtaining of ceramics biphasic dense and porous

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Among the bioceramic hydroxyapatite (HAP) and beta-tricalcium phosphate (beta-TCP) are materials commonly used in biomedical field. Their combined properties result in a material with absorbable and at the same time with bioactive surface. Called biphasic ceramics such materials respond more quickly when exposed to physiological environment. In this work, powders of HAP/beta-TCP were obtained by chemical precipitation. After obtaining the post-phase was added at a ratio of 0, 15% and 30w% aqueous solutions of corn starch in order to obtain porous bodies. After mixing the resulting solutions were dried, resigned in tablet form and sintered at 1300 deg C. The initial powder was characterized by X-ray diffraction with Rietveld refinement to quantify the phases present. Bodies-of-evidence has been characterized by calculating the bulk density, X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy and diametral compression. (author)

  6. Obtain of uranium concentrates from fertil liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This research tried to encounter the form to remove uranium from the rock in the best way, for that it was used different process like leaching, extraction, concentration and precipitation. To leach the mineral was chosen basic leaching, using a mixture of carbonate-sodium bicarbonate, this method is more adequated for the basic nature of the mineral. In extraction was used specific uranium ionic interchanges, so was chosen a tertiary amine like Alamina 336. The concentration phase is intimately binding with the extraction by ionic interchange, for the capability of resine's extraction to obtain concentrated liquids. When the liquids were obtained with high concentration of uranium in the same time were purified and then were precipitated, for that we employed a precipitant agent like: Sodium hydroxide, Amonium hydroxide, Magnesium hydroxide, Hydrogen peroxide and phosphates. With all concentrates we obtain the YELLOW CAKE

  7. Platelet crossmatch tests using radiolabelled staphylococcal protein A or peroxidase anti-peroxidase in alloimmunised patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Refractoriness to random-donor platelets as a result of alloimmunization remains a major problem in long-term platelet transfusion therapy despite the use of HLA-matched platelets. A study has been made of two methods for detection of platelet associated IgG as platelet crossmatch tests for the selection of platelet donors. These methods use radiolabelled staphylococcal protein A(125I-SPA) and peroxidase anti-peroxidase (PAP), respectively. One hundred and ten crossmatch tests using 125I-SPA were performed retrospectively in 18 alloimmunized patients. The results indicated that the predictive value of a positive or a negative test was 87%; the sensitivity was 73% and the specificity was 95%. Results with the PAP test were similar. The HLA types were known for 48 donor-recipient pairs. With few exceptions, there was a correlation between the results of the platelet crossmatch tests and the effectiveness of platelet transfusion regardless of the degree of HLA match. These results indicate that platelet crossmatch tests may be valuable even when closely HLA matched donors are not available. A large-scale prospective study is warranted, particularly in highly immunized patients. (author)

  8. Strategies for obtaining unpublished drug trial data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wolfe, Nicole; Gøtzsche, Peter C.; Bero, Lisa Anne

    Authors of systematic reviews have difficulty obtaining unpublished data for their reviews. This project aimed to provide an in-depth description of the experiences of authors in searching for and gaining access to unpublished data for their systematic reviews, and to give guidance on best practi...

  9. Experimentally obtaining metrics in general relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Teixeira, A F F

    2005-01-01

    It seems to be not well known that the metrics of general relativity (GR) can be obtained without integrating Einstein equations. To that, we need only define a unit for GR-interval $\\Delta s$, and observe 10 geodesics (out of which at least one must be nonnull). Even without using any unit, we can have $\\kappa g_{\\mu\

  10. HYALURONIC ACID: OBTAINING, PROPERTIES AND APPLICATION

    OpenAIRE

    L. Zadorojnai; A. Zadorojnai

    2012-01-01

    Properties and methods for obtaining hyaluronic acid and its derivatives from raw material of animal origin are reviewed. The importance and practical application of hyaluronic acid in various fields are discussed. This article is an extended abstract of a communication presented at the Conference Ecological Chemistry 2012

  11. Obtaining the borders of urban areas

    CERN Document Server

    Comin, Cesar Henrique; Costa, Luciano da Fontoura

    2015-01-01

    The access to an ever increasing amount of information in the modern world gave rise to the development of many quantitative indicators about urban regions in the globe. Therefore, there is a growing need for a precise definition of how to delimit urban regions, so as to allow proper respective characterization and modeling. Here we present a straightforward methodology to automatically detect urban region borders. The method is based on the density of street crossings around a single seed point associated to the urban area of interest. We exemplify the potential of the methodology by characterizing the geometry and topology of 21 urban regions obtained from 8 distinct countries. The geometry is studied by employing the lacunarity measurement, which is associated to the regularity of holes contained in a pattern. The topology is analyzed by associating the betweenness centrality of the streets with their respective class, such as motorway or residential, obtained from a database.

  12. Superconductive ceramics obtained with sol gel method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several sol gel routes have been considered, studied and developed to produce large quantities of granulates which can be processed to obtain ceramics having good superconducting characteristics. In the considered process a mixture of commercial nitrates is atomized, at room temperature, in a solution 1:1 of Primene JMT and Benzene and a pale blue gel of the starting elements is suddently formed. The granulates obtained are free flowing, very reactive and well suited for pressing. For their intrinsic characteristics they could be very good precursors for the production of large quantities of superconductive ceramics in different forms. The precipitated gel is dried, calcinated, pressed in the form of cylindrical pellets which are sintered up to 960 degrees C. No griding or different thermal treatments are needed. The sintered material has low electric resistence, shows a clear Meissner effect and has a transition temperature of between 91 and 95 K

  13. transparent conductive obtained by different techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text.In2O3, SnO2 and ZnO transparent conductive films have been obtained by different techniques: In2O3 has been synthetized by reactive evaporation, while SnO2 and ZnO have been obtained by spray pyrolysis. The properties of the films have been studied by x-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XRD), optical transmission and electrical measuremetns (conductivity and Hall measurements). It is shown that while in the present experimental conditions, ZnO are tranparent bu tno conductive, SnO2 and In2O3 performances correspond to the requested properties for optoelectronic components applications

  14. Porous ceramics obtained from strontium zirconate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An attempt is made to obtain a two-layer refractory material of strontium zirconate consisting of a high density sintered layer and a porous one. Initial components for the synthesis are strontium carbonate, zirconium dioxide and baddeleyite powder. The synthesis is carried out in the temperature range of 1400-1700 deg C. The material of high density layers is produced by polystyrene additions burning-out. X-ray diffraction analysis and microstructural studies show that the ceramic obtained is single-phase, with uniform fine-grained structure in high density layers. In porous layers spherical (1-2 mm) and channel-type (5μ in diameters pores with sharp surface roughness are observed. The data on thermal conductivity and high temperature creep testify that the strontium zirconate ceramics is of high quality)

  15. Development of instrumentation to obtain environment informations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Final results of development of telemetric data acquisition system related to air and water physical parameters are presented. The system comprises probes, signal conditioners, interfaces, transmitters, recorders and data processors. A tested prototype of the developed equipment has been installed by NUCLEBRAS within the scope of its environmental engineering tasks in the site selection for nuclear complexes. (Author)

  16. Intelligent drug delivery systems obtained by radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martellini, Flavia; Higa, Olga Z.; Takacs, Erzsebet; Safranj, Agneza; Yoshida, Masaru; Katakai, Ryoichi; Carenza, Mario

    1998-06-01

    Radiation-induced polymerization of acryloyl-L-proline methyl ester, an {alpha}-aminoacid-containing monomer, in the presence of a crosslinking agent and a hydrophilic monomer gave rise to polymer hydrogels whose water content at equilibrium was found to decrease as the swelling temperature increased. Some hydrogel samples were obtained with entrapped acetaminophen, an analgesic and antipyretic drug. It was ascertained that the release of the drug was controlled by both the hydrophilicity of the polymer matrices and the environmental temperature.

  17. Where and how adolescents obtain alcoholic beverages.

    OpenAIRE

    Wagenaar, A C; Finnegan, J.R.; Wolfson, M; Anstine, P S; Williams, C. L.; Perry, C. L.

    1993-01-01

    Patterns of acquisition of alcoholic beverages by underage youth were studied, using focus group methods with a sample of midwestern youth. Results showed that the alcohol initially used by those in their early teens is obtained from parents' stocks or from older siblings and friends. By the midteens, parties at which alcohol (usually beer) is readily available become the major source. In the mid to late teens, young people purchase alcohol from commercial alcohol outlets, despite the fact th...

  18. New process of tungsten carbide obtaining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research center (in Reno) of the Mining Section of the USA Department of the Interior has developed a new process of tungsten carbide production from wolframite concentrates, avoiding the stage of obtaining ammonium paratungstate. The process passes two stages: high-temperature concentrate decomposition in the melt of chloride and silicate salts (HTSX process) and production of tungsten carbide by chloride phase processing with the use of methane

  19. Lifetime obtained by ion beam assisted deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chakaroun, M. [XLIM-MINACOM-UMR 6172, Faculte des Sciences et Techniques, 123 av. Albert Thomas, 87060 Limoges cedex (France); Antony, R. [XLIM-MINACOM-UMR 6172, Faculte des Sciences et Techniques, 123 av. Albert Thomas, 87060 Limoges cedex (France)], E-mail: remi.antony@unilim.fr; Taillepierre, P.; Moliton, A. [XLIM-MINACOM-UMR 6172, Faculte des Sciences et Techniques, 123 av. Albert Thomas, 87060 Limoges cedex (France)

    2007-09-15

    We have fabricated green organic light-emitting diodes based on tris-(8-hydroxyquinoline)aluminium (Alq3) thin films. In order to favor the charge carriers transport from the anode, we have deposited a N,N'-diphenyl-N,N'-bis (3-methylphenyl)-1,1'-diphenyl-4,4'-diamine (TPD) layer (hole transport layer) on a ITO anode. Cathode is obtained with a calcium layer covered with a silver layer. This silver layer is used to protect the other layers against oxygen during the OLED use. All the depositions are performed under vacuum and the devices are not exposed to air during their realisation. In order to improve the silver layer characteristics, we have realized this layer with the ion beam assisted deposition process. The aim of this process is to densify the layer and then reduce the permeation of H{sub 2}O and O{sub 2}. We have used argon ions to assist the silver deposition. All the OLEDs optoelectronic characterizations (I = f(V), L = f(V)) are performed in the ambient air. We compare the results obtained with the assisted layer with those obtained with a classical cathode realized by thermal unassisted evaporation. We have realized lifetime measurements in the ambient air and we discuss about the assisted layer influence on the OLEDs performances.

  20. Lifetime obtained by ion beam assisted deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have fabricated green organic light-emitting diodes based on tris-(8-hydroxyquinoline)aluminium (Alq3) thin films. In order to favor the charge carriers transport from the anode, we have deposited a N,N'-diphenyl-N,N'-bis (3-methylphenyl)-1,1'-diphenyl-4,4'-diamine (TPD) layer (hole transport layer) on a ITO anode. Cathode is obtained with a calcium layer covered with a silver layer. This silver layer is used to protect the other layers against oxygen during the OLED use. All the depositions are performed under vacuum and the devices are not exposed to air during their realisation. In order to improve the silver layer characteristics, we have realized this layer with the ion beam assisted deposition process. The aim of this process is to densify the layer and then reduce the permeation of H2O and O2. We have used argon ions to assist the silver deposition. All the OLEDs optoelectronic characterizations (I = f(V), L = f(V)) are performed in the ambient air. We compare the results obtained with the assisted layer with those obtained with a classical cathode realized by thermal unassisted evaporation. We have realized lifetime measurements in the ambient air and we discuss about the assisted layer influence on the OLEDs performances

  1. HPV Testing Among Providers

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-10-15

    Dr. Walter Kinney, a gynecologic oncologist with The Permanente Medical Group in Sacramento, California, talks about Pap and human papillomavirus (HPV) cotesting in women aged 30 and over.  Created: 10/15/2009 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP), Division of Cancer Prevention and Control (DCPC).   Date Released: 6/9/2010.

  2. Obtaining radionuclides of rare earth elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Radioactive nuclides of rare earth elements (REE) are widely used in various areas of science and technology, and recently in medicine also. Majority of REE radionuclides can be obtained in nuclear reactor. Obtaining of REE radionuclides in nuclear reactor is more productive than in cyclotron. First of all, their production in nuclear reactor requires less expenses and costs less to produce. Secondly, because of rather greater section of the nuclear reactions, received radionuclides possess high enough specific activity. It is possible to receive such important REE radionuclides as 147Pm, 153Sm, I52Eu, 154Eu, 153Gd, 160Tb, 166Ho, 170Tm, and I77Lu in nuclear reactor. Usually, radionuclides are received by irradiating appropriate metals or their oxides of high purity in a flow of neutrons of reactor The present work illustrates the preliminary results of researches on possibility of obtaining 53Sm, 166Ho and 177Lu radionuclides in nuclear reactor of WWR-SM Institute of Nuclear Physics AS RUz. On chemical properties, rare earth elements differ from each other little and always accompany each other both in chemical compounds and as metal. Therefore, at their irradiation in nuclear reactor, there are always radioisotopes of other REE as radioactive impurity along with the major radionuclides. At reception of radionuclide of certain REE, the principal problem is clearing it from radioactive impurity of other REE. The work shows extraction and extraction-chromatography methods of REE division using liquid anion exchanger (tri-n-octyl amine) and cation exchanger (di-2-ethylhexyl phosphoric acid). Distribution coefficients of REE and its separation factors in the investigated systems are presented. Opportunities of reception of radionuclides 53Sm, 166Ho and l77Lu in nuclear reactor are estimated

  3. Reliability of "Google" for obtaining medical information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kothari, Mihir; Moolani, Samita

    2015-03-01

    Internet is used by many patients to obtain relevant medical information. We assessed the impact of "Google" search on the knowledge of the parents whose ward suffered from squint. In 21 consecutive patients, the "Google" search improved the mean score of the correct answers from 47% to 62%. We found that "Google" search was useful and reliable source of information for the patients with regards to the disease etiopathogenesis and the problems caused by the disease. The internet-based information, however, was incomplete and not reliable with regards to the disease treatment. PMID:25971176

  4. Antimicrobial coatings — obtaining and characterization

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Cornelia Guran; Alexandra Pica; Denisa Ficai; Anton Ficai; Cezar Comanescu

    2013-04-01

    In this paper, we present inorganic–organic hybrid coatings with polymer matrix (water soluble) that contain silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). The structure and morphology of coating materials were determined by infrared spectroscopy (FT–IR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Therefore, the antimicrobial activities and mechanisms of coatings for several pathogenic bacteria (Bacilius cereus and Staphylococcus aureus) were investigated. It was demonstrated that the obtained material with silver nanoparticles keep their antimicrobial effect even if they are subjected to several cycles of washing with water and detergent.

  5. A general scheme for obtaining graviton spectrums

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this contribution is to present a general scheme for obtaining graviton spectra from modified gravity theories, based on a theory developed by Grishchuk in the mid 1970s. We try to be pedagogical, putting in order some basic ideas in a compact procedure and also giving a review of the current trends in this arena. With the aim to fill a gap for the interface between quantum field theorists and observational cosmologist in this matter, we highlight two interesting applications to cosmology: clues as to the nature of dark energy; and the possibility of reconstruction of the scalar potential in scalar-tensor gravity theories

  6. Cotton nanofibers obtained by different acid conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The thermal stability of cellulose nanofibers is related to their application and especially to polymer processing which temperatures of processing are around 200 deg C. In this work, nanofibers of commercial cotton were obtained by acid hydrolysis employing different acids: sulfuric, hydrochloric and a mixture (2:1; sulfuric acid: hydrochloric acid).The morphology of the nanofibers were characterized by transmission microscopy (TEM), crystallinity by x-ray diffraction (XRD) and thermal stability in air atmosphere by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The results indicated a very similar morphology and crystallinity among them. The main differences were relative to aggregation state e and thermal stability. The aggregation state of the suspensions decreases in the order HCl 2SO4:HCl 2SO4-. The hydrolysis with a mix of HCl and H2SO4 resulted in cellulose nanofibers with higher thermal stability than those hydrolyzed with H2SO4. The hydrolysis employed with a mixture of sulphuric and hydrochloric acids also showed a better dispersion than those suspensions of nanofibers obtained by hydrolysis with only HCl. (author)

  7. Experimental methodology for obtaining sound absorption coefficients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A. Macía M

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: the authors propose a new methodology for estimating sound absorption coefficients using genetic algorithms. Methodology: sound waves are generated and conducted along a rectangular silencer. The waves are then attenuated by the absorbing material covering the silencer’s walls. The attenuated sound pressure level is used in a genetic algorithm-based search to find the parameters of the proposed attenuation expressions that include geometric factors, the wavelength and the absorption coefficient. Results: a variety of adjusted mathematical models were found that make it possible to estimate the absorption coefficients based on the characteristics of a rectangular silencer used for measuring the attenuation of the noise that passes through it. Conclusions: this methodology makes it possible to obtain the absorption coefficients of new materials in a cheap and simple manner. Although these coefficients might be slightly different from those obtained through other methodologies, they provide solutions within the engineering accuracy ranges that are used for designing noise control systems.

  8. Acoustic barriers obtained from industrial wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Valles, M; Avila, G; Martinez, S; Terradas, R; Nogus, J M

    2008-07-01

    Acoustic pollution is an environmental problem that is becoming increasingly more important in our society. Likewise, the accumulation of generated waste and the need for waste management are also becoming more and more pressing. In this study we describe a new material--called PROUSO--obtained from industrial wastes. PROUSO has a variety of commercial and engineering, as well as building, applications. The main raw materials used for this environmentally friendly material come from slag from the aluminium recycling process, dust from the marble industry, foundry sands, and recycled expanded polystyrene from recycled packaging. Some natural materials, such as plastic clays, are also used. To obtain PROUSO we used a conventional ceramic process, forming new mineral phases and incorporating polluted elements into the structure. Its physical properties make PROUSO an excellent acoustic and thermal insulation material. It absorbs 95% of the sound in the frequency band of the 500 Hz. Its compressive strength makes it ideal for use in ceramic wall building. PMID:18514765

  9. Understanding Cervical Changes: A Health Guide for Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... t treated. The Pap test (also called a Pap smear) finds cervical cell changes that may turn into cervical cancer. It can also detect cervical cancer cells. A Pap test also sometimes finds conditions, such as infection ...

  10. Human papillomavirus (HPV) testing for normal cervical cytology in low-risk women age 3065 years by family physicians

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Cruz, Marisyl D.; Young, Alisa P.; Ruffin, Mack T.

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE To assess HPV ordering for normal cervical cytology among low-risk women age 3065 years. METHODS Audits of 833 cytology request forms of low-risk women completing a Pap smear, January 2008April 2011, from five Michigan Family Medicine clinics determined HPV orders completed by the Pap-smear performing clinician. Multivariate logistic regression models examined differences in HPV ordering by age at Pap and provider status, gender, and clinic across sites. A poisson regression model analyzed the annual number of HPV orders over time. RESULTS Cytology requests were completed by: 622 faculty (75%), 169 residents/fellows (20%), and 42 Nurse Practitioner/Physician Assistants (NP/PAs) (5%). HPV testing for any cytology result was ordered on 324 request forms (39%) by residents/fellows (48%), faculty (38%), and NP/PAs (10%). Female providers were twice as likely as males to order HPV for any cytology result across all clinics and provider status (pHPV ordering among clinics. Annually between 20082011 cytology requests increased 46% including HPV for any cytology result after adjusting for faculty provider gender. CONCLUSION HPV ordering at cytology collection varied by clinic and provider status and gender. HPV cotesting for any cytology result remains modest, but increasing over time in these clinics. PMID:24204068

  11. Measurements, error analyses, and calculations of water and steam individual mass flow rates, velocities, and related flow parameters obtained from single-phase and two-phase prototype tests of the PKL instrumented spool pieces for the US NRC-RSR 3-D program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The operation of the emergency core cooling system and its related steam-binding problems in pressurized water reactors are the subject of a cooperative study by the United States, Germany, and Japan. Lawrence Livermore Laboratory and EG and G, Inc., San Ramon Operations, are responsible for the design, hardware, and software of the 80.8-mm and 113-mm spool piece measurement systems for the German Primarkreislauf (PKL) Test Facility at Kraftwerk Union in Erlangen, West Germany. Four PKL spool pieces each containing a flow turbine, drag screen, three-beam densitometer, and pressure and temperature probes were constructed and tested to measure single-phase and two-phase steam and water flow parameters. Individual phase velocities, mass flow rates, and densities were calculated from the analytical relationships presented. These calculated and measured parameters were compared to those parameters determined from the test facility instrumentation at Wyle Laboratories. Error analyses were performed, and individual test results were presented for both horizontal and vertical flows. The various flow regimes tested included annular mist, slug, froth, stratified wavy, and homogeneous flow of water or superheated steam

  12. Obtaining Reliable Feedback for Sanctioning Reputation Mechanisms

    CERN Document Server

    Faltings, B; 10.1613/jair.2243

    2011-01-01

    Reputation mechanisms offer an effective alternative to verification authorities for building trust in electronic markets with moral hazard. Future clients guide their business decisions by considering the feedback from past transactions; if truthfully exposed, cheating behavior is sanctioned and thus becomes irrational. It therefore becomes important to ensure that rational clients have the right incentives to report honestly. As an alternative to side-payment schemes that explicitly reward truthful reports, we show that honesty can emerge as a rational behavior when clients have a repeated presence in the market. To this end we describe a mechanism that supports an equilibrium where truthful feedback is obtained. Then we characterize the set of pareto-optimal equilibria of the mechanism, and derive an upper bound on the percentage of false reports that can be recorded by the mechanism. An important role in the existence of this bound is played by the fact that rational clients can establish a reputation for...

  13. Technologies for obtaining large grain sintered pellets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A way to increase fuel burn-up is to use a large grains fuel pellets structure. The paper presents a literature review related to the technologies and the methods for large grains sintered pellets manufacturing. A flowsheet for large grains sintered pellets obtaining by Nb2O5 dopant addition in UO2 sinterable powder, pressing and sintering in H2 atmosphere is showed. In the diagrams are presented the dependency of the main sintered pellets characteristics (pore radius distribution, pores volume, density, grains size) as function of the Nb2O5 dopants concentration, UO2 sinterable powder nature and sintering temperature. Other sintered pellets characteristics (electrical conductivity, Seebeck coefficient, high temperature molar heat capacity and thermomechanical properties) are commented. The beneficial effects resulted from theoretical and practical projects are presented. (author)

  14. Improving the procedure for obtaining organophilic clays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was realized in order to improve the way to obtain organoclays using clay from clay a local industry. Thus, factors not yet well understood in regard to organoclays were optimized and elucidated in this work. In the preparation of organoclays, a sodium bentonite, from the Bentonit Uniao Nordeste-Campina Grande/PB, was purified and organically modified with quaternary ammonium salt, cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (Cetrimide), using different conditions of preparation (time of mixing and content of organic surfactant). For purposes of comparison it was used also a commercial sodium montmorillonite (Cloisite Na+), supplied by Southern Clay Products. Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X ray diffraction (XRD) data indicated that organoclays more thermally stable and with better cost/benefit ratio can be prepared using the lowest mixing time (30 min) and the lowest amount of surfactant (equivalent to 100% of CEC of clay). (author)

  15. Polypropylene obtained through zeolite supported catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Queli C. Bastos

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Propylene polymerizations were carried out with f2C(Flu(CpZrCl2 and SiMe2(Ind2ZrCl2 catalysts supported on silica, zeolite sodic mordenite (NaM and acid mordenite (HM. The polymerizations were performed at different temperatures and varying aluminium/zirconium molar ratios ([Al]/[Zr]. The effect of these reaction parameters on the catalyst activity was investigated using a proposed statistical experimental planning. In the case of f2C(Flu(CpZrCl2, SiO2 and NaM were used as support and the catalyst performance evaluated using toluene and pentane as polymerization solvent. The molecular weight, molecular weight distribution, melting point and crystallinity of the polymers were examined. The results indicate very high activities for the syndiospecific heterogeneous system. Also, the polymers obtained had superior Mw and stereoregularity.

  16. Devices for obtaining information about radiation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The invention provides a sensitive, fast high-resolution device for obtaining information about the distribution of gamma and X-radiation sources and provides a radiation detector useful in such a device. It comprises a slit collimator with a multiplicity of slits each with slit-defining walls of material and thickness to absorb beam components impinging on them. The slits extend further in one direction than the other. The detector for separately detecting beam components passing through the slits also provides data output signals. It comprises a plurality of radiation transducing portions which are not photoconductor elements each at the end of a slit. A positioner operates to change the transverse position of the slits and radiation transducing portions relative to the source, wherein each radiation transducing element is positioned within its respective slit between the slit defining walls. Full details and preferred embodiments are given. (U.K.)

  17. Devices for obtaining information about radiation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The invention provides a sensitive, fast, high-resolution device for obtaining information about the distribution of gamma and X-radiation sources and provides a radiation detector useful in such a device. It comprises a slit collimator with a multiplicity of slits each with slit-defining walls of material and thickness to absorb beam components impinging on them. The slits extend further in one transverse direction than the other. The detector for separately detecting beam components passing through the slits also provides data output signals. It comprises a plurality of radiation transducing portions, each at the end of a slit. A positioner changes the transverse position of the slits and radiation transducer (a photoconductor) relative to the source. Applications are in nuclear medicine and industry. Full details and preferred embodiments are given. (U.K.)

  18. Polypropylene obtained through zeolite supported catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Propylene polymerizations were carried out with ?2C(Flu)(Cp)ZrCl2 and SiMe2(Ind)2ZrCl2 catalysts supported on silica, zeolite sodic mordenite (NaM) and acid mordenite (HM). The polymerizations were performed at different temperatures and varying aluminium/zirconium molar ratios ([Al]/[Zr]). The effect of these reaction parameters on the catalyst activity was investigated using a proposed statistical experimental planning. In the case of f2C(Flu)(Cp)ZrCl2, SiO2 and NaM were used as support and the catalyst performance evaluated using toluene and pentane as polymerization solvent. The molecular weight, molecular weight distribution, melting point and crystallinity of the polymers were examined. The results indicate very high activities for the syndiospecific heterogeneous system. Also, the polymers obtained had superior Mw and stereo regularity. (author)

  19. Speaker Identification From Youtube Obtained Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitesh Kumar Chaudhary

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available An efficient, and intuitive algorithm is presented for the identification of speakers from a long dataset (like YouTube long discussion, Cocktail party recorded audio or video.The goal of automatic speaker identification is to identify the number of different speakers and prepare a model for that speaker by extraction, characterization and speaker-specific information contained in the speech signal. It has many diverse application specially in the field of Surveillance , Immigrations at Airport , cyber security , transcription in multi-source of similar sound source, where it is difficult to assign transcription arbitrary. The most commonly speech parameterization used in speaker verification, K-mean, cepstral analysis, is detailed. Gaussian mixture modeling, which is the speaker modeling technique is then explained. Gaussian mixture models (GMM, perhaps the most robust machine learning algorithm has been introduced to examine and judge carefully speaker identification in text independent. The application or employment of Gaussian mixture models for monitoring & Analysing speaker identity is encouraged by the familiarity, awareness, or understanding gained through experience that Gaussian spectrum depict the characteristics of speaker's spectral conformational pattern and remarkable ability of GMM to construct capricious densities after that we illustrate 'Expectation maximization' an iterative algorithm which takes some arbitrary value in initial estimation and carry on the iterative process until the convergence of value is observed We have tried to obtained 85 ~ 95% of accuracy using speaker modeling of vector quantization and Gaussian Mixture model ,so by doing various number of experiments we are able to obtain 79 ~ 82% of identification rate using Vector quantization and 85 ~ 92.6% of identification rate using GMM modeling by Expectation maximization parameter estimation depending on variation of parameter.

  20. Os diferentes papéis, propósitos e resultados dos modelos nacionais e regionais de educação Different roles, purposes and outcomes of national and regional models of education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Dale

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo discute a natureza e as posturas, atualmente variáveis, da educação por meio da distinção entre os papéis, propósitos e resultados de modelos educativos em níveis nacional e regional (supranacional, não subnacional. Propõe também o surgimento de um novo tipo de modelo regional de educação, que difere dos modelos nacionais em termos de conteúdo, papel e objetivo, e mantém com eles uma relação que não é de hierarquia, de convergência nem de escala. Comparam-se seus papéis no contrato social pela educação, tendo o Sistema Nacional de Educação como modelo-"padrão". Embora ambos sejam parte das contribuições da educação para os meios de produção e distribuição de bem-estar, desempenham papéis diferentes. Como exemplos, o artigo examina o processo Bolonha, na União Europeia (UE, e a natureza e as possíveis consequências do projeto que busca "exportá-lo" para a América Latina. Esses dois casos sugerem que os resultados-chave envolvem a "re-construção" tanto da região quanto, e mais particularmente, da educação superior como setor. O artigo conclui propondo que esses desenvolvimentos podem culminar em divisões funcionais, escalares e setoriais do trabalho educacional.This paper discusses the currently changing nature and roles of education through distinguishing between the roles, purposes and outcomes of educational models at national and regional (supra- rather than sub-national levels. It proposes the emergence of a new kind of regional model of education, that differs from national models in content, role and purpose, and where the relationship between the two models is neither hierarchical, converging or scaled-up. The two models are compared in terms of their role in the social contract for education, and the national education system is taken as the 'default' model. While both models are part of education's contribution to the means of production and distribution of well-being, they play different roles. As examples, the paper examines the EU Bologna Process, and the nature and possible consequences of its projected "export' to Latin America, suggesting that in both cases key outcomes involve the "re-construction" of both the region and, especially, higher education as a sector. The paper concludes by suggesting that such developments may culminate in functional, scalar and sectoral divisions of labour of education.

  1. Obtaining superhydrophobicity using commercial razor blades

    CERN Document Server

    Yamamoto, Ken; Ogata, Satoshi

    2015-01-01

    Because the superhydrophobic characteristic appears by forming a composite surface consisting of solid and air underneath the droplets, a large number of rough surfaces that can trap air have been fabricated. Recently, the air trapping on materials whose equilibrium contact angles are less than 90 degrees was achieved by fabricating proper structures that lead energetic stability at the condition. Whereas these methods were proposed under the assumption of the static and equilibrium conditions, we take a dynamic and non-equilibrium approach in this study through droplet deposition and droplet impact experiments. By employing test surfaces that consist of commercially available stainless steel razor blades, we show the pinning effect brings the apparent water contact angle of approximately 160 degrees on a "hydrophilic" substrate. We call this state the "non-equilibrium Cassie state" and give theoretical explanations. Furthermore, the dynamic characteristics of the droplet impact on these surfaces are discusse...

  2. Algunos factores biológicos asociados con la aparición de citologías alteradas Some biological factors associated with the appearance of altered Pap smears

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René Mustelier Despaigne

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio observacional, de tipo caso-control, basado en 54 mujeres con estudios citológicos alterados (casos y 108 supuestamente sanas con citologías normales (controles, para identificar algunos factores biológicos asociados con la aparición del fenómeno durante 1994 en el área de salud "Frank País García" de Santiago de Cuba. En el análisis estadístico se determinó la razón de productos cruzados, el intervalo de confianza, el nivel de asociación y el riesgo atribuible en expuesto porcentual, para determinar aquellos factores que al incidir sobre ellos garantizaran una mayor influencia positiva en la población expuesta, estos fueron: tener antecedentes personales de afecciones benignas de cuello uterino, manipulaciones e infecciones por oncovirus, así como antecedentes patológicos familiares de cáncer cervical; razones que justifican dar a conocer estos datos a los médicos y enfermeras del área, con vistas a trazar estrategias de trabajo encaminadas a actuar tempranamente sobre la población con riesgo.A limited controlled observational trial based on 54 women with altered Pap smears (cases and 108 apparently sound women with normal Pap smears (controls was conducted aimed at identifying some biological factors associated with the appearance of this phenomenon during 1994 at the "Frank País García" health area, in Santiago de Cuba. The ratio of crossed products, the confidence interval, the level of association, and the attributable risk in percent exposé were determinated by statistical analysis to identify those factors that on inciding on them guarantee a higher positive influence on the exposed population. The following factors were found: personal history of benign affections of the cervix uteri, manipulations and infections caused by oncovirus, and pathological family history of cervix uteri cancer. It is important for physicians and nurses to know these data in order to lay down working strategies that allow the early treatment of the population at risk.

  3. Fe(II)(pap-5NO2)2 and Fe(II)(qsal-5NO2)2 Schiff-base spin-crossover complexes: a rare example with photomagnetism and room-temperature bistability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iasco, Olga; Rivière, Eric; Guillot, Régis; Buron-Le Cointe, Marylise; Meunier, Jean-François; Bousseksou, Azzedine; Boillot, Marie-Laure

    2015-02-16

    We focus here on the properties of Fe complexes formed with Schiff bases involved in the chemistry of Fe(III) spin-transition archetypes. The neutral Fe(pap-5NO2)2 (1) and Fe(qsal-5NO2)2·Solv (2 and 2·Solv) compounds (Solv = 2H2O) derive from the reaction of Fe(II) salts with the condensation products of pyridine-2-carbaldehyde with 2-hydroxy-5-nitroaniline (Hpap-5NO2) or 5-nitrosalicylaldehyde with quinolin-8-amine (Hqsal-5NO2), respectively. While the Fe(qsal-5NO2)2·Solv solid is essentially low spin (S = 0) and requires temperatures above 300 K to undergo a S = 0 ↔ S = 2 spin-state switching, the Fe(pap-5NO2)2 one presents a strongly cooperative first-order transition (T↓ = 291 K, T↑ = 308 K) centered at room temperature associated with a photomagnetic effect at 10 K (TLIESST = 58 K). The investigation of these magnetic behaviors was conducted with single-crystal X-ray diffraction (1, 100 and 320 K; 2, 100 K), Mössbauer, IR, UV-vis (1 and 2·Solv), and differential scanning calorimetry (1) measurements. The Mössbauer analysis supports a description of these compounds as Fe(II) Schiff-base complexes and the occurrence of a metal-centered spin crossover process. In comparison with Fe(III) analogues, it appears that an expanded coordination sphere stabilizes the valence 2+ state of the Fe ion in both complexes. Strong hydrogen-bonding interactions that implicate the phenolato group bound to Fe(II) promote the required extra-stabilization of the S = 2 state and thus determines the spin transition of 1 centered at room temperature. In the lattice, the hydrogen-bonded sites form infinite chains interconnected via a three-dimensional network of intermolecular van der Waals contacts and π-π interactions. Therefore, the spin transition of 1 involves the synergetic influence of electrostatic and elastic interactions, which cause the enhancement of cooperativity and result in the bistability at room temperature. PMID:25590643

  4. Salinity tolerant mutant obtained from protons radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A breeding program to obtain salinity tolerant rice varieties using in vitro mutagenesis was development at the National Institute of Agricultural Science. Seeds from Jucarito-104 (J-104) rice variety were irradiated with different doses of protons (10, 20, 30, 40, 60, 90, 110 and 210 Gy) at the Phasotron of DUVNA. The irradiated seeds were cultured in vitro for callus induction and plant regeneration. It was carried out the bulk harvest in M1V1 population and promising lines were selected from M2V1 to M5V1 generations. It was evaluated the morphological and molecular difference between the mutant and the donor J-104. It was possible to release the mutant GINES that showing difference with the donor J-104 in cycle, yielding, grain quality, salinity tolerance as well as disease tolerance. The AFLP analysis showed differences between the mutant and the donor J-104. The rice variety GINES is the first mutant release from in vitro mutagenesis using protons. (author)

  5. Shielding design to obtain compact marine reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The marine reactors equipped in previously constructed nuclear ships are in need of the secondary shield which is installed outside the containment vessel. Most of the weight and volume of the reactor plants are occupied by this secondary shield. An advanced marine reactor called MRX (Marine Reactor X) has been designed to obtain a more compact and lightweight marine reactor with enhanced safety. The MRX is a new type of marine reactor which is an integral PWR (The steam generator is installed in the pressure vessel.) with adopting a water-filled containment vessel and a new shielding design method of no installation of the secondary shield. As a result, MRX is considerably lighter in weight and more compact in size as compared with the reactors equipped in previously constructed nuclear ships. For instance, the plant weight and volume of the containment vessel of MRX are about 50% and 70% of those of the Nuclear Ship MUTSU, in spite of the power of MRX is 2.8 times as large as the MUTSU's reactor. The shielding design calculation was made using the ANISN, DOT3.5, QAD-CGGP2 and ORIGEN codes. The computational accuracy was confirmed by experimental analyses. (author)

  6. Nanocrystalline magnetic materials obtained by flash annealing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.K. Murakami

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present work was to produce enhanced-remanence nanocrystalline magnetic material by crystallizing amorphous or partially amorphous Pr4.5Fe77B18.5 alloys by the flash annealing process, also known as the dc-Joule heating process, and to determine the optimal conditions for obtaining good magnetic coupling between the magnetic phases present in this material. Ribbons of Pr4.5Fe77B18.5 were produced by melt spinning and then annealed for 10-30 s at temperatures 500 - 640 °C by passing current through the sample to develop the enhanced-remanence nanocrystalline magnetic material. These materials were studied by X-ray diffraction, differential thermal analysis and magnetic measurements. Coercivity increases of up to 15% were systematically observed in relation to furnace-annealed material. Two different samples were carefully examined: (i a sample annealed at 600 °C which showed the highest coercive field Hc and remanence ratio Mr/Ms and (ii a sample annealed at 520 °C which showed phase separation in the second quadrant demagnetization curve. Our results are in agreement with other studies which show that flash annealing improves the magnetic properties of some amorphous ferromagnetic ribbons.

  7. Modifying networks to obtain low cost trees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krumke, S.O.; Noltemeier, H.; Drangmeister, K.U. [Wurzburg Univ. (Germany) Dept. of Computer Science; Marathe, M.V. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Ravi, S.S. [Albany Univ., Albany, NY (United States) Dept. of Computer Science

    1996-07-01

    We consider the problem of reducing the edge lengths of a given network so that the modified network has a spanning tree of small total length. It is assumed that each edge e of the given network has an associated function C{sub e} that specifies the cost of shortening the edge by a given amount and that there is a budget B on the total reduction cost. The goal is to develop a reduction strategy satisfying the budget constraint so that the total length of a minimum spanning tree in the modified network is the smallest possible over all reduction strategies that obey the budget constraint. We show that in general the problem of computing optimal reduction strategy for modifying the network as above in NP-hard and present the first polynomial time approximation algorithms for the problem, where the cost functions C{sub e} are allowed to be taken from a broad class of functions. We also present improved approximation algorithms for the class of treewidth-bounded graphs when the cost functions are linear. Our results can be extended to obtain approximation algorithms for more general network design problems such as those considered in [GW, GG+94].

  8. HOW TO OBTAIN BOOKS FOR YOUR GROUP

    CERN Multimedia

    Head Librarian

    2000-01-01

    The wide variety of scientific and technical activity engaged in by people working at CERN means that the Library cannot always provide a deep on-site coverage in areas which are outside the core subjects of particle physics and accelerators. As many of you have already experienced, one way of solving this is to borrow books from other libraries. Our Inter-Library Loan (ILL) service currently obtains about 1000 books on loan per year for readers at CERN. However, there may be books which groups need on a more permanent basis, in which case a loan from either our own collection or via ILL is not the appropriate solution. Instead, groups might prefer to purchase such books from their own budgets. To facilitate this, the CERN Library has set up a procedure with the SPL Division, by which you can submit your purchase request to us and be charged via a TID when you receive the book. In addition, via our database interface WebLib, we can provide you with a private virtual catalogue of your group's collection, which...

  9. WAYS OF OBTAINING FINANCING BY TOUR OPERATORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CARLAN ADRIANA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available domanin.Romania is a country with highly touristic potential that is not exploited to maximum. In order to reach a high quality level of tourism permanent development and modernization are needed and also the establishment of new businesses That conducts other activities other than those which takes place in our country. Ways of getting funds are multiple, depending on individual needs.To develop tourism activities it is necessary to require some funding that can come from various sources: auto-financing, loans from various banks or from third parties and grants offered by the European Union. There are many programs designed to support the development of tourism, such as ROP that allows people to access grants in order to implement projects for the establishment and the development of the activity in the touristic field. The purpose of this article is to highlight funding opportunities for the tourism operators and to assist them in choosing the appropriate form of financing of the current activity or the activity they want to implement in the future and description of how to obtain the necessary funds from various sources.

  10. Functionally mullite materials obtained from composite particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have performed experiments of composites sintering from mullite-ZrO2 by using composite particles ?-Al2O3/SiO2 am. or substrates obtained by sol-gel method with varied components of ZrO2. The method of sintering composite particles causes so called transient viscous sintering (TVS) and the increase of temperature of synthesis the mullite up to above 1300 oC. We have observed another mechanism of the mullit-ZrO2 composites formation as well. The mullite-ZrO2 sinters with functional gradient have been prepared by using special method of formation from composite particles. Thin samples (? 3 mm high and 20 mm in diameter) with continuous variation of ZrO2 contents from 0 to 20 wt. % were preparing by special method of forming and sintering. In thin samples fracture toughness - K1c differ from 2.5 MPa0.5 (on the top layer with 0 ZrO2 contents) to 4.5 MPa0.5 (on the bottom layer with 20 wt. % ZrO2 contents). (author)

  11. New informations obtained by energy filtered RHEED

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reflection high-energy electron diffraction (RHEED) patterns, so far observed, are mixtures of those due to elastically and inelastically scattered electrons from the specimen surface. The background of the RHEED pattern, which consists of the signals attributed to inelastic electrons, sometimes disturbs the observation of detail diffraction features. In order to exclude these inelastic electrons, a retarding field analyzer was used as the energy filter. By using this energy filtered RHEED (EF-RHEED) apparatus, new RHEED patterns and rocking curves were obtained. In the EF-RHEED pattern of Si(001)2x1 surface, a line pattern due to the disordering of the c(4x2) surface structure was clearly extracted from the background. In the EF-RHEED pattern of Si(111)7x7 surface, some additional diffuse patterns were observed. Energy filtered rocking curves of diffraction spots are presented, which are different from conventional ones in their relative intensities. Especially, there is a serious difference when a diffraction spot goes through an intense Kikuchi line. Energy loss spectra of diffraction spots can be measured by this apparatus. It was found that the diffraction beams with very grazing take-off angle suffers a great probability of inelastic scattering from surface plasmon excitation. (author)

  12. Obtaining the tritium-labelled cholesterol by isotopic exchange technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By the detritiation of the contaminated moderator from Cernavoda Nuclear Power Plant a raw material is obtained, with an economic value of ∼ 3 USD/Ci . It might be stocked for long term in order to be used in controlled fusion or, it might be immediately used in the synthesis of labelled compounds with an economic value up to 5 orders of magnitude higher than the raw material. Cholesterol-T-G was synthesized using the isotopic exchange technique in heterogeneous catalysis. Two labelling methods were tested: (a) labelling at neutral pH, and b) labelling at acidic pH. Higher specific activities (54 Ci/mmol) were obtained when the second method was applied, similar to those obtained in the case of labelling through chemical synthesis. The stability test of the labelled synthesized compound consisted in two steps: one of theoretical analysis and quantum chemistry modelling of the decomposing processes, and the second one of identification of critical stocking parameters of the labelled compound. The quantum chemistry modelling of radiolytic processes made possible the highlighting of radiolytic interaction zone (LUMO orbital) and of labile chemical bonds in the radiolytic process. The chromatographic analysis of cholesterol-T-G samples confirmed the major role of the secondary radiolytic processes. Due to this reason, the critical stocking parameter of labelled cholesterol is the radiochemical purity and working temperature. (authors)

  13. Tailoring approach for obtaining molecular orbitals of large systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Anuja P Rahalkar; Shridhar R Gadre

    2012-01-01

    Molecular orbitals (MO’s) within Hartree-Fock (HF) theory are of vital importance as they provide preliminary information of bonding and features such as electron localization and chemical reactivity. The contemporary literature treats the Kohn-Sham orbitals within density functional theory (DFT) equivalently to the MO's obtained within HF framework. The high scaling order of ab initio methods is the main hurdle in obtaining the MO's for large molecular systems. With this view, an attempt is made in the present work to employ molecular tailoring approach (MTA) for obtaining the complete set of MO's including occupied and virtual orbitals, for large molecules at HF and B3LYP levels of theory. The energies of highest occupied and lowest unoccupied molecular orbitals, and hence the band gaps, are accurately estimated by MTA for most of the test cases benchmarked in this study, which include -conjugated molecules. Typically, the root mean square errors of valence MO's are in range of 0.001 to 0.010 a.u. for all the test cases examined. MTA shows a time advantage factor of 2 to 3 over the corresponding actual calculation, for many of the systems reported.

  14. Characterization of rough interfaces obtained by boriding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campos-Silva, I. [Instituto Politecnico Nacional, SEPI-ESIME, U.P. Adolfo Lopez Mateos, Zacatenco, Mexico D.F. 07738 (Mexico)], E-mail: icampos@ipn.mx; Balankin, A.S. [Instituto Politecnico Nacional, SEPI-ESIME, U.P. Adolfo Lopez Mateos, Zacatenco, Mexico D.F. 07738 (Mexico); Sierra, A.H. [Instituto Politecnico Nacional, UPIICSA, Av. Te 950, Col Granjas, Mexico D.F. 08400 (Mexico); Lopez-Perrusquia, N. [Instituto Politecnico Nacional, SEPI-ESIME, U.P. Adolfo Lopez Mateos, Zacatenco, Mexico D.F. 07738 (Mexico); Escobar-Galindo, R. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid (CSIC), Cantoblanco, Madrid E-28049 (Spain); Morales-Matamoros, D. [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Eje Lazaro Cardenas Norte, Mexico D.F. 07738 (Mexico)

    2008-12-30

    This study evaluates the morphology of borided interfaces by means of the fractal theory. The boride layers were formed in the AISI M2 steel by applying the paste boriding treatment at temperatures of 1253 and 1273 K and treatment times of 2 and 6 h, while a boron carbide paste thickness of 4 or 5 mm covered the samples surface in order to produce the boron diffusion. The morphology of interfaces formed between FeB and Fe{sub 2}B layers and between Fe{sub 2}B layer and steel substrate was analyzed by the rescaled-range (R/S), root-mean-square (RMS), and Fourier power spectrum (FPS) methods. Moreover, the multi-affine spectra of roughness exponent were obtained by calculating the q-order height-height correlation functions. We found that both interfaces are multi-affine, rather than self-affine. The multi-affine spectra of roughness exponents are found to be different for FeB/Fe{sub 2}B and Fe{sub 2}B/substrate interfaces, but independent on the treatment parameters (boron carbide paste thickness, temperature, and boriding time). Furthermore, we found that the multi-affine spectra of both interfaces behave as it is expected for 'universal multi-fractals' with the Levy index {gamma} = 1, associated with the multiplicative cascades with a log-Cauchy distribution. Furthermore, our data suggest a great homogeneity of the boron diffusion field, characterized by universal fractal dimension D{sub diff} = 2.90 {+-} 0.01. These findings provide a novel insight into the nature of phase formation during the boriding treatment.

  15. Obtaining cementitious material from municipal solid waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Macías, A.

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The primary purpose of the present study was to determine the viability of using incinerator ash and slag from municipal solid waste as a secondary source of cementitious materials. The combustion products used were taken from two types of Spanish MSW incinerators, one located at Valdemingómez, in Madrid, and the other in Melilla, with different incineration systems: one with fluidised bed combustion and other with mass burn waterwall. The effect of temperature (from 800 to 1,200 ºC on washed and unwashed incinerator residue was studied, in particular with regard to phase formation in washed products with a high NaCl and KCl content. The solid phases obtained were characterized by X-ray diffraction and BET-N2 specific surface procedures.El principal objetivo del trabajo ha sido determinar la viabilidad del uso de las cenizas y escorias procedentes de la incineración de residuos sólidos urbanos, como materia prima secundaria para la obtención de fases cementantes. Para ello se han empleado los residuos generados en dos tipos de incineradoras españolas de residuos sólidos urbanos: la incineradora de Valdemingómez y la incineradora de Melilla. Se ha estudiado la transformación de los residuos, sin tratamiento previo, en función de la temperatura de calentamiento (desde 800 ºC hasta 1.200 ºC, así como la influencia del lavado de los residuos con alto contenido en NaCl y KCl en la formación de fases obtenidas a las diferentes temperaturas de calcinación. Las fases obtenidas fueron caracterizadas por difracción de rayos X y área superficial por el método BET-N2.

  16. Obtaining of plasma impurities using atomistic simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plasma contamination is one of the most serious problems in the development of a commercial fusion reactor. A major fraction of the impurities originate from the plasma-facing components inside the vacuum chamber. However, the chemical distributions of eroded species of different types of materials, ranging from carbon-based diverter target plates to high-Z components, are not well known. Measurements during the device operation do not give direct results on the distributions of the eroded species. Experimental laboratory simulations of fusion device conditions are often marred by the fragmentation of the species studied. However, it is clear that the distributions of the species eroded from plasma-facing materials are very important in understanding the drifting, co-deposition and re-deposition of the impurities. Molecular dynamics simulations are widely used for modeling atom-scale processes in different materials. The central idea is to numerically solve the equations of motion for a system of atoms. The interatomic forces are derived from potential energy functions, which range from sophisticated quantum mechanical models to empirical formulations. We use molecular dynamics simulations to model various fusion-related materials under hydrogen bombardment and self-irradiation. As the trajectory of each atom is known throughout the simulations, we can estimate not only the sputtering yields for various irradiation conditions, but also the chemical compositions of the sputtered species. This approach has, already been used for modeling amorphous carbon surfaces under hydrogen bombardment. For hydrocarbons the chemical distributions of the eroded CxHy species are obtained. Similarly, for W and Mo self-sputtering the fractions of sputtered monomers, dimers and even larger clusters are determined. The results offer a point of comparison for experimental studies, and the chemical distributions can be used as input data for other modeling studies. (orig.)

  17. Cytoplasm T-maize tissue culture to obtain methomyl resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The calli of two cytoplasm T-maize hybrids were cultured in vitro with methomyl in the medium in order to obtain resistance. A mutagenic pretreatment was performed in one of the hybrids by injecting ethylmethane sulphonate (EMS) into the ear cob before fetilization. The atrophic tissue method was utilized to obtain totipotent callus. After treatment, coloured pericarp grains were observed in the regenerated plants. Different esterase electrophoretic patterns also appeared in one of them. In the methomyl resistance test, some nearly resistant (R-) and some less susceptible (S-) plants were detected within the same descendance (possibly due to mitochondrial variability). The interaction between mutagenic treatment with EMS and in vitro culture may be a suitable method for inducing changes of methomyl susceptibility in cms-T maize plants. (author)

  18. Component Repair Times Obtained from MSPI Data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Information concerning times to repair or restore equipment to service given a failure is valuable to probabilistic risk assessments (PRAs). Examples of such uses in modern PRAs include estimation of the probability of failing to restore a failed component within a specified time period (typically tied to recovering a mitigating system before core damage occurs at nuclear power plants) and the determination of mission times for support system initiating event (SSIE) fault tree models. Information on equipment repair or restoration times applicable to PRA modeling is limited and dated for U.S. commercial nuclear power plants. However, the Mitigating Systems Performance Index (MSPI) program covering all U.S. commercial nuclear power plants provides up-to-date information on restoration times for a limited set of component types. This paper describes the MSPI program data available and analyzes the data to obtain median and mean component restoration times as well as non-restoration cumulative probability curves. The MSPI program provides guidance for monitoring both planned and unplanned outages of trains of selected mitigating systems deemed important to safety. For systems included within the MSPI program, plants monitor both train UA and component unreliability (UR) against baseline values. If the combined system UA and UR increases sufficiently above established baseline results (converted to an estimated change in core damage frequency or CDF), a ''white'' (or worse) indicator is generated for that system. That in turn results in increased oversight by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and can impact a plant's insurance rating. Therefore, there is pressure to return MSPI program components to service as soon as possible after a failure occurs. Three sets of unplanned outages might be used to determine the component repair durations desired in this article: all unplanned outages for the train type that includes the component of interest, only unplanned outages associated with failures of the component of interest, and only unplanned outages associated with PRA failures of the component of interest. The paper will describe how component repair times can be generated from each set and which approach is most applicable. Repair time information will be summarized for MSPI pumps and diesel generators using data over 2003 - 2007. Also, trend information over 2003 - 2012 will be presented to indicate whether the 2003 - 2007 repair time information is still considered applicable. For certain types of pumps, mean repair times are significantly higher than the typically assumed 24 h duration.

  19. Component Repair Times Obtained from MSPI Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eide, Steven A. [Curtiss-Wright/Scietech, Ketchum, ID (United States); Cadwallader, Lee [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-05-01

    Information concerning times to repair or restore equipment to service given a failure is valuable to probabilistic risk assessments (PRAs). Examples of such uses in modern PRAs include estimation of the probability of failing to restore a failed component within a specified time period (typically tied to recovering a mitigating system before core damage occurs at nuclear power plants) and the determination of mission times for support system initiating event (SSIE) fault tree models. Information on equipment repair or restoration times applicable to PRA modeling is limited and dated for U.S. commercial nuclear power plants. However, the Mitigating Systems Performance Index (MSPI) program covering all U.S. commercial nuclear power plants provides up-to-date information on restoration times for a limited set of component types. This paper describes the MSPI program data available and analyzes the data to obtain median and mean component restoration times as well as non-restoration cumulative probability curves. The MSPI program provides guidance for monitoring both planned and unplanned outages of trains of selected mitigating systems deemed important to safety. For systems included within the MSPI program, plants monitor both train UA and component unreliability (UR) against baseline values. If the combined system UA and UR increases sufficiently above established baseline results (converted to an estimated change in core damage frequency or CDF), a “white” (or worse) indicator is generated for that system. That in turn results in increased oversight by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and can impact a plant’s insurance rating. Therefore, there is pressure to return MSPI program components to service as soon as possible after a failure occurs. Three sets of unplanned outages might be used to determine the component repair durations desired in this article: all unplanned outages for the train type that includes the component of interest, only unplanned outages associated with failures of the component of interest, and only unplanned outages associated with PRA failures of the component of interest. The paper will describe how component repair times can be generated from each set and which approach is most applicable. Repair time information will be summarized for MSPI pumps and diesel generators using data over 2003 – 2007. Also, trend information over 2003 – 2012 will be presented to indicate whether the 2003 – 2007 repair time information is still considered applicable. For certain types of pumps, mean repair times are significantly higher than the typically assumed 24 h duration.

  20. Thermal treatment of kaolin clay to obtain metakaolin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilić Biljana R.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The metakaolin was produced by thermal treatment (calcination of the starting high-quality kaolin clay from Serbia. The optimal calcination parameters, for which nearly complete dehydroxylation of the material was achieved, are: temperature 650°C and heating time of 90 min. The conversion of the kaolinite to metakaolin was confirmed by XRD and IR analyses of the starting and thermally treated kaolin samples. The pozzolanic activity was determined by Chapelle test. The obtained value 0.65 g Ca(OH2/g of metakaolin indicates that produced metakaolin may be used as supplementary cementitious material.