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1

Pap Tests and Foreign-Born Women  

Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

Foreign-born women living in the U.S. are less likely to have Pap tests to detect cervical cancer than women born in this country. The problem is worse for women from certain countries or regions. Find out why this is a disturbing trend, who these women are and why they are less likely to get a Pap test, and what CDC is doing about it.  Created: 11/26/2007 by National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program.   Date Released: 12/7/2007.

2007-11-26

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Cervical Cancer and Pap Smear Awareness and Utilization of Pap Smear Test among Federal Civil Servants in North Central Nigeria  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Cervical cancer is a leading cause of cancer death in women in developing countries. A key factor linked to the relatively high levels of cervical cancer in these populations is the lack of awareness and access to preventive methods. This study aimed to determine the level of awareness of cervical cancer and Papanicolaou test (Pap smear test) and factors associated with the utilization of Pap test among female civil servants in Jos. Data was obtained from female workers (n?=?388) aged 18?...

2012-01-01

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Access to Adequate Healthcare for Hmong Women: A Patient Navigation Program to Increase Pap Test Screening  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper describes the development and implementation of a Hmong Cervical Cancer Intervention Program utilizing a patient navigation model to raise cervical cancer awareness for Hmong women through educational workshops and to assist Hmong women in obtaining a Pap test. Out of 402 women who participated in a baseline survey, the Patient Navigation Program was able to enroll 109 participants who had not had a Pap test in the past 3 years and had never had a Pap test. Through utilization of outreach, an awareness campaign and patient navigation support, at least 38 percent of 109 participants obtained a Pap test. Overall, 21 workshops and 43 outreach activities were conducted by the Hmong Women’s Heritage Association, leading to 63 percent of those enrolled in the Patient Navigation Program who could be contacted to obtain a Pap test.

Moon S. Chen, Jr

2010-01-01

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Divergent coverage, frequency and costs of organised and opportunistic Pap testing in Finland.  

Science.gov (United States)

We evaluated the overall coverage, frequency and costs of Pap testing by screening modality and health care provider in Finland. Information about Pap testing in the Finnish female population of 2.7 million was obtained from nationwide population-based registry data. Among women aged 25-69 years, 87% had had a Pap test taken within or outside the organised programme at least once during the last 5 years and half of those screened in the organised programme had also had at least one Pap test taken outside the programme. Of the annual average of 530,000 Pap tests taken, 84% were taken for screening purposes and 16% as follow-up. Forty percent of the 446,000 annual screening tests were taken in the organised programme, 55% as opportunistic tests in public primary or student health care or by private providers and 5% in public secondary health care. One-fifth of all opportunistic screening Pap tests were taken from women aged testing in public primary health care was concentrated in young women aged 25-29 whereas the bulk of opportunistic testing in private health occurred in age groups eligible for organised screening. The total cost of all screening Pap tests was €22.4 million, of which 71% incurred in opportunistic screening. Of the 84,000 annual follow-up Pap tests and their €8.3 million total costs, ?60% incurred in organised screening or in secondary health care. PMID:24347441

Salo, Heini; Nieminen, Pekka; Kilpi, Terhi; Auranen, Kari; Leino, Tuija; Vänskä, Simopekka; Tiihonen, Petri; Lehtinen, Matti; Anttila, Ahti

2014-07-01

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Johns Hopkins scientists use Pap test fluid to detect ovarian, endometrial cancers  

Science.gov (United States)

Using cervical fluid obtained during routine Pap tests, scientists at the Johns Hopkins Kimmel Cancer Center have developed a test to detect ovarian and endometrial cancers. In a pilot study, the “PapGene” test, which relies on genomic sequencing of cancer-specific mutations, accurately detected all 24 (100 percent) endometrial cancers and nine of 22 (41 percent) ovarian cancers. Results of the experiments are published in the Jan. 9 issue of the journal Science Translational Medicine.

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Pap Smear  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Thanks to a procedure called a Pap smear test, many early stages of cervical cancer can be ... successful in curing cervical cancer. The Pap smear test is essential in detecting atypia early. It is ...

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How Often to Get a Pap Test (A Cup of Health with CDC)  

Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

Cervical cancer has declined in the U.S., and the decline is largely due to Pap testing and follow-up. Screening recommendations have changed. In this podcast, Meg Watson discusses Pap testing.  Created: 1/10/2013 by MMWR.   Date Released: 1/10/2013.

2013-01-10

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Pap Smear  

Science.gov (United States)

... cancer . A doctor may also order an HPV DNA test along with or following a Pap smear, especially ... dependent on age, concurrent use of the HPV DNA test , and risk factors (see Screening: Cervical Cancer (Young ...

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A Comparison of 3 Ways of Conventional Pap Smear, Liquid-Based Cytology and Colposcopy vs Cervical Biopsy for Early Diagnosis of Premalignant Lesions or Cervical Cancer in Women with Abnormal Conventional Pap Test.  

Science.gov (United States)

The most cost effective method of prevention and detection of cervical cancer is the Pap smear. In abnormal Pap smear, colposcopy, endocervical curettage and biopsy will be done. Gold standard method in detecting cervical lesion is biopsy. Now in two ways conventional Pap smear and liquid base are routine diagnostic technique in Iran and given easily and cost-effectiveness of this method in the detection of cervical lesions to determine the sensitivity the objective of this study was compare three methods of Pap smear and colposcopy in detection of any lesion to gold standard biopsy in the positive ASC cases who referred to gynecologic Oncology Clinic of shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Science. This study is a descriptive analytic in 2009-2010 years on 150 cases of patients with Atypical Squamose Cell (ASC) results in previous pap smear ,conventional pap smear, liquid based pap smear, colposcopy and cervical biopsy had been done for all patient and finally data were analyzed with chi-square statistical test on spss ver 16 saftware. Average age of patients in this study was, 42 ± 9.9 year and reason for referring patients in 35.4% of cases was due to follow-up of abnormal results of previous Pap smear, in 30% bleeding, 12% Pain and 2.6% percent of cases was checking-up. In final results of sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV) and accuracy any of the methods conventional and liquid based Pap smear and colposcopy were compared with cervical biopsy as a gold standard. The conventional Pap smear method had a sensitivity 51%, specificity 66.6%, PPV 96%, NPV was 8% and accuracy was 92%, about the liquid base Pap smear method, sensitivity was 55.3%, specificity was 77.7%, PPV was 97.5%, NPV was 10% and accuracy was 56/6%. About the colposcopy, sensitivity was70/9 % specificity 44/4%, PPV was 95.2%, NPV was 8/8% and accuracy was 69.3%. The relationship between sensitivity results of conventional Pap smear and colposcopy, with p<0.001 and between the results of sensitivity of liquid based cytology and colposcopy with p<0.01 relationship was significant. Colposcopy has the best efficacy in detecting any cervical lesion in compared with any other diagnostic technique. so that further studies with more detailed plans and bigger sample sizes are suggested for obtaining reliable result. PMID:24711755

Karimi-Zarchi, Mojgan; Peighmbari, Fateme; Karimi, Neda; Rohi, Mitra; Chiti, Zohre

2013-12-01

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Changes in cervical cancer screening behavior for women attending Pap Test Week clinics  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available V Poliquin,1 K Decker,2,3 AD Altman,1,2,4 R Lotocki1,2,4 1Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Sciences, University of Manitoba, Canada; 2CancerCare Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada; 3Department of Community Health Sciences, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, 4Division of Gynecologic Oncology, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada Objective: This retrospective study of all women who accessed the 2006 Manitoba Pap Test Week clinics was designed to determine factors associated with inadequate cervical cancer screening and changes in cervical cancer screening behavior. Methods: Data were acquired using the CervixCheck Manitoba registry and an ancillary database of demographic information collected from clinic attendees. Results: The study included 1124 women. Of these, 53% (n = 598 were under-screened (no Pap test in the previous 2 years prior to accessing the clinics. Logistic regression analyses demonstrated that older age (odds ratio [OR] = 1.02, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.01–1.03, no doctor (OR = 1.4, 95% CI 1.05–1.54, and living in Canada < 1 year (OR = 5.5, 95% CI 2.73–11.12 were associated with being under-screened prior to accessing the Pap Test Week clinics. Thirty-seven percent (n = 223 of under-screened women demonstrated improved screening status subsequent to the 2006 Pap Test Week (had a subsequent Papanicolaou [Pap] test performed within 2 years and these women were more likely to live in an urban setting (P = 0.003, be younger (P < 0.001, originate outside Canada (P = 0.006, have lived in Canada for less than 1 year (P = 0.006, and have had an abnormal Pap test result in 2006 (P < 0.001. Previously under-screened women were less likely to become adequately-screened subsequent to 2006 if they had a Pap test performed at a Pap Test Week clinic compared to having a Pap test performed elsewhere (37% versus 60%, P < 0.001. Conclusion: This study identified a subset of under-screened women accessing Pap Test Week clinics whose screening status might be most modifiable. Keywords: health promotion campaign, prevention, cervical cancer, risk assessment, public screening program

Poliquin V

2013-04-01

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Non-Correlating Pap Tests: Histological Follow-up of Abnormal Pap Tests Classified Using the 2001 Bethesda System ????? ??? ????? ??? ????????? : ?????? ????? ??? ????? ?????? ?????? ??????? 2001 ?? ???? ??? ?????? ???????  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The purpose of this report is to study the correlation between abnormal cervical Pap smears reported using the revised 2001 Bethesda system and their corresponding cervical biopsies, in order to identify discrepant non-correlating positive smears and analyze the smear characteristics causing the discrepancy in those cases. All abnormal cervical smears results classified using the revised 2001 Bethesda system and their follow-up cervical biopsies were retrieved and correlated. The total number...

Layla Abdullah

2007-01-01

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A Shandon PapSpin liquid-based gynecological test: A split-sample and direct-to-vial test with histology follow-up study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Studies for liquid-based Papanicolaou (Pap tests reveal that liquid-based cytology (LBC is a safe and effective alternative to the conventional Pap smear. Although there is research on ThinPrep and SurePath systems, information is lacking to evaluate the efficiency and effectiveness of systems based on cytocentrifugation. This study is designed to determine the sensitivity and specificity of the Shandon PapSpin (ThermoShandon, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA liquid-based gynecological system. We used split-sample and direct-to-vial study design. Materials and Methods: 2,945 women referred to prophylactic check-up were enrolled in this study. Split sample design was used in 1,500 women and residual cervical cytology specimen from all these cases was placed in fluid for PapSpin preparation after performing conventional smear. The direct-to-vial study was carried out in another cohort of 1,445 women in whom the entire cervical material was investigated using only the PapSpin technique. Follow up histological diagnoses for 141 women were obtained from both study arms following 189 abnormal cytology cases. 80 LBC cases from the split sample group and 61 LBC cases in the direct-to-vial group were correlated with the histology results. The sensitivity and secificity of the conventional smear and PapSpin tests in both study arms were compared. Results: In the split sample group, conventional smears showed a higher proportion of ASC-US (atypical cells undetermined significance: 31 (2.1% vs 10 (0.7% in PapSpin (P = 0.001. A higher proportion of unsatisfactory samples was found in the conventional smear group: 25 (1.7% vs 6 (0.4% cases (P = 0.001. In the split sample group, the sensitivity of the conventional and PapSpin tests was 68.7% vs 78.1%, and the specificity 93.8% vs 91.8%, respectively. In the direct to vial group PapSpin sensitivity was 75.9% and specificity 96.5%. The differences in sensitivity and specificity were not significant. The positive predictive values for the conventional and PapSpin methods were not different in the split sample group: 88.0% vs 86.2% and 95.7% in the direct-to-vial group. Also, no differences were found for negative predictive value (82.1, 86.8% and 80.0% respectively. Conclusions: PapSpin showed good qualitative results in both study arms, even after the material splitting in the first study arm, and is a good alternative to the conventional Pap smear. Additionally, the PapSpin method offers several advantages such as the opportunity to prepare duplicate slides, option for HPV DNA testing and cell block preparations from residual material. Microscopic evaluation of thinner cell preparations is less time consuming than the conventional Pap smears.

Rimiene J

2010-01-01

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How Often to Get a Pap Test (A Minute of Health with CDC)  

Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

Cervical cancer has declined in the U.S., however every year over 12,000 women are diagnosed and 4,000 die. This podcast discusses the importance of Pap testing.  Created: 1/10/2013 by MMWR.   Date Released: 1/10/2013.

2013-01-10

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Improving Pap test turnaround time using external benchmark data and engineering process improvement tools.  

Science.gov (United States)

Turnaround time for Papanicolaou (Pap) tests became an important service quality issue at our institution. We studied Pap test turnaround time using engineering process improvement tools and benchmarked turnaround time against data published as a College of American Pathologists Q-Probes study. An IDEF3 process map revealed the complexity of the Pap test process and the opportunities for process improvement. We used these data and the action-research method to initiate changes in cytopathology laboratory operations with the goal of reducing turnaround time. Before intervention, mean Pap test turnaround time was highly variable; during a 6-month period, monthly means ranged from 2.5 to 10.8 days. A cycle time study conducted over a 2-week period validated these data. After system improvements were implemented, the monthly mean turnaround time decreased and became more consistent, with 11 of 12 months having a mean turnaround time of 3 days or less (range, 1.5-3.9 days). Our study illustrates the value of publishing Q-Probes data for use as external benchmarks and the benefits of using tools from other disciplines to improve laboratory processes. PMID:12375639

Persoon, Thomas J; Zaleski, M Sue; Cohen, Michael B

2002-10-01

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Pap Smear  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... reliable. Getting regular Pap smears could save your life! Don’t forget to schedule your Pap smear. It is a small price to pay for your health. This document is for informational purposes and is not intended to be a substitute ...

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Specific creatinine determination in laboratory animals using the new enzymatic test kit "Creatinine-PAP".  

Science.gov (United States)

The new Creatinine-PAP test kit from Boehringer Mannheim GmbH was evaluated for the determination of creatinine in dogs, rabbits, guinea pigs, rats, and mice. In comparison with methods based on the reaction with alkaline picrate, the enzymatic method gave the lowest serum creatinine values. The differences are caused by serum substances (non-creatinine chromogens) reacting with picric acid. Noticeable differences between the standard inulin clearance and creatinine clearance (e. g., in rats) arise because the non-creatinine chromogens interfere differently in the picric acid methods, and serum and urine contain different concentrations of interfering substances. The concentrations of non-creatinine chromogens are different in the various laboratory animals. Since these substances cannot be entirely removed (e. g., in rats, dogs) by the adsorption procedure with Fuller's earth, we recommend the peroxidase-coupled enzymatic test as a practical and specific method for routine measurements of creatinine in laboratory animals. PMID:3625134

Jung, K; Wesslau, C; Priem, F; Schreiber, G; Zubek, A

1987-06-01

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Screening for cervical Cancer in high-risk populations : DNA pap test or hybrid capture II test alone?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study was designed to evaluate whether Hybrid Capture II (HC2) test alone refer women to colposcopy as appropriately as DNA Papanicolaou (Pap) test, in the context of a high-risk group of women using the recently validated DNACitoliq LBC system. Women with suspected cervical disease were included in this crosssectional study at a tertiary center in São Paulo, Brazil, for further workup. All women had cervical material collected for LBC and HC2 for high-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV)-...

Pereira, So?nia Maria Miranda; Castelo, A.; Makabe, Se?rgio; Utagawa, Maria Lu?cia; Loreto, Celso Di; Maeda, Marina Yoshie? Sakamoto; Marques, Jose? A.; Santoro, Carmen L. F.; Longatto Filho, Adhemar; Do?res, Gerson B. Das

2006-01-01

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Human papillomavirus testing with Pap triage for cervical cancer prevention in Canada: a cost-effectiveness analysis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Recently published results from a large randomized trial (Canadian Cervical Cancer Screening Trial study group) suggest that human papillomavirus testing followed by Pap smear-based triage for human papillomavirus positive women may be an effective way to screen women for cervical cancer. We determined the potential cost-effectiveness of including human papillomavirus tests for cervical cancer screening for Canada and three provinces: Alberta, Newfoundland...

2009-01-01

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HPV DNA and Pap smear test results in cases with and without cervical pathology  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective: The aim of the study was to determine the HPV prevalance and its relation to Pap smear, colposcopy and colposcopy directed biopsy in our region of Eskisehir, Turkey.Material and Methods: A total of 615 women who applied to the outpatient clinic between December 2009 and December 2010 constituted our study population. All patients underwent pelvic examination and Pap smear sampling. Patients who had pathological cervical appearance or Pap smear results of ASCUS, AGUS, LSIL or HSIL were referred to colposcopy. Cervical samples for HPV DNA were taken from the patients before Pap smear sampling during the routine examination or before the colposcopic evaluation. Results: Twenty six of 615 patients (4% were HPV positive. Of these 26 patients, 12 were positive for HPV type 16, 3 for type 18, 3 for type 51, 2 for type 6, 1 for type 52, 1 for type 33, 1 for type 16 and type 31, 1 for type 6 and 52, 1 for type 56 and 90, 1 for type 39 and 66. In 4 patients with cervical cancer, and in 3 of 4 CIN III cases both HPV DNA and Pap smear were positive. In the Pap smear examination of 615 patients, cytology revealed 35 ASCUS (5.6% 4 AGUS (0.6%, 2 CIN I (0.3% results who were negative for HPV DNA. These patients with abnormal cytology (n=41 underwent colposcopy directed biopsy, there were 3 CIN I and 1 CIN III and all the other cervical biopsy results of these patients were benign (inflammation, chronic cervicitis. Conclusion: HPV positivity in our hospital setting is low which is compatible with other studies in Turkey. In positive HPV cases there is a good correlation between HPV type and positive cervical biopsy results.

Sabit Sinan Özalp

2012-03-01

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A molecular monopoly? HPV testing, the Pap smear and the molecularisation of cervical cancer screening in the USA.  

Science.gov (United States)

DNA-based molecular testing for human papillomavirus has emerged as a novel approach to cervical cancer screening in the context of well-entrenched existing technology, the Pap smear. This article seeks to elucidate the process of molecularisation in the context of screening programmes. We illustrate how, although Pap has long been problematised and could be seen as a competing technological option, the existing networks and regime for Pap were important in supporting the entrenchment process for the artefacts, techniques and new diagnostics industry entrant, Digene, associated with the new test. The article provides insights into how the molecularisation of screening unfolds in a mainstream market. We reveal an incremental and accretive, rather than revolutionary, process led by new commercial interests in an era when diagnostic innovation is increasingly privatised. We show Digene's reliance on patents, an international scientific network and their position as an obligatory point of passage in the clinical research field with regard to the new technology's role, as well as on controversial new marketing practices. The article is based on a mixed method approach, drawing on a wide range of contemporary sources (including patents, statutory filings by companies, scientific literature and news sources) as well as interviews. PMID:22118240

Hogarth, Stuart; Hopkins, Michael M; Rodriguez, Victor

2012-02-01

 
 
 
 
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[HPV-Hr detection by home self sampling in women not compliant with pap test for cervical cancer screening. Results of a pilot programme in Bouches-du-Rhône].  

Science.gov (United States)

The non-participation to cervical screening is the major determinant in the risk of mortality due to cervical cancer. In France, around 40% of women do not participate to regular screening. The cultural or economic barriers for performing screening by Pap test are numerous; one of the most frequent is the refusal of gynaecological examination. A persistent HPV(HR) infection is a necessary factor for developing cervical cancer. The HPV(HR) testing has a high sensibility to detect high grade cervical intra-epithelial neoplasia (CIN 2-3) and a satisfactory specificity after 30-35 years old. The principal objective of this study was to compare the participation rates in women 35-69 years old who did not perform a Pap test after a first individual invitation, either when an HPV(HR) auto-test was offered to be performed at home or a second invitation to Pap test was sent. We also evaluated the quality of the two tests, the positive results obtained by age groups and the following histological type of lesions diagnosed in the women with positive results. The study included 9,334 women, 35-69 years old, who did not realized a Pap-test during the 2 previous years and who did not respond at a first individual invitation. These non-responders were randomized into two groups: one group (n=4,934) received a second individual invitation and the other (n=4,400) an offer of receiving and performing an HPV auto-test at home. In women 35-69 years the participation to the second invitation to Pap test was significantly lower (7.2%) than the participation to auto-test (26.4%) with P<0.001. The quality of the two tests was satisfactory; the auto-test was not altered by the postage to laboratory (non interpretable rate=1.4% [CI at 95%=0.65%; 2.15%]. From the 311 Pap tests done, 5.5% (17) were classified "abnormal" (nine ASCUS, one high grade and seven low grades). The follow up of 13 women out of 17 confirmed the diagnosis for 1 case of CIN2 and 2 cases of CIN3, 4 women are lost of follow up after 6 months. From the 939 HPV(HR) tests done, 6.2% (58) were positive. Such positivity rate was not influenced by age. Out of the 58 positive HPV(HR) cases, 27 only were of the 16 genotype (46.5% [CI 95%=33.7%; 59.3%]). This law rate is a consequence of an inversion of the ratio HPV 16 versus other types in women 60 years old and over. In this group, the follow-up of 36 women diagnosed five cases of CIN1, one of CIN2 and four of CIN3; 22 patients are lost of follow up at 6 months. Globally, in the studied population, an individual recall for pap test allowed to diagnose and treat 3 high grade lesions (7‰) and the dispatching of an auto test allowed the diagnosis and treatment of five high grade lesions (1,4‰), this difference is significant (P=0.02; OR=0.25 [0.05; 0.97]). The HPV(HR) auto-test seems to be better accepted than the Pap test in the 35-69 years old women previously non-responders to individual invitation, and the quality of the test is satisfactory. Such a test can be proposed to the 35-69 years old non-participant to Pap test to increase the coverage for cervical screening, if the rates of diagnostic examinations performed in case of an HPV(HR) positive is sufficiently high. PMID:21700548

Piana, Lucien; Leandri, François-Xavier; Le Retraite, Laurence; Heid, Patrice; Tamalet, Catherine; Sancho-Garnier, Hélène

2011-07-01

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[Comparison of conventional PAP smears with thin layer specimen (liquid-based PAP test) and correlation with cytopathological findings with HPV status using the hybrid capture system].  

Science.gov (United States)

Cervical smears of 554 outpatients of a hospital were examined using a blinded, split sample match pair protocol for which a conventional PAP-smear (CS) was first prepared with Cervex brush and the reminder of the sample was used for the thin-layer-preparation (TLP) according to the manual CytoRich System. The preparations of the two methods were compared with respect to quality and to sensitivity for atypias. In addition the HPV status was determined on the same cell suspension in cases with borderline changes (BLC) and dysplasias including carcinoma using the Hybrid Capture System. The use of TLP reduced the proportion of suboptimal preparations by more than 50% (14.6% vs. 35%) and eliminated the only inadequate preparation registered in CS. The DSP detected more than twice as many dysplasias of all degrees as CS (3.4% vs. 1.4%) and reduced the proportion of BLC to one third (3.2% vs. 9.6%). The percentages of cases positive for high- and intermediate-risk HPV in preparations with BLC, LSIL and HSIL were 17, 62.5% and 100% respectively. The TL-method improves significantly the efficiency of PAP-smears and allows the typing of HPV which is of clinical importance for the management of low grade squamous intraepitelial lesions and borderline changes. The findings speak against the further use of CS for cervical screening. PMID:9844488

Kunz, J; Rondez, R; Yoshizaki, C; Fivian, M; Held, G; Lind, B

1998-10-21

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Utility of P16 expression and Ki-67 proliferation index in ASCUS and ASC-H pap tests.  

Science.gov (United States)

Current cervical screening uses a combination of cytology and high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) analysis in cases of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) and atypical squamous cells cannot exclude high-grade intraepithelial lesion (ASC-H). These diagnoses are subject to interobserver variability and HR-HPV analysis can be limited by sampling inadequacy. This study correlates immunoexpression of P16 and Ki-67 in residual cervicovaginal material against cytology category and HR-HPV status. Eighteen pap tests were selected: 8 ASCUS, 4 ASC-H, and 6 controls (2 LSIL and 4 HSIL). Digene Hybrid Capture II test was used to detect HR-HPV. The cytospins were stained for P16/Ki-67. Pap tests, P16, Ki-67, HR-HPV result and available biopsies were correlated. P16 expression correlated with HR-HPV status in 15/17 cases. Discordant cases (1 ASCUS and 1 ASC-H) were +P16/-HR-HPV. Ki-67 correlated with HR-HPV in 8/15 cases. Discordant cases were +HR-HPV/- Ki-67 (HSIL, LSIL, and ASC-H one each), and -HR-HPV/+Ki-67 (3 ASCUS, 1 LSIL, 1 ASC-H). Two cases were?+?P16/+ Ki-67/- HR-HPV. None were - P16/- Ki-67/+ HR-HPV. Histologic follow-up in 13 cases varied from benign to CIN III. Two cases of +P16/ - Ki-67/- HR-HPV had benign cervical biopcies. Although a small sample size, our findings show a utility for adjunct P16/ Ki-67 in addition to HR-HPV testing in cases of squamous atypia when HR-HPVs are non-detected due to low DNA copies, or missed lesions in cervical biopsies. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2014;42:576-581. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24288264

Toll, Adam D; Kelly, Deidra; Maleki, Zahra

2014-07-01

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Comparison of single-, double- and triple-combined testing, including Pap test, HPV DNA test and cervicography, as screening methods for the detection of uterine cervical cancer.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cervical cancer is a serious disease that threatens the health of women worldwide. This study compared the sensitivities and false-positive rates of cervical cytology (Pap smear), human papilloma virus (HPV) DNA test, cervicography, first double-combined testing (cervical cytology and HPV DNA test), second double-combined testing (cervical cytology and cervicography) and triple-combined testing (cervical cytology, HPV DNA test and cervicography). The study included 261 patients screened for uterine cervical cancer. All women simultaneously underwent cervical cytology, HPV DNA test and cervicography for uterine cervical cancer screening and colposcopically directed biopsy for diagnostic evaluation. The triple-combined testing was consistently the most sensitive among the cervical screening tests. The second double-combined testing, with a sensitivity rate of 98.1% was more sensitive than the first double-combined test (92.3%). However, cervical cytology was most specific (93.5%) and showed the highest positive predictive value (77.8%). The sensitivity of cervical cytology was markedly improved in combination with HPV DNA test and cervicography. Thus, the triple-combined testing, which improves the high false negativity of cervical cytology, may be an effective tool in uterine cervical cancer screening, pending confirmation of the effectiveness in a mass screening study. PMID:23443346

Kim, Ju Hee; Kim, In-Wook; Kim, Yong-Wan; Park, Dong Chun; Kim, Yong Wook; Lee, Keun-Ho; Ahn, Tae-Gyu; Han, Sei-Jun; Ahn, Woong Shick

2013-04-01

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Tecnologia e campos disciplinares: os citotécnicos e a implementação do teste de Papanicolaou no Brasil / Technology and disciplinary fields: cytotechnicians and implementation of the Pap test in Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A apropriação e utilização do teste de Papanicolaou como tecnologia fundamental para o controle do câncer de colo do útero no Brasil foi fruto de escolhas, acordos e embates entre determinados grupos profissionais (médicos de diferentes especialidades, farmacêuticos, biólogos, biomédicos e citotécni [...] cos). Na primeira parte do trabalho apresentamos o processo de formulação das primeiras campanhas de rastreamento populacional com uso do teste Papanicolaou no país e, consequentemente, o surgimento da profissão de citotécnicos (profissionais dedicados a leitura das lâminas de Papanicolaou). Num segundo momento, partimos de algumas questões levantadas pela historiografia internacional no campo da história das ciências e das técnicas para discutimos as peculiaridades do processo de apropriação do teste Papanicolaou no contexto brasileiro. Priorizamos as questões relativas aos debates entre diferentes grupos profissionais envolvidos com a lógica desse exame e às relações entre os setores públicos e privados de saúde. Demonstramos que as visões distintas sobre essa tecnologia no campo de diferentes disciplinas e a relação destas com a dinâmica do mercado de trabalho moldam a trajetória da profissão de citotécnico e a forma como o teste de Papanicolaou foi (e está sendo) apropriado como tecnologia central para o rastreio do câncer de colo do útero no Brasil. Abstract in english The implementation of the Pap test as a primary technology in the control of cervical cancer in Brazil was the result of choices, agreements and disputes among certain professional groups, including physicians from various specialisations, pharmacists, biologists, biomedical scientists and cytotechn [...] ologists. The first part of the paper describes the process of formulating Brazil’s first screening campaigns using the Pap smear, and the subsequent emergence of the profession of cytotechnology, whose practitioners interpret this test. Second, based on questions raised by international historiography in the field of science and technology, we explore in detail how the adoption of the Pap smear transpired within the Brazilian context, focussing on the debates among the various professional groups with an interest in the suitability of the test and on the relationships between the public and private healthcare sectors. We show that the professional career of cytotechnologists and the way in which the Pap smear has been implemented as a central technology for cervical cancer screening in Brazil have been shaped by the conflicting views of this technology held by different disciplines as well as by the relationship between these disciplines and labour market dynamics.

Luiz Antonio, Teixeira; Leticia, Pumar.

26

Pap Smear  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... be able to put your clothes back on. Results In the lab, a specialized doctor known as ... or cancer in the specimen. Next, the test results are sent to your doctor. He or she ...

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Congress: 50 years of the Papanicolaou test. Istituto Superiore di Sanita`. Rome, March 30, 1995; Convegno: 50 anni di Pap test. Istituto Superiore di Sanita`. Roma, 30 marzo 1995  

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The Conference was organized to celebrate the 50th anniversary of the cervical smear test, commonly referred to as the `Pap test` after its creator, George Nicholas Papanicolaou. The reports present the development of the test, its worldwide application, and its performance as the screening test for the detection of cervical cancer. Pap smear screening for precursors of carcinoma of the cervix has led to dramatic decrease in the incidence and deaths from this cancer. The test represents one of the greatest achievements in preventive medicine.

Branca, Margherita; Cedri, Sabina; Migliore, Giovanna [Istituto Superiore di Sanita`, Rome (Italy). Lab. di Epidemiologia e Biostatistica

1997-12-01

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Prevalence of various Human Papillomavirus (HPV genotypes among women who subjected to routine Pap smear test in Bushehr city (South west of Iran2008-2009  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Some genotypes of human papillomaviruses can infect the genital tract and they are important infectious agents which their oncogenicity is regardable. Thus the aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of various genital human papillomaviruses (HPV among women being subjected to routine pap smear test in Bushehr city of Iran. Results Based on the collected data, 11(5.5% samples were detected positive for HPV DNA and 189(94.5% samples out of 200 samples were detected negative for HPV DNA. Meanwhile 4(2% samples detected positive for HPV DNA by PCR were detected positive for HPV by pap smear test as well. On the other hand 5 samples which were detected positive for HPV by pap smear test didn't have HPV DNA after being tested by PCR method. Among the 11 positive samples 7 samples were identified as HPV-16, 3 samples were HPV-18 and one was HPV-53. Conclusion Regarding the prevalence of highly carcinogen genotypes of HPV in our study determination of genital HPV prevalence among the normal population of women of Bushehr city is recommended.

Nejad Heidar

2010-03-01

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American College Health Association Annual Pap Test and Sexually Transmitted Infection Survey: 2006  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective: The authors describe the cervical cytology and sexually transmitted infection (STI) testing patterns of US college health centers. Participants and Methods: A total of 128 self-selected US college health centers--representing more than 2 million college students--completed an online survey during February and March 2007. Results: Almost…

Smith, P. Davis; Roberts, Craig M.

2009-01-01

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ASC-H in Pap test- definitive categorization of cytomorphological spectrum  

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Abstract Objective The American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology (ASCCP) guidelines for management of ASC-H is colposcopic examination followed by biopsy. HPV testing (HPVT) is recommended after a negative biopsy result. More definitive interpretation of ASC-H could prevent discomfort and minimize the cost. The purpose of this study was to evaluate association of various cytomorphological patterns of ASC-H with various clinical scenarios. Methods We...

Chivukula Mamatha; Shidham Vinod B

2006-01-01

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How to Interpret Abnormal Pap Smear Results  

Science.gov (United States)

... HPV testing. ASC-H means ASC with possible HSIL: Some of your cells are not normal and ... HPV testing or recommend a repeat Pap smear. HSIL HSIL stands for high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion. ...

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Individual detection of 14 high risk human papilloma virus genotypes by the PapType test for the prediction of high grade cervical lesions  

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Background HR HPV genotypes when assayed collectively, achieve high sensitivity but low specificity for the prediction of CIN2+. Knowledge of the specific genotypes in an infection may facilitate the use of HR HPV detection in routine clinical practice. Objectives To compare the rate of HR HPV detection and the accuracy of CIN2+ prediction between PapType test (Genera Biosystems) and other commercially available HR HPV assays, and to examine the value of full HPV genotyping. Study design PreservCyt samples from 1099 women referred for abnormal cervical cytology were used. CIN2+ was chosen as the primary end-point but CIN3+ was also evaluated. A hierarchy of HR HPV genotypes was created using PPV and this was used to create 3 groups of genotypes with potentially different management. Results The PapType assay has a specificity of 22.4% and a sensitivity of 94.6% for CIN2+ prediction. Classification into Groups A (HPV33 and HPV16, very highly predictive), B (HPV31, 18, 52, 35, 58, 51 highly predictive) and C (HPV68, 45, 39, 66, 56, 59, intermediate predictive) could double the specificity (44.5%) but only slightly reduce the sensitivity for CIN2+ (91.5%) and CIN3+ (94.0%). Conclusions The PapType assay is a simple, reproducible and effective test for HR HPV detection and genotyping. HPV 33 was found to have a very high PPV and should therefore be managed as for HPV16.

Cuzick, Jack; Ho, Linda; Terry, George; Kleeman, Michelle; Giddings, Michael; Austin, Janet; Cadman, Louise; Ashdown-Barr, Lesley; Costa, Maria J.; Szarewski, Anne

2014-01-01

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ASC-H in Pap test- definitive categorization of cytomorphological spectrum  

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Full Text Available Abstract Objective The American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology (ASCCP guidelines for management of ASC-H is colposcopic examination followed by biopsy. HPV testing (HPVT is recommended after a negative biopsy result. More definitive interpretation of ASC-H could prevent discomfort and minimize the cost. The purpose of this study was to evaluate association of various cytomorphological patterns of ASC-H with various clinical scenarios. Methods We reviewed SurePath™ (TriPath Imaging, Inc. Burlington, NC, USA cervical smears interpreted as ASC-H in 161 women (mean age, 37 {15 to 78} years, over 24 months (2002 to 2003. HPVT (Digene, Hybrid Capture® II HPV test, Digene Corporation, Gaithersburg, MD, USA was performed in 20% of cases (33/161 and biopsy results were available in 54 cases (19 with and 35 without HPVT. Results HPVT was positive in 64% (21/33 cases, and negative in 36% (12/33 cases. In the follow-up biopsies of 71% (15/21 of cases with positive HPVT, 27% showed HPV changes or CIN1, 27% showed CIN2-3, and 46% were negative for epithelial abnormality. Follow-up biopsies from cases with negative HPVT (33%, 4/12 cases, 8% showed CIN1 and 25% were negative for any epithelial abnormality. Six cytomorphological patterns of ASC-H correlated with different clinical categories in relation to HPVT and biopsy results. 35% (19 out of 54 ASC-H cases in which biopsy results were available could be interpreted definitively as HSIL by cytopathology, 11% (6/54 cases as LSIL with cyanophilic atypical parakeratotic pattern, and 31% (17/54 cases as reactive, with HPV status. The interpretation had to be continued as ASC-H in 22% (12/54 cases. Conclusion ASC-H demonstrated a spectrum of cytomorphological patterns. Some of these patterns in liquid-based cervical smears may be more specifically interpreted as LSIL, HSIL, or benign if HPV status is known.

Shidham Vinod

2006-01-01

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Collection of the BD SurePath Pap Test with a broom device plus endocervical brush improves disease detection when compared to the broom device alone or the spatula plus endocervical brush combination  

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Objective: Here we examine the diagnostic utility of the US Food And Drug Administration (FDA) approved Spatula + endocervical brush combination for the BD SurePath Pap Test (SPPT) and compare it to SPPT collection with the broom alone or to an off-label combination of broom + EC brush. This question is important due to lingering concerns over the value of EC detection to a satisfactory Pap test. Methods: 20,125 SPPT vials were examined for the collection devices c...

Davis-Devine Sharon; Day Sarah; Anderson Amy; French Ashley; Madison-Henness Darcy; Mohar Naomi; Tansy Danielle; Hiremath Adarsh; Douglas Jeffrey; Freund Gregory

2009-01-01

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Pap and HPV Testing  

Science.gov (United States)

... during a colposcopy, the doctor may perform endocervical curettage or a biopsy. A biopsy is the removal ... abnormal area for examination under a microscope. Endocervical curettage is a type of biopsy that involves scraping ...

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Compreensão de usuárias de uma Unidade de Saúde da Família sobre o exame Papanicolaou / The understanding of users of a Family Health Unit about the pap smear test  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Na tentativa de prevenir o câncer de colo uterino, foram instituídas várias ações de prevenção, dentre as quais, o Exame Papanicolaou que cumpre com a função de detecção precoce de células cancerosas ou de seus precursores. Portanto, objetivou-se investigar o discurso sobre a compreensão, os sentime [...] ntos e as expectativas de mulheres em relação ao Exame Papanicolaou. Trata-se de um estudo do tipo exploratório com abordagem qualitativa, realizado junto a dez usuárias de uma Unidade Integrada de Saúde da Família, no município de João Pessoa (PB). A coleta de dados se deu em abril de 2011, através de entrevista gravada. Foram identificadas oito ideias centrais: prevenção de doenças; busca por conta própria; busca por estímulo de outra pessoa; sentimento de vergonha e constrangimento; sensação de dor; sentimento de satisfação; conversas durante o exame e troca de conhecimentos acerca da saúde da mulher. Frente aos relatos, muitas são as dificuldades a serem vencidas para proporcionar melhor adesão das mulheres ao exame Papanicolaou. Abstract in english In the attempt to prevent cervical cancer, various preventive measures have been instituted, notable among which is the pap smear test, which fulfills the function of early detection of cancer cells or their precursors. Therefore, the objective was to investigate the discourse on the knowledge, feel [...] ings and expectations of women regarding the pap smear test. This is an exploratory qualitative approach, conducted with ten users of a Integrated Family Health Unit in the city of João Pessoa in the State of Paraíba. Data collection was conducted through recorded interviews in April 2011. Eight core ideas were identified: prevention of disease; self-motivated search, search recommended by another person; sense of shame and embarrassment, sensation of pain, feeling of satisfaction; conversations during the examination and exchange of knowledge about women's health. Based on the reports, there are many difficulties to be overcome to ensure greater adherence of women to the pap smear test.

Smalyanna Sgren da Costa, Andrade; Fernanda Maria Chianca da, Silva; Maria do Socorro Sousa e, Silva; Simone Helena dos Santos, Oliveira; Kamila Nethielly Souza, Leite; Merifane Januário de, Sousa.

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Debris removal in Pap-smear images.  

Science.gov (United States)

Since its introduction in the 1940s the Pap-smear test has helped reduce the incidence of cervical cancer dramatically in countries where regular screening is standard. The automation of this procedure is an open problem that has been ongoing for over fifty years without reaching satisfactory results. Existing systems are discouragingly expensive and yet they are only able to make a correct distinction between normal and abnormal samples in a fraction of cases. Therefore, they are limited to acting as support for the cytotechnicians as they perform their manual screening. The main reason for the current limitations is that the automated systems struggle to overcome the complexity of the cell structures. Samples are covered in artefacts such as blood cells, overlapping and folded cells, and bacteria, that hamper the segmentation processes and generate large number of suspicious objects. The classifiers designed to differentiate between normal cells and pre-cancerous cells produce unpredictable results when classifying artefacts. In this paper, we propose a sequential classification scheme focused on removing unwanted objects, debris, from an initial segmentation result, intended to be run before the actual normal/abnormal classifier. The method has been evaluated using three separate datasets obtained from cervical samples prepared using both the standard Pap-smear approach as well as the more recent liquid based cytology sample preparation technique. We show success in removing more than 99% of the debris without loosing more than around one percent of the epithelial cells detected by the segmentation process. PMID:23582663

Malm, Patrik; Balakrishnan, Byju N; Sujathan, Vilayil K; Kumar, Rajesh; Bengtsson, Ewert

2013-07-01

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Compreensão de usuárias de uma Unidade de Saúde da Família sobre o exame Papanicolaou / The understanding of users of a Family Health Unit about the pap smear test  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Na tentativa de prevenir o câncer de colo uterino, foram instituídas várias ações de prevenção, dentre as quais, o Exame Papanicolaou que cumpre com a função de detecção precoce de células cancerosas ou de seus precursores. Portanto, objetivou-se investigar o discurso sobre a compreensão, os sentime [...] ntos e as expectativas de mulheres em relação ao Exame Papanicolaou. Trata-se de um estudo do tipo exploratório com abordagem qualitativa, realizado junto a dez usuárias de uma Unidade Integrada de Saúde da Família, no município de João Pessoa (PB). A coleta de dados se deu em abril de 2011, através de entrevista gravada. Foram identificadas oito ideias centrais: prevenção de doenças; busca por conta própria; busca por estímulo de outra pessoa; sentimento de vergonha e constrangimento; sensação de dor; sentimento de satisfação; conversas durante o exame e troca de conhecimentos acerca da saúde da mulher. Frente aos relatos, muitas são as dificuldades a serem vencidas para proporcionar melhor adesão das mulheres ao exame Papanicolaou. Abstract in english In the attempt to prevent cervical cancer, various preventive measures have been instituted, notable among which is the pap smear test, which fulfills the function of early detection of cancer cells or their precursors. Therefore, the objective was to investigate the discourse on the knowledge, feel [...] ings and expectations of women regarding the pap smear test. This is an exploratory qualitative approach, conducted with ten users of a Integrated Family Health Unit in the city of João Pessoa in the State of Paraíba. Data collection was conducted through recorded interviews in April 2011. Eight core ideas were identified: prevention of disease; self-motivated search, search recommended by another person; sense of shame and embarrassment, sensation of pain, feeling of satisfaction; conversations during the examination and exchange of knowledge about women's health. Based on the reports, there are many difficulties to be overcome to ensure greater adherence of women to the pap smear test.

Smalyanna Sgren da Costa, Andrade; Fernanda Maria Chianca da, Silva; Maria do Socorro Sousa e, Silva; Simone Helena dos Santos, Oliveira; Kamila Nethielly Souza, Leite; Merifane Januário de, Sousa.

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Cobertura de la Citología de Cuello Uterino y Factores Relacionados en Colombia, 2005 / Pap test coverage and related factors in Colombia, 2005  

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Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Objetivo Describir la cobertura de la citología en los últimos tres años y los principales factores relacionados, en la población de mujeres colombianas entre 25 y 69 años de edad. Materiales y métodos Se analizó la información de la Encuesta Nacional de Demografía y Salud 2005. Se calculó la variab [...] le "práctica de la citología en los últimos tres años". La descripción de la cobertura y factores asociados se hizo a través de porcentajes simples y se realizó un análisis multivariado utilizando un modelo de regresión logística incondicional. Resultados La cobertura de citología reciente en mujeres entre 25 y 69 años de edad para Colombia fue de 76,5 %. Las condiciones asociadas con la ausencia de toma reciente fueron ausencia de afiliación, afiliación al régimen subsidiado, no haber tenido hijos vivos ni una consulta de salud en el último año; las condiciones asociadas con la toma reciente fueron el nivel de riqueza, tener entre 35 y 44 años, tener un nivel educativo universitario o superior y estar en embarazo. Conclusión Los resultados indican la necesidad de esfuerzos por mejorar las coberturas en la población más pobre, no afiliada y afiliada al régimen subsidiado; la alta mortalidad a pesar de la buena cobertura general sugiere la necesidad de esfuerzos en la oportunidad del diagnóstico definitivo y el manejo de lesiones. Abstract in english Objective Describing the use of the Papanicolau (Pap) test and the main factors related to using screening amongst Colombian women aged 25 to 69 years. Methods Information was taken from the 2005 National Health and Demography Survey. The variable "pap test during the last three years" was calculate [...] d; coverage and related factors were described using simple percentages and multivariate analysis using conditional logistic regression. Results Recent Pap test coverage in Colombian women aged 25 to 69 years was 76.5 %. Factors associated with the absence of recent exam included non-affiliation to the health system, affiliation to the susbsidiary regimen, having no live-born children and no recent medical consultation. Factors associated with recent coverage were income level, being aged 35 to 44, a higher educational level and being pregnant. Conclusions Results indicated the need for efforts at increasing coverage amongst the poorer population as well as amongst women from the subsidiary regimen and those having no affiliation. Persistence of high mortality in spite of acceptable coverage suggested the need for more efforts regarding definitive diagnosis and opportune treatment.

Marion, Piñeros; Ricardo, Cendales; Raúl, Murillo; Carolina, Wiesner; Sandra, Tovar.

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Cobertura de la Citología de Cuello Uterino y Factores Relacionados en Colombia, 2005 / Pap test coverage and related factors in Colombia, 2005  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Objetivo Describir la cobertura de la citología en los últimos tres años y los principales factores relacionados, en la población de mujeres colombianas entre 25 y 69 años de edad. Materiales y métodos Se analizó la información de la Encuesta Nacional de Demografía y Salud 2005. Se calculó la variab [...] le "práctica de la citología en los últimos tres años". La descripción de la cobertura y factores asociados se hizo a través de porcentajes simples y se realizó un análisis multivariado utilizando un modelo de regresión logística incondicional. Resultados La cobertura de citología reciente en mujeres entre 25 y 69 años de edad para Colombia fue de 76,5 %. Las condiciones asociadas con la ausencia de toma reciente fueron ausencia de afiliación, afiliación al régimen subsidiado, no haber tenido hijos vivos ni una consulta de salud en el último año; las condiciones asociadas con la toma reciente fueron el nivel de riqueza, tener entre 35 y 44 años, tener un nivel educativo universitario o superior y estar en embarazo. Conclusión Los resultados indican la necesidad de esfuerzos por mejorar las coberturas en la población más pobre, no afiliada y afiliada al régimen subsidiado; la alta mortalidad a pesar de la buena cobertura general sugiere la necesidad de esfuerzos en la oportunidad del diagnóstico definitivo y el manejo de lesiones. Abstract in english Objective Describing the use of the Papanicolau (Pap) test and the main factors related to using screening amongst Colombian women aged 25 to 69 years. Methods Information was taken from the 2005 National Health and Demography Survey. The variable "pap test during the last three years" was calculate [...] d; coverage and related factors were described using simple percentages and multivariate analysis using conditional logistic regression. Results Recent Pap test coverage in Colombian women aged 25 to 69 years was 76.5 %. Factors associated with the absence of recent exam included non-affiliation to the health system, affiliation to the susbsidiary regimen, having no live-born children and no recent medical consultation. Factors associated with recent coverage were income level, being aged 35 to 44, a higher educational level and being pregnant. Conclusions Results indicated the need for efforts at increasing coverage amongst the poorer population as well as amongst women from the subsidiary regimen and those having no affiliation. Persistence of high mortality in spite of acceptable coverage suggested the need for more efforts regarding definitive diagnosis and opportune treatment.

Marion, Piñeros; Ricardo, Cendales; Raúl, Murillo; Carolina, Wiesner; Sandra, Tovar.

2007-07-17

 
 
 
 
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Cobertura de la Citología de Cuello Uterino y Factores Relacionados en Colombia, 2005 Pap test coverage and related factors in Colombia, 2005  

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Full Text Available Objetivo Describir la cobertura de la citología en los últimos tres años y los principales factores relacionados, en la población de mujeres colombianas entre 25 y 69 años de edad. Materiales y métodos Se analizó la información de la Encuesta Nacional de Demografía y Salud 2005. Se calculó la variable "práctica de la citología en los últimos tres años". La descripción de la cobertura y factores asociados se hizo a través de porcentajes simples y se realizó un análisis multivariado utilizando un modelo de regresión logística incondicional. Resultados La cobertura de citología reciente en mujeres entre 25 y 69 años de edad para Colombia fue de 76,5 %. Las condiciones asociadas con la ausencia de toma reciente fueron ausencia de afiliación, afiliación al régimen subsidiado, no haber tenido hijos vivos ni una consulta de salud en el último año; las condiciones asociadas con la toma reciente fueron el nivel de riqueza, tener entre 35 y 44 años, tener un nivel educativo universitario o superior y estar en embarazo. Conclusión Los resultados indican la necesidad de esfuerzos por mejorar las coberturas en la población más pobre, no afiliada y afiliada al régimen subsidiado; la alta mortalidad a pesar de la buena cobertura general sugiere la necesidad de esfuerzos en la oportunidad del diagnóstico definitivo y el manejo de lesiones.Objective Describing the use of the Papanicolau (Pap test and the main factors related to using screening amongst Colombian women aged 25 to 69 years. Methods Information was taken from the 2005 National Health and Demography Survey. The variable "pap test during the last three years" was calculated; coverage and related factors were described using simple percentages and multivariate analysis using conditional logistic regression. Results Recent Pap test coverage in Colombian women aged 25 to 69 years was 76.5 %. Factors associated with the absence of recent exam included non-affiliation to the health system, affiliation to the susbsidiary regimen, having no live-born children and no recent medical consultation. Factors associated with recent coverage were income level, being aged 35 to 44, a higher educational level and being pregnant. Conclusions Results indicated the need for efforts at increasing coverage amongst the poorer population as well as amongst women from the subsidiary regimen and those having no affiliation. Persistence of high mortality in spite of acceptable coverage suggested the need for more efforts regarding definitive diagnosis and opportune treatment.

Marion Piñeros

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PS1-53: Effects of Transitioning from Conventional Methods to Liquid-Based Methods on Unsatisfactory Pap Tests: Results from a Multicenter US Study  

Science.gov (United States)

Background/Aims Pap testing has transitioned from conventional preparations (CP) to liquid-based preparations (LBP) due to perceived superiority of LBPs. Many studies conclude LBPs reduce unsatisfactory (UNSAT) tests, however some believe the evidence to substantiate this claim is weak. We studied the effect of the transition from CPs to LBPs on the proportion of UNSAT Pap tests (PT) in four health care systems in the United States. Methods Our study cohort consisted of 548,174 women with 1,443,725 total PTs, ages 21–65 years, between 2000 and 2010. We used segmented regression analysis to estimate the effect of adopting LBPs on the proportion of UNSAT PTs. The effect of age on the rate of unsatisfactory PTs was also investigated. Results Three sites implementing Surepath LBP experienced significant reductions in UNSAT PTs (Site 1 estimated effect: ?2.46% [95% CI: minus;1.47%, minus;3.45%], Site 2: minus;1.78% [95% CI: minus;1.54%, minus;2.02%], Site 3: minus;8.25% [95% CI: minus;7.33%, minus;9.17%]. The fourth site implementing ThinPrep LBP did not experience a significant reduction in UNSAT studies. The relative risk of an UNSAT PT in women ? 50 increased after the transition to LBPs (Surepath: RR 2.1 [95% CI: 1.9, 2.2] and ThinPrep: RR 1.7 [95% CI: 1.5, 2.0]). Conclusions We found that the strength of the effect of transitioning to LBPs on the proportion of UNSAT PTs varied with the proportion of unsatisfactory tests with CPs and the LBP platform used. The greatest reduction in UNSAT PTs is seen in women under 50.

Owens, Christopher; Peterson, Daniel; Ross, Tyler; Buist, Diana S.M.; Weinmann, Sheila; Kamineni, Aruna; Williams, Andrew; Stark, Azadeh; Adams, Kenneth; Field, Terry

2013-01-01

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American Society of Cytopathology workload recommendations for automated Pap test screening: developed by the productivity and quality assurance in the era of automated screening task force.  

Science.gov (United States)

Based on current literature and the best available research to date, the current FDA workload limits for automated image-assisted screening, including the ThinPrep Imaging System and the FocalPoint GS, of 100 slides/day (imaged only slides counted as 0.5) are extremely high and may be associated with significant reduction in sensitivity. This task force has proposed six recommendations relating to cytotechnologist (CT) workload in automated image-guided Pap test screening, which have already been endorsed by major pathology professional societies. These evidence-based recommendations, however, pertain only to gynecologic specimens with image-assisted screening, as there is no current available data to justify modifying screening practices regarding non-gynecologic specimens. The proposed recommendations are as follow: 1) CT workday should not include more than 7 hours of Pap test screening in a 24-hr period, and an 8-hr shift day must include at least 2 paid mini-breaks of 15 minutes each and a 30-minute lunch break. 2) Future Studies examining CT workload should use actual hours of screening rather than lesser number of hours extrapolated to 8-hour days. 3) Average laboratory CT workload should NOT exceed 70 slides/day (slides counted per 2010 FDA bulletin). 4) Proportion of imaged slides that undergo full manual review should be at least either 15%, or twice (2×) the epithelial cell abnormality (ECA) rate, whichever is greater. 5) ECA-adjusted workload measure is a promising method for calculating and monitoring CT workload, but further studies of this method are necessary before full endorsement. 6) CT productivity and workload limits are just one aspect of a good quality assurance program in a cytology laboratory, so other quality indicators to assess CT performance are essential. PMID:22351120

Elsheikh, Tarik M; Austin, R Marshall; Chhieng, David F; Miller, Fern S; Moriarty, Ann T; Renshaw, Andrew A

2013-02-01

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Diagnostic sensitivity for invasive cervical carcinoma of high risk HPV tests performed on SurePath™ liquid-based pap specimens  

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Full Text Available Keith V NanceDepartment of Cytology, Rex Hospital, Raleigh, and Department of Pathology, The University of North Carolina School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, NC, USARecently I communicated with the Editor regarding Drs Naryshkin and Austins’ article entitled "Limitations of widely used high-risk human papillomavirus laboratory-developed testing in cervical carcinoma screening."1,2 As noted previously, this article is based on a single case report of squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix diagnosed in a patient who had abnormal Pap results but had negative Hybrid Capture 2 (HC2(Qiagen NV, Hilden, Germany high risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV testing from SurePath™ (Becton-Dickinson, Franklin Lakes, NJ, USA samples. The authors concluded that such testing should not be done using this collection medium. Interestingly, they also mentioned a 10% false negative rate for similar testing performed on FDA-approved Preservcyt® media on three of 31 invasive cervical carcinoma patients at Dr Austin’s own laboratory.View original paper by Naryshkin and Austin

Nance KV

2013-03-01

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Cobertura do exame citopatológico do colo do útero na cidade de São Leopoldo, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil Coverage of Pap smear tests in the city of São Leopoldo, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil  

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Full Text Available Este estudo transversal teve por objetivos verificar a cobertura de realização do exame preventivo de câncer do colo do útero e os fatores associados na população de mulheres de 20 a 60 anos residentes na zona urbana de São Leopoldo, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil, durante o ano de 2003. A amostra foi por conglomerados. Foram analisados dois desfechos, a realização de exame preventivo do câncer do colo do útero nos últimos três anos e exame preventivo de Papanicolaou nunca realizado. Entre as 867 mulheres entrevistadas, 741 (85,5%; IC95%: 83,1-87,8 tinham realizado o exame citopatológico do colo uterino nos últimos três anos, 60 (6,9%; IC95%: 5,2-8,6 estavam com o procedimento atrasado e 66 (7,6%; IC95%: 5,8-9,4 nunca o haviam realizado. Na regressão de Poisson foi observada significância para as variáveis: classe econômica, idade, cor da pele, estado civil. Observou-se que apesar da cobertura elevada, os fatores de risco para o câncer de colo uterino não motivaram a realização do exame.This cross-sectional study aimed to verify the coverage of Pap smear tests and associated factors in a cluster sample of women 20 to 60 years of age in the city of São Leopoldo, Rio Grande Sul State, Brazil, in 2003. Two outcomes were analyzed: Pap smear in the previous three years and Pap smear never performed. Among 867 women, 741 (85.5%; 95%CI: 83.1-87.8 had a Pap smear in the previous three years, 60 (6.9%; 95%CI: 5.2-8.6 were late with the test, and 66 (7.6%; 95%CI: 5.8-9.4 had never done a Pap smear. Poisson regression showed significant association with: income, age, skin color, and marital status. Although coverage was high, risk factors for uterine cervical cancer were not associated with performing the test.

Deise Karine Muller

2008-11-01

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Effectiveness evaluation of cervical precancerous lesion using Shandon PapSpin system  

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The study comparing the effectiveness of a novel liquid-based Pap test (the PapSpin) with the conventional Pap smear. The impetus behind the study is meritorious: although the conventional Pap smear has been highly effective in diminishing mortality from cervical cancer, it is not perfect. It suffers from inconsistency in cell thickness and occasional obscuring blood, which hinder accurate evaluation. An alternative preparation method, one that would reduce the amount of blood and provide fo...

Rimiene?, Jolita

2010-01-01

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Exame Papanicolaou: sentimentos relatados por profissionais de enfermagem ao se submeterem a esse exame / Pap smear screening: sensations reported by nursing professionals when submitted to this test  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Objetivou-se conhecer os sentimentos de auxiliares e técnicas de enfermagem ao se submeterem ao exame Papanicolaou. Trata-se de um estudo descritivo com abordagem qualitativa realizado nos meses de setembro a outubro de 2006, com 35 servidoras de uma instituição governamental referência em ginecolog [...] ia na cidade de Fortaleza (CE). Os dados foram coletados através de entrevista semiestruturada, contendo uma questão norteadora gravada e analisada de acordo com referencial teórico metodológico da fenomenologia social. Os relatos foram agrupados em três temáticas: um exame que causa incômodo, medo e vergonha; um exame que gera ansiedade quanto aos resultados; e um exame que "me deixa calma e tranquila". Apesar de as entrevistadas pertencerem a uma instituição que cuida de mulheres na prevenção do câncer cérvico-uterino, elas não deixaram de emitir sentimentos negativos relacionados ao exame. Concluiu-se a importância de realizar projetos educativos, enfatizando a importância do empoderamento das usuárias a fim de minimizar essas questões. Abstract in english This work sought to record the impressions of nursing assistants and technicians after submitting to Pap smear screening. This is a descriptive study using a qualitative approach conducted in September and October of 2006 with 35 employees of a public institution, which is a benchmark in gynecology [...] in Fortaleza in the State of Ceará (Brazil). The data was collected through semi-structured interviews containing a recorded leading question and analyzed according to the methodological-theoretical reference of social phenomenology. The testimonials were separated in three groups: an exam that causes discomfort, fear and shame; an exam that causes anxiety about the results; and an exam that "makes me calm and relaxed". Despite the interviewees being part of an institution that cares for the prevention of cervical-uterine cancer in women, negative feelings about the Pap smear test were nonetheless reported. The conclusion reached is that it is important to stage educational campaigns emphasizing the importance of empowerment of patients in order to minimize these aspects.

Jorge, Roberta Jeane Bezerra; Diógenes, Maria Albertina Rocha; Mendonça, Francisco Antonio da Cruz; Sampaio, Luís Rafael Leite; Jorge Júnior, Roberto.

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Exame Papanicolaou: sentimentos relatados por profissionais de enfermagem ao se submeterem a esse exame / Pap smear screening: sensations reported by nursing professionals when submitted to this test  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Objetivou-se conhecer os sentimentos de auxiliares e técnicas de enfermagem ao se submeterem ao exame Papanicolaou. Trata-se de um estudo descritivo com abordagem qualitativa realizado nos meses de setembro a outubro de 2006, com 35 servidoras de uma instituição governamental referência em ginecolog [...] ia na cidade de Fortaleza (CE). Os dados foram coletados através de entrevista semiestruturada, contendo uma questão norteadora gravada e analisada de acordo com referencial teórico metodológico da fenomenologia social. Os relatos foram agrupados em três temáticas: um exame que causa incômodo, medo e vergonha; um exame que gera ansiedade quanto aos resultados; e um exame que "me deixa calma e tranquila". Apesar de as entrevistadas pertencerem a uma instituição que cuida de mulheres na prevenção do câncer cérvico-uterino, elas não deixaram de emitir sentimentos negativos relacionados ao exame. Concluiu-se a importância de realizar projetos educativos, enfatizando a importância do empoderamento das usuárias a fim de minimizar essas questões. Abstract in english This work sought to record the impressions of nursing assistants and technicians after submitting to Pap smear screening. This is a descriptive study using a qualitative approach conducted in September and October of 2006 with 35 employees of a public institution, which is a benchmark in gynecology [...] in Fortaleza in the State of Ceará (Brazil). The data was collected through semi-structured interviews containing a recorded leading question and analyzed according to the methodological-theoretical reference of social phenomenology. The testimonials were separated in three groups: an exam that causes discomfort, fear and shame; an exam that causes anxiety about the results; and an exam that "makes me calm and relaxed". Despite the interviewees being part of an institution that cares for the prevention of cervical-uterine cancer in women, negative feelings about the Pap smear test were nonetheless reported. The conclusion reached is that it is important to stage educational campaigns emphasizing the importance of empowerment of patients in order to minimize these aspects.

Jorge, Roberta Jeane Bezerra; Diógenes, Maria Albertina Rocha; Mendonça, Francisco Antonio da Cruz; Sampaio, Luís Rafael Leite; Jorge Júnior, Roberto.

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Frequência da colpocitologia oncótica em jovens com antecedentes obstétricos em Teresina, Piauí, Brasil / Frequency of Pap smear testing in young women with an obstetric history in Teresina, Piauí, Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: Analisar a frequência da colpocitologia oncótica em jovens com pelo menos uma gravidez completa em Teresina, capital do Estado do Piauí, Brasil. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal realizado de maio a dezembro de 2008. Foram coletados dados de 464 jovens, selecionadas por amostragem acidental, que [...] finalizaram uma gravidez no primeiro quadrimestre de 2006 em seis maternidades da Cidade de Teresina. Investigou-se a frequência da coleta de colpocitologia oncótica. A frequência inadequada foi definida como coleta em intervalos maiores do que 1 ano. RESULTADOS: A média de idade das participantes foi de 20 anos. A frequência da colpocitologia foi semestral em 180 jovens (39,0%) e anual em 160 (34,5%). Quinze jovens (3,2%) nunca haviam feito a colpocitologia. A regressão logística simples mostrou que o não uso de contraceptivo na primeira relação sexual e não poder optar por atendimento ginecológico por homem ou mulher aumentou o risco em 48,0% (P = 0,049) e 49,0% (P = 0,044), respectivamente, para frequência inadequada de coleta do exame. A regressão logística múltipla mostrou que ter tido mais de uma gravidez elevou em 71,4% a chance de inadequação da frequência de coleta em comparação com ter somente uma gestação (P = 0,011). CONCLUSÕES: O fato de muitas jovens realizarem o exame de colpocitologia oncótica em intervalos menores do que 1 ano não melhora o rastreamento do câncer de colo uterino e pode onerar o serviço público de saúde. A multiparidade foi fator de risco para a frequência inadequada de coleta do exame, devendo esse aspecto ser considerado na assistência à saúde ginecológica de jovens. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To analyze the frequency of Pap smear testing in young women with at least one pregnancy in Teresina, capital of the state of Piauí, Brazil. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was undertaken from May to December 2008. A convenience sample of 464 young women was selected, and data were colle [...] cted using a pre-tested questionnaire. Women giving birth in the first four months of 2006, in six hospitals in Teresina, were included. Inadequate Pap smear frequency was defined as an interval of more than 1 year between tests. RESULTS: Mean age was 20 years. The frequency of Pap smear testing was every 6 months in 180 women (39.0%) and yearly in 160 (34.5%). Fifteen women (3.2%) had never had a Pap smear test. Simple logistic regression showed an increase of 48.0% in the risk of inadequate Pap smear frequency (P = 0.049) in women who did not use any contraceptive method at their first sexual intercourse, and 49.0% (P = 0.044) in those who were not able to choose between a male or female gynecologist when seeking health care services. On multivariate logistic regression, having more than one pregnancy increased the risk of inadequate Pap smear frequency by 71.4% in comparison to having only one pregnancy (P = 0.011). CONCLUSIONS: The fact that many young women had Pap smear testing at intervals shorter than 1 year does not improve cervical cancer screening and may burden the health care system. Multiparity was a risk factor for inadequate Pap smear frequency, an aspect that must be taken into account when providing gynecological care to young women.

Michelina F., Barroso; Keila R. O., Gomes; Jesusmar Ximenes, Andrade.

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Pap Test Results (Abnormal) -- LSIL  

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51

Pap Test Results (Abnormal) -- Cancer  

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52

Pap Test Results (Abnormal) -- LSIL  

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53

Pap Test Results (Abnormal) -- Cancer  

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54

Pap Test Results (Abnormal) -- LSIL  

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55

Pap Test Results (Abnormal) -- Cancer  

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56

Pap-smear Classification Using Efficient Second Order Neural Network Training Algorithms  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In this paper we make use of two highly efficient second order neural network training algorithms, namely the LMAM (Levenberg-Marquardt with Adaptive Momentum) and OLMAM (Optimized Levenberg-Marquardt with Adaptive Momentum), for the construction of an efficient pap-smear test classifier. The algorithms are methodologically similar, and are based on iterations of the form employed in the Levenberg-Marquardt (LM) method for non-linear least squares problems with the inclusion of an additional adaptive momentum term arising from the formulation of the training task as a constrained optimization problem. The classification results obtained from the application of the algorithms on a standard benchmark pap-smear data set reveal the power of the two methods to obtain excellent solutions in difficult classification problems whereas other standard computational intelligence techniques achieve inferior performances.

Ampazis, Nikolaos; Dounias, George

2004-01-01

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Improving the quality of parameter estimates obtained from slug tests  

Science.gov (United States)

The slug test is one of the most commonly used field methods for obtaining in situ estimates of hydraulic conductivity. Despite its prevalence, this method has received criticism from many quarters in the ground-water community. This criticism emphasizes the poor quality of the estimated parameters, a condition that is primarily a product of the somewhat casual approach that is often employed in slug tests. Recently, the Kansas Geological Survey (KGS) has pursued research directed it improving methods for the performance and analysis of slug tests. Based on extensive theoretical and field research, a series of guidelines have been proposed that should enable the quality of parameter estimates to be improved. The most significant of these guidelines are: (1) three or more slug tests should be performed at each well during a given test period; (2) two or more different initial displacements (Ho) should be used at each well during a test period; (3) the method used to initiate a test should enable the slug to be introduced in a near-instantaneous manner and should allow a good estimate of Ho to be obtained; (4) data-acquisition equipment that enables a large quantity of high quality data to be collected should be employed; (5) if an estimate of the storage parameter is needed, an observation well other than the test well should be employed; (6) the method chosen for analysis of the slug-test data should be appropriate for site conditions; (7) use of pre- and post-analysis plots should be an integral component of the analysis procedure, and (8) appropriate well construction parameters should be employed. Data from slug tests performed at a number of KGS field sites demonstrate the importance of these guidelines.

Butler, Jr. , J. J.; McElwee, C. D.; Liu, W.

1996-01-01

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TsPAP1 encodes a novel plant prolyl aminopeptidase whose expression is induced in response to suboptimal growth conditions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? A cDNA encoding a novel plant prolyl aminopeptidase, TsPAP1, was obtained from triticale. ? The cloned TsPAP1 cDNA is 1387 bp long and encodes a protein of 390 amino acids. ? The deduced TsPAP1 protein revealed characteristics of the monomeric bacterial PAPs. ? The TsPAP1 mRNA level increased under drought, salinity and in the presence of metal ions. -- Abstract: A triticale cDNA encoding a prolyl aminopeptidase (PAP) was obtained by RT-PCR and has been designated as TsPAP1. The cloned cDNA is 1387 bp long and encodes a protein of 390 amino acids with a calculated molecular mass of 43.9 kDa. The deduced TsPAP1 protein exhibits a considerable sequence identity with the biochemically characterized bacterial and fungal PAP proteins of small molecular masses (?35 kDa). Moreover, the presence of conserved regions that are characteristic for bacterial monomeric PAP enzymes (the GGSWG motif, the localization of the catalytic triad residues and the segment involved in substrate binding) has also been noted. Primary structure analysis and phylogenetic analysis revealed that TsPAP1 encodes a novel plant PAP protein that is distinct from the multimeric proteins that have thus far been characterized in plants and whose counterparts have been recognized only in bacteria and fungi. A significant increase in the TsPAP1 transcript level in the shoots of triticale plants was observed under drought and saline conditions as well as in the presence of cadmium and aluminium ions in the nutrient medium. This paper is the first report describing changes in the transcript levels of any plant PAP in response to suboptimal growth conditions.

2012-03-02

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HPV self-sampling or the Pap-smear: a randomized study among cervical screening nonattenders from lower socioeconomic groups in France.  

Science.gov (United States)

Today in France, low attendance to cervical screening by Papanicolaou cytology (Pap-smear) is a major contributor to the 3,000 new cervical cancer cases and 1,000 deaths that occur from this disease every year. Nonattenders are mostly from lower socioeconomic groups and testing of self-obtained samples for high-risk Human Papilloma virus (HPV) types has been proposed as a method to increase screening participation in these groups. In 2011, we conducted a randomized study of women aged 35-69 from very low-income populations around Marseille who had not responded to an initial invitation for a free Pap-smear. After randomization, one group received a second invitation for a free Pap-smear and the other group was offered a free self-sampling kit for HPV testing. Participation rates were significantly different between the two groups with only 2.0% of women attending for a Pap-smear while 18.3% of women returned a self-sample for HPV testing (p ? 0.001). The detection rate of high-grade lesions (?CIN2) was 0.2‰ in the Pap-smear group and 1.25‰ in the self-sampling group (p = 0.01). Offering self-sampling increased participation rates while the use of HPV testing increased the detection of cervical lesions (?CIN2) in comparison to the group of women receiving a second invitation for a Pap-smear. However, low compliance to follow-up in the self-sampling group reduces the effectiveness of this screening approach in nonattenders women and must be carefully managed. PMID:23712523

Sancho-Garnier, H; Tamalet, C; Halfon, P; Leandri, F X; Le Retraite, L; Djoufelkit, K; Heid, P; Davies, P; Piana, L

2013-12-01

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Association of Pap Smear Abnormalities with Autoimmune Disorders  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Recently, it is hypothesized that there might be an association between immunological disorders and cervical premalignant and malignant abnormalities. Related studies have been generally focused on some particular autoimmune disease, specially the Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE. This study aimed at comparing the rate of Pap smear abnormalities in female patients with autoimmune diseases and normal counterparts. In a case-control setting, 118 female patients with various autoimmune diseases (the case group and 118 healthy female counterparts (the control group were recruited in Tabriz Imam Reza Teaching Centre in a 24 months period of time. The two groups were matched for demographics and known risk factors of cervical malignancy. Frequencies of abnormal Pap smear testing were compared between the two groups. The autoimmune disorders were SLE (74 patients, rheumatoid arthritis or RA (32 patients, systemic sclerosis or SS (7 patients and ankylosing spondylitis or AS (5 patients in the case group. Frequency of abnormal Pap smear testing was significantly higher in the case group comparing with that in the controls (7.6% vs. 1.7%; p = 0.03. Frequency of abnormal Pap smear testing was higher in the patients with SLE (8.1% and RA (9.3% comparing with that in the controls; However, these differences were marginally nonsignificant (p = 0.06 and p = 0.07, respectively. Frequency of cases with abnormal Pap smear testing was not statistically different between the autoimmune disorders (p = 0.99. Based on these findings and in conclusion, there might be an association between the autoimmune disorders and occurrence of premalignant or malignant lesions in cervix. Further studies with larger samples sizes are recommended.

Kazem Ghahremanzadeh

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
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Exame citopatológico de colo uterino em mulheres com idade entre 20 e 59 anos em Pelotas, RS: prevalência, foco e fatores associados à sua não realização Pap smears of 20 - 59 year-old women in Pelotas, Southern Brazil: prevalence, approach and factors associated with not undergoing the test  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar a prevalência e o foco de realização do exame citopatológico do colo uterino e também fatores associados à sua não realização em mulheres com idade entre 20 e 59 anos residentes na cidade de Pelotas, RS. MÉTODOS: Entre outubro e dezembro de 2003 foi realizado um estudo transversal de base populacional. Através de amostragem por conglomerados foram sorteados 144 setores censitários em múltiplos estágios. Foram investigadas variáveis sociodemográficas e a realização de exame citopatológico do colo uterino. RESULTADOS: Dentre as 1404 mulheres que constituem a população-alvo dos programas de prevenção do câncer do colo uterino, 83,0% realizaram o exame citopatológico do colo uterino nos três anos antecedentes a este estudo. Mostraram-se significativamente associadas (POBJECTIVE: This study aims to determine the prevalence of and approach of Pap smear tests, as well as associated factors in women living in Pelotas, RS, Southern Brazil, within the 20 - 59 age range, who did not undergo a Pap smear. METHODS: A cross-sectional population-based study was carried out from October to December 2003. 144 census tracts were sampled through a multiple-stage clustered method. Socio-demographic variables were investigated, as well as women's Pap smear tests. RESULTS: Among the 1,404 women who were the target population included in the early detection program of uterine cervix cancer, 83% had had Pap smears in the three years before the study. Variables statistically associated (p<0.05 with women not undergoing the test in the previous three years were: ages ranging from 20-29 to 50-59 years compared with 40-49 year-old women, lower schooling level, lower social level, mixed and black skin color, not having seen a gynecologist in the previous 12 months. CONCLUSIONS: Although this study presents a high coverage of women undergoing Pap smears, women that present higher risk factors for this type of cancer had fewer tests.

Arnildo A. Hackenhaar

2006-03-01

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Factors related to failure to attend the consultation to receive the results of the Pap smear test / Fatores relacionados ao não comparecimento à consulta para receber o resultado do exame colpocitológico  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: identificar os fatores relacionados ao não comparecimento das mulheres à consulta de retorno para receber o resultado do exame colpocitológico. MÉTODO: estudo transversal, realizado com 775 pacientes que se submeteram ao exame colpocitológico no Centro de Saúde da Família de Fortalez [...] a, Ceará, entre setembro de 2010 e fevereiro de 2011. RESULTADOS: a maioria das pesquisadas era jovem (?35 anos), de baixa escolaridade (?7 anos de estudo), com início da vida sexual precoce (?20 anos) e 17,0% delas não retornaram para receber o resultado do exame. Resultados estatisticamente significantes para o não comparecimento ao retorno estiveram relacionados a: mulheres jovens (p=0,001), início precoce da atividade sexual (p=0,047) e conhecimento inadequado sobre o exame colpocitológico (p=0,029). CONCLUSÃO: o fato de a mulher não retornar para receber o resultado é um problema para o controle do câncer cervicouterino e deve ser combatido por meio de estratégias educativas que reforcem a importância do retorno para a detecção precoce desse câncer. Abstract in spanish OBJETIVO: identificar los factores relacionados a la no asistencia de las mujeres a la consulta de retorno para recibir el resultado de la prueba de Papanicolaou. MÉTODO: se trata de un estudio transversal, realizado con 775 pacientes que se sometieron a la prueba de Papanicolaou en el Centro [...] de Salud de la Familia de Fortaleza-CE, entre septiembre de 2010 y febrero de 2011. RESULTADOS: la mayoría de las encuestadas eran jóvenes (?35 años), de baja escolaridad (?7 años de estudio), iniciaron la vida sexual muy temprano (?20 años) y 17,0% de ellas no retornaron para recibir el resultado del examen. Los resultados estadísticamente significativos por no retornar estuvieron relacionados a: mujeres jóvenes (p=0,001); inicio precoz de la actividad sexual (p=0,047); y conocimiento inadecuado sobre la prueba de Papanicolaou (p=0,029). CONCLUSIÓN: el hecho de la mujer no retornar para recibir el resultado es un problema para el control del cáncer de cuello uterino y debe ser combatido por medio de estrategias educativas que refuercen la importancia del retorno para la detección precoz de ese cáncer. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: to identify the factors related to the failure of women to attend the follow-up consultation to receive the results of the Pap smear test. METHOD: a cross-sectional study, carried out with 775 patients who underwent the Pap smear test in the Centro de Saúde da Família of Fortaleza, [...] between September 2010 and February 2011. RESULTS: the majority of the women studied were young (?35 years), had low levels of education (?7 years of study), and commenced sexual activity early (?20 years), with 17.0% of them failing to return to receive the test results. Statistically significant results for the failure to return were related to: young women (p=0.001); early onset of sexual activity (p=0.047); and inadequate knowledge about the Pap smear test (p=0.029). Conclusion the fact that the women failed to return for the result is a problem for the control of cervical cancer and must be addressed through educational strategies that reinforce the importance of the return for the early detection of this cancer.

Camila Teixeira Moreira, Vasconcelos; Denise de Fátima Fernandes, Cunha; Cássia Fernandes, Coelho; Ana Karina Bezerra, Pinheiro; Namie Okino, Sawada.

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Modified PAP method to detect heteroresistance to vancomycin among methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates at a tertiary care hospital  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study was an attempt at developing, establishing, validating and comparing the modified PAP method for detection of hetero-vancomycin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (h-VRSA) with the routine antimicrobial susceptibility testing (using the BSAC standardized disc diffusion method), minimum inhibitory concentrations of vancomycin using standard E-test methodology and the Hiramatsu?s screening method. A total of 50 methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus obtaine...

2008-01-01

64

Cervical cancer: developments in screening and evaluation of the abnormal Pap smear.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Of the more than 50 million Pap smears performed annually in the United States, about 5% of them are abnormal. Although the need for treatment of high-grade lesions is clear, the appropriate management of low-grade lesions remains controversial. New methods of screening for cervical cancer have become available, including testing for the human papilloma virus and improved methods of administering and evaluating the Pap smear. This review addresses new developments in cervical cancer screening...

Walsh, J. M.

1998-01-01

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Knowledge, attitude and practice related to the pap smear test among users of a primary health unit Conocimiento, actitud y práctica relacionada al examen de colposcopia entre usuarias de una unidad básica de salud Conhecimento, atitude e prática relacionada ao exame colpocitológico entre usuárias de uma unidade básica de saúde  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This KAP (knowledge, attitude and practice) study, carried out from February to June 2008, aimed to evaluate the knowledge, attitude and practice regarding the Pap smear test among users of a primary health unit (PHU) and to verify any association with sociodemographic variables. The sample was comprised of 250 women. The knowledge, attitude and practice related to the examination were adequate in 40.4%, 28% and 67.6% of respondents, respectively. The results demonstrate higher proportions of...

2011-01-01

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Comparison of Hybrid Capture II, Linear Array, and a Bead-Based Multiplex Genotyping Assay for Detection of Human Papillomavirus in Women with Negative Pap Test Results and Atypical Squamous Cells of Undetermined Significance  

Science.gov (United States)

Many methods with different levels of analytical sensitivity and clinical specificity have been developed to detect the presence of high-risk (HR) types of the human papillomavirus (HPV) in cervical samples. The Hybrid Capture II (HC-II) assay is broadly used for primary screening. In addition, several HPV genotyping assays, based on PCR methods, display higher sensitivity than the HC-II and are also used in screening programs. We evaluated the performance of three HPV DNA tests, namely, the HC-II, the Linear Array (LA) HPV genotyping assay, and an HPV type-specific E7 PCR bead-based multiplex genotyping assay (TS-MPG) that is a laboratory-developed method for the detection of HPV, in 94 women with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US) and in cytological samples from 86 women with a negative Pap test. The HPV prevalence with the TS-MPG assay was increased compared to the prevalence with the LA and HC-II assays. The HPV DNA prevalence in women with ASC-US was greater with the TS-MPG assay (46.2%) than with the LA (36.3%) and HC-II (29.7%) assays. The HPV DNA prevalence in the control group was greater with the TS-MPG assay (32.1%) than with the LA assay (10.7%). Two women with ASC-US who were HPV DNA negative by the HC-II and positive by the TS-MPG or/and LA assays had lesions that progressed to low-grade squamous intraepithelial and high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions. This study shows that the TS-MPG assay exhibited higher analytical sensitivity than the LA and HC-II assays for the detection of HPV DNA, which reduces the potential to incorrectly identify a woman's HPV infection status.

Comar, Manola; Iannacone, Michelle R.; Casalicchio, Giorgia; McKay-Chopin, Sandrine; Tommasino, Massimo

2012-01-01

67

PAP SMEAR RECEIPT AMONG VIETNAMESE IMMIGRANTS: THE IMPORTANCE OF HEALTH CARE FACTORS  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective Recent US data indicate that women of Vietnamese descent have higher cervical cancer incidence rates than women of any other race/ethnicity, and lower levels of Pap testing than white, black, and Latina women. Our objective was to provide information about Pap testing barriers and facilitators that could be used to develop cervical cancer control intervention programs for Vietnamese American women. Design We conducted a cross-sectional, community-based survey of Vietnamese immigrants. Our study was conducted in metropolitan Seattle, Washington. A total of 1,532 Vietnamese American women participated in the study. Demographic, health care, and knowledge/belief items associated with previous cervical cancer screening participation (ever screened and screened according to interval screening guidelines) were examined. Results Eighty-one percent of the respondents had been screened for cervical cancer in the previous three years. Recent Pap testing was strongly associated (p<0.001) with having a regular doctor, having a physical in the last year, previous physician recommendation for testing, and having asked a physician for testing. Women whose regular doctor was a Vietnamese man were no more likely to have received a recent Pap smear than those with no regular doctor. Conclusion Our findings indicate that cervical cancer screening disparities between Vietnamese and other racial/ethnic groups are decreasing. Efforts to further increase Pap smear receipt in Vietnamese American communities should enable women without a source of health care to find a regular provider. Additionally, intervention programs should improve patient-provider communication by encouraging health care providers (especially male Vietnamese physicians serving women living in ethnic enclaves) to recommend Pap testing, as well as by empowering Vietnamese women to specifically ask their physicians for Pap testing.

Taylor, Victoria M.; Yasui, Yutaka; Nguyen, Tung T.; Woodall, Erica; Hoai, H.; Acorda, Elizabeth; Li, Lin; Choe, John; Jackson, J. Carey

2009-01-01

68

Pap Test Results (Abnormal) -- HSIL or AIS  

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69

Pap Test Results (Abnormal) -- ASC-US  

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70

Pap Test Results (Abnormal) -- ASC-US  

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71

Pap Test Results (Abnormal) -- HSIL or AIS  

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Full Text Available ... made possilge with federal funds from the National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health, Department of Health and Human Services, under Contract No. NO1-LM-1-3506 with ...

72

Pap Test Results (Abnormal) -- HSIL or AIS  

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Full Text Available ... made possilge with federal funds from the National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health, Department of Health and Human Services, under Contract No. NO1-LM-1-3506 with the University of Washington through the Pacific Northwest Region of ...

73

Pap Test Results (Abnormal) -- ASC-US  

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Full Text Available ... made possilge with federal funds from the National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health, Department of Health and Human Services, under Contract No. NO1-LM-1-3506 with the University of Washington through the Pacific Northwest Region of ...

74

Van Mother-Child Health and Family Planning Center Pap Smear Clinics of Information, Evaluation of Applicants  

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Full Text Available Objective: In this study of women admitted to our center with information on pap smear test, to evaluate the attitudes and behavior. Materials and Methods: This descriptive study of Van Mother-Child Health and Family Planning Center on a voluntary basis, women aged 15-49 were admitted to the control. The education level of participants, age at first marriage, before the presence of vaginal infection, the story, and motivations pap smear level of information availability, and a family history of cancer, administered a questionnaire asking the state to have a regular income. Results: The study included 362 women with age and hear the pap smear test was significantly increased (p = 0.01. Working women and pap smear level of knowledge (p = 0.04 and pap smears than women not working for International rates significantly higher (p = 0.02. Treatment of vaginal infection at least once before to get there was a significant relationship between the pap smear motivations (p>0.05. Family history of gynecologic cancer or non-gynecologic cancer smears have significantly increased the level of motivations (p = 0.0001. Pap smear information, regular the economic income of those levels, significantly higher than those without regular income (p = 0.0001. Conclusion: We serve the region, with low socio-economic characteristics that are considered, gynecological examination by health workers or women from the home visits, pap smear test for what purpose and how often you get the work done and the importance of explaining and giving more space to this issue suggest that the written and visual media. Keywords: Pap smears, health care, education [TAF Prev Med Bull 2011; 10(5.000: 527-532

Sebahat Gucuk

2011-10-01

75

Improving follow-up after an abnormal Pap smear: a randomized controlled trial.  

Science.gov (United States)

Less than 60% of women diagnosed with cervical abnormalities on Pap smears return for proper surveillance and timely treatment. Previous tactics used to motivate these women to return have mainly relied on costly intensive recall efforts. Using a framework based on psychological value expectancy theory, a pamphlet was designed to motivate women with abnormal Pap smears to return for a repeat Pap smear. The effect of this pamphlet was tested in a randomized controlled trial. A total of 161 women with abnormal Pap smears were randomized and received either the pamphlet plus a notification letter or the letter only. The compliance rate was 64.2% in the intervention group and 51.3% in the comparison group (P = 0.10; two-tailed). In addition, subgroups of women who do not practice health-related behaviors were identified as groups where more intensive interventions may be needed. These results have implications for future strategies used to recall women with abnormal Pap smears. PMID:2263574

Paskett, E D; White, E; Carter, W B; Chu, J

1990-11-01

76

Caerulein-induced acute pancreatitis in mice that constitutively overexpress Reg/PAP genes  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The cystic fibrosis (CF mouse pancreas has constitutively elevated expression of the Reg/PAP cell stress genes (60-fold greater Reg3?, and 10-fold greater PAP/Reg3? and Reg3?. These genes are suggested to be involved in protection or recovery from pancreatic injury. Methods To test this idea the supramaximal caerulein model was used to induce acute pancreatitis in wild type and CF mice. Serum amylase, pancreatic water content (as a measure of edema, pancreatic myeloperoxidase activity, and Reg/PAP expression were quantified. Results In both wild type and CF mice caerulein induced similar elevations in serum amylase (maximal at 12 h, pancreatic edema (maximal at 7 h, and pancreatic myeloperoxidase activity (MPO, a marker of neutrophil infiltration; maximal at 7 h. By immunohistochemistry, Reg3? was strongly expressed in the untreated CF pancreas but not in wild type. During pancreatitis, Reg3? was intensely expressed in foci of inflamed tissue in both wild type and CF. Conclusion These data demonstrate that the severity of caerulein-induced pancreatitis is not ameliorated in the CF mouse even though the Reg/PAP stress genes are already highly upregulated. While Reg/PAP may be protective they may also have a negative effect during pancreatitis due to their anti-apoptotic activity, which has been shown to increase the severity of pancreatitis.

Appenzeller Philippe

2006-05-01

77

Caerulein-induced acute pancreatitis in mice that constitutively overexpress Reg/PAP genes  

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Abstract Background The cystic fibrosis (CF) mouse pancreas has constitutively elevated expression of the Reg/PAP cell stress genes (60-fold greater Reg3?, and 10-fold greater PAP/Reg3? and Reg3?). These genes are suggested to be involved in protection or recovery from pancreatic injury. Methods To test this idea the supramaximal caerulein model was used to induce acute pancreatitis in wild type and CF mice. Serum amylase, ...

Norkina Oxana; Graf Rolf; Appenzeller Philippe; De Lisle Robert C

2006-01-01

78

Anti-DNA antibodies in the primary antiphospholipid syndrome (PAPS)  

Science.gov (United States)

Primary antiphospholipid syndrome (PAPS) is considered a distinct entity from SLE and patients with PAPS are generally regarded as being dsDNA antibody negative. Levels of IgG and IgM ss and ds DNA antibodies were measured by ELISA in 30 patients who fulfilled the criteria for the diagnosis of PAPS. We compared these patients with 20 normal controls and seven patients with idiopathic SLE. We also examined all the sera for anti-nuclear antibodies by Hep-2 cells and for dsDNA antibodies by Crithidia. We found that 16 patients with PAPS had antibodies to ss and/or dsDNA. Only three of the 16 positive patients had both IgG and IgM anti-DNA antibodies. Twelve patients had anti-nuclear antibodies, but only two were weakly positive for dsDNA antibodies by Crithidia immunofluorescence. Eleven out of 30 patients with PAPS had IgM anti-dsDNA antibodies compared to two out of the seven SLE patients. The PAPS patients with anti-DNA antibodies were clinically indistinguishable from the PAPS patients without antibodies against DNA. Our results show that 53% of patients with PAPS had antibodies to DNA which supports the view that PAPS and SLE are probably overlapping disorders. PMID:8495254

Ehrenstein, M R; Swana, M; Keeling, D; Asherson, R; Hughes, G R; Isenberg, D A

1993-05-01

79

CIEMAT interlaboratories comparison of the results obtained in the proficiency test run by IAEA  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report contains the results obtained by two different laboratories from CIEMAT after participating in the Proficiency Test organised by IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency) in 1999. This test involves the analysis of fly ashes containing natural radionuclides and different amounts of added transuranics. The extraction techniques, counting methods and results obtained are detailed. This type of test are used for the labs to achieve their accreditation and check the reliability of the procedures routinely employed. (Author) 4 refs

2000-01-01

80

The Structure of the PapD-PapGII Pilin Complex Reveals an Open and Flexible P5 Pocket  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

P pili are hairlike polymeric structures that mediate binding of uropathogenic Escherichia coli to the surface of the kidney via the PapG adhesin at their tips. PapG is composed of two domains: a lectin domain at the tip of the pilus followed by a pilin domain that comprises the initial polymerizing subunit of the 1,000-plus-subunit heteropolymeric pilus fiber. Prior to assembly, periplasmic pilin domains bind to a chaperone, PapD. PapD mediates donor strand complementation, in which a beta s...

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
81

Evaluating inhibition of angiogenesis by GST-PAP fusion protein  

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Full Text Available "nBackground: Tumor cells need food and oxygen supply for growth and division. Therefore one of the most promising areas of cancer therapy focuses on using agents that inhibit tumor angiogenesis. Inhibition of angiogenesis prevents cell growth, division and metastasis. Previous studies showed that plasminogen related Protein-B has an anti-tumor activity in mice. This protein has a high level of homology with preactivation Peptide (PAP of human plasminogen. According to this high homology, antiangiogeneic activity of PAP was investigated in an in vitro angiogenesis model. "nMethods: PAP encoding region of human plasminogen gene was isolated by Polymerase Chain Reaction and ?cloned in pGEX-2T vector. This plasmid was expressed in Escherichia coli as a fusion protein (GST-PAP. ?GST-PAP was expressed as inclusion body and purified by affinity chromatography on GSH-sepharose ?resin after refolding. antiangiogenic effects of purified protein were surveyed with Matrigel assay?.?? ? "nResults: The GST-PAP was expressed and purified and its accuracy was confirmed by SDS-PAGE analysis ?and immunoblotting. Microscopic studies showed that GST-PAP inhibited angiogenesis in Matrigel system ?which is shown by shrinking the length of capillary like structures and a decrease in the number of tubule. ?While applying concentarations of 25?g/ml of GST-PAP and concentrations above that, antiangiogenic ?activity of GST-PAP was significant comparing to the controls. ? "nConclusion: Finding shows that GST-PAP can inhibit network formation in Matrigel system. This findings ?support the theory that PAP is a potent angiogenesis inhibitor.?

Sadeghi-Zadeh M

2009-01-01

82

Motivos que levam mulheres a não retornarem para receber o resultado de exame Papanicolau / Motives which lead women not to return to receive the results of their pap smear test / Motivos que llevan a las mujeres a no regresar para recibir el resultado del examen de Papanicolau  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O papanicolau é um eficiente método de prevenção do câncer de colo uterino. Para a efetividade desta prevenção, é imprescindível que a mulher receba o resultado do exame e conclua o tratamento. O presente estudo tem o objetivo de identificar motivos que levam mulheres a não retornarem para o recebim [...] ento do resultado do papanicolau. Trata-se de uma pesquisa descritiva, com abordagem qualitativa, realizada em uma unidade de saúde em Fortaleza. Os sujeitos do estudo foram 21 mulheres que colheram seus exames de papanicolau e não retornaram para buscar o resultado. O instrumento de coleta de dados foi constituído por entrevista semi-estruturada, realizada por telefone, nos meses de setembro a novembro de 2004. Os resultados evidenciaram motivos relacionados à mulher, ao profissional que realiza o atendimento e ao serviço. Abstract in spanish El Papanicolau es un eficiente método de prevención de cáncer cervical, bastante utilizado por las mujeres. Para la efectividad de esta prevención, es imprescindible que la paciente reciba el resultado del examen y concluya el tratamiento. El presente estudio tiene como objetivo identificar los moti [...] vos que llevan a las mujeres a no volver para recibir el resultado del Papanicolau. Se trata de una investigación descriptiva con aproximación cualitativa, realizada en una unidad de Salud Pública en Fortaleza. Los sujetos de estudio fueron 21 mujeres, cujas muestras fueron colectadas para Papanicolau y que no retornaron para buscar el resultado. El instrumento de recopilación de datos fue una entrevista semi-estructurada, realizada por teléfono entre los meses de septiembre y noviembre del 2004. Los resultados evidenciaron motivos relacionados a la paciente, al profesional que realiza la atención y al servicio. Abstract in english The Pap smear test is an efficient method of uterine cervical cancer prevention. For this prevention method to be effective, it is essential that the patient receives her results and satisfactorily concludes the treatment. This study aims to identify the motives which lead women not to return to rec [...] eive the results of their Pap smear test. This is a descriptive research with a qualitative approach, carried out at a health centre in the city of Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil. The study subjects are 21 women who underwent the Pap smear test and did not return to collect their results. The tool for data collection was a semi-structured telephone interview, held between September and November 2004. The results pointed to motives related to the patient, to the health professional delivering care and to the service offered.

Suzana de Azevedo, Greenwood; Maria de Fátima Antero Sousa, Machado; Neide Maria Vieira, Sampaio.

83

Motivos que levam mulheres a não retornarem para receber o resultado de exame Papanicolau Motivos que llevan a las mujeres a no regresar para recibir el resultado del examen de Papanicolau Motives which lead women not to return to receive the results of their pap smear test  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O papanicolau é um eficiente método de prevenção do câncer de colo uterino. Para a efetividade desta prevenção, é imprescindível que a mulher receba o resultado do exame e conclua o tratamento. O presente estudo tem o objetivo de identificar motivos que levam mulheres a não retornarem para o recebimento do resultado do papanicolau. Trata-se de uma pesquisa descritiva, com abordagem qualitativa, realizada em uma unidade de saúde em Fortaleza. Os sujeitos do estudo foram 21 mulheres que colheram seus exames de papanicolau e não retornaram para buscar o resultado. O instrumento de coleta de dados foi constituído por entrevista semi-estruturada, realizada por telefone, nos meses de setembro a novembro de 2004. Os resultados evidenciaram motivos relacionados à mulher, ao profissional que realiza o atendimento e ao serviço.El Papanicolau es un eficiente método de prevención de cáncer cervical, bastante utilizado por las mujeres. Para la efectividad de esta prevención, es imprescindible que la paciente reciba el resultado del examen y concluya el tratamiento. El presente estudio tiene como objetivo identificar los motivos que llevan a las mujeres a no volver para recibir el resultado del Papanicolau. Se trata de una investigación descriptiva con aproximación cualitativa, realizada en una unidad de Salud Pública en Fortaleza. Los sujetos de estudio fueron 21 mujeres, cujas muestras fueron colectadas para Papanicolau y que no retornaron para buscar el resultado. El instrumento de recopilación de datos fue una entrevista semi-estructurada, realizada por teléfono entre los meses de septiembre y noviembre del 2004. Los resultados evidenciaron motivos relacionados a la paciente, al profesional que realiza la atención y al servicio.The Pap smear test is an efficient method of uterine cervical cancer prevention. For this prevention method to be effective, it is essential that the patient receives her results and satisfactorily concludes the treatment. This study aims to identify the motives which lead women not to return to receive the results of their Pap smear test. This is a descriptive research with a qualitative approach, carried out at a health centre in the city of Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil. The study subjects are 21 women who underwent the Pap smear test and did not return to collect their results. The tool for data collection was a semi-structured telephone interview, held between September and November 2004. The results pointed to motives related to the patient, to the health professional delivering care and to the service offered.

Suzana de Azevedo Greenwood

2006-08-01

84

CO2 rebreathing during BiPAP ventilatory assistance.  

Science.gov (United States)

BiPAP ventilatory assistance can increase minute ventilation and reduce respiratory effort, but does not always reduce PaCO2. We studied the effects of BiPAP ventilatory assistance on PaCO2 and examined specific mechanisms whereby BiPAP ventilatory assistance may not lower PaCO2. BiPAP ventilatory assistance using a non-rebreather valve and volume cycled ventilation at similar settings produced significantly lower PaCO2 than BiPAP ventilatory assistance using a standard exhalation device. The failure of PaCO2 to fall with the standard exhalation device was due to exhalation past the exhalation device into the ventilator tubing, subsequent rebreathing of the exhaled gases, and an increase in dead space ventilation. Use of other fixed-resistance exhalation devices also resulted in exhalation back into the ventilator tubing. Use of a new plateau exhalation device or a non-rebreather valve eliminated CO2 rebreathing and its effect on dead space ventilation. Changing exhalation devices had no significant effect on BiPAP pressure generation or sensing capabilities. Our results indicate that the use of a standard exhalation device during BiPAP ventilatory assistance causes CO2 rebreathing, which can blunt any effect of BiPAP on PaCO2. Use of an appropriate alternative exhalation device can eliminate this problem. PMID:7697242

Ferguson, G T; Gilmartin, M

1995-04-01

85

STUDY OF HIGH RISK CASES FOR EARLY DETECTION OF CERVICAL CANCER BY PAP’S SMEAR AND VISUAL INSPECTION BY LUGOL’S IODINE METHOD.  

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Full Text Available INTRODUCTION:Cervical cancer is the commonest genital tract cancer among Indian women. Screening programmes have claimed to reduce incidence and mortality of cervical carcinoma significantly, for which sensitization of women is required through community based approach.OBJECTIVES: Comparison of VILI and cytology by PAP smear for detection of low grade squamous intraepithelial lesion, high grade squamous intraepithelial lesion, carcinoma of cervix and correlation of results with the reference standards(colposcopy and biopsyMATERIAL & METHODS:Study was carried out in 50 women of high risk group, aged 20 to 65 years in the year of May 2008 to May 2010 in our hospital. All women were investigated with colposcopy and biopsy were taken who had abnormal colposcopy.RESULT:Sensitivity, Specificity, Positive predictive value, Negative predictive value of PAP test was 80%, 97%, 80%, 97% respectively, compared with reference standards.Sensitivity, Specificity, Positive predictive value, Negative predictive value of VILI test was 80%, 91.11%,50%,97.6% respectively, compared with reference standards.CONCLUSION:VILI and PAP test can be used effectively for detection of precancerous lesion of cervix at hospital set up as well as community level.

Harshad Ladola

2013-01-01

86

Obtaining a uniform distribution of coke strength across the width of a test oven  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A study is reported of the optimum heat pattern for obtaining a uniform distribution of coke strength across the width of a small (70 kg/charge) test oven. It was discovered that uniform strength is achieved if the oven centre heating rate is increased, i.e., if oven temperature is increased towards the end of coking. The various heating rates, coke strengths and strength distributions recorded in the tests are reported. 4 references, 3 figures, 1 table.

Nishida, S.; Amamoto, K.; Ishida, K.; Tanibata, N.

1986-01-01

87

Test of irradiation of tellurium oxide for obtaining iodine-131 by dry distillation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

With the purpose of optimizing to the maximum independently the work of the reactor of those mathematical calculations of irradiation that are already optimized, now it corresponds to carry out irradiation tests in the different positions with their respective neutron fluxes that it counts the reactor for samples irradiation. Then, it is necessary to carry out the irradiation of the tellurium dioxide through cycles, with the purpose of observing the activity that it goes accumulating in each cycle and this way to obtain an activity of the Iodine-131 obtained when finishing the last cycle. (Author)

2003-01-01

88

COMPARISON OF MAXIMUM HEART RATE OBTAINED IN TESTS TREADMILL AND FIELD IN HEALTHY MEN  

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Full Text Available CERQUEIRA, M.S. ; PRIMO, P.G. ; FERNANDES, S.A.T. ; MARINS, J.C.B. Comparison of maximum heart rate obtained in tests treadmill and field in healthy men. Brazilian Journal of Biomotricity. v. 6, n. 1, p. 18-24, 2012. The aim of this study were to compare the response of maximum heart rate (MHR to two treadmill protocols (Bruce et al.; Balke and Ware and one of field (2,400 m. of the Cooper. The sample was composed by thirty subjects of masculine gender (22,9 ± 2,45 years old university students. To determine the differences between MHR was chosen for the test of analysis Anova One Way, followed by verification of post-hot Tukey. The results of MHR protocols were Balke and Ware 186.8 ± 7.7 bpm, Bruce et al. 190.9 ± 7.6 bpm, 194.2 ± 8.6 bpm Cooper. The values of the MHR test of Bruce et al. and Cooper showed no statistically significant difference, while the MHR test of Balke and Ware was significantly lower than that of the Cooper test. We conclude that both the Cooper and the protocol of Bruce et al. are adequate to determine the FCM in the sample, while the Balke and Ware test underestimates the FCM, and is not suitable for its determination.

Sílvio Anderson Toledo Fernandes

2012-03-01

89

Cervix Cancer Diagnosis from Pap Smear Images Using Structure Based Segmentation and Shape Analysis  

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Full Text Available his work presents an approach for analysis of P AP s mear images of cervical region based on cell nuclei distribution and shape and size analysis. PAP smear test is an efficient and easy procedure to detect any abnor mality in cervical cells. But human observation is not always satisfying and it is a tedious task to manually analyze a large number of PAP smear images. The purpose of this study is to automate the screening process and to provide specific statistical data which will be helpful for detecting abnormalities in cervical region. The proposed approach is implemented in MATLAB®, a high level, interactive environment for data visualization/analysis/computation. The MATLAB® Image Processing Toolbox was used to segment the digital images and calculate various statistical data. By comparing cell nuclei distribution and taking into account the shape and size features MATLAB® can be programmed to distinguish normal cervical cell to questionable ones.

Lipi B. Mahanta

2012-02-01

90

Perception and Experience of Primary Care Physicians on Pap Smear Screening for Women with Intellectual Disabilities: A Preliminary Finding  

Science.gov (United States)

This study aims to establish evidence-based data to explore the perceptions and experience of primary care physicians in the Pap smear screening provision for women with intellectual disabilities (ID), and to analyze the associated factors in the delivery of screening services to women with ID in Taiwan. Data obtained by a cross-sectional survey…

Lin, Jin-Ding; Sung, Chang-Lin; Lin, Lan-Ping; Liu, Ta-Wen; Lin, Pei-Ying; Chen, Li-Mei; Chu, Cordia M.; Wu, Jia-Ling

2010-01-01

91

Incontinência urinária em mulheres que buscam exame preventivo de câncer de colo uterino: fatores sociodemográficos e comportamentais Incontinencia urinaria en mujeres que solicitan un examen preventivo de cáncer de cuello uterino: factores socio-demográficos y de comportamiento Urinary incontinence in women undergoing Pap smear test: socio-demographic and behavioral factors  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Este estudo transversal objetivou investigar a associação entre, de um lado, fatores sociodemográficos e comportamentais e, de outro, a presença de incontinência urinária referida em 784 mulheres que buscam exame preventivo de câncer de colo uterino na Grande Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brasil. Foram obtidos dados sociodemográficos, estado de saúde, atividade física, constipação e índice de massa corporal, sendo utilizado o International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire-SF. A prevalência de incontinência urinária foi de 30,7% (16,5% perdiam urina uma vez por semana ou menos e 23,8% em pequena quantidade. Na regressão de Poisson bruta, estiveram associados à incontinência urinária os seguintes fatores: baixa escolaridade, renda por pessoa da família até um salário mínimo, etnia não caucasiana, excesso de peso corporal, pior autoavaliação do estado de saúde, constipação e idade. Após ajuste, seguindo modelo hierarquizado, permaneceram associados: escolaridade, etnia, estado de saúde e idade. A alta prevalência de incontinência urinária em mulheres que buscam exame de rastreamento do câncer de colo uterino justifica abordagens preventivas nesses espaços de atuação.Este estudio transversal tuvo como objetivo investigar la asociación entre factores socio-demográficos y de comportamiento con la presencia de incontinencia urinaria, informada por 784 mujeres que solicitaron un examen preventivo de cáncer de cuello uterino en el área metropolitana de Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brasil. Se obtuvieron datos socio-demográficos, estado de salud, actividad física, estreñimiento e índice de masa corporal, utilizándose el International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire-SF. La prevalencia de incontinencia urinaria fue de un 30,7% (16,5% perdían orina una vez por semana o menos y un 23,8% en pequeña cantidad. En la regresión de Poisson bruta se asoció a la incontinencia urinaria: la baja escolaridad; renta por persona de la familia de hasta un salario mínimo; etnia no caucásica; exceso de peso corporal; peor autoevaluación de estado de salud; estreñimiento y edad. Tras los ajustes, siguiendo un modelo jerarquizado, permanecieron asociados: escolaridad; etnia; estado de salud y edad. La alta prevalencia de incontinencia urinaria de mujeres que solicitaron un examen de indicios de cáncer de cuello uterino justifica aproximaciones preventivas en esos espacios.This cross-sectional study aimed to investigate the association between socio-demographic and behavioral factors and the presence of self-reported urinary incontinence in 784 women undergoing cervical cancer screening in Greater Florianópolis, Santa Catarina State, Brazil. Socio-demographic data, health status, physical activity, constipation, and body mass index were obtained, and the International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire-SF was used. Prevalence of urinary incontinence was 30.7% (16.5% reported leakage once a week or less and 23.8% losses in small volumes. Poisson univariate regression showed the following factors associated with urinary incontinence: lower education, lower income, non-white skin color, overweight, worse health status, constipation, and older age. After adjustment, according to a hierarchical model, schooling, ethnicity, health status, and age remained significantly associated. The high prevalence of urinary incontinence in women seeking Pap smear tests justifies preventive approaches in these areas of intervention.

Fernando Luiz Cardoso

2013-06-01

92

Incontinência urinária em mulheres que buscam exame preventivo de câncer de colo uterino: fatores sociodemográficos e comportamentais / Urinary incontinence in women undergoing Pap smear test: socio-demographic and behavioral factors / Incontinencia urinaria en mujeres que solicitan un examen preventivo de cáncer de cuello uterino: factores socio-demográficos y de comportamiento  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este estudo transversal objetivou investigar a associação entre, de um lado, fatores sociodemográficos e comportamentais e, de outro, a presença de incontinência urinária referida em 784 mulheres que buscam exame preventivo de câncer de colo uterino na Grande Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brasil. F [...] oram obtidos dados sociodemográficos, estado de saúde, atividade física, constipação e índice de massa corporal, sendo utilizado o International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire-SF. A prevalência de incontinência urinária foi de 30,7% (16,5% perdiam urina uma vez por semana ou menos e 23,8% em pequena quantidade). Na regressão de Poisson bruta, estiveram associados à incontinência urinária os seguintes fatores: baixa escolaridade, renda por pessoa da família até um salário mínimo, etnia não caucasiana, excesso de peso corporal, pior autoavaliação do estado de saúde, constipação e idade. Após ajuste, seguindo modelo hierarquizado, permaneceram associados: escolaridade, etnia, estado de saúde e idade. A alta prevalência de incontinência urinária em mulheres que buscam exame de rastreamento do câncer de colo uterino justifica abordagens preventivas nesses espaços de atuação. Abstract in spanish Este estudio transversal tuvo como objetivo investigar la asociación entre factores socio-demográficos y de comportamiento con la presencia de incontinencia urinaria, informada por 784 mujeres que solicitaron un examen preventivo de cáncer de cuello uterino en el área metropolitana de Florianópolis, [...] Santa Catarina, Brasil. Se obtuvieron datos socio-demográficos, estado de salud, actividad física, estreñimiento e índice de masa corporal, utilizándose el International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire-SF. La prevalencia de incontinencia urinaria fue de un 30,7% (16,5% perdían orina una vez por semana o menos y un 23,8% en pequeña cantidad). En la regresión de Poisson bruta se asoció a la incontinencia urinaria: la baja escolaridad; renta por persona de la familia de hasta un salario mínimo; etnia no caucásica; exceso de peso corporal; peor autoevaluación de estado de salud; estreñimiento y edad. Tras los ajustes, siguiendo un modelo jerarquizado, permanecieron asociados: escolaridad; etnia; estado de salud y edad. La alta prevalencia de incontinencia urinaria de mujeres que solicitaron un examen de indicios de cáncer de cuello uterino justifica aproximaciones preventivas en esos espacios. Abstract in english This cross-sectional study aimed to investigate the association between socio-demographic and behavioral factors and the presence of self-reported urinary incontinence in 784 women undergoing cervical cancer screening in Greater Florianópolis, Santa Catarina State, Brazil. Socio-demographic data, he [...] alth status, physical activity, constipation, and body mass index were obtained, and the International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire-SF was used. Prevalence of urinary incontinence was 30.7% (16.5% reported leakage once a week or less and 23.8% losses in small volumes). Poisson univariate regression showed the following factors associated with urinary incontinence: lower education, lower income, non-white skin color, overweight, worse health status, constipation, and older age. After adjustment, according to a hierarchical model, schooling, ethnicity, health status, and age remained significantly associated. The high prevalence of urinary incontinence in women seeking Pap smear tests justifies preventive approaches in these areas of intervention.

Sacomori, Cinara; Negri, Nubia Berenice; Cardoso, Fernando Luiz.

93

Incontinência urinária em mulheres que buscam exame preventivo de câncer de colo uterino: fatores sociodemográficos e comportamentais / Urinary incontinence in women undergoing Pap smear test: socio-demographic and behavioral factors / Incontinencia urinaria en mujeres que solicitan un examen preventivo de cáncer de cuello uterino: factores socio-demográficos y de comportamiento  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este estudo transversal objetivou investigar a associação entre, de um lado, fatores sociodemográficos e comportamentais e, de outro, a presença de incontinência urinária referida em 784 mulheres que buscam exame preventivo de câncer de colo uterino na Grande Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brasil. F [...] oram obtidos dados sociodemográficos, estado de saúde, atividade física, constipação e índice de massa corporal, sendo utilizado o International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire-SF. A prevalência de incontinência urinária foi de 30,7% (16,5% perdiam urina uma vez por semana ou menos e 23,8% em pequena quantidade). Na regressão de Poisson bruta, estiveram associados à incontinência urinária os seguintes fatores: baixa escolaridade, renda por pessoa da família até um salário mínimo, etnia não caucasiana, excesso de peso corporal, pior autoavaliação do estado de saúde, constipação e idade. Após ajuste, seguindo modelo hierarquizado, permaneceram associados: escolaridade, etnia, estado de saúde e idade. A alta prevalência de incontinência urinária em mulheres que buscam exame de rastreamento do câncer de colo uterino justifica abordagens preventivas nesses espaços de atuação. Abstract in spanish Este estudio transversal tuvo como objetivo investigar la asociación entre factores socio-demográficos y de comportamiento con la presencia de incontinencia urinaria, informada por 784 mujeres que solicitaron un examen preventivo de cáncer de cuello uterino en el área metropolitana de Florianópolis, [...] Santa Catarina, Brasil. Se obtuvieron datos socio-demográficos, estado de salud, actividad física, estreñimiento e índice de masa corporal, utilizándose el International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire-SF. La prevalencia de incontinencia urinaria fue de un 30,7% (16,5% perdían orina una vez por semana o menos y un 23,8% en pequeña cantidad). En la regresión de Poisson bruta se asoció a la incontinencia urinaria: la baja escolaridad; renta por persona de la familia de hasta un salario mínimo; etnia no caucásica; exceso de peso corporal; peor autoevaluación de estado de salud; estreñimiento y edad. Tras los ajustes, siguiendo un modelo jerarquizado, permanecieron asociados: escolaridad; etnia; estado de salud y edad. La alta prevalencia de incontinencia urinaria de mujeres que solicitaron un examen de indicios de cáncer de cuello uterino justifica aproximaciones preventivas en esos espacios. Abstract in english This cross-sectional study aimed to investigate the association between socio-demographic and behavioral factors and the presence of self-reported urinary incontinence in 784 women undergoing cervical cancer screening in Greater Florianópolis, Santa Catarina State, Brazil. Socio-demographic data, he [...] alth status, physical activity, constipation, and body mass index were obtained, and the International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire-SF was used. Prevalence of urinary incontinence was 30.7% (16.5% reported leakage once a week or less and 23.8% losses in small volumes). Poisson univariate regression showed the following factors associated with urinary incontinence: lower education, lower income, non-white skin color, overweight, worse health status, constipation, and older age. After adjustment, according to a hierarchical model, schooling, ethnicity, health status, and age remained significantly associated. The high prevalence of urinary incontinence in women seeking Pap smear tests justifies preventive approaches in these areas of intervention.

Sacomori, Cinara; Negri, Nubia Berenice; Cardoso, Fernando Luiz.

94

Cervical cancer screening in primary health care setting in Sudan: a comparative study of visual inspection with acetic acid and Pap smear  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Ahmed Ibrahim1, Arja R Aro1, Vibeke Rasch2, Eero Pukkala3,41Unit for Health Promotion Research, University of Southern Denmark, Esbjerg, Denmark; 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Odense University Hospital, Odense, Denmark; 3Finnish Cancer Registry, Institute for Statistical and Epidemiological Cancer Research, Helsinki, Finland; 4School of Public Health, University of Tampere, Tampere, FinlandObjective: To determine the feasibility of visual inspection with the use of acetic acid (VIA as a screening method for cervical cancer, an alternative to the Pap smear used in primary health care setting in Sudan, and to compare sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, and histological diagnosis of positive cases of both tests.Methods: A cross-sectional study of 934 asymptomatic women living in Khartoum, Sudan, was conducted during 2009–2010. A semi-structured questionnaire containing socio-economic and reproductive variables was used to collect data from each participant. Methods of screening used were VIA and conventional Pap smear, followed by colposcopy and biopsy for confirmation of the positive results of both screening tests.Results: The tests identified altogether 119 (12.7% positive women. VIA detected significantly more positive women than Pap smear (7.6% versus 5.1%; P = 0.004, with an overlap between the two screening tests in 19% of positive results. There was no significant difference between VIA and Pap smear findings and sociodemographic and reproductive factors among screened women. Use of colposcopy and biopsy for positive women confirmed that 88/119 (73.9% were positive for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. VIA had higher sensitivity than Pap smear (74.2% versus 72.9%; P = 0.05 respectively. Out of 88 confirmed positive cases, 22 (25.0% cases were invasive cervical cancer in stage 1, of which 19 versus three were detected by VIA and Pap smear respectively (P = 0.001. VIA had higher sensitivity and lower specificity than Pap smear (60.2% versus 47.7% and (41.9% versus 83.8% respectively. The combination of VIA/Pap has better sensitivity and specificity than each independent test (82.6% and 92.2%.Conclusion: The findings of this study showed that VIA has higher sensitivity and lower specificity compared to Pap smear, but a combination of both tests has greater sensitivity and specificity than each test independently. It indicates that VIA is useful for screening of cervical cancer in the primary health care setting in Sudan, but positive results need to be confirmed by colposcopy and biopsy.Keywords: cervical, cancer, screening, VIA, Pap smear, colposcopy, sensitivity, specificity, predictive value, primary health care setting

Ibrahim A

2012-02-01

95

Discrepancy in Antimicrobial Susceptibility Test Results Obtained for Oral Streptococci with the Etest and Agar Dilution?  

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A total of 270 viridans group streptococci (VS) isolated from healthy children, identified to the species level, were tested for their susceptibilities to penicillin, imipenem, erythromycin, and vancomycin. A total of 270 isolates and 1,080 organism-antibiotic combinations were evaluated. The overall susceptibility rates of all isolates obtained by the Etest (ET) versus agar dilution (AD) were 60.4% versus 61.8% for penicillin, 63.8% versus 63.9% for erythromycin, 90.6% versus 96% for vancomy...

Mokaddas, Eiman M.; Salako, Nathaneal O.; Philip, Leeba; Rotimi, Vincent O.

2007-01-01

96

Report of test and research results on atomic energy obtained in national institutes in fiscal 1985  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As for the test and research on the utilization of atomic energy in national institutes, the budget was appropriated for the first time in fiscal year 1956, and since then, the many valuable results of research have been obtained so far in the diversified fields of nuclear fusion, safety research, the irradiation of foods, medicine and others, thus the test and research accomplished the large role for promoting the utilization of atomic energy in Japan. In this report, the gists of the results of the test and research on the utilization of atomic energy carried out by national institutes in fiscal year 1985 are collected. No.1 of this report was published in 1960, and this is No.26. It is desired to increase the understanding about the recent trend and the results of the test and research on atomic energy utilization with this book. The researches on nuclear fusion, engineering safety and environmental radioactivity safety, the irradiation of foods, the countermeasures against cancer, fertilized soil, the quality improvement of brewing and farm products, the protection of farm products and the improvement of breeding, diagnosis and medical treatment, pharmaceuticals, environmental hygiene, the application to physiology and pathology, radiochemistry, radiation measurement, process analysis, nuclear reactor materials, nuclear powered ships, civil engineering, radioactivation analysis and injury prevention are reported. (Kako, I.)

1986-01-01

97

Evaluation and significance of hyperchromatic crowded groups (HCG in liquid-based paps  

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Full Text Available Abstract Objective Hyperchromatic crowded groups (HCG, a term first introduced into the cytology literature by DeMay in 1995, are commonly observed in Pap tests and may rarely be associated with serious but difficult to interpret lesions. In this study, we specifically defined HCG as dark crowded cell groups with more than 15 cells which can be identified at 10× screening magnification. Methods We evaluated consecutive liquid-based (Surepath Pap tests from 601 women (age 17–74 years, mean age 29.4 yrs and observed HCG in 477 cases. In all 477 HCG cases, Pap tests were found to be satisfactory and to contain an endocervical sample. HCG were easily detectible at 10× screening magnification (size up to 400 um, mean 239.5 um and ranged from 1 to 50 (mean 19.5 per Pap slide. Results HCG predominantly represented 3-Dimensional groups of endocervical cells with some nuclear overlap (379/477 – 79%, reactive endocervical cells with relatively prominent nucleoli and some nuclear crowding (29/477 – 6%, clusters of inflammatory cells (25/477 – 5.2%, parabasal cells (22/477 – 4.6%, endometrial cells (1/477 – 0.2%. Epithelial cell abnormalities (ECA were present in only 21 of 477 cases (4.6%. 18 of 21 women with HCG-associated ECA were less than 40 years old; only 3 were =/> 40 years. HCG-associated final abnormal Pap test interpretations were as follows: ASCUS (6/21 – 28%, LSIL (12/21 – 57%, ASC-H (2/21 – 9.5%, and HSIL/CIN2-3 (3/21 – 14%. The association of HCG with ECA was statistically significant (p = 0.0174. chi-square test. In patients with ECA, biopsy results were available in 10 cases, and 4 cases of biopsy-proven CIN2/3 were detected. Among these four cases, HCG in the Pap tests, in retrospect represented the lesional high grade cells in three cases (one HSIL case and two ASC-H cases. Interestingly, none of the 124 cases without HCG were found to have an epithelial cell abnormality. Conclusion We conclude: a. HCG are observed in a high proportion of cervical smears. b. In the vast majority of cases, HCG are benign. c. ECA were only observed in cases with HCG. This observation is consistent with the hypothesis that the presence of HCG in Pap tests most often represents adequate sampling of the transformation zone, thus increasing the chances of detecting an epithelial cell abnormality. d. Only a few cases with HCG were associated with a serious ECA, but careful scrutiny of all HCG appears warranted to avoid the potential diagnostic pitfall of a significant false negative interpretation.

Chivukula Mamatha

2007-01-01

98

The Costs of an Outreach Intervention for Low-Income Women With Abnormal Pap Smears  

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Full Text Available IntroductionFollow-up among women who have had an abnormal Papanicolaou (Pap smear is often poor in public hospitals that serve women at increased risk for cervical cancer. This randomized controlled trial evaluated and compared the total cost and cost per follow-up of a tailored outreach intervention plus usual care with the total cost and cost per follow-up of usual care alone.MethodsWomen with an abnormal Pap smear (n = 348 receiving care at Alameda County Medical Center (Alameda County, California were randomized to intervention or usual care. The intervention used trained community health advisors to complement the clinic’s protocol for usual care. We assessed the costs of the intervention and the cost per follow-up within 6 months of the abnormal Pap smear test result.ResultsThe intervention increased the rate of 6-month follow-up by 29 percentage points, and the incremental cost per follow-up was $959 (2005 dollars. The cost per follow-up varied by the severity of the abnormality. The cost per follow-up for the most severe abnormality (high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion was $681, while the cost per follow-up for less severe abnormalities was higher.ConclusionIn a health care system in which many women fail to get follow-up care for an abnormal Pap smear, outreach workers were more effective than usual care (mail or telephone reminders at increasing follow-up rates. The results suggest that outreach workers should manage their effort based on the degree of abnormality; most effort should be placed on women with the most severe abnormality (high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion.

Todd H. Wagner, PhD

2007-01-01

99

Impact of electronic documentation on Pap screening rates in an urban health center.  

Science.gov (United States)

Providers and non-physician staff in primary care settings have reported barriers to full electronic health record (EHR) utilization. This study evaluates the effectiveness of EHR use for accurately documenting cervical cancer screening in a community healthcare setting, and proposes strategies to improve documentation. An electronic query generated data on average-risk patients aged 21-64 who had a medical visit at Fenway Health in 2012 and were overdue for a Papanicolaou (Pap) test according to the 2012 American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology guidelines. We then conducted a manual review of these records to determine the accuracy of EHR documentation. Of a total 5,279 patients, the electronic query classified 2,982 (56.5%) as up-to-date (UTD) for a Pap and 2,297 patients (43.5%) as overdue. Upon manual review, 65 (2.2%) patients thought to be UTD were actually overdue. Of those 2,297 patients classified by the query as overdue, 816 (35.5%) were reclassified as UTD due to evidence of a recent Pap in their chart that was not extractable by electronic query and 208 (9.1%) were ineligible for a Pap; only 1,272 patients (55.4%) of the 2,297 classified by the query were truly overdue. The cervical cancer screening rate indicated by electronic query was 56.5 %; after manual review, the adjusted rate was 73.6%. Overall, 1,090 patients (20.6%) were misclassified by the query. Inefficient EHR use can have serious implications for clinical practice and performance measures. Primary care practices need to develop mechanisms to capture outside medical records and create a team-based approach to facilitate accurate EHR documentation. PMID:24481710

Khullar, Karishma; Peitzmeier, Sarah; Koffman, Rachel; Potter, Jennifer

2014-06-01

100

Pap smear brochures, misogyny and language: a discourse analysis and feminist critique.  

Science.gov (United States)

Text from a public health brochure on pap smears was analysed with particular reference to ways in which the language used conveys particular messages about women and their bodies. In the text, 'humans' were found to be excluded as such. Both the pap smear service provider and the women who are the recipients of this service--and at whom such brochures are targeted--are objectified and their characteristics of human existence (i.e. ontological capacities) were restricted. The language of the pamphlet invokes an image for women associated with vaginal (penile penetrative) sex. The discourse also is found to be didactic, biomedical and written in the voice of the service provider. Further, the encounter of pap smear events is contextualized as procedural such that not only is the woman 'done to' in the process of having a cervical smear test but the woman's and provider's experiences of the encounter are silenced. It is concluded that the texts may be viewed as misogynist and that such texts do not take account of the complexity of women's decisions to 'submit to' or comply with cervical cancer screening. PMID:9437963

Lane, V; Lawler, J

1997-12-01

 
 
 
 
101

Modelling of selectivity data obtained from microactivity testing of FCC catalysts  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The well-known microactivity test (MAT) ASTM D 3907-92 can be used to determine the activity and selectivities of fluid catalytic cracking catalysts (FCC). The assessment of catalytic selectivity is of major importance to the development of FCC catalysts because it determines the selectivity of desired products and unwanted by-products. A procedure has now been developed to evaluate the selectivity data obtained by cracking of vacuum gas oil on FCC catalysts in a microactivity test unit. Lump models and optimum performance envelope curves, which are published in the literature, present the interrelation of conversion and yields. Following these considerations, functional relationships containing only two parameters to be estimated and known boundary conditions were determined empirically. The parameters are estimated by fitting these functions to the experimental data by non-linear least-squares methods. Subsequently, these predicted functions can be used for interpolation purposes. It is shown that the reliability of the estimated parameters and predicted values are considerably improved compared with those obtained by other methods, e.g., curve fitting and data interpolation by flexible ruler or use of second order polynomials. The development of this new approach and the automation of this method for routinely-performed MAT data processing has been realised with the software RS/1. FCC catalysts have been evaluated with this new procedure to demonstrate its applicability on routinely-performed MAT selectivity studies

Wallenstein, D.; Alkemade, U. [GRACE Davison, Grace GmbH, Worms (Germany)

1996-03-28

102

Molecular testing of human papillomavirus in cervical specimens  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective was to improve the diagnosis of cervical neoplasia by early detection of human papillomavirus (HPV) in uterine cervix, by adding molecular testing of HPV using hybrid capture 2 (HC2) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) tests to Papanicoalou (Pap) test. One hundred women were enrolled in this study. The mean age (mean+-SD) was 41.97+- 8.76 years and range was 27-65 years. All women had undergone cervical cytological screening with cervical cytology, HPV DNA testing by HC2 and PCR, during the period from January to December 2006, at King Abdul-Aziz University Hospital (KAAUH) and King Fahd research Center, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. The results were obtained by HC2 for detection of HPV were 5(5%) high-risk HPV, one low-risk HPV (1%) and 94(94%) negative cases. The PCR detected only 4(4%) cases. Using the HC2 test as a reference, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive, negative predictive values and accuracy of base line Pap were 50, 85, 17.7, 96.4 and 83%; of final Pap smear were 100, 96.8, 66.7, 100, and 97% and for PCR were 66.7, 100, 100, 97.9 and 98%. The Pap test was repeated within a year for patients with abnormal Pap test with positive HPV DNA. Combined screening by cytology and HPV testing using both HC2 and PCR sensitively detects women with existing disease. The absence of HPV DNA provides reassurance that patients are unlikely to develop cancer for several years. We suggest using Pap with HC2 and PCR in screening programs to ensure that women with the double negative result at baseline might safely be screened at longer intervals. (author)

2007-01-01

103

77 FR 72905 - Pipeline Safety: Random Drug Testing Rate; Contractor MIS Reporting; and Obtaining DAMIS Sign-In...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Random Drug Testing Rate; Contractor MIS Reporting; and Obtaining DAMIS Sign-In...reminder for operators to report contractor MIS data, and new method for operators to obtain...submissions of Management Information System (MIS) reports required by Sec....

2012-12-06

104

Continuous stress-induced dopamine dysregulation augments PAP-I and PAP-II expression in melanotrophs of the pituitary gland  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Research highlights: {yields} We focused on the rat pituitary intermediate lobe (IL) under continuous stress (CS). {yields} CS induced PAP-I and PAP-II expression in melanotrophs of the IL. {yields} This gene induction was triggered by CS-related dopamine dysregulation. {yields} PAP-I and PAP-II may sustain homeostasis of the IL under CS. -- Abstract: Under continuous stress (CS) in rats, melanotrophs, the predominant cell-type in the intermediate lobe (IL) of the pituitary, are hyperactivated to secrete {alpha}-melanocyte-stimulating hormone and thereafter degenerate. Although these phenomena are drastic, the molecular mechanisms underlying the cellular changes are mostly unknown. In this study, we focused on the pancreatitis-associated protein (PAP) family members of the secretory lectins and characterized their expression in the IL of CS model rats because we had identified two members of this family as up-regulated genes in our previous microarray analysis. RT-PCR and histological studies demonstrated that prominent PAP-I and PAP-II expression was induced in melanotrophs in the early stages of CS, while another family member, PAP-III, was not expressed. We further examined the regulatory mechanisms of PAP-I and PAP-II expression and revealed that both were induced by the decreased dopamine levels in the IL under CS. Because the PAP family members are implicated in cell survival and proliferation, PAP-I and PAP-II secreted from melanotrophs may function to sustain homeostasis of the IL under CS conditions in an autocrine or a paracrine manner.

Konishi, Hiroyuki, E-mail: konishi@med.osaka-cu.ac.jp [Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka (Japan); The 21st Century COE Program ' Base to Overcome Fatigue' , Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka (Japan); Department of Anatomy and Neuroscience, Nagoya University, Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya (Japan); Ogawa, Tokiko, E-mail: togawa@med.osaka-cu.ac.jp [Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka (Japan); The 21st Century COE Program ' Base to Overcome Fatigue' , Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka (Japan); Kawahara, Shinichi, E-mail: kawahara@med.osaka-cu.ac.jp [Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka (Japan); Matsumoto, Sakiko, E-mail: s-matsumoto@med.osaka-cu.ac.jp [Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka (Japan); Department of Anatomy and Neuroscience, Nagoya University, Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya (Japan); Kiyama, Hiroshi, E-mail: kiyama@med.osaka-cu.ac.jp [Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka (Japan); The 21st Century COE Program ' Base to Overcome Fatigue' , Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka (Japan); Department of Anatomy and Neuroscience, Nagoya University, Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya (Japan)

2011-04-01

105

Regulation of pap pilin phase variation by a mechanism involving differential dam methylation states.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Transcription of the pap pilin (papA) gene in Escherichia coli is subject to control by a heritable phase variation mechanism in which alternation between transcriptionally active (phase on) and inactive (phase off) states occurs. Our results suggest that phase switching occurs without DNA rearrangement of pap DNA sequences, distinguishing this system from those described for E. coli type 1 pili and Salmonella flagellar phase variation. Analysis of the regulatory region upstream of papA in DN...

Blyn, L. B.; Braaten, B. A.; Low, D. A.

1990-01-01

106

Missed Opportunities for Health Education on Pap Smears in Peru  

Science.gov (United States)

Despite cervical cancer being one of the leading causes of cancer-related deaths among women in Peru, cervical Pap smear coverage is low. This article uses findings from 185 direct clinician observations in four cities of Peru (representing the capital and each of the three main geographic regions of the country) to assess missed opportunities for…

Bayer, Angela M.; Nussbaum, Lauren; Cabrera, Lilia; Paz-Soldan, Valerie A.

2011-01-01

107

Early detection of CIN3 and cervical cancer during long-term follow-up using HPV/Pap smear co-testing and risk-adapted follow-up in a locally organised screening programme.  

Science.gov (United States)

We evaluated compliance with human papillomavirus (HPV) testing and risk-adapted patient pathways and monitored changes in high-grade cervical disease during long-term follow-up. Women aged >30 years attending routine screening for cervical cancer were managed according to results from first-round screening tests (cytology and high-risk HPV; Hybrid Capture 2). Between February 2006 and January 2011, 19,795 of 19,947 women agreed to participate, of whom 4,067 proceeded to a second screening round 5 years after recruitment. Predefined endpoints were compliance, grade 3 cervical intraepithelial neoplasia or cancer (CIN3+), new HPV infection, HPV persistence and abnormal smears in round 2. A total of 765 of 19,795 women (3.9%) in round 1 and 41 of 4,067 (1.0%) in round 2 were referred for colposcopy. Compliance rates with colposcopy were 93.1 and 92.7%, respectively, while histological assessment was performed in 680 of 712 (95.5%) and 36 of 38 (94.7%), respectively. CIN3+ rates were 172 of 19,795 (0.87%; 95% confidence intervals: 0.7-1.0) in round 1 and 2 of 4,064 (0.05%; 95% confidence intervals: 0.006-0.2) in round 2; the difference was statistically significant (Fisher's exact test, p?testing is feasible and acceptable to women. Risk-adapted management rapidly detected a high rate of prevalent CIN3+, while the subsequent long-term risk of new high-grade cervical disease was surprisingly low. It remains unclear if this phenomenon is explained by CIN3 mostly occurring early in life or by modifying the natural course of HPV infection with colposcopy and histological assessment. PMID:24519782

Luyten, Alexander; Buttmann-Schweiger, Nina; Luyten, Katrin; Mauritz, Claudia; Reinecke-Lüthge, Axel; Pietralla, Martina; Meijer, Chris J L M; Petry, Karl Ulrich

2014-09-15

108

Genetic tests obtainable through pharmacies: the good, the bad, and the ugly  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Genomic medicine seeks to exploit an individual’s genomic information in the context of guiding the clinical decision-making process. In the post-genomic era, a range of novel molecular genetic testing methodologies have emerged, allowing the genetic testing industry to grow at a very rapid pace. As a consequence, a considerable number of different private diagnostic testing laboratories now provide a wide variety of genetic testing services, often employing a direct-to-consumer (DTC) busin...

Patrinos, George P.; Baker, Darrol J.; Al-mulla, Fahd; Vasiliou, Vasilis; Cooper, David N.

2013-01-01

109

Genetic tests obtainable through pharmacies: the good, the bad, and the ugly.  

Science.gov (United States)

Genomic medicine seeks to exploit an individual's genomic information in the context of guiding the clinical decision-making process. In the post-genomic era, a range of novel molecular genetic testing methodologies have emerged, allowing the genetic testing industry to grow at a very rapid pace. As a consequence, a considerable number of different private diagnostic testing laboratories now provide a wide variety of genetic testing services, often employing a direct-to-consumer (DTC) business model to identify mutations underlying (or associated with) common Mendelian disorders, to individualize drug response, to attempt to determine an individual's risk of a multitude of complex (multifactorial) diseases, or even to determine a person's identity. Recently, we have noted a novel trend in the provision of private molecular genetic testing services, namely saliva and buccal swab collection kits (for deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) isolation) being offered for sale over the counter by pharmacies. This situation is somewhat different from the standard DTC genetic testing model, since pharmacists are healthcare professionals who are supposedly qualified to give appropriate advice to their clients. There are, however, a number of issues to be addressed in relation to the marketing of DNA collection kits for genetic testing through pharmacies, namely a requirement for regulatory clearance, the comparative lack of appropriate genetics education of the healthcare professionals involved, and most importantly, the lack of awareness on the part of both the patients and the general public with respect to the potential benefits or otherwise of the various types of genetic test offered, which may result in confusion as to which test could be beneficial in their own particular case. We believe that some form of genetic counseling should ideally be integrated into, and made inseparable from, the genetic testing process, while pharmacists should be obliged to receive some basic training about the genetic tests that they offer for sale. PMID:23835256

Patrinos, George P; Baker, Darrol J; Al-Mulla, Fahd; Vasiliou, Vasilis; Cooper, David N

2013-01-01

110

Susceptibility to levofloxacin predicted from in vitro susceptibility testing results obtained with ciprofloxacin and with ofloxacin.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A test battery of bacterial strains with a high incidence of resistance to fluoroquinolones was studied to determine the extent to which susceptibility to levofloxacin could be predicted from susceptibility tests performed with ciprofloxacin or ofloxacin as reagents. Isolates susceptible or intermediately susceptible to ofloxacin (MICs < or = 4 micrograms/ml) may be regarded as susceptible to levofloxacin, with the exception of Enterococcus faecium. Ciprofloxacin-susceptible isolates (MICs < ...

Cormican, M. G.; Jones, R. N.

1995-01-01

111

Comparison between TTS diagrams obtained by Huey and modified Strauss Standard tests for AISI 304 Stainless Steel  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This work presents a comparison of Temperature-Time-Sensitization TTS diagrams obtained by Huey and modified Strauss standard, for detecting susceptibility to intergranular attack. The diagrams obtained are different and if a sample tested by modified Strauss is sensitized, then it will be sensitized in the Huey test. but the contrary is not always true. This difference is because a sensitized sample has to have a continuous band lacking in chromium along the grain boundary in order to be sensitized in the modified Strauss test. This condition is not necessary in the Huey test. (Author) 24 refs

1996-01-01

112

Pap smear rates among Haitian immigrant women in eastern Massachusetts.  

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OBJECTIVE: Given limited prior evidence of high rates of cervical cancer in Haitian immigrant women in the U.S., this study was designed to examine self-reported Pap smear screening rates for Haitian immigrant women and compare them to rates for women of other ethnicities. METHODS: Multi-ethnic women at least 40 years of age living in neighborhoods with large Haitian immigrant populations in eastern Massachusetts were surveyed in 2000-2002. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were used ...

Green, Eric H.; Freund, Karen M.; Posner, Michael A.; David, Michele M.

2005-01-01

113

Association of Pap Smear Abnormalities with Autoimmune Disorders  

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Recently, it is hypothesized that there might be an association between immunological disorders and cervical premalignant and malignant abnormalities. Related studies have been generally focused on some particular autoimmune disease, specially the Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE). This study aimed at comparing the rate of Pap smear abnormalities in female patients with autoimmune diseases and normal counterparts. In a case-control setting, 118 female patients with various autoimmune disease...

Heidarali Esmaeili; Kazem Ghahremanzadeh

2011-01-01

114

Evaluating inhibition of angiogenesis by GST-PAP fusion protein  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

"nBackground: Tumor cells need food and oxygen supply for growth and division. Therefore one of the most promising areas of cancer therapy focuses on using agents that inhibit tumor angiogenesis. Inhibition of angiogenesis prevents cell growth, division and metastasis. Previous studies showed that plasminogen related Protein-B has an anti-tumor activity in mice. This protein has a high level of homology with preactivation Peptide (PAP) of human plasminogen. According to this high homolog...

Gharaati MR; Mirshahi M; Sadeghi-Zadeh M

2009-01-01

115

Pap Test Results (Abnormal) -- ASC-H or ACG  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... made possilge with federal funds from the National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health, Department of ... Pacific Northwest Region of the National Network of Libraries of Medicine

116

FDA Panel Recommends HPV Test as Replacement for Pap Smear  

Science.gov (United States)

... Dr. David Chelmow, chair of the department of obstetrics and gynecology at Virginia Commonwealth University School of ... SOURCES: David Chelmow, M.D., chair, department of obstetrics and gynecology, Virginia Commonwealth University School of Medicine, ...

117

Making Sense of Your Pap and HPV Test Results  

Science.gov (United States)

... that your result came back as “LSIL” or “HSIL”. LSIL stands for “low-grade squamous intra-epithelial ... which means minor cell changes on the cervix. HSIL stands for “high-grade squamous intra-epithelial lesions”— ...

118

Pap Test Results (Abnormal) -- ASC-H or ACG  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... made possilge with federal funds from the National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health, Department of Health and Human Services, under Contract No. NO1-LM-1-3506 with ...

119

Pap Test Results (Abnormal) -- ASC-H or ACG  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... made possilge with federal funds from the National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health, Department of Health and Human Services, under Contract No. NO1-LM-1-3506 with the University of Washington through the Pacific Northwest Region of ...

120

The Pap Smear and Cervical Cancer Screening  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

While the effectiveness of cervical cancer-screening programs is well accepted, further decreases in incidence and mortality rates of cervical cancer may require a changing role for the family physician. Especially important will be the use of computerized call-recall systems to ensure that all eligible women are screened at least once, and that appropriate follow-up is made for those with positive test results. Since concern is growing over false negative results, it will also be important t...

Elmslie, Thomas J.

1987-01-01

 
 
 
 
121

Analysis of results obtained from field tracing test under artificial rainfall condition  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The field tracing test and the laboratory experiments by column and batch method had been performed, to evaluate migratory mobilities of 60Co, 85Sr and 134Cs in loess medium. The field test supplied dynamic information on the radionuclide migration, while the laboratory experiments made possible to select more accurate sorption model taking into deep consideration of interaction mechanisms between the loess and the radionuclides. The 85Sr migration was well described by the equilibrium sorption model using distribution coefficient. The 60Co and 134Cs migration could be explained by the hybrid non-equilibrium sorption model, assuming a reversible sorption, an irreversible fixation and a filtration. (7 figs., 1 tab.)

1993-10-18

122

Investigating discrimination model of the signals obtained by eddy current testing  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A software using an eddy current system controlled by a desk computer has been developed in order to separate a characteristic physical value among several parts. The numerical process involved uses multiparameter measurements done previously on significant parts belonging to the same class. The analysis presented deals with hardness testing of steel bolts in relation with heat-treatment, but other applications dealing with either micro structure check or defect investigation, could be done in the future by using a similar method

1986-11-17

123

Report of test and research results on atomic energy obtained in national institutes in fiscal 1989  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The test and research on atomic energy utilization in national institutions were begun in 1956, and valuable results have been produced in the fields of nuclear fusion, safety research, food irradiation, medicine and others, thus those have accomplished great roles for the promotion of atomic energy utilization in Japan. Atomic energy technology synthesizes various advanced technologies over wide technical domains, therefore at the time of its research and development, it is important to place emphasis on the creative and innovative regions which cause large technical innovation and in which the effect spreading to general science and technology can be expected. In addition to the test and research according to such recognition, also the basic technology of atomic energy field has been studied. At present foreign countries request Japan to contribute to the development of the world by creating the new technology and knowledge on atomic energy, and national institutions must meet the request. This is the report No. 30, in which the results of the test and research in the fields of nuclear fusion, safety research, food irradiation, the countermeasures to cancer, agriculture, forestry and fishery, medicine, mining and industry, power utilization, construction, radioactivation analysis and advanced basic research, carried out in 1989 are summarized. (J.P.N.)

1991-01-01

124

Advantages obtained in radiation protection when using computerized radiography tests - CR (digital) in processing plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

During the year 2000, the ARCtest initiated the development of the research for adapting the Computerized Radiography - CR, originally conceived for medical applications, for the Industry, trying initially to attend the requirements of the processing plants, concerning to the detection of deterioration mechanisms (evaluation of the piping integrity). Due to the obtained excellent results, the possibility of utilization the Computerized Radiography - CR in the radiographic inspection were studied during the shutdown of the Catalytic Cracking Unit of the PETROBRAS-REPLAN, specifically in the replacement of the CO boiler superheater, where a large number of the small diameter welded joints have been predicted

2002-09-23

125

OTTO-PAP: An alternative option to the PBMR fuelling philosophy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Once Through Then Out, Power Adjusted by Poison (OTTO-PAP) fuelling of a high temperature pebble-bed reactor offers a simple alternative to the MEDUL (Mehrfachdurchlauf = German for multi-pass) fuelling regime followed in pebble bed reactor designs to date. The prerequisite for a modular reactor unit of maximum power output, subject to observing passive safety characteristics is a sufficiently flat axial neutron flux profile. This is achieved by introducing B4C coated particles of pre-calculated size and packing density within the fuel spheres. In accordance with AVR operating practise the temperature profile is radially equalised by introducing a 2-zone core loading. Adding pure graphite spheres loosely into the centre column area of the core effectively reduced the maximum power in the middle. Increasing the reactor diameter is enabled by the introduction of noses. A 3-D geometric modeller developed in cylindrical co-ordinates enables a given flow description of the pebbles adjacent to the nose boundaries and in the vicinity of the shut down/control rods. After translation of the geometric data the neutronic behaviour of the reactor is followed in 3-D by the CITATION code. This study is aimed towards achieving an optimal core layout with a LEU (Low Enriched Uranium) fuel cycle. Physical properties of the OTTO-PAP, 150 MWt reference design is reported, while computations performed observe results obtained by the reference HTR-MODUL design. (author)

1997-12-01

126

Report of test and research results on atomic energy obtained in national institutes in fiscal 1992  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The tests and researches on the development and utilization of atomic energy in national laboratories were begun in 1956, and have accomplished the great role for the advance of the development and utilization of atomic energy in Japan by having produced many valuable results so far. Atomic energy has been utilized not only in the field of nuclear power but also in diverse fields, and in national laboratories, the research for expanding the development and utilization of atomic energy in medicine, agriculture, forestry, fishery, radioactivation analysis and others in addition the basic research on nuclear fusion have been advanced. Further expecting the pervasive effect to general science and technology, the development of integrated research are promoted from the viewpoint of new technical innovation and creative technology. The safety research of nuclear facilities have been carried out to keep them high level on the basis of the yearly program enacted by Nuclear Safety Commission. This is the report No. 33, in which the results of the test and research in the fields of nuclear fusion safety research, food irradiation, cancer countermeasures, agriculture, forestry, fishery, medicine, mining and manufacture, power utilization, construction, radioactivation analysis carried on in fiscal 1992 are summarized. (J.P.N.)

1994-01-01

127

Knowledge, attitude and practice related to the pap smear test among users of a primary health unit / Conocimiento, actitud y práctica relacionada al examen de colposcopia entre usuarias de una unidad básica de salud / Conhecimento, atitude e prática relacionada ao exame colpocitológico entre usuárias de uma unidade básica de saúde  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Este é um estudo tipo inquérito CAP (conhecimento, atitude e prática), realizado no período de fevereiro a junho de 2008, no qual se objetivou avaliar o conhecimento, a atitude e a prática do exame colpocitológico entre usuárias de uma unidade básica de saúde (UBS) e verificar sua associação com var [...] iáveis sociodemográficas. A amostra foi composta por 250 mulheres. O conhecimento, a atitude e a prática sobre o exame foram adequados em 40,4, 28 e 67,6% das entrevistadas, respectivamente. Os resultados encontrados evidenciaram proporções mais altas de conhecimento e atitude adequados com escolaridade (>9 anos) e idade (>35 anos). É essencial buscar respostas específicas a respeito dessa problemática, a fim de direcionar ações integradas de educação em saúde, garantindo, assim, o maior acesso, adesão e retorno das mulheres ao exame. Abstract in spanish Estudio tipo encuesta CAP (conocimiento, actitud y práctica) realizado en el período de febrero a junio de 2008, en el cual se objetivó evaluar el conocimiento, la actitud y la práctica del examen de colposcopia entre usuarias de una unidad básica de salud (UBS) y verificar su asociación con variabl [...] es sociodemográficas. La muestra estuvo constituida por 250 mujeres. El conocimiento, la actitud y la práctica sobre el examen fueron adecuadas en 40,4%, 28% y 67,6% de las entrevistadas, respectivamente. Los resultados encontrados evidenciaron proporciones más altas de conocimiento y actitud adecuados con la escolaridad (> 9 años) y edad (> 35 años). Es esencial buscar respuestas específicas sobre esta problemática a fin de dirigir acciones integradas de educación en salud, garantizando, así, el mayor acceso, adhesión y retorno de las mujeres al examen. Abstract in english This KAP (knowledge, attitude and practice) study, carried out from February to June 2008, aimed to evaluate the knowledge, attitude and practice regarding the Pap smear test among users of a primary health unit (PHU) and to verify any association with sociodemographic variables. The sample was comp [...] rised of 250 women. The knowledge, attitude and practice related to the examination were adequate in 40.4%, 28% and 67.6% of respondents, respectively. The results demonstrate higher proportions of adequate knowledge and attitude with schooling (>9 years) and age (>35 years). It is essential to seek specific answers regarding this issue in order to direct integrated actions of health education, thus ensuring greater access, adhesion and return of the women for the examination results.

Camila Teixeira Moreira, Vasconcelos; Ana Karina Bezerra, Pinheiro; Ana Rita Pimentel, Castelo; Lillian de Queiroz, Costa; Roberta Grangeiro de, Oliveira.

128

Knowledge, attitude and practice related to the pap smear test among users of a primary health unit Conocimiento, actitud y práctica relacionada al examen de colposcopia entre usuarias de una unidad básica de salud Conhecimento, atitude e prática relacionada ao exame colpocitológico entre usuárias de uma unidade básica de saúde  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This KAP (knowledge, attitude and practice study, carried out from February to June 2008, aimed to evaluate the knowledge, attitude and practice regarding the Pap smear test among users of a primary health unit (PHU and to verify any association with sociodemographic variables. The sample was comprised of 250 women. The knowledge, attitude and practice related to the examination were adequate in 40.4%, 28% and 67.6% of respondents, respectively. The results demonstrate higher proportions of adequate knowledge and attitude with schooling (>9 years and age (>35 years. It is essential to seek specific answers regarding this issue in order to direct integrated actions of health education, thus ensuring greater access, adhesion and return of the women for the examination results.Estudio tipo encuesta CAP (conocimiento, actitud y práctica realizado en el período de febrero a junio de 2008, en el cual se objetivó evaluar el conocimiento, la actitud y la práctica del examen de colposcopia entre usuarias de una unidad básica de salud (UBS y verificar su asociación con variables sociodemográficas. La muestra estuvo constituida por 250 mujeres. El conocimiento, la actitud y la práctica sobre el examen fueron adecuadas en 40,4%, 28% y 67,6% de las entrevistadas, respectivamente. Los resultados encontrados evidenciaron proporciones más altas de conocimiento y actitud adecuados con la escolaridad (> 9 años y edad (> 35 años. Es esencial buscar respuestas específicas sobre esta problemática a fin de dirigir acciones integradas de educación en salud, garantizando, así, el mayor acceso, adhesión y retorno de las mujeres al examen.Este é um estudo tipo inquérito CAP (conhecimento, atitude e prática, realizado no período de fevereiro a junho de 2008, no qual se objetivou avaliar o conhecimento, a atitude e a prática do exame colpocitológico entre usuárias de uma unidade básica de saúde (UBS e verificar sua associação com variáveis sociodemográficas. A amostra foi composta por 250 mulheres. O conhecimento, a atitude e a prática sobre o exame foram adequados em 40,4, 28 e 67,6% das entrevistadas, respectivamente. Os resultados encontrados evidenciaram proporções mais altas de conhecimento e atitude adequados com escolaridade (>9 anos e idade (>35 anos. É essencial buscar respostas específicas a respeito dessa problemática, a fim de direcionar ações integradas de educação em saúde, garantindo, assim, o maior acesso, adesão e retorno das mulheres ao exame.

Camila Teixeira Moreira Vasconcelos

2011-02-01

129

Simulation of spectroscopic patterns obtained in W/C test-limiter sputtering experiment at TEXTOR  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

On the TEXTOR tokamak various experiments aimed at investigation of tungsten erosion and transport are performed. In one experiment a spherical W/C twin limiter positioned close to the last-closed flux surface in the near scrape-off layer was exposed to a number of comparable plasma discharges with stepwise variations of edge plasma parameters. Spatial distribution of tungsten and carbon light emission was recorded with two dimensional CCD cameras and spectrometer systems with high spectral and spatial resolution. Penetration depths, tungsten sputtering fluxes and erosion yields were measured. Comparison between experimental data and the results of modelling with the 3D Monte-Carlo code ERO is performed. The main objective of this study was to test the adequacy of the existing atomic data for neutral tungsten. The modelled penetration depths of the light emission of tungsten are a factor of 2–3 smaller than in experiment, which may indicate the overestimation of ionization rates

2013-07-01

130

Friction and wear in liquid-metal systems: comparability problems of test results obtained from different test facilities  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Operational induced relative movements take place between contacting components in the core region of sodium cooled reactors. To ensure reliable long term functioning of such friction loaded components, materials are needed with good sliding properties and high wear resistance. Therefore, tribological properties of material combinations in liquid metal have been investigated experimentally for many years at various research establishments. However, despite identical boundary conditions, the comparison of results published does not yield a satisfactory agreement. The cause must be seen in the individual design and concept of the test sections used. This discrepancy was investigated. The results show that the elasticity, mass movement, and relative motion characteristic to the system prove to be the most important criteria influencing the test results

1976-11-01

131

Serum and urinary measurements of prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP and prostatic specific antigen (PSA in dogs Mensurações sérica e urinária de fosfatase ácida prostática e antígeno prostático específico em cães  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Serum and urinary prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP and prostatic specific antigen (PSA from 20 dogs were measured. PAP and PSA tests were carried out in authomatized equipment with commercial kits used for humans. Mean PAP serum value was 0.7U/l and urinary 0.1U/l. Mean serum and urinary PSA were 0.005ng/dl and 0.004ng/dl, respectively. In vivo determination of these two biomarkers in dogs is a new form of diagnosis in veterinary medicine and these values should be correlated with the morphological lesion of the prostate gland.Realizaram-se mensurações sérica e urinária de fosfatase ácida prostática (PAP e antígeno prostático específico (PSA de 20 cães. Os testes de PAP e PSA foram feitos em um equipamento automatizado, com o uso de kits comerciais para humanos. A média de PAP sérico foi de 0,7U/l e urinário 0,U/l. As médias do PSA sérico e urinário foram 0,005ng/dL e 0,004ng/dl, respectivamente. A determinação do dois biomarcadores in vivo é uma nova opção de diagnóstico na medicina veterinária e os valores obtidos devem ser correlacionados com a lesão morfológica da próstata.

R.L. Amorim

2004-06-01

132

Reliability and validity of pendulum test measures of spasticity obtained with the Polhemus tracking system from patients with chronic stroke  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Spasticity is a common impairment accompanying stroke. Spasticity of the quadriceps femoris muscle can be quantified using the pendulum test. The measurement properties of pendular kinematics captured using a magnetic tracking system has not been studied among patients who have experienced a stroke. Therefore, this study describes the test-retest reliability and known groups and convergent validity of the pendulum test measures obtained with the Polhemus tracking system. Methods Eight patients with chronic stroke underwent pendulum tests with their affected and unaffected lower limbs, with and without the addition of a 2.2 kg cuff weight at the ankle, using the Polhemus magnetic tracking system. Also measured bilaterally were knee resting angles, Ashworth scores (grades 0–4 of quadriceps femoris muscles, patellar tendon (knee jerk reflexes (grades 0–4, and isometric knee extension force. Results Three measures obtained from pendular traces of the affected side were reliable (intraclass correlation coefficient ? .844. Known groups validity was confirmed by demonstration of a significant difference in the measurements between sides. Convergent validity was supported by correlations ? .57 between pendulum test measures and other measures reflective of spasticity. Conclusion Pendulum test measures obtained with the Polhemus tracking system from the affected side of patients with stroke have good test-retest reliability and both known groups and convergent validity.

Harrison Steven

2009-07-01

133

Using the Climbing Drum Peel (CDP) Test to Obtain a G(sub IC) value for Core/Facesheet Bonds  

Science.gov (United States)

A method of measuring the Mode I fracture toughness of core/facesheet bonds in sandwich Structures is desired, particularly with the widespread use of models that need this data as input. This study examined if a critical strain energy release rate, G(sub IC), can be obtained from the climbing drum peel (CDP) test. The CDP test is relatively simple to perform and does not rely on measuring small crack lengths such as required by the double cantilever beam (DCB) test. Simple energy methods were used to calculate G(sub IC) from CDP test data on composite facesheets bonded to a honeycomb core. Facesheet thicknesses from 2 to 5 plies were tested to examine the upper and lower bounds on facesheet thickness requirements. Results from the study suggest that the CDP test, with certain provisions, can be used to find the GIG value of a core/facesheet bond.

Nettles, A. T.; Gregory, Elizabeth D.; Jackson, Justin R.

2006-01-01

134

Subcontracted R and D final report: analysis of samples obtained from GKT gasification test of Kentucky coal. Nonproprietary version  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A laboratory test program was performed to obtain detailed compositional data on the Gesellshaft fuer Kohle-Technologie (GKT) gasifier feed and effluent streams. GKT performed pilot gasification tests with Kentucky No. 9 coal and collected various samples which were analyzed by GKT and the Radian Corporation, Austin, Texas. The coal chosen had good liquefaction characteristics and a high gasification reactivity. No organic priority pollutants or PAH compounds were detected in the wash water, and solid waste leachates were within RCRA metals limits.

Raman, S.V.

1983-09-01

135

A very rare case of HPV-53-related cervical cancer, in a 79-year-old woman with a previous history of negative Pap cytology.  

Science.gov (United States)

The introduction of organized cervical cancer (CC) screening programs has drastically reduced the prevalence of CC. However the incidence is still too high, especially among elderly women. All guidelines strongly recommend a regular Papanicolaou (Pap) testing for young and middle-aged patients. On the other hand, many international professional societies no longer advise screening in women who have undergone hysterectomy, and in women aged 65 years and above, who have a previous history of regular Pap smears. Here we report the case of poorly differentiated CC, involving the pelvic lymph nodes and urinary bladder, occurring in a 79-year-old woman who regularly underwent Pap tests, with no reported cytological abnormalities. In this very rare case, the CC cells, as well as cells from metastatic lymph nodes and cells from urinary specimens, molecularly showed human papilloma virus (HPV)-53. With the limitations of a single case, this report brings important information to prevent CC in elderly patients: the utility of molecular tests to increase sensitivity of Pap smears in postmenopausal women; the importance of HPV-53 as one of the four "emergent" genotypes having a possible role in oncogenesis; and the presence of HPV-53 in lymph node metastases from cervical carcinoma, which would support the role of this virus in the maintenance of malignant status. PMID:24790420

Zappacosta, Roberta; Lattanzio, Giuseppe; Viola, Patrizia; Ianieri, Manuel Maria; Gatta, Daniela Maria Pia; Rosini, Sandra

2014-01-01

136

The secreted purple acid phosphatase isozymes AtPAP12 and AtPAP26 play a pivotal role in extracellular phosphate-scavenging by Arabidopsis thaliana  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Orthophosphate (Pi) is an essential but limiting macronutrient for plant growth. Extensive soil P reserves exist in the form of organic P (Po), which is unavailable for root uptake until hydrolysed by secretory acid phosphatases (APases). The predominant purple APase (PAP) isozymes secreted by roots of Pi-deficient (–Pi) Arabidopsis thaliana were recently identified as AtPAP12 (At2g27190) and AtPAP26 (At5g34850). The present study demonstrated that exogenous Po compounds such as glycerol-3-...

2012-01-01

137

Perfusion from angiogram and a priori (PAP) with temporal regularization  

Science.gov (United States)

Perfusion imaging is often used for diagnosis and for assessment of the response to the treatment. If perfusion can be measured during interventional procedures, it could lead to quantitative, more efficient and accurate treatment; however, imaging modalities that allow continuous dynamic scanning are not available in most of procedure rooms. Thus, we developed a method to measure the perfusion-time attenuation curves (TACs)-of regions-of-interest (ROIs) using xray C-arm angiography system with no gantry rotation but with a priori. The previous study revealed a problem of large oscillations in the estimated TACs and the lack of comparison with CT-based approaches. Thus the purposes of this study were (1) to reduce the variance of TDCs; and (2) to compare the performance of the improved PAP with that of the CT-based perfusion method. Our computer simulation study showed that the standard deviation of PAP method was decreased by 10.7-59.0% and that it outperformed (20× or 200× times) higher dose CT methods in terms of the accuracy, variance, and the temporal resolution.

Taguchi, Katsuyuki; Geschwind, Jean-Francois H.

2009-02-01

138

Fluorescence Spectrum and Decay Measurement for Hsil VS Normal Cytology Differentiation in Liquid Pap Smear Supernatant  

Science.gov (United States)

Cervical smear material contains endo and exocervical cells, mucus and inflammative, immune cells in cases of pathology. Just not destroyed keratinocytes lay on the glass for microscopy. Liquid cytology supernatant apart other diagnostics could be used for photodiagnostic. The spectroscopic parameters suitable for Normal and HSIL cytology groups supernatant differentiation are demonstrated. The dried liquid PAP supernatant fractions-sediment and liquid were investigated. Excitation and emission matrices (EEM), supernatant fluorescence decay measured under 280 nm diode short pulse excitation and fluorescence spectroscopy by excitation with 355 nm laser light were analyzed. The differences between Normal and HSIL groups were statistically proven in the certain spectral regions. Fluorescence decay peculiarities show spectral regions consisting of few fluorophores. Obtained results on fluorescence differences in Normal and HSIL groups' supernatant shows the potency of photodiagnosis application in cervical screening.

Vaitkuviene, A.; Gegzna, V.; Juodkazis, S.; Jursenas, S.; Miasojedovas, S.; Kurtinaitiene, R.; Rimiene, J.; Vaitkus, J.

2009-06-01

139

Determining the interobserver reproducibility of Pap smears in the diagnosis of epithelial cell abnormalities  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available "n 800x600 Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";} Background: Cancer of uterine cervix is the second cause of death in women in the world and the most common cause in developing countries. Because the majority of women with invasive cervical cancer of the uterine have not previously undergone screening, many clinicians assume that Pap smear has a high degree of accuracy; but problems such as false positive and false negative interpretations, as well as interobserver variability have questioned its validity."n"nMethods : We retrieved 162 positive cervical smears that had been originally interpreted as ASC-US, ASC-H, LSIL, HSIL, SCC, AGC and adenocarcinoma from the cytology archives of Women's Hospital in Tehran, Iran. The slides were rescreened by an experienced pathologist and reclassified in the mentioned categories. All the 162 slides were reviewed by three more pathologists in a blind study using interpretative criteria utilized in their daily routine to evaluate interobserver reproducibility. To increase the level of interobserver agreement, the diagnostic categories were reduced to squamous Vs. glandular abnormalities and invasive (SCC and adenocarcinoma Vs. non-invasive abnormalities."n"nResults : The results obtained in this study indicated slight interobserver agreement (k=0.26. The most reproducible category was the invasive category (SCC in addition to adenocarcinoma and the least agreement was seen for HSIL (k=0.19. "n"nConclusion: This study showed that reproducibility of cytological interpretation of conventional Pap smears varies among interpretive categories and the overall interobserver agreement is slight. Since convening on the reduction of interobserver discrepancy in Pap smear interpretations necessitates more reliable information of interpretative variability, larger studies need to be undertaken.

Izadi-Mood N

2011-07-01

140

Bone scintigraphy, plasma ALP, TAP and PAP in patients with prostatic cancer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study assessed the ability of bone scintigraphy, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), total acid phosphatase (TAP), and prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP) to diagnose bone metastasis in a series of 62 patients with histologically proven prostatic cancer. Abnormal uptake was seen on the bone scan in 49 patients (79 %). A final diagnosis of bone metastasis was made in 40 patients (65 %). The sensitivity and specificity were 100 % and 59 %, respectively, for bone scintigraphy; 50 % and 96 % for ALP; 65 % and 82 % for TAP; and 73 % and 77 % for PAP. For 40 patients with bone metastasis, all of the ALP, TAP, and PAP were positive in 17 patients (43 %) and negative in 8 patients (20 %). Higher levels of ALP, TAP, and PAP tended to be associated with more extensive bone metastasis. Although serological examination showed lower sensitivity than bone scintigraphy in the diagnosis of bone metastasis, PAP may be most frequently used as a screening procedure of bone metastasis. (Namekawa, K.)

1988-01-01

 
 
 
 
141

Molecular cloning, genomic organization, and chromosomal localization of the human pancreatitis-associated protein (PAP) gene  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Pancreatitis-associated protein (PAP) is a secretory pancreatic protein present in small amounts in normal pancreas and overexpressed during the acute phase of pancreatitis. In this paper, the authors describe the cloning, characterization, and chromosomal mapping of the human PAP gene. The gene spans 2748 bp and contains six exons interrupted by five introns. The gene has a typical promoter containing the sequences TATAAA and CCAAT 28 and 52 bp upstream of the cap site, respectively. They found striking similarities in genomic organization as well as in the promoter sequences between the human and rat PAP genes. The human PAP gene was mapped to chromosome 2p12 using rodent-human hybrid cells and in situ chromosomal hybridization. This localization coincides with that of the reg/lithostathine gene, which encodes a pancreatic secretory protein structurally related to PAP, suggesting that both genes derived from the same ancestral gene by duplication. 35 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

Dusetti, N.J.; Frigerio, J.M.; Dagorn, J.C.; Iovanna, J.L. (U.315 Inserm, Marseille (France)); Fox, M.F.; Swallow, D.M. (Galton Lab., London (United Kingdom))

1994-01-01

142

Bone scintigraphy, plasma ALP, TAP and PAP in patients with prostatic cancer  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study assessed the ability of bone scintigraphy, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), total acid phosphatase (TAP), and prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP) to diagnose bone metastasis in a series of 62 patients with histologically proven prostatic cancer. Abnormal uptake was seen on the bone scan in 49 patients (79 %). A final diagnosis of bone metastasis was made in 40 patients (65 %). The sensitivity and specificity were 100 % and 59 %, respectively, for bone scintigraphy; 50 % and 96 % for ALP; 65 % and 82 % for TAP; and 73 % and 77 % for PAP. For 40 patients with bone metastasis, all of the ALP, TAP, and PAP were positive in 17 patients (43 %) and negative in 8 patients (20 %). Higher levels of ALP, TAP, and PAP tended to be associated with more extensive bone metastasis. Although serological examination showed lower sensitivity than bone scintigraphy in the diagnosis of bone metastasis, PAP may be most frequently used as a screening procedure of bone metastasis. (Namekawa, K.).

Imamura, Akihiko; Hoshi, Hiroaki; Jinnouchi, Seishi; Samejima, Masahiko; Watanabe, Katsushi

1988-02-01

143

Comparison between S-N-P curves obtained from constant stress and step-stress fatigue tests  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This Fatigue is one of the most important failure modes to be considered in many engineering applications. In actual cases, the alternate stress applied to the component may vary during its lifetime. In these situations, the direct use of S-N-P curves may be inadequate when they are based on tests where the number of cycles to failure are determined for specimens under a constant stress for a certain probability of failure. In this paper it is shown S-N-P curves for specimens submitted each one to three different stress levels. Those curves are compared with the common S-N-P curves from constant stress tests. The Palmgren-Miner theory is applied to the obtained data from the two test methods. The results are compared and some conclusions and comments are addressed. (authors)

2005-07-01

144

Pap smears for men: a vision of the future?  

LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

BACKGROUND: Anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN) rarely receives as much publicity as its neighbouring orifice, the cervix. As in the cervix, intraepithelial neoplasias are precursors to cancer in the anal canal. AIN and cervical interstitial neoplasia (CIN) undergo dysplasia as a consequence of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. Since the advent of screening with the Pap smear in CIN, cervical cancer has plummeted to a fifth of its initial incidence. Anal cancer, however, has been rising, with a predilection for human immunodeficiency virus-infected men. HPV causes a squamous epithelial dysplasia and converts healthy tissue into AINs of increasing severity until anal cancer manifests. CLINICAL CASE: This article describes a clinical case of anogenital HPV infection refractory to medical and surgical therapy. It also describes an effective surgical excision technique associated with a good cosmetic outcome. CONCLUSIONS: The paper concludes by briefly discussing the implications of a national screening programme against AIN in the future.

Oon, S F

2012-02-01

145

Cardiac output obtained from test bolus injections as a factor in contrast injection rate revision of following coronary CT angiography  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Background.. Optimal contrast enhancement is crucial for the detection of coronary artery stenoses and atherosclerotic changes in coronary CT angiography (CTA). Purpose To demonstrate the feasibility of using the cardiac output (CO) obtained from the test bolus injection data-set (CO test) as a factor in contrast injection rate revision of the following coronary CTA. Material and Methods. The test bolus injection data-sets of 52 consecutive coronary CTAs were examined. CO test was calculated from the test bolus data-set. Aortic peak enhancement (APE) was measured on the following coronary CTA. We simulated the APE at a fixed contrast injection rate of 4 mL/s (simAPE) in each patient. Results. The ranges of COtest and simAPE were 2.82-7.56 L/min and 194-527 Hounsfield Units, respectively. There was a significant negative correlation (R = -0.802, P < 0.001) between simAPE and COtest. Conclusion. COtest can be used for injection rate revision on coronary CTA.

Konno, Masahiko [Division of Diagnostic Image Analysis, Graduate School of Medicine, Tohoku University, Miyagi (Japan); Yamagata Prefecture Comprehensive Rehabilitation and Education Center, Yamagata (Japan)], E-mail: mkonno@med.tohoku.ac.jp; Hosokai, Yoshiyuki; Usui, Akihito; Abe, Mitsuya; Tateishi, Toshiki; Kawasumi, Yusuke; Saito, Haruo [Division of Diagnostic Image Analysis, Graduate School of Medicine, Tohoku University, Miyagi (Japan); Tsuda, Masashi; Ota, Hideki; Takase, Kei [Division of Diagnostic Radiology, Graduate School of Medicine, Tohoku University, Miyagi (Japan)

2012-12-15

146

Cardiac output obtained from test bolus injections as a factor in contrast injection rate revision of following coronary CT angiography  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Background.. Optimal contrast enhancement is crucial for the detection of coronary artery stenoses and atherosclerotic changes in coronary CT angiography (CTA). Purpose To demonstrate the feasibility of using the cardiac output (CO) obtained from the test bolus injection data-set (CO test) as a factor in contrast injection rate revision of the following coronary CTA. Material and Methods. The test bolus injection data-sets of 52 consecutive coronary CTAs were examined. CO test was calculated from the test bolus data-set. Aortic peak enhancement (APE) was measured on the following coronary CTA. We simulated the APE at a fixed contrast injection rate of 4 mL/s (simAPE) in each patient. Results. The ranges of COtest and simAPE were 2.82-7.56 L/min and 194-527 Hounsfield Units, respectively. There was a significant negative correlation (R = -0.802, P < 0.001) between simAPE and COtest. Conclusion. COtest can be used for injection rate revision on coronary CTA

2012-12-01

147

Does oral contraceptive pill increase the risk of abnormal Pap smear?  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: It is noted that oral contraceptive pills increase the risk of abnormal Pap smear but results have been inconsistent across the populations. Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the association between oral contraceptive pill (OCP) consumption and abnormal Pap smear in women who referred to Shahid Sadoughi and Madar hospitals in Yazd. Materials and Methods: A cross sectional descriptive study was carried out and a database of all Pap smear reports from 2009-2011 at Cytopathology Department of Shahid Sadoughi and Madar hospitals in Yazd, Iran was reviewed. A total number of 1286 women with history of OCP consumption were selected as the case group and 1218 women applying other contraceptive methods were selected as control group for evaluation. Both case and control groups were matched by age, parity and socioeconomic status. All of the women in this study maintained a single partner as their husband and none of them were considered as smokers. The duration of OCP use was at least 5 years. Results: Abnormal Pap smear results were observed in 0.4% of cases and 0.2% of controls. There was no significant association between OCP consumption and abnormal Pap smear (p=0.727). Conclusion: Our findings did not show any specific association between OCP consumption and abnormal Pap smear results. In addition, the number of abnormal Pap smears in women who consumed OCP was lower than that of western countries. More prospective studies are required.

Binesh, Fariba; Akhavan, Ali; Pirdehghan, Azar; Davoodi, Mahnoosh

2013-01-01

148

An open-end burst test method to obtain uniaxial hoop tensile properties of fuel cladding in a hot cell  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The hoop stress–hoop strain relationship of fuel cladding is one of the essential input parameters for safety analysis of fuel rods. The three objectives of this paper were: to propose a burst test method for open-end tube specimens with the uniaxial hoop stress condition; to develop the necessary in-cell high temperature open-end burst (OEB) techniques to implement the method; and to determine the optimum specimen length for the proposed OEB test method. Silicone oil was selected as the pressurization medium, and it was sealed inside the specimens not by welding but by O-rings so that no axial tensile stress was induced in the specimens. The specimens with combined end plugs and O-rings were successfully assembled by manipulators in a hot cell, and a high temperature (?350 °C), high pressure (?100 MPa) seal was achieved. The optimum specimen length was determined by using ductile and embrittled tubes with various lengths of 30–60 mm and was found to be around 45 mm for typical BWR fuel rods. During the OEB test, internal pressure and diametral expansion were monitored to obtain the basic mechanical performance properties of the fuel cladding such as yield stress, ultimate strength, as well as the true hoop stress–hoop strain curve

2013-03-01

149

A very rare case of HPV-53-related cervical cancer, in a 79-year-old woman with a previous history of negative Pap cytology  

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Full Text Available Roberta Zappacosta,1 Giuseppe Lattanzio,2 Patrizia Viola,2 Manuel Maria Ianieri,3 Daniela Maria Pia Gatta,1 Sandra Rosini11Cytopathology Unit, Experimental and Clinical Sciences Department, Gabriele d’Annunzio University of Chieti-Pescara, Chieti, Italy; 2Surgical Pathology Unit, 3Obstetrics and Gynecology Unit, SS Annunziata Hospital, Chieti, ItalyAbstract: The introduction of organized cervical cancer (CC screening programs has drastically reduced the prevalence of CC. However the incidence is still too high, especially among elderly women. All guidelines strongly recommend a regular Papanicolaou (Pap testing for young and middle-aged patients. On the other hand, many international professional societies no longer advise screening in women who have undergone hysterectomy, and in women aged 65 years and above, who have a previous history of regular Pap smears. Here we report the case of poorly differentiated CC, involving the pelvic lymph nodes and urinary bladder, occurring in a 79-year-old woman who regularly underwent Pap tests, with no reported cytological abnormalities. In this very rare case, the CC cells, as well as cells from metastatic lymph nodes and cells from urinary specimens, molecularly showed human papilloma virus (HPV-53. With the limitations of a single case, this report brings important information to prevent CC in elderly patients: the utility of molecular tests to increase sensitivity of Pap smears in postmenopausal women; the importance of HPV-53 as one of the four “emergent” genotypes having a possible role in oncogenesis; and the presence of HPV-53 in lymph node metastases from cervical carcinoma, which would support the role of this virus in the maintenance of malignant status.Keywords: old women, molecular tests, cervical cancer screening, HPV-DNA test, HPV genotyping

Zappacosta R

2014-04-01

150

PAP-1, the mutated gene underlying the RP9 form of dominant retinitis pigmentosa, is a splicing factor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

PAP-1 is an in vitro phosphorylation target of the Pim-1 oncogene. Although PAP-1 binds to Pim-1, it is not a substrate for phosphorylation by Pim-1 in vivo. PAP-1 has recently been implicated as the defective gene in RP9, one type of autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa (adRP). However, RP9 is a rare disease and only two missense mutations have been described, so the report of a link between PAP-1 and RP9 was tentative. The precise cellular role of PAP-1 was also unknown at that time. We now report that PAP-1 localizes in nuclear speckles containing the splicing factor SC35 and interacts directly with another splicing factor, U2AF35. Furthermore, we used in vitro and in vivo splicing assays to show that PAP-1 has an activity, which alters the pattern of pre-mRNA splicing and that this activity is dependent on the phosphorylation state of PAP-1. We used the same splicing assay to examine the activities of two mutant forms of PAP-1 found in RP9 patients. The results showed that while one of the mutations, H137L, had no effect on splicing activity compared with that of wild-type PAP-1, the other, D170G, resulted in both a defect in splicing activity and a decreased proportion of phosphorylated PAP-1. The D170G mutation may therefore cause RP by altering splicing of retinal genes through a decrease in PAP-1 phosphorylation. These results demonstrate that PAP-1 has a role in pre-mRNA splicing and, given that three other splicing factors have been implicated in adRP, this finding provides compelling further evidence that PAP-1 is indeed the RP9 gene

2004-11-01

151

Novel chromatin texture features for the classification of pap smears  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper presents a set of novel structural texture features for quantifying nuclear chromatin patterns in cells on a conventional Pap smear. The features are derived from an initial segmentation of the chromatin into bloblike texture primitives. The results of a comprehensive feature selection experiment, including the set of proposed structural texture features and a range of different cytology features drawn from the literature, show that two of the four top ranking features are structural texture features. They also show that a combination of structural and conventional features yields a classification performance of 0.954±0.019 (AUC±SE) for the discrimination of normal (NILM) and abnormal (LSIL and HSIL) slides. The results of a second classification experiment, using only normal-appearing cells from both normal and abnormal slides, demonstrates that a single structural texture feature measuring chromatin margination yields a classification performance of 0.815±0.019. Overall the results demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed structural approach and that it is possible to detect malignancy associated changes (MACs) in Papanicoloau stain.

Bejnordi, Babak E.; Moshavegh, Ramin; Sujathan, K.; Malm, Patrik; Bengtsson, Ewert; Mehnert, Andrew

2013-03-01

152

Factors related to the practice of breast self examination (BSE) and Pap smear screening among Malaysian women workers in selected electronics factories  

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Abstract Background The Malaysian Ministry of Health promotes breast self-examination (BSE) for all women, and Pap smear screening every three years for all sexually active women ages 20 years and above. The objectives of this paper were to examine the practice of these two screening tests among women production workers in electronics factories, and to identify factors related to practice. Methods This was a cross-sectional survey of women production workers fro...

Hl, Chee; Rashidah S; Shamsuddin K; Intan O

2003-01-01

153

SCREENING FOR HIGH-RISK HUMAN PAPILLOMAVIRUS BY REAL-TIME PCR AND ITS ASSOCIATION WITH CYTOLOGICAL ABNORMALITIES OF PAP SMEARS IN BAGHDAD  

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Full Text Available Human Papillomaviruses (HPVs are known to be etiological agents of cervical cancer and have been found in 99.7% of women with high-grade (HG cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN pre-cancer. Testing of high-risk HPV (HR-HPV has been proposed as a way of improving cervical screening, especially for women with low-grade (LG Papanicolaou (Pap smears. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the diagnostic correlation of real-time PCR technique with Pap smear results for 13 genotypes of HR-HPV in 415 of suspected women. Pap smear results showed the suspected women with abnormal and normal cytological changes were 79.3% (329/415 and 20.7% (86/415, respectively. In contrast, real-time PCR results showed that women with or without abnormal changes had HR-HPV DNA positive were 50.5% (166/329 and 10.5% (9/86, respectively. Thus, Pap smear results had no sensitive to predicate risky for LG-CIN women were observed. According to the real-time PCR results, the incident of HG or cancer was more associated with HR-HPV. Our findings indicated the real-time PCR test with the cytological test as a routine practice for women with LG-CIN reduces the incidence of HG or cancer. After that, the prospective studies should be appropriated to determine HR-HPV genotypes and viral load (copies/cell with real-time PCR test as predicate risk-factor.

SALEH D.S.

2012-12-01

154

Inhibitory effects of a peptide-fusion protein (Latarcin-PAP1-Thanatin) against chikungunya virus.  

Science.gov (United States)

Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) outbreaks have led to a serious economic burden, as the available treatment strategies can only alleviate disease symptoms, and no effective therapeutics or vaccines are currently available for human use. Here, we report the use of a new cost-effective approach involving production of a recombinant antiviral peptide-fusion protein that is scalable for the treatment of CHIKV infection. A peptide-fusion recombinant protein LATA-PAP1-THAN that was generated by joining Latarcin (LATA) peptide with the N-terminus of the PAP1 antiviral protein, and the Thanatin (THAN) peptide to the C-terminus, was produced in Escherichia coli as inclusion bodies. The antiviral LATA-PAP1-THAN protein showed 89.0% reduction of viral plaque formation compared with PAP1 (46.0%), LATA (67.0%) or THAN (79.3%) peptides alone. The LATA-PAP1-THAN protein reduced the viral RNA load that was 0.89-fold compared with the untreated control cells. We also showed that PAP1 resulted in 0.44-fold reduction, and THAN and LATA resulting in 0.78-fold and 0.73-fold reductions, respectively. The LATA-PAP1-THAN protein inhibited CHIKV replication in the Vero cells at an EC50 of 11.2?g/ml, which is approximately half of the EC50 of PAP1 (23.7?g/ml) and protected the CHIKV-infected mice at the dose of 0.75mg/ml. We concluded that production of antiviral peptide-fusion protein in E. coli as inclusion bodies could accentuate antiviral activities, enhance cellular internalisation, and could reduce product toxicity to host cells and is scalable to epidemic response quantities. PMID:24929084

Rothan, Hussin A; Bahrani, Hirbod; Shankar, Esaki M; Rahman, Noorsaadah Abd; Yusof, Rohana

2014-08-01

155

Selective indication for positive airway pressure (PAP) in sleep-related breathing disorders with obstruction.  

Science.gov (United States)

Positive airway pressure (PAP) is the therapy of choice for most sleep-related breathing disorders (SRBD). A variety of PAP devices using positive airway pressure (CPAP, BiPAP, APAP, ASV) must be carefully considered before application. This overview aims to provide criteria for choosing the optimal PAP device according to severity and type of sleep-related breathing disorder. In addition, the range of therapeutic applications, constraints and side effects as well as alternative methods to PAP will be discussed. This review is based on an analysis of current literature and clinical experience. The data is presented from an ENT-sleep-laboratory perspective and is designed to help the ENT practitioner initiate treatment and provide support. Different titration methods, current devices and possible applications will be described. In addition to constant pressure devices (CPAP), most commonly used for symptomatic obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) without complicating conditions, BiPAP models will be introduced. These allow two different positive pressure settings and are thus especially suitable for patients with cardiopulmonary diseases or patients with pressure intolerance, increasing compliance in this subgroup considerably. Compliance can also be increased in patients during first night of therapy, patients with highly variable pressure demands or position-dependent OSA, by using self-regulating Auto-adjust PAP devices (Automatic positive airway pressure, APAP). Patients with Cheyne-Stokes breathing, a subtype of central sleep apnoea, benefit from adaptive servo-ventilation (ASV), which analyzes breathing patterns continually and adjusts the actual ventilation pressure accordingly. This not only reduces daytime sleepiness, but can also influence heart disease positively. Therapy with positive airway pressure is very effective in eliminating obstruction-related sleep diseases and symptoms. However, because therapy is generally applied for life, the optimal PAP device must be carefully selected, taking into account side effects that influence compliance. PMID:22073075

Stasche, Norbert

2006-01-01

156

Crystal Structure of the P Pilus Rod Subunit PapA  

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P pili are important adhesive fibres involved in kidney infection by uropathogenic Escherichia coli strains. P pili are assembled by the conserved chaperone–usher pathway, which involves the PapD chaperone and the PapC usher. During pilus assembly, subunits are incorporated into the growing fiber via the donor–strand exchange (DSE) mechanism, whereby the chaperone's G1 ?-strand that complements the incomplete immunoglobulin-fold of each subunit is displaced by the N-terminal extension (N...

2007-01-01

157

Functional identification of the DNA packaging terminase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa phage PaP3  

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Terminase proteins are responsible for DNA recognition and initiation of DNA packaging in phages. We previously reported the genomic sequence of a temperate Pseudomonas aeruginosa phage, PaP3, and determined its precise integration site in the host bacterial chromosome. In this study, we present a detailed functional identification of the DNA packaging terminase for phage PaP3. The purified large subunit p03 was demonstrated to possess ATPase and nuclease activities, as well as the ability to...

Shen, Xiaodong; Li, Ming; Zeng, Yijun; Hu, Xiaomei; Tan, Yinling; Rao, Xiancai; Jin, Xiaolin; Li, Shu; Zhu, Junmin; Zhang, Kebin; Hu, Fuquan

2012-01-01

158

Selective indication for positive airway pressure (PAP in sleep-related breathing disorders with obstruction  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Positive airway pressure (PAP is the therapy of choice for most sleep-related breathing disorders (SRBD. A variety of PAP devices using positive airway pressure (CPAP, BiPAP, APAP, ASV must be carefully considered before application. This overview aims to provide criteria for choosing the optimal PAP device according to severity and type of sleep-related breathing disorder. In addition, the range of therapeutic applications, constraints and side effects as well as alternative methods to PAP will be discussed. This review is based on an analysis of current literature and clinical experience. The data is presented from an ENT-sleep-laboratory perspective and is designed to help the ENT practitioner initiate treatment and provide support. Different titration methods, current devices and possible applications will be described. In addition to constant pressure devices (CPAP, most commonly used for symptomatic obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA without complicating conditions, BiPAP models will be introduced. These allow two different positive pressure settings and are thus especially suitable for patients with cardiopulmonary diseases or patients with pressure intolerance, increasing compliance in this subgroup considerably. Compliance can also be increased in patients during first night of therapy, patients with highly variable pressure demands or position-dependent OSA, by using self-regulating Auto-adjust PAP devices (Automatic positive airway pressure, APAP. Patients with Cheyne-Stokes breathing, a subtype of central sleep apnoea, benefit from adaptive servo-ventilation (ASV, which analyzes breathing patterns continually and adjusts the actual ventilation pressure accordingly. This not only reduces daytime sleepiness, but can also influence heart disease positively. Therapy with positive airway pressure is very effective in eliminating obstruction-related sleep diseases and symptoms. However, because therapy is generally applied for life, the optimal PAP device must be carefully selected, taking into account side effects that influence compliance.

Stasche, Norbert

2006-10-01

159

Time-dependent effect of p-Aminophenol (PAP) toxicity in renal slices and development of oxidative stress  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

p-Aminophenol (PAP), a metabolite of acetaminophen, is nephrotoxic. This study investigated PAP-mediated changes as a function of time that occur prior to loss of membrane integrity. Experiments further evaluated the development of oxidative stress by PAP. Renal slices from male Fischer 344 (F344) rats (N = 4-6) were exposed to 0.1, 0.25, and 0.5 mM PAP for 15-120 min under oxygen and constant shaking at 37 oC. Pyruvate-stimulated gluconeogenesis, adenine nucleotide levels, and total glutathione (GSH) levels were diminished in a concentration- and time-dependent manner prior to detection of a rise in lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) leakage. Glutathione disulfide (GSSG) levels were increased by PAP suggesting the induction of oxidative stress. Western blot analysis confirmed a rise in 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE)-adducted proteins in tissues exposed to 0.1 and 0.25 mM PAP for 90 min. The appearance of 4-HNE-adducted proteins at the 0.1 mM concentration of PAP occurred prior to development of increased LDH leakage. Pretreatment with 1 mM glutathione (GSH) for 30 min only partially reduced PAP toxicity as LDH values were less severely depleted relative to tissues not pretreated with GSH. In contrast, pretreatment for 15 min with 2 mM ascorbic acid completely protected against PAP toxicity. Further studies showed that ascorbic acid pretreatment prevented PAP-mediated depletion of GSH. In summary, PAP rapidly depletes GSH and adenine nucleotides and inhibits gluconeogenesis prior to a rise in LDH leakage. PAP induces oxidative stress as indicated by an increase in GSSG and 4-HNE-adducted proteins. Ascorbic acid pretreatment prevents PAP toxicity by maintaining GSH status

2005-11-15

160

Flavonoid production in transgenic hop (Humulus lupulus L.) altered by PAP1/MYB75 from Arabidopsis thaliana L.  

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Hop is an important source of secondary metabolites, such as flavonoids. Some of these are pharmacologically active. Nevertheless, the concentration of some classes as flavonoids in wild-type plants is rather low. To enhance the production in hop, it would be interesting to modify the regulation of genes in the flavonoid biosynthetic pathway. For this purpose, the regulatory factor PAP1/AtMYB75 from Arabidopsis thaliana L. was introduced into hop plants cv. Tettnanger by Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation. Twenty kanamycin-resistant transgenic plants were obtained. It was shown that PAP1/AtMYB75 was stably incorporated and expressed in the hop genome. In comparison to the wild-type plants, the color of female flowers and cones of transgenic plants was reddish to pink. Chemical analysis revealed higher levels of anthocyanins, rutin, isoquercitin, kaempferol-glucoside, kaempferol-glucoside-malonate, desmethylxanthohumol, xanthohumol, ?-acids and ?-acids in transgenic plants compared to wild-type plants. PMID:21912858

Gatica-Arias, A; Farag, M A; Stanke, M; Matoušek, J; Wessjohann, L; Weber, G

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
161

Results obtained during acoustic emission monitoring of proof testing of a large Kevlar/epoxy rocket motor case  

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A total of 15 acoustic emission (AE) sensors were used to monitor a large Kevlar 49/epoxy rocket motor case during proof cycles to successively higher levels. Fourteen of the sensors were placed on the composite surface and one sensor was coupled to a stainless steel waveguide which penetrated the full length of the inside of the hydraulically pressurized motor case. To reduce signal propagation losses, the bandpass was chosen to be 5 to 10 kHz. In addition to an Acoustic Emission Technology (AET) 5000 system, Hewlett Packard 3400 A root-mean-square voltmeters, and a 1010 Biomation transient recorder were used to record AE data. The AET system measured rise time, event duration, peak amplitude, and energy (calculated from event duration and peak amplitude) for each AE event. The main purpose of this paper is to present and discuss the AE data obtained by hand post-processing of event listings generated for each proof cycle of the AE data taped by the 5000 system during the test. Real AE signal propagation losses are compared to the losses from Pentel pencil-lead breaks. We present first-hit sensor data for events with high amplitude, energy, and event duration. This data indicated that a certain area of the composite case is the potential region of failure.

Hamstad, M.A.

1982-12-01

162

HPV vaccination programs have not been shown to be cost-effective in countries with comprehensive Pap screening and surgery  

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Pap screening combined with loop electrosurgical excision procedures (LEEP) is almost 100% effective in preventing cervical cancer mortality yet many countries with these procedures have now implemented broad HPV vaccination programs. HPV vaccines have not been demonstrated to be more effective or safer than Pap screening in the prevention of cervical cancer and Pap screening will still be required even in vaccinated women. The HPV vaccine costs Au$450 per person and it does not protect again...

Wilyman, Judy

2013-01-01

163

Leucine-responsive regulatory protein controls the expression of both the pap and fan pili operons in Escherichia coli.  

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The methylation blocking factor gene (mbf) in Escherichia coli is required for specific methylation inhibition of two DNA GATC sites upstream of the papBA pilin promoter and transcriptional activation of pap. Complementation and mutational analysis using pap-lac and ilvIH-lac operon fusions indicates that the mbf gene is identical to a recently described global regulatory gene lrp (leucine-responsive regulatory protein) that acts as a positive regulator of some genes and a negative regulator ...

Braaten, B. A.; Platko, J. V.; Woude, M. W.; Simons, B. H.; Graaf, F. K.; Calvo, J. M.; Low, D. A.

1992-01-01

164

Factors Affecting Compliance with Clinical Practice Guidelines for Pap Smear Screening among Healthcare Providers in Africa: Systematic Review and Meta-Summary of 2045 Individuals  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Although the importance of the Pap smear in reducing cancer incidence and mortality is known, many countries in Africa have not initiated yet widespread national cervical cancer screening programs. The World Health Organization (WHO) has published Clinical Practice Guidelines (CPGs) on cervical cancer screening in developing countries; however, there is a gap between expectations and clinical performance. Thus, the aim of this study was to conduct a systematic review and meta-summary to identify factors affecting compliance with CPGs for Pap screening among healthcare providers in Africa. Methods And Findings: MEDLINE, Scirus, Opengate and EMBASE databases were searched in January 2012. Studies involving medical personnel practicing in Africa, whose outcome measured any factors that affect medical personnel from using a Pap smear to screen for cervical cancer, were included. Two reviewers independently evaluated titles and abstracts, then full-texts, extracted data and assessed quality of the included studies. A descriptive analysis of the included studies was conducted. We calculated Frequency effect sizes (FES) for each finding and Intensity effect sizes (IES) for each article to represent their magnitudes in the analyses. Of 1011 studies retrieved, 11 studies were included (2045 individuals). Six different themes related to the factors affecting compliance with CPGs were identified: Insufficient Knowledge/Lack of awareness (FES = 82%), Negligence/Misbeliefs (FES = 82%), Psychological Reasons (FES = 73%), Time/Cost Constraint (FES = 36%), Insufficient infrastructure/training (FES = 45%) and also no reason given (FES = 36%). IES for articles ranged between 33 and 83%. Conclusions These results suggest that prevention initiatives should be comprehensive to include education and resources needs assessments and improvement, Pap smear test training, strategies on costing, and practitioner time studies.

Asonganyi, Etienne; Vaghasia, Meenakshi; Rodrigues, Clarissa; Phadtare, Amruta; Ford, Anne; Pietrobon, Ricardo; Atashili, Julius; Lynch, Catherine

2013-01-01

165

Acquirement of True Stress-strain Curve Using True Fracture Strain Obtained by Tensile Test and FE Analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this work, we predict a true fracture strain using load-displacement curves from tensile test and finite element analysis (FEA), and suggest a method for acquiring true stress-strain (SS) curves by predicted fracture strain. We first derived the true SS curve up to necking point from load-displacement curve. As the beginning, the posterior necking part of true SS curve is linearly extrapolated with the slope at necking point. The whole SS curve is then adopted for FE simulation of tensile test. The Bridgman factor or suitable plate correction factors are applied to pre and post FEA. In the load-true strain curve from FEA, the true fracture strain is determined as the matching point to test fracture load. The determined true strain is validated by comparing with test fracture strain. Finally, we complete the true SS curve by combining the prior necking part and linear part, the latter of which connects necking and predicted fracture points

2009-10-01

166

Acquirement of true stress-strain curve using true fracture strain obtained by tensile test and FE analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this work, we predict a true fracture strain using load-displacement curves from tensile test and Finite Element Analysis (FEA), and suggest a method for acquiring true Stress-Strain (SS) curves by predicted fracture strain. We first derived the true SS curve up to necking point from load-displacement curve. As the beginning, the posterior necking part of true SS curve is linearly extrapolated with the slope at necking point. The whole SS curve is then adopted for FE simulation of tensile test. The Bridgman factor or suitable plate correction factors are applied to pre and post FEA. In the load-true strain curve from FEA, the true fracture strain is determined as the matching point to test fracture load. The determined true strain is validated by comparing with test fracture strain. Finally, we complete the true SS curve by combining the prior necking part and linear part, the latter of which connects necking and predicted fracture points.

2009-04-23

167

Crystal structure of the P pilus rod subunit PapA  

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P pili are important adhesive fibres involved in kidney infection by uropathogenic Escherichia coli strains. P pili are assembled by the conserved chaperone-usher pathway, which involves the PapD chaperone and the PapC usher. During pilus assembly, subunits are incorporated into the growing fiber via the donor-strand exchange (DSE) mechanism, whereby the chaperone's G(1) beta-strand that complements the incomplete immunoglobulin-fold of each subunit is displaced by the N-terminal extension (N...

2007-01-01

168

Asistencia a Citología del Cuello Uterino y sus Determinantes en una Población Rural Colombiana, 1998-1999 / Use and determinants of Pap smear in a rural Colombian municipality 1998-1999  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Objetivos Establecer la prevalencia de uso de la citología del cuello uterino e identificar los factores que determinan la asistencia a este examen. Métodos Estudio de corte transversal en voluntarias de un programa de prevención de cáncer de cuello uterino realizado en Mogotes, Colombia. Se calcula [...] ron razones de prevalencia (RP). La variable dependiente fue el antecedente de asistencia a citología. Se recolectaron características sociodemográficas, clínicas, familiares y de hábitos. Resultados La prevalencia de asistencia previa a citología fue 67,3 %. A mayor edad de la mujer aumentaba la probabilidad de tener una citología anterior. El uso de métodos de planificación familiar que requerían control (RP: 1,4; IC95%: 1,2-1,7) y la residencia rural (RP: 0,9; IC95%: 0,8-1,0) también fueron factores que determinaron su utilización. Conclusiones Estos datos confirman que vivir en zonas rurales está asociado con una menor oportunidad de la mujer para acceder al examen citológico. Abstract in english Objectives Determining the prevalence of Pap smear use and identifying the factors associated with Pap test performance. Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out on volunteer women recruited from a local programme for detecting cervical cancer in Mogotes, Colombia. Prevalence ratios (PR) were [...] calculated. Papanicolau smear use was the outcome being measured. Information about demographic characteristics, clinical factors, history of cancer in the family, lifestyle factors and using birth control methods was collected. Results Pap smear use prevalence was 67,3 %. Age group, using birth control methods (PR:1,4; 95 %CI:1,2-1,7) and living in rural settings (PR:0,9; 95 %CI:0,8-1,0) were the factors associated with Pap test performance. Conclusions This data suggests that living in rural settings is associated with decreased opportunities for performing Pap tests.

Miguel A., Castro-Jiménez; Paula A., Londoño-Cuellar; Lina M., Vera-Cala.

2006-12-17

169

Asistencia a citología del cuello uterino y sus determinantes en una población rural colombiana, 1998-1999 / Use and determinants of pap smear in a rural Colombian municipality 1998-1999  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Objetivos Establecer la prevalencia de uso de la citología del cuello uterino e identificar los factores que determinan la asistencia a este examen. Métodos Estudio de corte transversal en voluntarias de un programa de prevención de cáncer de cuello uterino realizado en Mogotes, Colombia. Se calcula [...] ron razones de prevalencia (RP). La variable dependiente fue el antecedente de asistencia a citología. Se recolectaron características sociodemográficas, clínicas, familiares y de hábitos. Resultados La prevalencia de asistencia previa a citología fue 67,3 %. A mayor edad de la mujer aumentaba la probabilidad de tener una citología anterior. El uso de métodos de planificación familiar que requerían control (RP: 1,4; IC95%: 1,2-1,7) y la residencia rural (RP: 0,9; IC95%: 0,8-1,0) también fueron factores que determinaron su utilización. Conclusiones Estos datos confirman que vivir en zonas rurales está asociado con una menor oportunidad de la mujer para acceder al examen citológico. Abstract in english Objectives Determining the prevalence of Pap smear use and identifying the factors associated with Pap test performance. Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out on volunteer women recruited from a local programme for detecting cervical cancer in Mogotes, Colombia. Prevalence ratios (PR) were [...] calculated. Papanicolau smear use was the outcome being measured. Information about demographic characteristics, clinical factors, history of cancer in the family, lifestyle factors and using birth control methods was collected. Results Pap smear use prevalence was 67,3 %. Age group, using birth control methods (PR:1,4; 95 %CI:1,2-1,7) and living in rural settings (PR:0,9; 95 %CI:0,8-1,0) were the factors associated with Pap test performance. Conclusions This data suggests that living in rural settings is associated with decreased opportunities for performing Pap tests.

Miguel A., Castro-Jiménez; Paula A., Londoño-Cuellar; Lina M., Vera-Cala.

170

Asistencia a Citología del Cuello Uterino y sus Determinantes en una Población Rural Colombiana, 1998-1999 Use and determinants of Pap smear in a rural Colombian municipality 1998-1999  

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Full Text Available Objetivos Establecer la prevalencia de uso de la citología del cuello uterino e identificar los factores que determinan la asistencia a este examen. Métodos Estudio de corte transversal en voluntarias de un programa de prevención de cáncer de cuello uterino realizado en Mogotes, Colombia. Se calcularon razones de prevalencia (RP. La variable dependiente fue el antecedente de asistencia a citología. Se recolectaron características sociodemográficas, clínicas, familiares y de hábitos. Resultados La prevalencia de asistencia previa a citología fue 67,3 %. A mayor edad de la mujer aumentaba la probabilidad de tener una citología anterior. El uso de métodos de planificación familiar que requerían control (RP: 1,4; IC95%: 1,2-1,7 y la residencia rural (RP: 0,9; IC95%: 0,8-1,0 también fueron factores que determinaron su utilización. Conclusiones Estos datos confirman que vivir en zonas rurales está asociado con una menor oportunidad de la mujer para acceder al examen citológico.Objectives Determining the prevalence of Pap smear use and identifying the factors associated with Pap test performance. Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out on volunteer women recruited from a local programme for detecting cervical cancer in Mogotes, Colombia. Prevalence ratios (PR were calculated. Papanicolau smear use was the outcome being measured. Information about demographic characteristics, clinical factors, history of cancer in the family, lifestyle factors and using birth control methods was collected. Results Pap smear use prevalence was 67,3 %. Age group, using birth control methods (PR:1,4; 95 %CI:1,2-1,7 and living in rural settings (PR:0,9; 95 %CI:0,8-1,0 were the factors associated with Pap test performance. Conclusions This data suggests that living in rural settings is associated with decreased opportunities for performing Pap tests.

Miguel A. Castro-Jiménez

171

CNS activity of Pokeweed Anti-viral Protein (PAP in mice infected with Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis Virus (LCMV  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Others and we have previously described the potent in vivo and in vitro activity of the broad-spectrum antiviral agent PAP (Pokeweed antiviral protein against a wide range of viruses. The purpose of the present study was to further elucidate the anti-viral spectrum of PAP by examining its effects on the survival of mice challenged with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV. Methods We examined the therapeutic effect of PAP in CBA mice inoculated with intracerebral injections of the WE54 strain of LCMV at a 1000 PFU dose level that is lethal to 100% of mice within 7–9 days. Mice were treated either with vehicle or PAP administered intraperitoneally 24 hours prior to, 1 hour prior to and 24 hours, 48 hours 72 hours and 96 hours after virus inoculation. Results PAP exhibits significant in vivo anti- LCMV activity in mice challenged intracerebrally with an otherwise invariably fatal dose of LCMV. At non-toxic dose levels, PAP significantly prolonged survival in the absence of the majority of disease-associated symptoms. The median survival time of PAP-treated mice was >21 days as opposed to 7 days median survival for the control (p = 0.0069. Conclusion Our results presented herein provide unprecedented experimental evidence that PAP exhibits antiviral activity in the CNS of LCMV-infected mice.

Tibbles Heather E

2005-02-01

172

Potential application of electronic nose in processed animal proteins (PAP detection in feedstuffs  

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Full Text Available Electronic nose and olfactometry techniques represent a modern analytical approach in food industry since they could potentially improve quality and safety of food processing. The aim of this study was to evaluate possible application of electronic nose in PA P detection and recognition in feed. For this purpose 6 reference feedstuffs (CRA-W / UE STRAT F E E D Project were used. The basis of the test samples was a compound feed for bovine fortified with processed animal proteins ( PAP consisting of meat and bone meal (MBM and/or fish meal at different concentrations. Each feed sample was tested in glass vials and the odour profile was determined by the ten MOS (metal oxide semi-conductor sensors of the electronic nose. Ten different descriptors, representing each ten sensors of electronic nose, were used to characterise the odour of each sample. In the present study, electronic nose was able to discriminate the blank sample from all other samples containing PA P ( M B M , fish meal or both. Samples containing either 0.5% of MBM or 5% of fish meal were identified, while samples containing a high fish meal content (5% associated with a low MBM content (0.5% were not discriminated from samples containing solely fish meal at that same high level (5%. This latter indicates that probably the high fish meal level, in samples containing both MBM and fish meal, tended to mask MBM odour. It was also evident that two odour descriptors were enough to explain 72.12% of total variability in odour pattern. In view of these results, it could be suggested that electronic nose and olfactometry techniques can provide an interesting approach for screening raw materials in feed industry, even though further studies using a wider set of samples are needed.

Dell'Orto V.

2004-01-01

173

Comparison of ViraPap, Southern hybridization, and polymerase chain reaction methods for human papillomavirus identification in an epidemiological investigation of cervical cancer.  

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In order to provide a reliable diagnosis for the presence and type of human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA in a case-control study of cervical cancer in Colombia and Spain, 926 cervical scrapes from female subjects were examined by ViraPap (VP) and Southern hybridization (SH), and 510 of these (263 cases and 247 controls) were also tested by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using the HPV L1 consensus primers. HPV DNA prevalence was much higher in cases than in controls by each of the three tests. Th...

1992-01-01

174

Incomplete Psychometric Equivalence of Scores Obtained on the Manual and the Computer Version of the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test?  

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The Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) assesses executive and frontal lobe function and can be administered manually or by computer. Despite the widespread application of the 2 versions, the psychometric equivalence of their scores has rarely been evaluated and only a limited set of criteria has been considered. The present experimental study (N =…

Steinmetz, Jean-Paul; Brunner, Martin; Loarer, Even; Houssemand, Claude

2010-01-01

175

Validation of nuclear design method by measured data obtained in the physics test at a small fast reactor  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The present paper discusses applicability of the measured data of Joyo cores from a view point of integral validation for the 4S nuclear design methodology. Through the evaluation of isothermal reactivity coefficients and reactivity losses due to burnup, the results confirm that those MK-I and MK-II database are effective in order to increase the dataset for uncertainty estimation for the prediction. Discussions on the 4S design method validation are also done through the analyses of criticality, power distributions and reactivity loss due to burn-up. The C/E values for criticality and reaction rate distributions are confirmed to be consistent with those obtained from the physics benchmark experiments. Through an analysis of burnup coefficient of the MK-I core by the detailed Monte Carlo calculations, the C/E value is 1.1, which is close to 1.06 obtained by the deterministic transport analysis. (authors)

Nagata, A.; Tsuboi, Y. [Advanced Energy Design and Engineering Dep., Toshiba Corporation, 8 Shinsugita-cho, Isogo-ku, Yokohama, 235-8523 (Japan); Moriki, Y. [Power and Industrial Systems Research and Development Center, Toshiba Corporation, 8 Shinsugita-cho, Isogo-ku, Yokohama, 235-8523 (Japan); Kawashima, M. [Nuclear Technology Application Dept., Toshiba Nuclear Engineering Services Corporation, 8 Shinsugita-cho, Isogo-ku, Yokohama, 235-8523 (Japan)

2012-07-01

176

A phantom and a procedure to obtain variable-object-contrast test images in gamma camera emission computed tomography (SPECT)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The value of test objects with a range of object contrast has been widely recognized for the testing of medical imaging equipment. A simple phantom is described, which, together with a data processing procedure, provides variable-contrast rod objects in gamma camera emission computed tomography (SPECT). There is only one compartment to fill with radioisotope, and data from hot rods, cold rods and a uniform section are available for analysis. The rod object contrast varies from 100% to 0%, with nine contrast steps used in this analysis. The measured image contrast in the transaxial slices is shown to be sensitive to variations in the system spatial resolution. With only one compartment to fill with radioisotope, this procedure is applicable for routine checking or optimization of gamma camera SPECT systems. (Author)

1994-12-01

177

Mutagenicity testing in the Salmonella typhimurium assay of phenolic compounds and phenolic fractions obtained from smokehouse smoke condensates.  

Science.gov (United States)

Smokehouse smoke, which is used for flavouring meat products, was investigated for its mutagenic activity in the Salmonella typhimurium assay. We were chiefly concerned with the fractions free of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons but containing phenol compounds, which are responsible for the preservative and aromatizing properties of the smoke. The most abundantly occurring phenol compounds (phenol, cresols, 2,4-dimethylphenol, brenzcatechine, syringol, eugenol, vanilline and guaiacol) gave negative results when they were tested for mutagenicity at five concentrations up to 5000 micrograms/plate, with and without S-9 mix, using five strains of S. typhimurium. Even when phenol was further investigated in a variety of test conditions, no induction of his+ revertants was observed. When smokehouse smoke was condensed and fractionated the majority of the various phenolic fractions also gave negative results when tested at five concentrations using five strains of S. typhimurium. However there was a slight increase in the number of revertants in a few cases. The presence in the phenolic fractions of very small amounts of mutagenic impurities, the nature of which needs further investigation, cannot be excluded. These results support the further development of non-hazardous smoke-aroma preparations, based on the phenolic components of smokehouse smoke. PMID:6751955

Pool, B L; Lin, P Z

1982-08-01

178

Pattern of abnormal Pap smears in developing countries : A report from a large referral hospital in Saudi Arabia using the revised 2001 Bethesda System  

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Background: Reports describing the frequency and pattern of abnormal Pap smears in developing countries using the revised Bethesda system for Pap smear are few. We studied the pattern of cervical intraepithelial le--sions and carcinoma detected in Pap smears of Saudi females in the western region of Saudi Arabia using the revised system. Methods: All cervical Pap smears reported in the Department of Pathology of King Abdulaziz Medical City, Jeddah, from 1 January 1998 to 31 A...

Abdullah Layla

2007-01-01

179

Expression pattern of Class B gene PAP3 in flower development of pepper.  

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Class B gene APETALA3 (AP3) plays a key role in the development of petals and stamens. Here, we investigated the expression pattern of PAP3 gene (genbank accession number: HM104635) in the buds of cytoplasmic male sterility line 121A and its near-isogenic restorer line 121C at four developmental stages and analyzed the possible association between Class B genes and cytoplasmic male sterility of pepper. Semi-quantitative PCR and quantitative real-time RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) as well as RNA in situ hybridization showed increased expression of PAP3 at late phase of anther development and its higher expression in restorer line compared with sterility line indicating PAP3's role at late developmental stage of anther and suppressed expression in sterility line. RNA in situ hybridization showed Class B gene features: high abundance in stamen and petal; lower expression in pistil; no expression in sepal. Results of transient expression in onion epidermal cells also showed PAP3 localized in the nucleus, which is consistent with the expression pattern of transcription factors of MADS-box gene family. PMID:24351839

Li, Xin; Liu, Chen; Da, Fengjiao; Ma, Ning; Shen, Huolin

2013-01-01

180

Expression Pattern of Class B Gene PAP3 in Flower Development of Pepper  

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Full Text Available Class B gene APETALA3 (AP3 plays a key role in the development of petals and stamens. Here, we investigated the expression pattern of PAP3 gene (genbank accession number: HM104635 in the buds of cytoplasmic male sterility line 121A and its near-isogenic restorer line 121C at four developmental stages and analyzed the possible association between Class B genes and cytoplasmic male sterility of pepper. Semi-quantitative PCR and quantitative real-time RT-PCR (qRT-PCR as well as RNA in situ hybridization showed increased expression of PAP3 at late phase of anther development and its higher expression in restorer line compared with sterility line indicating PAP3’s role at late developmental stage of anther and suppressed expression in sterility line. RNA in situ hybridization showed Class B gene features: high abundance in stamen and petal; lower expression in pistil; no expression in sepal. Results of transient expression in onion epidermal cells also showed PAP3 localized in the nucleus, which is consistent with the expression pattern of transcription factors of MADS-box gene family.

Xin Li

2013-12-01

 
 
 
 
181

Physical Activity and Cervical Cancer Testing among American Indian Women  

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Purpose: Studies have shown that women who engage in high levels of physical activity have higher rates of cancer screening, including Papanicalaou (Pap) tests. Because American Indian (AI) women are at high risk for cervical cancer morbidity and mortality, we examined Pap screening prevalence and assessed whether physical activity was associated…

Muus, Kyle J.; Baker-Demaray, Twyla B.; Bogart, T. Andy; Duncan, Glen E.; Jacobsen, Clemma; Buchwald, Dedra S.; Henderson, Jeffrey A.

2012-01-01

182

Reconstruction of $^{60}$Co Radiation Source Locations Using Goodness-of-Fit Tests on Spectra Obtained from an HPGe Detector  

CERN Document Server

High purity germanium (HPGe) detectors are ubiquitous in nuclear physics experiments and are also used in numerous low radioactive background detectors, including the proposed {\\sc Majorana} experiment. Spatial reconstruction of the location of radiation sources from spectral distortions could be used to locate unwanted backgrounds or "hot-spots" inside the detector shield. The effect of the position of a $^{60}$Co point source on the shape of spectra was studied with both Monte Carlo and HPGe detector measurements. We briefly confirm previous work on the position dependence of relative heights of peaks. Spectra taken with the radiation source placed at locations around the detector were then compared using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov (K-S) goodness-of-fit test. We discuss the position reconstruction accuracy of this statistical method, which is promising.

Evans, L T; De, R; Henning, R; Morgan, E D

2009-01-01

183

ELUCIDATION OF THE ACTIVE CONFORMATION OF THE APS KINASE DOMAIN OF HUMAN PAPS SYNTHETASE 1  

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Summary Bifunctional human PAPS synthetase (PAPSS) catalyzes, in a two-step process, the formation of the activated sulfate carrier 3?-phosphoadenosine 5?-phosphosulfate (PAPS). The first reaction involves the formation of the 5?-adenosine phosphosulfate (APS) intermediate from ATP and inorganic sulfate. APS is then further phosphorylated on its 3?-hydroxyl group by an additional ATP molecule to generate PAPS. The former reaction is catalyzed by the ATP-sulfurylase domain and the latter by the APS kinase domain. Here we report the structure of the APS kinase domain of PAPSS isoform 1 (PAPSS1) representing the Michaelis complex with the products ADP-Mg and PAPS. This structure provides a rare glimpse of the active conformation of an enzyme catalyzing phosphoryl transfer without resorting to substrate analogs, inactivating mutations, or catalytically non-competent conditions. Our structure shows the interactions involved in the binding of the magnesium ion and PAPS, thereby revealing residues critical for catalysis. The essential magnesium ion is observed bridging the phosphate groups of the products. This function of the metal ion is made possible by the DGDN-loop changing its conformation from that previously reported, and unambiguously identifies these loop residues as a Walker B motif. Furthermore, the second aspartate of this motif is the likely candidate for initiating nucleophilic attack on the ATP ?-phosphate by abstracting the proton from the 3?-hydroxyl of the substrate APS. We also report the structure of the APS kinase domain of human PAPSS1 in complex with two APS molecules, demonstrating the ability of the ATP/ADP binding site to bind APS. Both structures reveal extended N-termini that approach the active site of the neighboring monomer. Together, these results significantly increase our understandings of how catalysis is achieved by APS kinase.

Sekulic, Nikolina; Dietrich, Kristen; Paarmann, Ingo; Ort, Stephan; Konrad, Manfred; Lavie, Arnon

2007-01-01

184

PAP and NT5E inhibit nociceptive neurotransmission by rapidly hydrolyzing nucleotides to adenosine  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP and ecto-5'-nucleotidase (NT5E, CD73 produce extracellular adenosine from the nucleotide AMP in spinal nociceptive (pain-sensing circuits; however, it is currently unknown if these are the main ectonucleotidases that generate adenosine or how rapidly they generate adenosine. Results We found that AMP hydrolysis, when measured histochemically, was nearly abolished in dorsal root ganglia (DRG neurons and lamina II of spinal cord from Pap/Nt5e double knockout (dKO mice. Likewise, the antinociceptive effects of AMP, when combined with nucleoside transport inhibitors (dipyridamole or 5-iodotubericidin, were reduced by 80-100% in dKO mice. In addition, we used fast scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV to measure adenosine production at subsecond resolution within lamina II. Adenosine was maximally produced within seconds from AMP in wild-type (WT mice but production was reduced >50% in dKO mice, indicating PAP and NT5E rapidly generate adenosine in lamina II. Unexpectedly, we also detected spontaneous low frequency adenosine transients in lamina II with FSCV. Adenosine transients were of short duration (60% in frequency in Pap-/-, Nt5e-/- and dKO mice, suggesting these ectonucleotidases rapidly hydrolyze endogenously released nucleotides to adenosine. Field potential recordings in lamina II and behavioral studies indicate that adenosine made by these enzymes acts through the adenosine A1 receptor to inhibit excitatory neurotransmission and nociception. Conclusions Collectively, our experiments indicate that PAP and NT5E are the main ectonucleotidases that generate adenosine in nociceptive circuits and indicate these enzymes transform pulsatile or sustained nucleotide release into an inhibitory adenosinergic signal.

Vihko Pirkko

2011-10-01

185

Spatial structure of oligopeptide PAP(248-261), the N-terminal fragment of the HIV enhancer prostatic acid phosphatase peptide PAP(248-286), in aqueous and SDS micelle solutions  

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Prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP) is an enzyme that facilitates infection of cells by HIV. Its peptide fragment PAP(248-286) forms amyloid fibrils known as SEVI, which enhance attachment of the virus by viral adhesion to the host cell prior to receptor-specific binding via reducing the electrostatic repulsion between the membranes of the virus and the target cell. The secondary structure of PAP(248-286) in aqueous and SDS solutions can be divided into an N-terminal disordered region, an ?-helical central part and an ?/310-helical C-terminal region (Nanga et al., 2009). In this work, we used NMR spectroscopy to study the spatial structure of the isolated N-terminal fragment of PAP(248-286), PAP(248-261) (GIHKQKEKSRLQGG), in aqueous and SDS micelle solutions. Formation of a PAP(248-261)-SDS complex was confirmed by chemical shift alterations in the 1H NMR spectra of the peptide, as well as by the signs and values of Nuclear Overhauser Effect (NOE). In addition, the PAP(248-261) peptide does not form any specified secondary structure in either aqueous or SDS solutions.

Blokhin, Dmitriy S.; Filippov, Andrei V.; Antzutkin, Oleg N.; Karataeva, Farida Kh.; Klochkov, Vladimir V.

2014-07-01

186

Electrolytes assessed by point-of-care testing - Are the values comparable with results obtained from the central laboratory?  

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Full Text Available Background and Aims: When dealing with very sick patients, the speed and accuracy of tests to detect metabolic derangements is very important. We evaluated if there was agreement between whole blood electrolytes measured by a point-of-care device and serum electrolytes measured using indirect ion-selective electrodes. Materials and Methods: In this prospective study, electrolytes were analyzed in 44 paired samples drawn from critically ill patients. Whole blood electrolytes were analyzed using a point-of-care blood gas analyzer and serum electrolytes were analyzed in the central laboratory on samples transported through a rapid transit pneumatic system. Agreement was summarized by the mean difference with 95% limits of agreement (LOA and Lin?s concordance correlation (p c. Results: There was a significant difference in the mean (±standard deviation sodium value between whole blood and serum samples (135.8 ± 5.7 mmol/L vs. 139.9 ± 5.4 mmol/L, P < 0.001, with the agreement being modest (p c = 0.71; mean difference -4.0; 95% LOA -8.78 to 0.65. Although the agreement between whole blood and serum potassium was good (p c = 0.96, and the average difference small (-0.3; 95% LOA -0.72 to 0.13, individual differences were clinically significant, particularly at lower potassium values. For potassium values <3.0 mmol/L, the concordance was low (p c = 0.53 and the LOA was wide (1.0 to -0.13. The concordance for potassium was good (p c = 0.96 for values ?3.0 (mean difference -0.2; 95% LOA -0.48 to 0.06. Conclusions: Clinicians should be aware of the difference between whole blood and serum electrolytes, particularly when urgent samples are tested at point of care and routine follow-up electrolytes are sent to the central laboratory. A correction factor needs to be determined at each center.

Chacko Binila

2011-01-01

187

Blind test of methods for obtaining 2-D near-surface seismic velocity models from first-arrival traveltimes  

Science.gov (United States)

Seismic refraction methods are used in environmental and engineering studies to image the shallow subsurface. We present a blind test of inversion and tomographic refraction analysis methods using a synthetic first-arrival-time dataset that was made available to the community in 2010. The data are realistic in terms of the near-surface velocity model, shot-receiver geometry and the data's frequency and added noise. Fourteen estimated models were determined by ten participants using eight different inversion algorithms, with the true model unknown to the participants until it was revealed at a session at the 2011 SAGEEP meeting. The estimated models are generally consistent in terms of their large-scale features, demonstrating the robustness of refraction data inversion in general, and the eight inversion algorithms in particular. When compared to the true model, all of the estimated models contain a smooth expression of its two main features: a large offset in the bedrock and the top of a steeply dipping low-velocity fault zone. The estimated models do not contain a subtle low-velocity zone and other fine-scale features, in accord with conventional wisdom. Together, the results support confidence in the reliability and robustness of modern refraction inversion and tomographic methods.

Zelt, Colin A.; Haines, Seth; Powers, Michael H.; Sheehan, Jacob; Rohdewald, Siegfried; Link, Curtis; Hayashi, Koichi; Zhao, Don; Zhou, Hua-wei; Burton, Bethany L.; Petersen, Uni K.; Bonal, Nedra D.; Doll, William E.

2013-01-01

188

THE EFFECT OF THE BREED OF WARMBLOOD MARES ON RESULTS OBTAINED DURING STATIONARY AND FIELD PERFORMANCE TESTS IN POLAND IN THE YEARS 2001-2010  

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Full Text Available The aim of the research was to determine the effect of breed on results obtained by warmblood mares during stationary and field performance tests. Research encompassed results obtained by 1490 mares participating in stationary and field performance tests in Poland in the years 2001-2010. The population was comprised of 17 breeds. Name abbreviations are displayed in Table 1. As a result of significant differences in the number of individual animals comprising each breed and in order to maintain the comparability of results, the entire population was divided into four breed groups: Half-Blood, Greater Poland, Lesser Poland and foreign breeds. Minimal and maximum score ranges were shown, as well as mathematical averages (MA and standard deviation (SD in the studied population. Statistical differences between average utility point values obtained by the horse breeds were analyzed using the Kruskal-Wallis test.

Magdalena Drewka

2013-12-01

189

Deoxygenation and the blood volume signals in the flexor carpi ulnaris and radialis muscles obtained during the execution of the Mirallas's test of judo athletes  

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The technique of execution of any movement in Judo is extremely important. The coaches want tests and tools easy to use and cheaper, to evaluate the progress of a judoist in the tatame. In this paper we present a test developed by Mirallas, which has his name 'Test of Mirallas' to evaluate the maximal power capacity of the judoist. The near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) signals were obtained to have a measurement of the metabolic work of the flexor carpi ulnaris and radialis muscles, during the execution of the ippon-seoi-nage movement, allowing this measurement to assess by NIRS the maximal oxygen uptake. Also obtained were tympanic, skin forehead, and biceps brachii temperatures during the test time and recovery phase to study the effects of ambient conditions and the post-exercise oxygen consumption. The deoxygenation and blood volume signals obtained gave different results, demonstrating the hypothesis of the coaches that some judoist do the execution of the ippon-seoi-nage movement correctly and the rest didn't. The heart rate frequency obtained in the group of judoist was between 190-207 bpm, and in the minute five of post-exercise was 114-137 bpm; the time employed in the MIrallas's test were from 7 feet 14 inches to 13 feet 49 inches, and the total of movements were from 199 to 409. The data obtained in the skin forehead, and skin biceps brachii confirms previous works that the oxygen consumption remains after exercise in the muscle studied. According to the results, the test developed by Mirallas is a good tool to evaluate the performance of judoist any time, giving better results compared with standard tests.

Verdaguer-Codina, Joan; Mirallas, J.

1996-12-01

190

Ten years of sodium cooled steam generator tests on the C.G.V.S. Synthesis of the results obtained on these equipments and operation experiments of an industrial size test facility  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

From 1970 to 1980, Electricite de France carried out tests on four steam generators of the fast neutron reactor series on an industrial size testing equipment, the C.G.V.S. (large power testing Circuit for Steam Generators heated by Sodium). After a presentation of the testing installation, types of tests carried out and tested apparatus, a balance of lessons drawn from the circuit exploitation, and from the main results obtained on the tested equipments and on the means of calculation COPI and SICLE codes developed or adopted to simulate steam generator operation. 33 figs., 50 refs

1984-01-01

191

An evaluation study of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using recombinant protein Pap31 for detection of antibody against Bartonella bacilliformis infection among the Peruvian population.  

Science.gov (United States)

Reliable laboratory testing is of great importance to detect Bartonella bacilliformis infection. We evaluated the sensitivity and specificity of the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using recombinant protein Pap31 (rPap31) for the detection of antibodies against B. bacilliformis as compared with immunofluorescent assay (IFA). Of the 302 sera collected between 1997 and 2000 among an at-risk Peruvian population, 103 and 34 samples tested positive for IFA-immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IFA-IgM, respectively. By using Youden's index, the cutoff values of ELISA-IgG at 0.915 gave a sensitivity of 84.5% and specificity of 94%. The cutoff values of ELISA-IgM at 0.634 gave a sensitivity of 88.2% and specificity of 85.1%. Using latent class analysis, estimates of sensitivity and specificity of almost all the assays were slightly higher than those of a conventional method of calculation. The test is proved beneficial for discriminating between infected and non-infected individuals with the advantage of low-cost and high-throughput capability. PMID:24515944

Angkasekwinai, Nasikarn; Atkins, Erin H; Romero, Sofia; Grieco, John; Chao, Chien Chung; Ching, Wei Mei

2014-04-01

192

Early detection of oral cancer: PAP and AgNOR staining in brush biopsies  

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Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the diagnostic accuracy of routine Papanicolaou stain (PAP) and Silver stained Nucleolar Organizer Regions (AgNOR) staining in brush biopsies taken from suspected oral lesions for early detection of oral cancer. Materials and Methods: Brush biopsies were collected from macroscopically suspicious lesions of the oral cavity of 34 patients and 10 normal-aged and sex-matched controls. The numbers of AgNORs were counted in 100 squamous epit...

Rajput Dinesh; Tupkari Jagdish

2010-01-01

193

PAP and NT5E inhibit nociceptive neurotransmission by rapidly hydrolyzing nucleotides to adenosine  

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Abstract Background Prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP) and ecto-5'-nucleotidase (NT5E, CD73) produce extracellular adenosine from the nucleotide AMP in spinal nociceptive (pain-sensing) circuits; however, it is currently unknown if these are the main ectonucleotidases that generate adenosine or how rapidly they generate adenosine. Results We found that AMP hydrolysis, when measured histochemically, was nearly abolished in dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons and lami...

2011-01-01

194

plcR papR-Independent Expression of Anthrolysin O by Bacillus anthracis?  

Science.gov (United States)

Cholesterol-dependent cytolysins (CDCs) are secreted, pore-forming toxins that are associated with pathogenesis in a variety of gram-positive bacteria. Bacillus anthracis produces anthrolysin O (ALO), a CDC that is largely responsible for the hemolytic activity of culture supernates when the bacterium is cultured in appropriate conditions. B. cereus and B. thuringiensis, species closely related to B. anthracis, produce CDCs with significant amino acid sequence homology to ALO. Transcription of the B. cereus and B. thuringiensis CDC genes is controlled by PlcR, a transcription regulator that requires a pentapeptide derived from the papR gene product for binding to a consensus sequence (PlcR box) and transcriptional activation of downstream genes. A PlcR box precedes the B. anthracis alo gene, and the B. anthracis genome contains three plcR-like genes, one of which harbors a nonsense mutation that is predicted to result in a truncated, nonfunctional protein. We detected mRNA of alo, papR, and the three plcR-like genes in spleens of B. anthracis-infected mice, indicating gene expression in vivo. Analysis of alo transcription in batch culture revealed a potential transcription start located between the PlcR box and the translational start. Nevertheless, steady-state levels of alo transcripts and ALO protein were unaffected by deletion of papR or disruption of the PlcR box. Our data indicate that despite the presence of the transcriptionally active plcR and papR genes in B. anthracis and a PlcR box in the promoter region of the alo gene, alo expression is independent of this control system.

Ross, Cana L.; Koehler, Theresa M.

2006-01-01

195

Clinical management of patients with invasive cervical cancer following a negative Pap smear.  

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Among 535 patients with invasive cervical carcinoma seen between January 1975 and June 1986, 26 were found to have developed the disease within six months (65 percent), 35 within 12 months (88 percent), 37 within 13 months (93 percent), and three developed the disease within 17 months after a negative Pap smear. Eighty-eight percent of these 40 patients were under age 40 at diagnosis. Rapidly progressive cancers are highly resistant to radiation therapy. Seven stage IB patients treated only w...

Schwartz, P. E.; Merino, M. J.; Mccrea Curnen, M. G.

1988-01-01

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PapMV nanoparticles improve mucosal immune responses to the trivalent inactivated flu vaccine  

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Background Trivalent inactivated flu vaccines (TIV) are currently the best means to prevent influenza infections. However, the protection provided by TIV is partial (about 50%) and it is needed to improve the efficacy of protection. Since the respiratory tract is the main site of influenza replications, a vaccine that triggers mucosal immunity in this region can potentially improve protection against this disease. Recently, PapMV nanoparticles used as an adjuvant in a formulation with TIV administered by the subcutaneous route have shown improving the immune response directed to the TIV and protection against an influenza challenge. Findings In the present study, we showed that intranasal instillation with a formulation containing TIV and PapMV nanoparticles significantly increase the amount of IgG, IgG2a and IgA in lungs of vaccinated mice as compared to mice that received TIV only. Instillation with the adjuvanted formulation leads to a more robust protection against an influenza infection with a strain that is lethal to mice vaccinated with the TIV. Conclusions We demonstrate for the first time that PapMV nanoparticles are an effective and potent mucosal adjuvant for vaccination.

2014-01-01

197

CNS activity of Pokeweed Anti-viral Protein (PAP) in mice infected with Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis Virus (LCMV)  

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Abstract Background Others and we have previously described the potent in vivo and in vitro activity of the broad-spectrum antiviral agent PAP (Pokeweed antiviral protein) against a wide range of viruses. The purpose of the present study was to further elucidate the anti-viral spectrum of PAP by examining its effects on the survival of mice challenged with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV). Methods We examined the therapeutic effect of ...

Uckun Fatih M; Rustamova Larisa; Vassilev Alexei O; Tibbles Heather E; Petkevich Alexander S

2005-01-01

198

Oligoribonuclease is a common downstream target of lithium-induced pAp accumulation in Escherichia coli and human cells  

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We identified Oligoribonuclease (Orn), an essential Escherichia coli protein and the only exonuclease degrading small ribonucleotides (5mer to 2mer) and its human homologue, small fragment nuclease (Sfn), in a screen for proteins that are potentially regulated by 3?-phosphoadenosine 5?-phosphate (pAp). We show that both enzymes are sensitive to micromolar amounts of pAp in vitro. We also demonstrate that Orn can degrade short DNA oligos in addition to its activity on RNA oligos, similar t...

Mechold, Undine; Ogryzko, Vasily; Ngo, Saravuth; Danchin, Antoine

2006-01-01

199

The Pap smear screening as an occasion for smoking cessation and physical activity counselling: effectiveness of the SPRINT randomized controlled trial  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The organized Cervical Cancer Screening Programme (CCSP in Italy might represent an occasion to deliver smoking cessation (SC counselling to women attending the Pap test examination. Evidence of effectiveness of physical activity (PA promotion and intervention in adjunct to SC counselling is not strong. Objective of the SPRINT trial was to evaluate the effectiveness of a standard SC counselling intervention delivered by trained midwives in the CCSP, and whether the adjunct of a PA counselling to the SC counselling might increase quit rates. Methods/Design We undertook a randomized controlled trial of 1,100 women undergoing the Pap examination in the three study centres Florence, Turin, and Mantua: 363 were randomly assigned to the SC counselling arm, 366 to the SC?+?PA counselling arm, and 371 to the control group. The intervention was a standard brief SC counselling combined with a brief counselling on increasing PA, and was tailored according to the Di Clemente-Prochaska motivational stages of change for SC and/or PA. Primary outcomes were quit rates, improvement in the motivational stages of change for SC, and reduced daily cigarette consumption. Analysis was by intention to treat. Results Participants randomized in both intervention arms and in the preparation stage of change for SC doubled their likelihood of quitting at 6-month follow-up in comparison to controls (odds ratio [OR]=2.1, 95% confidence interval [95% CI]:1.0-4.6. Moreover, participants in the intervention arms and in the contemplation stage were more likely to reduce their daily cigarette consumption after the intervention (OR=1.8, 95% CI:1.1-3.0. Our study did not show any effect of PA counselling on various outcomes. Conclusions Smoking cessation counselling delivered by midwives to smokers in preparation and contemplation stages of change during the Pap-smear screening was effective and should be recommended, given the high number of women attending the cervical cancer screening programme in Italy. Moreover, the daily number of women invited for the Pap-smear examination should be slightly lowered, in order to let midwives deliver SC counselling to smokers. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN52660565

Gorini Giuseppe

2012-09-01

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Concordance Between Hybrid Capture 2 Results Performed on Cervical Samples Obtained Before and Immediately After Visual Inspection with Acetic Acid Test  

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Background: VIA is a simple, inexpensive test widely advocated for resource-limited settings. Major limitation of VIA is its low specificity. HPV DNA testing can be used to triage VIA-positive women if the facilities are available. The major concern for such strategy would be whether sample collection after acetic acid wash will alter HPV test characteristics. This study aimed to evaluate whether samples for HPV testing by Hybrid Capture 2 (HC2) technology can be collected immediately after VIA without altering test performance. Methods: Total 204 VIA-positive women were recruited. Cervical samples were collected for HC2 test before and after VIA at the same sitting by the same provider. The paired samples were analyzed at the same laboratory by the same technician in the same batch of testing. Agreement in HC2 results between pre-VIA and post-VIA samples was estimated using kappa statistics. All women had colposcopy and biopsies were obtained if colposcopy was suspicious of neoplasia. Sensitivity and specificity of HC2 test in detecting CIN2+ lesions were calculated using negative colposcopy or biopsy as the gold standard and were compared between the pre and post VIA samples. Results: Almost perfect agreement in HC2 results (kappa=0.85) and RLU/Cut off ratios (correlation coefficient=0.92) was observed between samples collected before and after VIA. The sensitivity and specificity to detect CIN2+ lesions remained unaltered even when cervical samples were collected after VIA. This confirmed that acetic acid wash did not alter HC2 performance. Conclusions: Collection of samples for HC2 test is feasible immediately after VIA.

Basu, Partha; Samaddar, Anushree; Mittal, Srabani; Basu, Urmimala; Chatterjee, Simi; Biswas, Jaydip

2014-01-01

 
 
 
 
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Citopatológico de colo uterino entre gestantes no Sul do Brasil: um estudo transversal de base populacional / Pap smears among pregnant women in Southern Brazil: a representative cross-sectional survey  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: Determinar a prevalência e identificar fatores associados ao não rastreamento voluntário para citopatológico (CP) de colo uterino entre puérperas em Rio Grande (RS). MÉTODOS: Entrevistadores previamente treinados aplicaram questionário padronizado, ainda na maternidade, em busca de informa [...] ções sobre características demográficas da gestante, nível socioeconômico da família e tipo de assistência recebida durante o pré-natal para todas aquelas residentes nesse município que tiveram filhos entre 1º de janeiro e 31 de dezembro de 2010. Foram utilizados o teste do ?² para comparar proporções e a regressão de Poisson com ajuste robusto da variância na análise multivariável. RESULTADOS: Dentre as 2.288 entrevistadas, 33% não se submeteram ao CP de colo uterino. Destas, dois terços disseram desconhecer a necessidade de realizá-lo, 18% não fizeram este exame por medo ou vergonha e as demais por outras razões. Após ajuste para diversos fatores de confusão, as maiores razões de prevalência (RP) para não buscar por CP ocorreram entre aquelas de menor idade (RP=1,5; IC95% 1,25 - 1,80) e escolaridade (RP=1,5; IC95% 1,12 - 2,12), que viviam sem companheiro (RP=1,4; IC95% 1,24 - 1,62), fumantes (RP=1,2; IC95% 1,07 - 1,39), que não planejaram a gravidez (RP=1,3; IC95% 1,21 - 1,61), que completaram menos de seis consultas durante pré-natal (RP=1,4; IC95% 1,32 - 1,69) e usuárias de contraceptivo oral (RP=1,2; IC95% 1,04 - 1,38). CONCLUSÕES: Quanto maior o risco para câncer de colo uterino, menor a probabilidade de a gestante se submeter ao CP de colo uterino. Isso, certamente, tem contribuído para o aumento da morbimortalidade por esta doença nesta localidade. Abstract in english PURPOSE: To determine the prevalence and risk factors associated with failure of voluntary screening for cervical cancer during the gestational period in Rio Grande, Rio Grande do Sul State, Southern Brazil. METHODS: Previously trained interviewers applied a standardized questionnaire in the materni [...] ty to all mothers from this municipality who had delivered from January 1st to December 31st 2010 to obtain information about the demographic characteristics of the pregnant women, family socioeconomic status, and prenatal care received. The ?² test was used to compare proportions and Poisson regression with robust adjustment of variance was used in the multivariate analysis. RESULTS: Among the 2,288 respondents, 33% were not submitted to the Pap smear during pregnancy. Two thirds of these women stated that they were not aware of the need to perform it, 18% were not screened out of fear or shame, and the rest for other reasons. After adjustment, the highest prevalence ratios (PR) for noncompliance with the Pap smear occurred among young women (PR=1.5; 95%CI 1.25 - 1.80), with lower educational level (PR=1.5; 95%CI 1.12 - 2.12), who were living without a partner (PR=1.4; 95%CI 1.24 - 1.62), smokers (PR=1.2; 95%CI 1.07 - 1.39), who did not plan the current pregnancy (PR=1.3; 95%CI 1,21 - 1.61), who had attended less than six medical visits during the prenatal period (PR=1.4; 95%CI 1.32 - 1.69) and among users of oral contraceptives (PR=1.2; 95%CI 1.04 - 1.38). CONCLUSIONS: The higher the risk for uterine cervical cancer, the less likely a pregnant woman is to undergo a Pap smear. This definitely contributed to the increased morbidity and mortality from this disease in this setting.

Juraci Almeida, Cesar; Gabriela Breitembach dos, Santos; Andrea Tomais, Sutil; Carolina Fischer, Cunha; Samuel de Carvalho, Dumith.

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The Anal Pap Smear: Cytomorphology of squamous intraepithelial lesions  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Anal smears are increasingly being used as a screening test for anal squamous intraepithelial lesions (ASILs. This study was undertaken to assess the usefulness and limitations of anal smears in screening for ASILs. Methods The cytomorphological features of 200 consecutive anal smears collected in liquid medium from 198 patients were studied and findings were correlated with results of surgical biopsies and/or repeat smears that became available for 71 patients within six months. Results Adequate cellularity was defined as an average of 6 or more nucleated squamous cells/hpf. A glandular/transitional component was not required for adequacy. Dysplastic cells, atypical parakeratotic cells and bi/multinucleated cells were frequent findings in ASIL while koilocytes were infrequent. Smears from LSIL cases most frequently showed mildly dysplastic and bi/multinucleate squamous cells followed by parakeratotic cells (PK, atypical parakeratotic cells (APK, and koilocytes. HSIL smears contained squamous cells with features of moderate/severe dysplasia and many APKs. Features of LSIL were also found in most HSIL smears. Conclusions In this study liquid based anal smears had a high sensitivity (98% for detection of ASIL but a low specificity (50% for predicting the severity of the abnormality in subsequent biopsy. Patients with cytologic diagnoses of ASC-US and LSIL had a significant risk (46–56% of HSIL at biopsy. We suggest that all patients with a diagnosis of ASC-US and above be recommended for high resolution anoscopy with biopsy.

Arain Shehla

2005-01-01

203

Secondary prevention of cervical cancer part 2: initial management of abnormal cervical cancer screening test.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cervical cancer screening has become more complex with the addition of HPV testing to pap testing. This chapter covers evidence based national recommendations for managing abnormal cervical cancer screening tests. PMID:24785417

Guido, Richard

2014-06-01

204

pap-2-encoded fimbriae adhere to the P blood group-related glycosphingolipid stage-specific embryonic antigen 4 in the human kidney.  

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A subtype of P fimbriae, encoded by the pap-2 gene cluster, has been analyzed for agglutination of erythrocytes and for binding to cryostat sections of the human kidney. We have demonstrated that pap-2-encoded fimbriae are capable of binding to erythrocytes from some animal species and to human erythrocytes which express globoside and the LKE (stage-specific embryonic antigen 4 [SSEA-4]) antigen. The pap-2 fimbriae bind to Bowman's capsule in the human kidney. Monoclonal antibodies directed a...

Karr, J. F.; Nowicki, B. J.; Truong, L. D.; Hull, R. A.; Moulds, J. J.; Hull, S. I.

1990-01-01

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Bacterial curli protein promotes the conversion of PAP248-286 into the amyloid SEVI: cross-seeding of dissimilar amyloid sequences  

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Fragments of prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP248-286) in human semen dramatically increase HIV infection efficiency by increasing virus adhesion to target cells. PAP248-286 only enhances HIV infection in the form of amyloid aggregates termed SEVI (Semen Enhancer of Viral Infection), however monomeric PAP248-286 aggregates very slowly in isolation. It has therefore been suggested that SEVI fiber formation in vivo may be promoted by exogenous factors. We show here that a bacterially-produced ext...

Hartman, Kevin; Brender, Jeffrey R.; Monde, Kazuaki; Ono, Akira; Evans, Margery l; Popovych, Nataliya; Chapman, Matthew R.; Ramamoorthy, Ayyalusamy

2013-01-01

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Análise da cobertura e dos exames colpocitológicos não retirados de uma Unidade Básica de Saúde Análisis de la cobertura y de los exámenes de papanicolaou no retirados de una Unidad Basica de Salud Analysis of coverage and of the pap test exams not retired of a Basic Health Unit  

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Full Text Available Analisar a cobertura e os exames colpocitológicos não retirados de uma Unidade de Saúde. Pesquisa documental retrospectiva, na qual foram avaliados os dados de cobertura de 2007 e os 225 exames realizados e não retirados da unidade até janeiro de 2008. Para a análise estatística foi aplicado o cálculo da freqüência das variáveis pesquisadas. A média mensal de exames realizados foi de 102,6 exames. A cobertura do exame em 2007 foi de 11,22% entre as mulheres de 25 a 59 anos. Dos 938 exames realizados entre fevereiro e novembro de 2007, 225 (23,98% mulheres não receberam o resultado. A maioria das mulheres (67,5%, que realizou o exame e não retornou, tinha até 30 anos de idade. O não retorno das mulheres para receber o resultado do exame dificulta o acompanhamento, a integralidade e continuidade da assistência, contribuindo para uma intervenção em fases mais avançadas da doença.Analizar la cobertura y los resultados de los exámenes colpocitológicos no retirados de una Unidad de Salud. Investigación documental retrospectiva, en la que fueron evaluados los datos de cobertura de 2007 y las 225 pruebas realizadas y no retiradas en la unidad hasta enero de 2008. Para el análisis estadístico se utilizó el cálculo de la frecuencia de las variables estudiadas. El promedio mensual de exámenes efectuados fue 102,6. La cobertura del examen en 2007 fue del 11,22% entre las mujeres de 25 a 59 años. Sobre los 938 análisis realizados entre febrero y noviembre de 2007, 225 (23,98% mujeres no retiraron el resultado. La mayoría de las mujeres (67,5% que llevaron a cabo el examen y no retornaron tenían 30 años de edad o menos. El no retorno de la mujer a recibir el resultado del examen dificulta el seguimiento, la integralidad y la continuidad de la atención, lo cual aumenta la posibilidad de una intervención en etapas más avanzadas de la enfermedad.To analyze the coverage and the colpocytology exams that were not collected from a Health Center. This is a retrospective documentary study, in which the data were evaluated for coverage of 2007 and all 225 tests that were performed but were not collected by the patients unit until January 2008. Statistical analysis was performed using the frequency of the studied variables. The average monthly number of tests was 102.6 examinations. The coverage of the examination in 2007 was 11.22% among women with 25 to 59 years of age. Of the 938 tests conducted between February and November 2007, 225 (23.98% women did not receive the result. Most women (67.5% who performed the examination and had not returned were 30 years old or younger. The women's attitude of not returning to collect their exam results increases the difficulty of follow up, and providing comprehensive and continuity of care, contributing with an intervention in advanced stages of the disease.

Camila Teixeira Moreira Vasconcelos

2010-06-01

207

Liquid-based cytological test of samples obtained by catheter aspiration is applicable for the bronchoscopic confirmation of pulmonary malignant tumors.  

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The aim of the present study is to confirm the value of electronic bronchoscopy-aided catheter aspiration technique with liquid-based cytological test in the diagnosis of bronchogenic carcinoma. A total of 815 patients of lung cancer were evaluated by bronchoscopy between February 2011 and June 2012. Catheter aspiration technique and forceps biopsy during bronchoscopy were employed to obtain adequate tissue specimens. Liquid-based cytological test and conventional smears for catheter aspiration were used for cytological detection of the tumors. For all cytological specimens, slide preparations with LCT and CS were reviewed by two senior pathologists, who were blinded to patient medical history. Complications related to electronic bronchoscopy, such as bleeding, were clinically judged as light, moderate or severe by the needs for clinical interventions. The diagnostic yield of catheter aspiration in endobronchial visible lesions (tumor, infiltrative and necrotic lesions) was 94.6% (success rates concerning malignancy), which was slightly higher than that of the forceps biopsy (91.4%, P cytological analysis of the catheter aspiration increased the diagnostic sensitivity in both lesion types (P positive rate of lung cancer by liquid-based cytological test was superior to that by conventional smears (P cytological test is routinely applicable for the diagnosis of lung cancer using samples collected through electronic bronchoscopy. PMID:24966963

Li, Dai-Rong; Wan, Tao; Su, Yi; Ding, Min; Wu, Jin-Xing; Zhao, Yong

2014-01-01

208

Knowledge Attitude and Practice of Women in Shiraz about Cervical Cancer and Pap Smear 2009  

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Full Text Available Background: Cervical cancer is one of the prevalent and mortal cancers. The aim of the study is to assess knowledge, attitude and practice of women toward this cancer and Pap smear.Methods: We carried out a cross-sectional study among 402 women through a questionnaire with 5 socio-demographic parameters and 14 questions about knowledge, attitude and practice. We aimed to know how knowledge, attitude and practice are affected by socio-demographic status and how practice is affected by knowledge and attitude.Results: The mean score was 4.09. Knowledge and age did not correlate directly. Old aged women had the best knowledge. As the number of children rose, knowledge deteriorated, vice versa about the age of marriage and education. The clerks were better than housewives and businesswomen. Just 3.5% did not consider the regular Pap as necessary (with the lower educational level. Almost 99% intended to get more information. The minority (28.1% had the incorrect attitude toward the curability of the cancer. Most of the women referred to do Pap due to health center personnel’s advice. About 80% had undesired practice.Discussion: The educated ones had more appropriate and optimistic incorrect attitude compared to the uneducated ones. As more years pass from the age of marriage, practice gets worse. All the newly married women had the desired practice, correct attitude and intended to get more information. All the women who knew it unnecessary had undesired practice. Women with the desired practice had 9% more correct attitude and 9% more optimistic incorrect attitude compared to the undesirably practicing ones. Totally, practice is not much influenced by attitude.

Hadi N

2010-07-01

209

[Gas chromatographic determination of camphor, menthol, methyl salicylate, thymol in JEIL COOL PAP].  

Science.gov (United States)

The contents of camphor, menthol, methyl salicylate and thymol in JEIL COOL PAP were determined with gas chromatography by using a stainless steel column (2 m x 3 mm i.d.) packed with 15% DEGS, Chromosorb W (AW-DMCS) 80-100 mesh. Temperature programming was from 70 degrees C to 180 degrees C. The quantitative determination was performed with diphenyl as the internal standard. The internal standard method showed good linearity (r = 0.9995-0.9999). The average recoveries were 99.63% (camphor), 99.83% (menthol), 100.0% (methyl salicylate) and 100.4% (thymol). PMID:12541573

Qian, X P; Zhao, Y Z; Li, Z H

2000-05-01

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Pap Smear  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... make sure to ask your doctor about it. Smoking has also been linked to cervical cancer. This ... an excellent reason to refrain from or stop smoking! This document is for informational purposes and is ...

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Pap Smear  

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Full Text Available ... extremely helpful in preventing sexually transmitted diseases. A vaccine against some types of the human papilloma viruses ... to the development of cervical cancer. Taking the vaccine helps prevent cervical cancer. If you have not ...

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Pap Smear  

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Full Text Available ... doctor or healthcare professional or a recommendation for any particular treatment plan. Like any printed material, it may become out of date ... doctor or healthcare professional or a recommendation for any particular treatment plan. Like any printed material, it ...

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Pap smear  

Science.gov (United States)

... lead to cancer LSIL (low-grade dysplasia) or HSIL (high-grade dysplasia): This means precancerous changes are ... The risk of cervical cancer is greater with HSIL Carcinoma in situ (CIS): This result usually means ...

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Pap Smear  

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Full Text Available ... Some sexually transmitted diseases are associated with the development of cancer of the cervix, also called cervical ... available. These viruses have been linked to the development of cervical cancer. Taking the vaccine helps prevent ...

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Pap Smear  

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Full Text Available ... why it is beneficial. Ovaries Fallopian Tubes Uterus Vagina Anatomy This document is for informational purposes and ... 2012 1 The female reproductive organs include: • The vagina • The uterus • The Fallopian tubes • The ovaries These ...

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Pap Smear  

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Full Text Available ... are located in the pelvis, between the urinary bladder and the rectum. The ovaries have 2 main ... body between the urethra, which is the urinary bladder opening, and the rectum. Diseases of the Cervix ...

217

Pancreatic stone protein (PSP) and pancreatitis-associated protein (PAP): a protocol of a cohort study on the diagnostic efficacy and prognostic value of PSP and PAP as postoperative markers of septic complications in patients undergoing abdominal surgery (PSP study)  

Science.gov (United States)

Introduction Major abdominal surgery leads to a postoperative systemic inflammatory response, making it difficult to discriminate patients with systemic inflammatory response syndrome from those with a beginning postoperative infectious complication. At present, physicians have to rely on their clinical experience to differentiate between the two. Pancreatic stone protein (PSP) and pancreatitis-associated protein (PAP), both secretory proteins produced by the pancreas, are dramatically increased during pancreatic disease and have been shown to act as acute-phase proteins. Increased levels of PSP have been detected in polytrauma patients developing sepsis and PSP has shown a high diagnostic accuracy in discriminating the severity of peritonitis and in predicting death in intensive care unit patients. However, the prognostic value of PSP/PAP for infectious complications among patients undergoing major abdominal surgery is unknown. Methods and analysis 160 patients undergoing major abdominal surgery will be recruited preoperatively. On the day before surgery, baseline blood values are attained. Following surgery, daily blood samples for measuring regular inflammatory markers (c-reactive protein, procalcitonin, interleukin-6, tumour necrosis factor-? and leucocyte counts) and PSP/PAP will be acquired. PSP/PAP will be measured using a validated ELISA developed in our research laboratory. Patient's discharge marks the end of his/her trial participation. Complication grade including mortality and occurrence of infectious postoperative complications according to validated diagnostic criteria will be correlated with PSP/PAP values. Total intensive care unit days and total length of stay will be recorded as further outcome parameters. Ethics and dissemination The PSP trial is a prospective monocentric cohort study evaluating the prognostic value of PSP and PAP for postoperative infectious complications. In addition, a comparison with established inflammatory markers in patients undergoing major abdominal surgery will be performed to help evaluate the role of these proteins in predicting and diagnosing infectious and other postoperative complications. Institution ethics board approval ID KEKZH-Nr. STV 11-2009. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01258179.

Fisher, Oliver Maximilian; Oberkofler, Christian Eugen; Raptis, Dimitri Aristotle; Soll, Christopher; Bechir, Markus; Schiesser, Marc; Graf, Rolf

2014-01-01

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Combined Hierarchical Watershed Segmentation and SVM Classification for Pap Smear Cell Nucleus Extraction / Extracción de núcleos de células en imágenes de la prueba de Papanicolaou usando watershed jerárquico y máquinas de vectores soporte  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: English Abstract in spanish En el presente trabajo se presenta un método en dos etapas para la segmentación y clasificación de núcleos de células en imágenes tomadas de la prueba de Papanicolaou. La primera etapa, la etapa de segmentación, está formada por un algoritmo morfológico (watershed o marcas de agua) y un algoritmo je [...] rárquico de mezclado (waterfall o salto de agua). Para realizar el mezclado de regiones, waterfall usa información espectral, de forma y de las regiones que se separarán. En la segunda etapa, la etapa de clasificación, el objetivo es obtener los núcleos a partir de las clasificaciones de las regiones obtenidas en la primera etapa. Antes de realizar la clasificación, fueron probadas tres medidas no supervisadas de calidad de la segmentación para determinar el mejor resultado de la mezcla de regiones. La clasificación de las regiones se realizó usando Máquinas de Vector Soporte. Los resultados fueron comparados con las segmentaciones realizadas por patólogos demostrándose la eficacia del método propuesto. Abstract in english In this paper, we propose a two-phase approach to nuclei segmentation/classification in Pap smear test images. The first phase, the segmentation phase, includes a morphological algorithm (watershed) and a hierarchical merging algorithm (waterfall). In the merging step, waterfall uses spectral and sh [...] ape information as well as the class information. In the second phase, classification, the goal is to obtain nucleus regions and cytoplasm areas by classifying the regions resulting from the first phase based on their spectral and shape features, merging of the adjacent regions belonging to the same class. Between the two phases, three unsupervised segmentation quality criteria were tested in order to determine the best one selecting the best level after merging. The classification of individual regions is obtained using a Support Vector Machine (SVM) classifier. The segmentation and classification results are compared to the segmentation provided by expert pathologists and demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed method.

Maykel, Orozco-Monteagudo; Cosmin, Mihai; Hichem, Sahli; Alberto, Taboada-Crispi.

219

Determination of crack arrest toughness in A508 CL.3 forging steel from ASTM E1221-88 procedure. Comparison with the values obtained from thermal loading tests  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A crack arrest study is under way at Electricite de France as part of the analysis of the risk of fast fracture of PWR vessels in emergency conditions. The first objective of this study is to evaluate the toughness which characterizes crack arrest through tests on reduced-size specimens. Some of the tests on a forging steel (A508 Cl.3) were conducted in conformity with two experimental methods. One method recommended by the ASTM calls for the use of an imposed-displacement mechanical loading on specimens kept under homogeneous temperature. Since the stress intensity factor K applied to the outside loading decreases along the crack growth, we can observe the arrest of the crack. In order to obtain brittle crack initiations in cleavage in the whole studied range of temperature and crack propagation of a sufficient length, the application of a weld point at the top of the notch is done. The other experimental method is based on a thermal loading. It requires the use of a disk or a cylinder with a longitudinal initial crack of the external surface. We dip this specimen in liquid nitrogen and we heat its internal surface with inducing current. There is a temperature gradient in the thickness of the specimen which produces a stress field which tends to open the crack. When the value of K is reached the crack initiation takes place. Several phenomena act to oppose the crack growth, they even go as far as stopping it. First the value of K, after increasing, gets steady then decreases, then, the rate of energy dissipated by plasticity at the top of the crack increases because the crack meets warmer and warmer areas on its way. The arrest toughness values which were obtained were then analyzed and compared to one another and with values proposed by RCC-m code. (authors). 12 refs., 11 figs., 3 tabs

1994-01-01

220

Manduca sexta prophenoloxidase (proPO) activation requires proPO-activating proteinase (PAP) and serine proteinase homologs (SPHs) simultaneously  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In the tobacco hornworm Manduca sexta, proteolytic activation of prophenoloxidase (proPO) is mediated by three proPO-activating proteinases (PAPs) and two serine proteinase homologs (SPHs) (Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 95 (1998) 12220–12225; J. Biol. Chem. 278 (2003a) 3552–3561; Insect Biochem. Mol. Biol. 33 (2003b) 1049–1060). While our current data are consistent with the hypothesis that the SPHs serve as a cofactor/anchor for PAPs (Insect Biochemistry and Mole...

Gupta, Snehalata; Wang, Yang; Jiang, Haobo

2005-01-01

 
 
 
 
221

NMR Structure in a Membrane Environment Reveals Putative Amyloidogenic Regions of the SEVI Precursor Peptide PAP248–286  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Semen is the main vector for HIV transmission worldwide. Recently, a peptide fragment (PAP248–286) has been isolated from seminal fluid that dramatically enhances HIV infectivity by up to four to five orders of magnitude. PAP248–286 appears to enhance HIV infection by forming amyloid fibers known as SEVI, which are believed to enhance the attachment of the virus by bridging interactions between virion and host-cell membranes. We have solved the atomic-level resolution structure of the SEV...

Nanga, Ravi P.; Brender, Jeffrey R.; Vivekanandan, Subramanian; Popovych, Nataliya; Ramamoorthy, Ayyalusamy

2009-01-01

222

PapD chaperone function in pilus biogenesis depends on oxidant and chaperone-like activities of DsbA.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Adhesive P pili of uropathogenic Escherichia coli were not assembled by a strain that lacks the periplasmic disulfide isomerase DsbA. This defect was mostly attributed to the immunoglobulin-like pilus chaperone PapD, which possesses an unusual intrasheet disulfide bond between the last two beta-strands of its CD4-like carboxyl-terminal domain. The DsbA-dependent formation of this disulfide bond was critical for PapD's proper folding in vivo. Interestingly, the absence of the disulfide bond di...

1994-01-01

223

Pharmacokinetics, toxicity and functional studies of the selective Kv1.3 channel blocker PAP-1 in rhesus macaques1  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The small molecule PAP-1 (5-(4-phenoxybutoxy)psoralen) is a selective blocker of the voltage-gated potassium channel Kv1.3 that is highly expressed in cell membranes of activated effector memory T-cells (TEM). The blockade of Kv1.3 results in membrane depolarization and inhibition of TEM cell proliferation and function. In this study, the in vitro effects of PAP-1 on rhesus macaques (RM) T cells and the in vivo toxicity and pharmacokinetics (PK) were examined in RM with the ultimate aim of ut...

Pereira, L. E.; Villinger, F.; Wulff, H.; Sankaranarayanan, A.; Raman, G.; Ansari, A. A.

2007-01-01

224

Sensitive valence structures of [(pap)(2)Ru(Q)](n) (n = +2, +1, 0, -1, -2) with two different redox noninnocent ligands, Q = 3,5-Di-tert-butyl-N-aryl-1,2-benzoquinonemonoimine and pap = 2-phenylazopyridine.  

Science.gov (United States)

The complexes [(pap)(2)Ru(Q)]ClO(4), [1]ClO(4)-[4]ClO(4), with two different redox noninnocent ligands, Q = 3,5-di-tert-butyl-N-aryl-1,2-benzoquinonemonoimine (-aryl = m-(Cl)(2)C(6)H(3) (1(+)), C(6)H(5) (2(+)), m-(OCH(3))(2)C(6)H(3) (3(+)), and m-((t)Bu)(2)C(6)H(3) (4(+))) and pap = 2-phenylazopyridine, have been synthesized and characterized using various analytical techniques. The single-crystal X-ray structure of the representative [2]ClO(4).C(7)H(8) exhibits multiple intermolecular C-H...O hydrogen bondings and C-H...pi interactions. The C1-O1 = 1.287(4) (density functional theory, DFT, 1.311) and C6-N1 = 1.320(4) (DFT, 1.353) A and intraring bond distances associated with the sensitive quinine (Q) moiety along with the azo(pap) bond distances, N3-N4 = 1.278(4) (DFT, 1.297) and N6-N7 = 1.271(4) (DFT, 1.289) A, in 2(+) justify the [(pap)(2)Ru(II)(Q(*-))](+) valence configuration at the native state of 1(+)-4(+). Consequently, Mulliken spin densities on Q, pap, and Ru in 2(+) are calculated to be 0.8636, 0.1040, and 0.0187, respectively, and 1(+)-4(+) exhibit free radical sharp EPR spectra and one weak and broad transition around 1000 nm in CH(3)CN due to interligand transition involving a singly occupied molecular orbital (SOMO) of Q(*-) and the vacant pi* orbital of pap. Compounds 1(+)-4(+) undergo a quasi-reversible oxidation and three successive reductions. The valence structure of the electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR)-inactive oxidized state in 1(2+)-4(2+) has been established as [(pap)(2)Ru(II)(Q degrees )](2+) instead of the alternate formalism of antiferromagnetically coupled [(pap)(2)Ru(III)(Q(*-))](2+) on the basis of the DFT calculations on the optimized 2(+), which predict that the singly occupied molecular orbital is primarily composed of Q with 77% contribution. Accordingly, the optimized structure of 2(2+) predicts shorter C1-O1 (1.264) and C6-N1 (1.317 A) distances and longer Ru1-O1 (2.080) and Ru1-N1 (2.088 A) distances. Compounds 1(2+)-4(2+) exhibit the lowest energy transitions around 600 nm, corresponding to Ru(dpi)/Q(pi) --> pap(pi*). The presence of two sets of strongly pi-acceptor ligands, pap and Q, in 1(2+)-4(2+) stabilizes the Ru(II) state to a large extent such that the further oxidation of {Ru(II)-Q degrees } --> {Ru(III)-Q degrees } has not been detected within +2.0 V versus a saturated calomel electrode. The EPR-inactive reduced states 1-4 have been formulated as [(pap)(2)Ru(II)(Q(2-))] over the antiferromagnetically coupled alternate configuration, [(pap)(pap(*-))Ru(II)(Q(*-))]. The optimized structure of 2 predicts sensitive C1-O1 and C6-N1 bond distances of 1.337 and 1.390 A, respectively, close to the doubly reduced Q(2-) state, whereas the N horizontal lineN distances of pap, N3-N4 = 1.299 and N6-N7 = 1.306 A, remain close to the neutral state. In corroboration with the doubly reduced Q(2-) state, 1-4 exhibit a moderately strong interligand pi(Q(2-)) --> pi*(pap) transition in the near-IR region near 1300 nm. The subsequent two reductions are naturally centered around the azo functions of the pap ligands. PMID:19769396

Das, Dipanwita; Mondal, Tapan Kumar; Mobin, Shaikh M; Lahiri, Goutam Kumar

2009-10-19

225

pap-2-encoded fimbriae adhere to the P blood group-related glycosphingolipid stage-specific embryonic antigen 4 in the human kidney.  

Science.gov (United States)

A subtype of P fimbriae, encoded by the pap-2 gene cluster, has been analyzed for agglutination of erythrocytes and for binding to cryostat sections of the human kidney. We have demonstrated that pap-2-encoded fimbriae are capable of binding to erythrocytes from some animal species and to human erythrocytes which express globoside and the LKE (stage-specific embryonic antigen 4 [SSEA-4]) antigen. The pap-2 fimbriae bind to Bowman's capsule in the human kidney. Monoclonal antibodies directed against glycosphingolipids were used for the detection of specific P blood group-related antigens in the human kidney and on erythrocytes. Preincubation of kidney sections with monoclonal antibody MC813-70, which binds to the SSEA-4 antigen, inhibited adherence of purified pap-2-encoded fimbriae to Bowman's capsule. We suggest that one receptor for pap-2-encoded fimbriae is the antigen known as LKE (Luke) on human erythrocytes or SSEA-4 in the tissues. PMID:1979319

Karr, J F; Nowicki, B J; Truong, L D; Hull, R A; Moulds, J J; Hull, S I

1990-12-01

226

Four-center oxidation state combinations and near-infrared absorption in [Ru(pap)(Q)2]n (Q = 3,5-di-tert-butyl-N-aryl-1,2-benzoquinonemonoimine, pap = 2-phenylazopyridine).  

Science.gov (United States)

The complex series [Ru(pap)(Q)2](n) ([1](n)-[4](n); n = +2, +1, 0, -1, -2) contains four redox non-innocent entities: one ruthenium ion, 2-phenylazopyridine (pap), and two o-iminoquinone moieties, Q = 3,5-di-tert-butyl-N-aryl-1,2-benzoquinonemonoimine (aryl = C6H5 (1(+)); m-(Cl)2C6H3 (2(+)); m-(OCH3)2C6H3 (3(+)); m-(tBu)2C6H3 (4(+))). A crystal structure determination of the representative compound, [1]ClO4, established the crystallization of the ctt-isomeric form, that is, cis and trans with respect to the mutual orientations of O and N donors of two Q ligands, and the coordinating azo N atom trans to the O donor of Q. The sensitive C-O (average: 1.299(3)?Å), C-N (average: 1.346(4)?Å) and intra-ring C-C (meta; average: 1.373(4)?Å) bond lengths of the coordinated iminoquinone moieties in corroboration with the N-N length (1.292(3)?Å) of pap in 1(+) establish [Ru(III)(pap(0))(Q(·-))2 ](+) as the most appropriate electronic structural form. The coupling of three spins from one low-spin ruthenium(III) (t2g(5)) and two Q(·-) radicals in 1(+)-4(+) gives a ground state with one unpaired electron on Q(·-), as evident from g = 1.995 radical-type EPR signals for 1(+)-4(+). Accordingly, the DFT-calculated Mulliken spin densities of 1(+) (1.152 for two Q, Ru: -0.179, pap: 0.031) confirm Q-based spin. Complex ions 1(+)-4(+) exhibit two near-IR absorption bands at about ? = 2000 and 920?nm in addition to intense multiple transitions covering the visible to UV regions; compounds [1]ClO4-[4]ClO4 undergo one oxidation and three separate reduction processes within ±2.0?V versus SCE. The crystal structure of the neutral (one-electron reduced) state (2) was determined to show metal-based reduction and an EPR signal at g = 1.996. The electronic transitions of the complexes 1(n)-4(n) (n = +2, +1, 0, -1, -2) in the UV, visible, and NIR regions, as determined by using spectroelectrochemistry, have been analyzed by TD-DFT calculations and reveal significant low-energy absorbance (?max >1000?nm) for cations, anions, and neutral forms. The experimental studies in combination with DFT calculations suggest the dominant valence configurations of 1(n)-4(n) in the accessible redox states to be [Ru(III)(pap(0))(Q(·-))(Q(0))](2+) (1(2+)-4(2+))?[Ru(III)(pap(0))(Q(·-))2](+) (1(+)-4(+))?[Ru(II)(pap(0))(Q(·-))2] (1-4)?[Ru(II)(pap(·-))(Q(·-))2](-) (1(-)-4(-))?[Ru(III)(pap(·-))(Q(2-))2](2-) (1(2-)-4(2-)). PMID:23576220

Das, Dipanwita; Agarwala, Hemlata; Chowdhury, Abhishek Dutta; Patra, Tuhin; Mobin, Shaikh M; Sarkar, Biprajit; Kaim, Wolfgang; Lahiri, Goutam Kumar

2013-06-01

227

The Dual-Targeted Purple Acid Phosphatase Isozyme AtPAP26 Is Essential for Efficient Acclimation of Arabidopsis to Nutritional Phosphate Deprivation12[W][OA  

Science.gov (United States)

Induction of intracellular and secreted acid phosphatases (APases) is a widespread response of orthophosphate (Pi)-starved (?Pi) plants. APases catalyze Pi hydrolysis from a broad range of phosphomonoesters at an acidic pH. The largest class of nonspecific plant APases is comprised of the purple APases (PAPs). Although the biochemical properties, subcellular location, and expression of several plant PAPs have been described, their physiological functions have not been fully resolved. Recent biochemical studies indicated that AtPAP26, one of 29 PAPs encoded by the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) genome, is the predominant intracellular APase, as well as a major secreted APase isozyme up-regulated by ?Pi Arabidopsis. An atpap26 T-DNA insertion mutant lacking AtPAP26 transcripts and 55-kD immunoreactive AtPAP26 polypeptides exhibited: (1) 9- and 5-fold lower shoot and root APase activity, respectively, which did not change in response to Pi starvation, (2) a 40% decrease in secreted APase activity during Pi deprivation, (3) 35% and 50% reductions in free and total Pi concentration, respectively, as well as 5-fold higher anthocyanin levels in shoots of soil-grown ?Pi plants, and (4) impaired shoot and root development when subjected to Pi deficiency. By contrast, no deleterious influence of AtPAP26 loss of function occurred under Pi-replete conditions, or during nitrogen or potassium-limited growth, or oxidative stress. Transient expression of AtPAP26-mCherry in Arabidopsis suspension cells verified that AtPAP26 is targeted to the cell vacuole. Our results confirm that AtPAP26 is a principal contributor to Pi stress-inducible APase activity, and that it plays an important role in the Pi metabolism of ?Pi Arabidopsis.

Hurley, Brenden A.; Tran, Hue T.; Marty, Naomi J.; Park, Joonho; Snedden, Wayne A.; Mullen, Robert T.; Plaxton, William C.

2010-01-01

228

Effect of sulfhydryl-deficient diets on hepatic metallothionein, glutathione, and adenosine 3'-phosphate 5'-phosphosulfate (PAPS) levels in rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

Low dietary concentrations of methionine and cysteine are known to decrease hepatic glutathione content. However, it is not known if restricting the dietary content of these sulfur containing amino acids also affects hepatic levels of adenosine 3'-phosphate 5'-phosphosulfate (PAPS), the cofactor for sulfation, or metallothionein, a protein rich in sulfhydryl groups. Rats were fed diets lacking cysteine and containing various concentrations of methionine (0.15, 0.3, or 0.6%) for 8 days. Control diet contained 0.3% each of methionine and cysteine. Hepatic glutathione levels were decreased approximately 75% in rats fed diets containing 0.15 or 0.3% methionine. In contrast, PAPS and hepatic metallothionein concentrations were not decreased by the low sulfhydryl diets. Additionally, rats on the various diets were challenged by the administration of ZnCl2 (3 mmol/kg. sc). In both control rats and rats maintained on sulfhydryl-deficient diets, ZnCl2 increased hepatic metallothionein to the same level. However, significantly lower levels of PAPS were observed after ZnCl2 in rats receiving sulfhydryl-deficient diets than in controls. In summary, restriction of dietary sulfhydryl markedly decreases the hepatic content of glutathione and has a minor effect on PAPS concentration, but does not decrease the basal hepatic concentration of metallothionein or its induction by ZnCl2. PMID:2300970

Sendelbach, L E; White, C A; Howell, S; Gregus, Z; Klaassen, C D

1990-02-01

229

A heterodimer of human 3'-phospho-adenosine-5'-phosphosulphate (PAPS) synthases is a new sulphate activating complex  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

3'-Phospho-adenosine-5'-phosphosulphate (PAPS) synthases are fundamental to mammalian sulphate metabolism. These enzymes have recently been linked to a rising number of human diseases. Despite many studies, it is not yet understood how the mammalian PAPS synthases 1 and 2 interact with each other. We provide first evidence for heterodimerisation of these two enzymes by pull-down assays and Foerster resonance energy transfer (FRET) measurements. Kinetics of dimer dissociation/association indicates that these heterodimers form as soon as PAPSS1 and -S2 encounter each other in solution. Affinity of the homo- and heterodimers were found to be in the low nanomolar range using anisotropy measurements employing proteins labelled with the fluorescent dye IAEDANS that - in spite of its low quantum yield - is well suited for anisotropy due to its large Stokes shift. Within its kinase domain, the PAPS synthase heterodimer displays similar substrate inhibition by adenosine-5'-phosphosulphate (APS) as the homodimers. Due to divergent catalytic efficacies of PAPSS1 and -S2, the heterodimer might be a way of regulating PAPS synthase function within mammalian cells.

2010-05-07

230

Tamizaje en cáncer cervical: conocimiento de la utilidad y uso de citología cervical en México Cervical cancer screening: knowledge of Pap smear benefits and utilization in Mexico  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Identificar y evaluar los factores que predisponen a la utilización de la prueba de Papanicolaou en la población que usa el servicio del Programa Nacional de Detección Oportuna de Cáncer en México. MÉTODOS: Se realizó un estudio del tipo transversal de enero de 1997 a diciembre de 1998, en la Ciudad de México; se incluyeron a 2.107 mujeres en edad reproductiva que acudieron a un servicio de planificación familiar, las cuáles respondieron a un cuestionario con preguntas sobre características: sociodemográficas, factores de riesgo reproductivo asociados a cáncer cervical, historia de vida sexual, uso de métodos anticonceptivos, conocimiento de la utilidad y utilización del Papanicolaou. Para el análisis de los datos se construyeron modelos multivariados de regresión logística no condicional. RESULTADOS: Los predisponentes de utilización del programa de detección oportuna de cáncer en esta población fueron: el conocimiento de la utilidad del Papanicolaou incrementó en seis veces más la posibilidad de utilización (IC 95% 4,70-7,67; el antecedente de utilización de dos o más métodos de planificación familiar (OR=2,38; IC 95% 1,75-3,24; el antecedente de historia de infección vaginal (OR=2,18; IC 95% 1,73-2,75, y la aceptación del esposo para la realización de exploraciones ginecológicas (OR=1,56; IC 95% 1,07-2,29. CONCLUSIONES: La implementación de programas educativos en la prevención de cáncer, deberán incluir la utilidad de las pruebas de detección. En México, en mujeres en edad reproductiva utilización de la prueba de Papanicolaou se ofrece predominantemente en forma oportunista, por lo que el antecedente de utilización de los Servicios de Salud es un determinante para la utilización del Programa de Detección Oportuna de Cáncer Cervical. Estos resultados muestran la necesidad de ampliar la promoción a la salud de este programa a las mujeres de alto riesgo, incluyendo a sus parejas sexuales.OBJECTIVE: To identify and evaluate the predisposing factors regarding the utilization of the Pap smears in the population seen in the Cervical Cancer Screening Program in Mexico METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted from January 1997 through December 1998 in Mexico city. A questionnaire was applied to a total of 2,107 women of reproductive age who attended a family planning program and data was collected regarding the following topics: social-demographics, reproductive risk factors associated with cervical cancer, sexual behavior and partner history, birth control, knowledge about Pap smear' benefits, and its utilization. Statistic analysis was conducted using Student´s test and non-conditional multiple logistic regression model for determining significance. RESULTS: The predisposing factors were: knowledge about Pap smear's benefits (OR=6.00, CI 95% 4.70-7.67, history of using at least two birth control methods (OR=2.38, CI 95% 1.75-3.24, previous history of vaginal infection (OR=2.18, CI 95% 1.73-2.75, sexual partner's approval of gynecological examinations (OR=1.56, CI 95% 1.07-2.29. CONCLUSIONS: Educational programs on cancer prevention in this population should include the benefits of screening tests. Pap smears for Mexican women of reproductive age are mostly offered opportunely. The previous use of health services is a determinant factor for the utilization of the Cervical Cancer Screening Program. These results show the need to strengthen health promotion programs to women at high risk of cervical cancer and their sexual partners.

José A Aguilar-Pérez

2003-02-01

231

Tamizaje en cáncer cervical: conocimiento de la utilidad y uso de citología cervical en México / Cervical cancer screening: knowledge of Pap smear benefits and utilization in Mexico  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish OBJETIVO: Identificar y evaluar los factores que predisponen a la utilización de la prueba de Papanicolaou en la población que usa el servicio del Programa Nacional de Detección Oportuna de Cáncer en México. MÉTODOS: Se realizó un estudio del tipo transversal de enero de 1997 a diciembre de 1998, en [...] la Ciudad de México; se incluyeron a 2.107 mujeres en edad reproductiva que acudieron a un servicio de planificación familiar, las cuáles respondieron a un cuestionario con preguntas sobre características: sociodemográficas, factores de riesgo reproductivo asociados a cáncer cervical, historia de vida sexual, uso de métodos anticonceptivos, conocimiento de la utilidad y utilización del Papanicolaou. Para el análisis de los datos se construyeron modelos multivariados de regresión logística no condicional. RESULTADOS: Los predisponentes de utilización del programa de detección oportuna de cáncer en esta población fueron: el conocimiento de la utilidad del Papanicolaou incrementó en seis veces más la posibilidad de utilización (IC 95% 4,70-7,67); el antecedente de utilización de dos o más métodos de planificación familiar (OR=2,38; IC 95% 1,75-3,24); el antecedente de historia de infección vaginal (OR=2,18; IC 95% 1,73-2,75), y la aceptación del esposo para la realización de exploraciones ginecológicas (OR=1,56; IC 95% 1,07-2,29). CONCLUSIONES: La implementación de programas educativos en la prevención de cáncer, deberán incluir la utilidad de las pruebas de detección. En México, en mujeres en edad reproductiva utilización de la prueba de Papanicolaou se ofrece predominantemente en forma oportunista, por lo que el antecedente de utilización de los Servicios de Salud es un determinante para la utilización del Programa de Detección Oportuna de Cáncer Cervical. Estos resultados muestran la necesidad de ampliar la promoción a la salud de este programa a las mujeres de alto riesgo, incluyendo a sus parejas sexuales. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To identify and evaluate the predisposing factors regarding the utilization of the Pap smears in the population seen in the Cervical Cancer Screening Program in Mexico METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted from January 1997 through December 1998 in Mexico city. A questionnaire wa [...] s applied to a total of 2,107 women of reproductive age who attended a family planning program and data was collected regarding the following topics: social-demographics, reproductive risk factors associated with cervical cancer, sexual behavior and partner history, birth control, knowledge about Pap smear' benefits, and its utilization. Statistic analysis was conducted using Student´s test and non-conditional multiple logistic regression model for determining significance. RESULTS: The predisposing factors were: knowledge about Pap smear's benefits (OR=6.00, CI 95% 4.70-7.67), history of using at least two birth control methods (OR=2.38, CI 95% 1.75-3.24), previous history of vaginal infection (OR=2.18, CI 95% 1.73-2.75), sexual partner's approval of gynecological examinations (OR=1.56, CI 95% 1.07-2.29). CONCLUSIONS: Educational programs on cancer prevention in this population should include the benefits of screening tests. Pap smears for Mexican women of reproductive age are mostly offered opportunely. The previous use of health services is a determinant factor for the utilization of the Cervical Cancer Screening Program. These results show the need to strengthen health promotion programs to women at high risk of cervical cancer and their sexual partners.

Aguilar-Pérez, José A; Leyva-López, Ahidée Gpe; Angulo-Nájera, David; Salinas, Antonio; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo C.

232

Tamizaje en cáncer cervical: conocimiento de la utilidad y uso de citología cervical en México / Cervical cancer screening: knowledge of Pap smear benefits and utilization in Mexico  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish OBJETIVO: Identificar y evaluar los factores que predisponen a la utilización de la prueba de Papanicolaou en la población que usa el servicio del Programa Nacional de Detección Oportuna de Cáncer en México. MÉTODOS: Se realizó un estudio del tipo transversal de enero de 1997 a diciembre de 1998, en [...] la Ciudad de México; se incluyeron a 2.107 mujeres en edad reproductiva que acudieron a un servicio de planificación familiar, las cuáles respondieron a un cuestionario con preguntas sobre características: sociodemográficas, factores de riesgo reproductivo asociados a cáncer cervical, historia de vida sexual, uso de métodos anticonceptivos, conocimiento de la utilidad y utilización del Papanicolaou. Para el análisis de los datos se construyeron modelos multivariados de regresión logística no condicional. RESULTADOS: Los predisponentes de utilización del programa de detección oportuna de cáncer en esta población fueron: el conocimiento de la utilidad del Papanicolaou incrementó en seis veces más la posibilidad de utilización (IC 95% 4,70-7,67); el antecedente de utilización de dos o más métodos de planificación familiar (OR=2,38; IC 95% 1,75-3,24); el antecedente de historia de infección vaginal (OR=2,18; IC 95% 1,73-2,75), y la aceptación del esposo para la realización de exploraciones ginecológicas (OR=1,56; IC 95% 1,07-2,29). CONCLUSIONES: La implementación de programas educativos en la prevención de cáncer, deberán incluir la utilidad de las pruebas de detección. En México, en mujeres en edad reproductiva utilización de la prueba de Papanicolaou se ofrece predominantemente en forma oportunista, por lo que el antecedente de utilización de los Servicios de Salud es un determinante para la utilización del Programa de Detección Oportuna de Cáncer Cervical. Estos resultados muestran la necesidad de ampliar la promoción a la salud de este programa a las mujeres de alto riesgo, incluyendo a sus parejas sexuales. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To identify and evaluate the predisposing factors regarding the utilization of the Pap smears in the population seen in the Cervical Cancer Screening Program in Mexico METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted from January 1997 through December 1998 in Mexico city. A questionnaire wa [...] s applied to a total of 2,107 women of reproductive age who attended a family planning program and data was collected regarding the following topics: social-demographics, reproductive risk factors associated with cervical cancer, sexual behavior and partner history, birth control, knowledge about Pap smear' benefits, and its utilization. Statistic analysis was conducted using Student´s test and non-conditional multiple logistic regression model for determining significance. RESULTS: The predisposing factors were: knowledge about Pap smear's benefits (OR=6.00, CI 95% 4.70-7.67), history of using at least two birth control methods (OR=2.38, CI 95% 1.75-3.24), previous history of vaginal infection (OR=2.18, CI 95% 1.73-2.75), sexual partner's approval of gynecological examinations (OR=1.56, CI 95% 1.07-2.29). CONCLUSIONS: Educational programs on cancer prevention in this population should include the benefits of screening tests. Pap smears for Mexican women of reproductive age are mostly offered opportunely. The previous use of health services is a determinant factor for the utilization of the Cervical Cancer Screening Program. These results show the need to strengthen health promotion programs to women at high risk of cervical cancer and their sexual partners.

Aguilar-Pérez, José A; Leyva-López, Ahidée Gpe; Angulo-Nájera, David; Salinas, Antonio; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo C.

233

No increased risk for cervical cancer after a broader definition of a negative Pap smear  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The definition of minimal relevant Pap smear abnormality is crucial for balancing the beneficial effects of screening (prevented mortality) with negative side-effects (the high positivity rate). After inflammation ceased to be defined as a borderline abnormal smear outcome in The Netherlands in 1996, the proportion of these smears dropped from 10% to less than 2%. Because this may have caused a loss in smear sensitivity, we analysed the changes in the incidence of cervical cancer after a negative Pap smear. All negative smears made at ages 30-64 in 1990-1995 (n = 1,546,252) and 1998-2006 (n = 3,552,716), registered in the national registry of histo- and cytopathology (PALGA), were followed for up to 9 years. During follow-up of the 1990-1995 smears, 377 women developed cervical cancer within 5,232,959 woman-years at risk, while during the follow-up of the 1998-2006 smears, 619 women developed cervical cancer within 11,210,675 woman-years at risk. The cumulative incidence after the definition change was not significantly higher than before: e.g. at 6 years, the cumulative incidence for smears made in 1990-1995 was 46 per 100,000 (95% CI: 41-52), and for smears in 1998-2006 was 48 per 100,000 (95% CI: 43-54), p = 0.59. The hazard ratio for 1998-2006 compared to 1990-1995 adjusted for age, number of previous negative smears and history of abnormalities was 0.90 (95% CI: 0.78-1.03). In The Netherlands, a setting with high-quality cytological screening, treating smears with only signs of inflammation as negative leads to a considerably lower positivity rate without increasing the risk for cervical cancer after a negative smear.

Rebolj, Matejka; van Ballegooijen, Marjolein

2008-01-01

234

Early detection of oral cancer: PAP and AgNOR staining in brush biopsies  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the diagnostic accuracy of routine Papanicolaou stain (PAP and Silver stained Nucleolar Organizer Regions (AgNOR staining in brush biopsies taken from suspected oral lesions for early detection of oral cancer. Materials and Methods: Brush biopsies were collected from macroscopically suspicious lesions of the oral cavity of 34 patients and 10 normal-aged and sex-matched controls. The numbers of AgNORs were counted in 100 squamous epithelial cell nuclei per slide after silver staining of the smears (Ploton?s one-step method. Results: Sensitivity and specificity of PAP analysis in the oral smears for detection of oral cancer and normal cells was 91.176% and 100%. The positive and negative prediction values were 100% and 76.92%, respectively. Sensitivity and specificity of AgNOR analysis in the oral smears for detection of oral cancer and normal cells was 100%. The positive and negative prediction values were 100% each. Conclusion: Based on the above facts, we conclude that brush biopsy in conjunction with AgNOR staining is an easily practicable, non-invasive, safe and accurate screening method for the detection of macroscopically suspicious oral cancerous lesions. Because of its simple technique and high reliability for cellular proliferation, AgNOR staining in brush smears can be used as an adjunct to other routine cytological diagnoses for the early detection of oral cancer. However, further investigations with more number of study samples will be needed to establish this correlation beyond doubt.

Rajput Dinesh

2010-01-01

235

Leucine-Responsive Regulatory Protein Lrp and PapI Homologues Influence Phase Variation of CS31A Fimbriae.  

Science.gov (United States)

CS31A, a K88-related surface antigen specified by the clp operon, is a member of the type P family of adhesive factors and plays a key role in the establishment of disease caused by septicemic and enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli strains. Its expression is under the control of methylation-dependent transcriptional regulation, for which the leucine-responsive regulatory protein (Lrp) is essential. CS31A is preferentially in the OFF state and exhibits distinct regulatory features compared to the regulation of other P family members. In the present study, surface plasmon resonance and DNase I protection assays showed that Lrp binds to the distal moiety of the clp regulatory region with low micromolar affinity compared to its binding to the proximal moiety, which exhibits stronger, nanomolar affinity. The complex formation was also influenced by the addition of PapI or FooI, which increased the affinity of Lrp for the clp distal and proximal regions and was required to induce phase variation. The influence of PapI or FooI, however, was predominantly associated with a more complete shutdown of clp expression, in contrast to what has previously been observed with AfaF (a PapI ortholog). Taken together, these results suggest that the preferential OFF state observed in CS31A cells is mainly due to the weak interaction of the leucine-responsive regulatory protein with the clp distal region and that the PapI homolog favors the OFF phase. Within the large repertoire of fimbrial variants in the P family, our study illustrates that having a fimbrial operon that lacks its own PapI ortholog allows it to be more flexibly regulated by other orthologs in the cell. PMID:24914179

Graveline, Richard; Garneau, Philippe; Martin, Christine; Mourez, Michaël; Hancock, Mark A; Lavoie, Rémi; Harel, Josée

2014-08-15

236

Fødevareemballager af trykt papir og pap : Udvikling og validering af analysekoncept  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Der er i dette projekt udviklet et analysekoncept der kan anvendes som et led i trykkeriernes vurdering af om fødevareemballager af trykt pap og papir lever op til lovgivningens krav. Der er arbejdet med vurderinger baseret på såvel �worst-case� ekstraktion af de trykte materialer som på migrationstest foretaget med fødevaresimulatoren for tørre fødevarer. Fødevaresimulatoren er en adsorbent (polymeren Tenax) som effektivt optager stoffer der via gasfasen afgives fra tryksagen. Der er valideret og sammenlignet analysemetoder baseret på ekstraktioner af både tryksagerne og Tenax med henholdsvis ethanol og superkritisk kuldioxid. I alle tilfælde er slutbestemmelsen sket ved gaskromatografi med massespektrometrisk detektion (GC-MS). Med det anvendte udstyr kunne vi i nogle tilfælde detektere kendte stoffer i koncentrationer svarende til 10 μg/kg fødevare. Følsomheden i en screeningsanalyse for ukendte stoffer ligger desværre en del højere. På baggrund af flere fødevareskandaler de senere år, stilles der fra forbrugere, fødevareproducenter og myndighederne stadig større krav til trykkerier af emballager af pap og papir om at levere produkter af høj og dokumenteret kvalitet. I rapporten gennemgås derfor summarisk de gældende europæiske regler på området som trykkerierne skal leve op til og der henvises til relevante vejledninger fra myndigheder og brancheforeninger. Det er væsentligt at trykkerierne arbejder efter god fremstillingsmæssig praksis (GMP) og det beskrives hvordan dette kan organiseres. Ved fremstillingen af en tryksag indgår mange processer, materialer og kemikalier. Det er derfor fundet nødvendigt at give en oversigt over de forskellige trykteknikker som er relevante for pap og papir ligesom råvarerne, fra forskellige papkvaliteter over trykfarverne til det fugtevand som indgår i produktionen af en tryksag bliver gennemgået. Som et led i trykkeriernes GMP vil det være naturligt at indsamle informationer om råvarenes eventuelle indhold af sundhedsskadelige stoffer. Trykfarve- og lakproducenternes manglende vilje til at oplyse om deres produkters sammensætning vanskeliggør desværre trykkeriernes opgave med at dokumentere, at den færdige emballage er i overensstemmelse med lovgivningen. Det ville derfor være ønskeligt, at man havde en generel kemisk analysemetode som kunne sikre at en tryksag er i orden. Men der findes desværre ikke en metode der kan sikre at bare migrationsgrænserne bliver overholdt for de mere end 6000 stoffer, der eksempelvis står opført i den svejtsiske lovgivning om trykfarver. Men jo mere trykkerierne ved om råvarernes sammensætning, jo simplere metoder kan man bruge til at dokumentere overensstemmelse med reglerne. Ved analyse af en række tryksager gennem projektforløbet fandt vi flere problematiske forhold. Eksempelvis førte anvendelsen af de såkaldt UV-hybrid-farver til en for høj migration af to fotoinitiatorer. Trykkeriet har derfor valgt at lade disse farver udgå af sortimentet. Selv om projektet handlede om trykfarver er kvaliteten af materialet der trykkes på meget væsentligt for slutproduktet. Det skal derfor nævnes at pap og papir ofte fremstilles helt eller delvis af genbrugsfibre som potentielt indeholder forureninger der kan give anledning til forurening af fødevarerne. I afsnit 9 opsummeres en samling anbefalinger til trykkerierne om GMP, valg af egnet pap og trykfarver og en strategi for arbejdet med analytisk at sikre overensstemmelse med reglerne.

Petersen, Jens Højslev; Jensen, Lisbeth Krüger

2013-01-01

237

Testing for measurement equivalence of human values across online and paper-and-pencil surveys  

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The following study investigates the measurement quivalence of an online and paper-and-pencil (PAP) survey of human values. For this purpose, a total of 250 respondents completed the 21-item version of the Portrait Value Questionnaire (PVQ) either online (n = 125) or by PAP (n = 125). This questionnaire was developed by Shalom Schwartz and has been included in the European Social Survey (ESS) since 2002 to test his theory of basic human values (Schwartz, 1992). Measurement invariance was test...

Davidov, Eldad; Depner, Felix

2011-01-01

238

Evidence of Commonality between Canine and Human Extraintestinal Pathogenic Escherichia coli Strains That Express papG Allele III  

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Although dogs have been proposed as carriers of extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC) with infectious potential for humans, presumed host species-specific differences between canine and human ExPEC strains have cast doubt on this hypothesis. The recent discovery that allele III of papG (the P fimbrial adhesin gene) predominates among human cystitis isolates and confers an adherence phenotype resembling that of canine ExPEC prompted the present reevaluation of the canine-human Ex...

Johnson, James R.; O Bryan, Timothy T.; Low, David A.; Ling, Gerald; Delavari, Parissa; Fasching, Claudine; Russo, Thomas A.; Carlino, Ulrike; Stell, Adam L.

2000-01-01

239

The amyloidogenic SEVI precursor, PAP248-286, is highly unfolded in solution despite an underlying helical tendency  

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Amyloid fibers in human semen known as SEVI (Semen-derived Enhancer of Viral Infection) dramatically increase the infectivity of HIV and other enveloped viruses, which appears to be linked to the promotion of bridging interactions and the neutralization of electrostatic repulsion between the host and the viral cell membranes. The SEVI precursor PAP248-286 is mostly disordered when bound to detergent micelles, in contrast to the highly ?-helical structures found for most amyloid proteins. To ...

Brender, Jeffrey R.; Nanga, Ravi Prakash Reddy; Popovych, Nataliya; Soong, Ronald; Macdonald, Peter M.; Ramamoorthy, Ayyalusamy

2011-01-01

240

Domain activities of PapC usher reveal the mechanism of action of an Escherichia coli molecular machine  

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P pili are prototypical chaperone–usher pathway-assembled pili used by Gram-negative bacteria to adhere to host tissues. The PapC usher contains five functional domains: a transmembrane ?-barrel, a ?-sandwich Plug, an N-terminal (periplasmic) domain (NTD), and two C-terminal (periplasmic) domains, CTD1 and CTD2. Here, we delineated usher domain interactions between themselves and with chaperone–subunit complexes and showed that overexpression of individual usher domains inhibits pilus a...

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
241

Pathogenicity of pap-negative avian Escherichia coli isolated from septicaemic lesions.  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent studies by DNA-DNA hybridisation assays conducted on a large collection of Escherichia coli strains isolated from chickens, ducks and turkeys suffering from colibacillosis, showed that 76% of the strains were negative for the presence of the pap gene cluster. The objective of this paper was to study the virulence associated with the avian E. coli strains negative for the P fimbriae, but carrying the f17 or the afa-8 gene cluster coding for adhesins associated with strains pathogenic for mammals. Three strains carrying the f17 fimbriae and three carrying the afa-8 adhesin-encoding gene cluster were studied in three in vivo experimental models of avian colibacillosis: subcutaneous inoculation of 1-day-old chicks, inoculation of specific-pathogen-free (SPF) chickens via the intra-thoracic air sac, and intra-tracheal inoculation of axenic chickens. The results showed that the six P-negative E. coli isolates carrying the f17 or the afa-8 gene cluster were lethal for 1-day-old chicks. They were also able to reproduce clinical signs and lesions of colibacillosis (aerosacculitis, pericarditis, perihepathitis), with bacteraemia and septicaemia, in SPF chickens inoculated via the thoracic air sacs as well as in axenic chickens inoculated by the intra-tracheal route. Further studies with f17 and afa-8 allelic mutants constructed by disruption must be performed to confirm a role of F17 fimbrial and Afa-VIII afimbrial adhesins in the pathogenesis of avian colibacillosis. PMID:15158770

Stordeur, Philippe; Brée, Annie; Mainil, Jacques; Moulin-Schouleur, Maryvonne

2004-06-01

242

DNA Vaccine Encoding Prostatic Acid Phosphatase (PAP) Elicits Long-term T-cell Responses in Patients With Recurrent Prostate Cancer  

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Prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP) is a tumor antigen in prostate cancer and the target of several anti-tumor vaccines in earlier clinical trials. Ultimately, the goal of anti-tumor vaccines is to elicit a sustainable immune response, able to eradicate a tumor, or at least restrain its growth. We have investigated plasmid DNA vaccines and have previously conducted a phase 1 trial in which patients with recurrent prostate cancer were vaccinated with a DNA vaccine encoding PAP. In this study, we ...

Becker, Jordan T.; Olson, Brian M.; Johnson, Laura E.; Davies, James G.; Dunphy, Edward J.; Mcneel, Douglas G.

2010-01-01

243

Inflorescence meristem identity in rice is specified by overlapping functions of three AP1/FUL-like MADS box genes and PAP2, a SEPALLATA MADS box gene.  

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In plants, the transition to reproductive growth is of particular importance for successful seed production. Transformation of the shoot apical meristem (SAM) to the inflorescence meristem (IM) is the crucial first step in this transition. Using laser microdissection and microarrays, we found that expression of PANICLE PHYTOMER2 (PAP2) and three APETALA1 (AP1)/FRUITFULL (FUL)-like genes (MADS14, MADS15, and MADS18) is induced in the SAM during meristem phase transition in rice (Oryza sativa). PAP2 is a MADS box gene belonging to a grass-specific subclade of the SEPALLATA subfamily. Suppression of these three AP1/FUL-like genes by RNA interference caused a slight delay in reproductive transition. Further depletion of PAP2 function from these triple knockdown plants inhibited the transition of the meristem to the IM. In the quadruple knockdown lines, the meristem continued to generate leaves, rather than becoming an IM. Consequently, multiple shoots were formed instead of an inflorescence. PAP2 physically interacts with MAD14 and MADS15 in vivo. Furthermore, the precocious flowering phenotype caused by the overexpression of Hd3a, a rice florigen gene, was weakened in pap2-1 mutants. Based on these results, we propose that PAP2 and the three AP1/FUL-like genes coordinately act in the meristem to specify the identity of the IM downstream of the florigen signal. PMID:22570445

Kobayashi, Kaoru; Yasuno, Naoko; Sato, Yutaka; Yoda, Masahiro; Yamazaki, Ryo; Kimizu, Mayumi; Yoshida, Hitoshi; Nagamura, Yoshiaki; Kyozuka, Junko

2012-05-01

244

Supersonic tests of an 0.015 scale space shuttle mated vehicle model (67-OTS) in the LaRC UPWT to obtain aerodynamic force data (IA42A/B)  

Science.gov (United States)

Wind tunnel tests were conducted of the NASA/Rockwell 0.015 scale configuration 4 mated space shuttle vehicle. Data were obtained for a range of Mach numbers from 1.60 to 4.63 and angles of attack from minus 10 degrees to plus 10 degrees. A complete model build-up was performed. Longitudinal and lateral directional stability and control data were obtained for the tank alone, tank plus solid rocket boosters, and mated configuration of tank plus orbiter plus solid rocket boosters. Single component rudder hinge moment data were obtained at rudder deflections of zero degrees and minus 20 degrees for each Mach number tested.

Hardin, R.; Burrows, R. R.

1974-01-01

245

Evaluation of the relationship between capillary and venous plasma glucose concentrations obtained by the HemoCue Glucose 201+ system during an oral glucose tolerance test  

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Abstract In 55 women with previous gestational diabetes mellitus, simultaneous capillary and venous plasma glucose concentrations were measured at 0, 30 and 120 min during a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). The aims of the study were to examine the relationship between capillary and venous glucose measurements, and to establish equations for the conversion of capillary and venous glucose concentrations using the HemoCue Glucose 201+ system. Additionally, the correlation between the ca...

Ignell, Claes; Berntorp, Kerstin

2011-01-01

246

Clinical Evaluation of A New Model of Self-Obtained Method for the Assessment of Genital Human Papilloma Virus Infection in an Underserved Population  

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Full Text Available Background: We designed a self-sampling method to collect exfoliated genital cells forhuman papilloma virus (HPV detection. The aim was to assess whether itwas suitable as an assistant tool for the early detection of cervical pre-cancerand cancer in a special category of the women who are not frequentlyscreened for cervical cancer.Methods: We compared the results of HPV detection that were self-obtained and physician-obtained cervical swabs from the same patient that were analyzed usinghybrid capture II assay. The diagnostic rate of cervical pre-cancer and cancerbetween self-obtained method and physician-obtained method were analyzed.Results: A total of 1194 women were prospectively registered from September 1997through September 1999. Among them, 144 (12.1% of self-test samplesand 155 (13% of physician-obtained samples were oncogenetic associated-HPV positive. Statistically, no significant differences existed in the screeningrate for cervical cancer using either the self-collected samples or thephysician-obtained samples ( p > .05. The sensitivity of cervical precanceror cancer detection using self-obtained HPV testing was higher (96.3% ascompared with the Pap smear (79.2% ( p < .02.Conclusion: The detection correlation of the HPV test between the self-obtained methodand physician-obtained method was 93%. Our results indicated that self-samplingwas a reliable method for testing for HPV. The identification of HPVinfection through the self-obtained method can be used in early identificationof high-risk women with cervical precancer and cancer especially in underservedpopulations.

Chi-Chang Chang

2002-10-01

247

Reconstruction of a radiation point source's radial location using goodness-of-fit test on spectra obtained from an HPGe detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

High purity germanium (HPGe) detectors are ubiquitous in nuclear physics experiments and are also used in numerous low radioactive background detectors. The effect of the position of 60Co and 137Cs point sources on the shape of spectra were studied with Monte Carlo and HPGe detector measurements. We briefly confirm previous work on the position dependence of relative heights of peaks. Spectra taken with the radiation sources placed at locations around the detector were then compared using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov (K-S) goodness-of-fit test. We demonstrate that with this method the Compton continuum spectral shape has good sensitivity to the radial location of a point source, but poor angular resolution. We conclude with a study of the position reconstruction accuracy as a function of the number of counts from the source.

2009-12-01

248

Use of the ThinPrep® Imaging System does not alter the frequency of interpreting Papanicolaou tests as atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Automated screening of Papanicolaou tests (Pap tests improves the productivity of cytopathology laboratories. The ThinPrep® Imaging System (TIS has been widely adopted primarily for this reason for use on ThinPrep® Pap tests (TPPT. However, TIS may also influence the interpretation of Pap tests, leading to changes in the frequency of various interpretive categories. The effect of the TIS on rates of TPPT interpretation as atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US is of concern because any shift in the frequency of ASC-US will alter the sensitivity and specificity of the Pap test. We have sought to determine whether automated screening of TPPT has altered ASC-US rates in our institution when compared with manual screening (MS of TPPT. Methods A computerized search for all ASC-US with reflex Human Papillomavirus (HPV testing over a one-year-period (7/1/06 to 6/30/07 was conducted. Cases included both TPPT screened utilizing TIS and screened manually. HPV test results for both groups were recorded. Pertinent follow-up cervical cytology and histology results were retrieved for the period extending to 11/30/07. Automated screening was in clinical use for 10 months prior to the start of the study. Results Automated screening was performed on 23,103 TPPT, of which 977 (4.23% were interpreted as ASC-US. Over the same period, MS was performed on 45,789 TPPT, of which 1924 (4.20% were interpreted as ASC-US. Reflex HPV testing was positive for high risk (HR types in 47.4% of the TIS cases and 50.2% of MS cases. Follow-up cervical dysplasia found by colposcopy was also distributed proportionally between the two groups. Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN was found on follow-up biopsy of 20.1% of the TIS cases (5.2% CIN 2/3 and 21.2% of MS cases (5.1% CIN 2/3. None of these differences were statistically significant. Conclusion Use of the ThinPrep® Imaging System did not appreciably change ASC-US rates or follow-up reflex HPV test results in our laboratory. This demonstrates that the benefits of automated screening may be obtained without increasing the rate of referral to colposcopy for ASC-US follow-up.

Thrall Michael

2008-01-01

249

Use of the ThinPrep(R Imaging System does not alter the frequency of interpreting Papanicolaou tests as atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Automated screening of Papanicolaou tests (Pap tests improves the productivity of cytopathology laboratories. The ThinPrep ® Imaging System (TIS has been widely adopted primarily for this reason for use on ThinPrep ® Pap tests (TPPT. However, TIS may also influence the interpretation of Pap tests, leading to changes in the frequency of various interpretive categories. The effect of the TIS on rates of TPPT interpretation as atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US is of concern because any shift in the frequency of ASC-US will alter the sensitivity and specificity of the Pap test. We have sought to determine whether automated screening of TPPT has altered ASC-US rates in our institution when compared with manual screening (MS of TPPT. Methods: A computerized search for all ASC-US with reflex Human Papillomavirus (HPV testing over a one-year-period (7/1/06 to 6/30/07 was conducted. Cases included both TPPT screened utilizing TIS and screened manually. HPV test results for both groups were recorded. Pertinent follow-up cervical cytology and histology results were retrieved for the period extending to 11/30/07. Automated screening was in clinical use for 10 months prior to the start of the study. Results: Automated screening was performed on 23,103 TPPT, of which 977 (4.23% were interpreted as ASC-US. Over the same period, MS was performed on 45,789 TPPT, of which 1924 (4.20% were interpreted as ASC-US. Reflex HPV testing was positive for high risk (HR types in 47.4% of the TIS cases and 50.2% of MS cases. Follow-up cervical dysplasia found by colposcopy was also distributed proportionally between the two groups. Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN was found on follow-up biopsy of 20.1% of the TIS cases (5.2% CIN 2/3 and 21.2% of MS cases (5.1% CIN 2/3. None of these differences were statistically significant. Conclusion: Use of the ThinPrep ® Imaging System did not appreciably change ASC-US rates or follow-up reflex HPV test results in our laboratory. This demonstrates that the benefits of automated screening may be obtained without increasing the rate of referral to colposcopy for ASC-US follow-up.

Thrall Michael

2008-01-01

250

Comparison of the detection of HPV-16, 18, 31, 33, and 45 by type-specific DNA- and E6/E7 mRNA-based assays of HPV DNA positive women with abnormal Pap smears.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study compares the type-specific human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA test with E6/E7 mRNA detection assay because of their importance in cervical cancer screening programs. A total of 105 women with positive high-risk Hybrid Capture 2 or Abbott RealTime High Risk HPV screening test and an abnormal cervical Pap smear were enrolled in the study. HPV typing was performed by multiplex real-time PCR (HPV High Risk Typing Real-TM test). HPV-16, 18, 31, 33, and 45 E6/E7 mRNAs were determined by type-specific real-time NASBA assay (NucliSENS EasyQ HPV v1.1). Infections caused by HPV-16, 18, 31, 33, and 45 types increased with severity of cervical cytology (p=0.008). Global positivity of five HPV E6/E7 mRNAs was lower than DNA positivity within women with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (p=0.016; p=0.008). High agreement of the tests was found in the groups of women with low-grade (p=1.000; p=0.063) and high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (p=0.250; p=0.125). Type-specific agreement of both diagnostic approaches was high regardless of cytology. Based on the found differences between HPV-16, 18, 31, 33, and 45 E6/E7 mRNA and DNA positivity, further study is needed to test the role of mRNA testing in the triage of women with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance in Pap smear. PMID:24036071

Salimovi?-Beši?, Irma; Tomi?-?i?a, Anja; Smailji, Admir; Huki?, Mirsada

2013-12-01

251

Testing long-term summer temperature reconstruction based on maximum density chronologies obtained by reanalysis of tree-ring datasets from northernmost Sweden and Finland  

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Full Text Available Here we analysed the maximum latewood density (MXD chronologies of two published tree-ring datasets: from Torneträsk region in northernmost Sweden (TORN, Melvin et al., 2013 and from northern Fennoscandia (FENN, Esper et al., 2012. We paid particular attention to the MXD low-frequency variations to reconstruct long-term summer (June–August, JJA temperature history. We used published methods of tree-ring standardization: regional curve (RC standardization, combined with signal-free (SF implementation. Comparisons with a single-RC (RC1 and multiple-RC (RC2 were also carried out. We develop a novel method of standardization, the correction (C implementation to SF (hence, RC1SFC or RC2SFC, tailored for detection of pure low-frequency signal in tree-ring chronologies. In this method, the error in RC1SF (or RC2SF chronology, is analytically assessed and extracted to produce a RC1SFC or RC2SFC chronology. In TORN, the RC1SF chronology shows higher correlation with summer temperature (JJA than RC1SFC, whereas in FENN the temperature signals of RC1SF chronology is improved by correction implementation (RC1SFC. The highest correlation between differently standardized chronologies for two datasets is obtained using FENN-RC2SFC and TORN-RC1 chronologies. Focusing on lowest frequencies, the importance of correction becomes obvious as the chronologies become progressively more correlative with RC1SFC and RC2SFC implementations. Subsampling the FENN data (which presents a higher number of samples than TORN dataset to the chronology sample size of TORN data shows that the chronologies consistently bifurcate during the 7th, 9th, 17th and 20th centuries. We used the two MXD datasets to reconstruct summer temperature variations over the period ?48–2010 calendar years. Our new reconstruction shows multi-decadal to multi-centennial variability with changes in the amplitude of the summer temperature of 2.6 °C in average during the Common Era.

V. V. Matskovsky

2013-10-01

252

Over-expression of AtPAP2 in Camelina sativa leads to faster plant growth and higher seed yield  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Lipids extracted from seeds of Camelina sativa have been successfully used as a reliable source of aviation biofuels. This biofuel is environmentally friendly because the drought resistance, frost tolerance and low fertilizer requirement of Camelina sativa allow it to grow on marginal lands. Improving the species growth and seed yield by genetic engineering is therefore a target for the biofuels industry. In Arabidopsis, overexpression of purple acid phosphatase 2 encoded by Arabidopsis (AtPAP2 promotes plant growth by modulating carbon metabolism. Overexpression lines bolt earlier and produce 50% more seeds per plant than wild type. In this study, we explored the effects of overexpressing AtPAP2 in Camelina sativa. Results Under controlled environmental conditions, overexpression of AtPAP2 in Camelina sativa resulted in longer hypocotyls, earlier flowering, faster growth rate, higher photosynthetic rate and stomatal conductance, increased seed yield and seed size in comparison with the wild-type line and null-lines. Similar to transgenic Arabidopsis, activity of sucrose phosphate synthase in leaves of transgenic Camelina was also significantly up-regulated. Sucrose produced in photosynthetic tissues supplies the building blocks for cellulose, starch and lipids for growth and fuel for anabolic metabolism. Changes in carbon flow and sink/source activities in transgenic lines may affect floral, architectural, and reproductive traits of plants. Conclusions Lipids extracted from the seeds of Camelina sativa have been used as a major constituent of aviation biofuels. The improved growth rate and seed yield of transgenic Camelina under controlled environmental conditions have the potential to boost oil yield on an area basis in field conditions and thus make Camelina-based biofuels more environmentally friendly and economically attractive.

Zhang Youjun

2012-04-01

253

Arabidopsis poly(A) polymerase PAPS1 limits founder-cell recruitment to organ primordia and suppresses the salicylic acid-independent immune response downstream of EDS1/PAD4.  

Science.gov (United States)

Polyadenylation of pre-mRNAs by poly(A) polymerase (PAPS) is a critical process in eukaryotic gene expression. As found in vertebrates, plant genomes encode several isoforms of canonical nuclear PAPS enzymes. In Arabidopsis thaliana these isoforms are functionally specialized, with PAPS1 affecting both organ growth and immune response, at least in part by the preferential polyadenylation of subsets of pre-mRNAs. Here, we demonstrate that the opposite effects of PAPS1 on leaf and flower growth reflect the different identities of these organs, and identify a role for PAPS1 in the elusive connection between organ identity and growth patterns. The overgrowth of paps1 mutant petals is due to increased recruitment of founder cells into early organ primordia, and suggests that PAPS1 activity plays unique roles in influencing organ growth. By contrast, the leaf phenotype of paps1 mutants is dominated by a constitutive immune response that leads to increased resistance to the biotrophic oomycete Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis and reflects activation of the salicylic acid-independent signalling pathway downstream of ENHANCED DISEASE SUSCEPTIBILITY1 (EDS1)/PHYTOALEXIN DEFICIENT4 (PAD4). These findings provide an insight into the developmental and physiological basis of the functional specialization amongst plant PAPS isoforms. PMID:24372773

Trost, Gerda; Vi, Son Lang; Czesnick, Hjördis; Lange, Peggy; Holton, Nick; Giavalisco, Patrick; Zipfel, Cyril; Kappel, Christian; Lenhard, Michael

2014-03-01

254

Constitutive equations of Li2TiO3 and Li4SiO4 pebble Beds obtained by means of standard triaxial tests: implementation of the model in a FEM code  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

During the ITER operation, some Test Breeding Modules (TBM) will be tested in the equatorial ports of the reactor. Presently, these TBM are being developed in different research centres in the world. The Helium-Cooled Pebble Bed (HCPB) blanket is one of two breeder blanket concepts developed in Europe. The HCPB uses Beryllium pebbles as neutron multiplier and. Li4SiO4 or Li2TiO3 pebbles as breeder material. The analysis of the breeding blanket is complex for the geometry as well as for the loading conditions. Advanced computer codes are needed in order to determine the reliability of the different designs. In this context the mechanical characterisation of pebble beds is important in order to simulate their behaviour. This paper illustrates the standard tests, performed in order to obtain the effective properties of the pebble beds, and the implementation of a constitutive model of the granular material in a FEM code. Several Authors have analyzed the pebble bed by meand uniaxial compression tests (oedometer tests). This test permits to obtain an effective displacement- load law under lateral constraint, but no data are obtained about the pebble bed shear resistance or about the three-dimensional behaviour of the bed. In the soil (made of sand, gravel or clay) qualification, triaxial tests are used for determining all their constitutive properties. In these test the soil is loaded by axial and lateral loads which can be varied independently. The measurement of the load and the displacement in both the directions permits to obtain the material constants f the constitutive models elaborated for describing the soil behaviour. The classic soil models are the Cam-Clay model and the Drucker-Prager with cap model. These models are implemented in several commercial FEM codes and they could be easily used for simulating the pebble beds. But the pebble bed behaviour is different from that of the soil. The soil models describe in detail the behaviour dependent on the water pressure and on the drainage conditions. These aspects have not any meaning for the pebble bed. Moreover the soil consolidation is different from the creep of the pebble bed. The paper demonstrates the limits of applying the soil model to the pebble bed. In fact the triaxial tests have been simulated numerically by means a commercial FEM code considering the classic soil models and the material constants obtained by the tests. Moreover the paper emphasizes the relative importance of the material constants (about 10), contained in the classic soil model, in order to fit the experimental results of the tests on the pebble beds. (orig.)

2007-10-05

255

Constitutive equations of Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3} and Li{sub 4}SiO{sub 4} pebble Beds obtained by means of standard triaxial tests: implementation of the model in a FEM code  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

During the ITER operation, some Test Breeding Modules (TBM) will be tested in the equatorial ports of the reactor. Presently, these TBM are being developed in different research centres in the world. The Helium-Cooled Pebble Bed (HCPB) blanket is one of two breeder blanket concepts developed in Europe. The HCPB uses Beryllium pebbles as neutron multiplier and. Li4SiO4 or Li2TiO3 pebbles as breeder material. The analysis of the breeding blanket is complex for the geometry as well as for the loading conditions. Advanced computer codes are needed in order to determine the reliability of the different designs. In this context the mechanical characterisation of pebble beds is important in order to simulate their behaviour. This paper illustrates the standard tests, performed in order to obtain the effective properties of the pebble beds, and the implementation of a constitutive model of the granular material in a FEM code. Several Authors have analyzed the pebble bed by meand uniaxial compression tests (oedometer tests). This test permits to obtain an effective displacement- load law under lateral constraint, but no data are obtained about the pebble bed shear resistance or about the three-dimensional behaviour of the bed. In the soil (made of sand, gravel or clay) qualification, triaxial tests are used for determining all their constitutive properties. In these test the soil is loaded by axial and lateral loads which can be varied independently. The measurement of the load and the displacement in both the directions permits to obtain the material constants f the constitutive models elaborated for describing the soil behaviour. The classic soil models are the Cam-Clay model and the Drucker-Prager with cap model. These models are implemented in several commercial FEM codes and they could be easily used for simulating the pebble beds. But the pebble bed behaviour is different from that of the soil. The soil models describe in detail the behaviour dependent on the water pressure and on the drainage conditions. These aspects have not any meaning for the pebble bed. Moreover the soil consolidation is different from the creep of the pebble bed. The paper demonstrates the limits of applying the soil model to the pebble bed. In fact the triaxial tests have been simulated numerically by means a commercial FEM code considering the classic soil models and the material constants obtained by the tests. Moreover the paper emphasizes the relative importance of the material constants (about 10), contained in the classic soil model, in order to fit the experimental results of the tests on the pebble beds. (orig.)

Zaccari, N. [Pisa Univ. (Italy)

2007-07-01

256

FimC is a periplasmic PapD-like chaperone that directs assembly of type 1 pili in bacteria.  

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Biogenesis of the type 1 pilus fiber in Escherichia coli requires the product of the fimC locus. We have demonstrated that FimC is a member of the periplasmic chaperone family. The deduced primary sequence of FimC shows a high degree of homology to PapD and fits well with the derived consensus sequence for periplasmic chaperones, predicting that it has an immunoglobulin-like topology. The chaperone activity of FimC was demonstrated by purifying a complex that FimC forms with the FimH adhesion...

1993-01-01

257

Chronic constipation - the role of clinical assessment and colorectal physiologic tests to obtain an etiologic diagnosis O papel da avaliação clínica e dos testes de fisiologia colo-reto anal no diagnóstico etiológico da constipação intestinal crônica  

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BACKGROUND: Diagnosis of subtypes of chronic constipation has been considered difficult to achieve even in specialized centers. Although colorectal physiologic tests have brought an important contribution, it remains unclear in which patients these tests should be indicated for. AIMS: This study aims to establish a differential diagnosis for chronic constipation cases using clinical assessment and physiologic tests and to identify clinical parameters that could predict which patients need phy...

Antônio Lacerda-Filho; Marcílio José Rodrigues Lima; Marisa Fonseca Magalhães; Rodrigo de Almeida Paiva; José Renan da Cunha-Melo

2008-01-01

258

Automated segmentation of free-lying cell nuclei in Pap smears for malignancy-associated change analysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper presents an automated algorithm for robustly detecting and segmenting free-lying cell nuclei in bright-field microscope images of Pap smears. This is an essential initial step in the development of an automated screening system for cervical cancer based on malignancy associated change (MAC) analysis. The proposed segmentation algorithm makes use of gray-scale annular closings to identify free-lying nuclei-like objects together with marker-based watershed segmentation to accurately delineate the nuclear boundaries. The algorithm also employs artifact rejection based on size, shape, and granularity to ensure only the nuclei of intermediate squamous epithelial cells are retained. An evaluation of the performance of the algorithm relative to expert manual segmentation of 33 fields-of-view from 11 Pap smear slides is also presented. The results show that the sensitivity and specificity of nucleus detection is 94.71% and 85.30% respectively, and that the accuracy of segmentation, measured using the Dice coefficient, of the detected nuclei is 97.30±1.3%. PMID:23367143

Moshavegh, Ramin; Ehteshami Bejnordi, Babak; Mehnert, Andrew; Sujathan, K; Malm, Patrik; Bengtsson, Ewert

2012-01-01

259

Endocervical curettage and brushing during colposcopic evaluation in patients having suspected changes in pap smear and negative colposcopy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective: the aim of this study was to evaluate the utility of endocervical curettage and brushing during colposcopic evaluation in patients having suspected changes in Pap smear and negative colposcopy.Methodology: results from 43 women having abnormal Pap smear and negative satisfactory colposcopy; endocervical curettage during colposcopic evaluation were thus compared to endocervical brushing during colposcopic evaluation.Results: the endocervical curettage was useful to detect cervical intraepithelial neoplasia no suspected during satisfactory colposcopic evaluation. The endocervical brushings was useful too, but the endocervical curettage was better.Conclusion: this study suggests that endocervical curettage can be useful during negative satisfactory colposcopic evaluation of a patient with an abnormal Papnicolaou smear.RESUMENObjetivos: El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar la utilidad del cepillado y legrado endocervical durante la evaluación colposcópica en pacientes con citología anormal y colposcopia satisfactoria negativa. Materiales y métodos: Se incluyeron 43 mujeres con citología anormal y colposcopia satisfactoria negativa. Se realizó legrado y cepillado endocervical y se compararon los resultados.Resultados: El legrado endocervical fue útil en detectar neoplasia intraepitelial cervical no observada durante la evaluación colposcópica satisfactoria. El cepillado endocervical también fue útil, pero el legrado fue mejor.Conclusión: Este estudio sugiere que el legrado endocervical puede ser de utilidad durante la evaluación colposcópica satisfactoria negativa de pacientes con una citología anormal.

Borré-Arrieta Orlando

2010-12-01

260

Modification of CytoRich Red fixative system for use on bloody Pap and fine-needle aspiration smears.  

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Recent work has shown CytoRich Red fixative system is effective in lysing red blood cells and reducing background in bloody fluid specimens. The scope of this study was to see whether CytoRich Red can lyse red blood cells in freshly prepared Pap and fine-needle aspiration smears. Paired smears from 20 bloody fine-needle aspirations were prepared. One slide was initially placed in CytoRich Red for up to 30 sec, removed, and then fixed in 95% alcohol. The other slide was placed directly into 95% alcohol. Ten paired Pap smears, one fixed with a commercial fixative and another immersed in a solution of CytoRich Red, were evaluated. All slides were stained with the Papanicolaou stain and analyzed for the amount of red blood cells, background material, and nuclear and cytoplasmic staining. In 100% of all smears utilizing CytoRich Red, red blood cells were significantly reduced without hindering staining. Significant loss of cells from the slides sent in CytoRich Red solution was not observed. CytoRich Red fixative can be effective in reducing red blood cells and background on freshly made smears. In both gynecological and nongynecological cases, diagnostic cells were well preserved and not compromised by blood. PMID:9951606

Weidmann, J; King, L C; Bibbo, M

1999-02-01

 
 
 
 
261

Study of the role of Pap1 as a sensor of H2O2 and as a transcriptional activator of stress responses in Schizosaccharimyces pombe  

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En el laboratorio se utiliza como sistema modelo la levadura Schizosaccaromyces pombe para poder estudiar la respuesta a estrés oxidativo. Las dos rutas principales de respuesta a estrés oxidativo son las del factor de transcripción Pap1 y la de la MAP quinasa Sty1. Cuando aplicamos a la célula bajas dosis de H2O2, Pap1 que se encuentra en el citoplasma en estado reducido, sufre un cambio conformacional, se oxida, y activo viaja al núcleo, donde se une a diferentes promotores para activa...

Calvo Arnedo, Mari?a Isabel

2012-01-01

262

Helical Conformation of the SEVI Precursor Peptide PAP248-286, a Dramatic Enhancer of HIV Infectivity, Promotes Lipid Aggregation and Fusion  

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In previous in vivo studies, amyloid fibers formed from a peptide ubiquitous in human seminal fluid (semen-derived enhancer of viral infection (SEVI)) were found to dramatically enhance the infectivity of the HIV virus (3–5 orders of magnitude by some measures). To complement those studies, we performed in vitro assays of PAP248-286, the most active precursor to SEVI, and other polycationic polymers to investigate the physical mechanisms by which the PAP248-286 promotes the interaction wi...

Brender, Jeffrey R.; Hartman, Kevin; Gottler, Lindsey M.; Cavitt, Marchello E.; Youngstrom, Daniel W.; Ramamoorthy, Ayyalusamy

2009-01-01

263

Bacterial Over-Expression and Purification of the 3'phosphoadenosine 5'phosphosulfate (PAPS) Reductase Domain of Human FAD Synthase: Functional Characterization and Homology Modeling  

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FAD synthase (FADS, EC 2.7.7.2) is a key enzyme in the metabolic pathway that converts riboflavin into the redox cofactor, FAD. Human FADS is organized in two domains: -the 3'phosphoadenosine 5'phosphosulfate (PAPS) reductase domain, similar to yeast Fad1p, at the C-terminus, and -the resembling molybdopterin-binding domain at the N-terminus. To understand whether the PAPS reductase domain of hFADS is sufficient to catalyze FAD synthesis, per se, and to investigate the role of the m...

Angelica Miccolis; Michele Galluccio; Teresa Anna Giancaspero; Cesare Indiveri; Maria Barile

2012-01-01

264

Bacterial Over-Expression and Purification of the 3?phosphoadenosine 5?phosphosulfate (PAPS) Reductase Domain of Human FAD Synthase: Functional Characterization and Homology Modeling  

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FAD synthase (FADS, EC 2.7.7.2) is a key enzyme in the metabolic pathway that converts riboflavin into the redox cofactor, FAD. Human FADS is organized in two domains: -the 3?phosphoadenosine 5?phosphosulfate (PAPS) reductase domain, similar to yeast Fad1p, at the C-terminus, and -the resembling molybdopterin-binding domain at the N-terminus. To understand whether the PAPS reductase domain of hFADS is sufficient to catalyze FAD synthesis, per se, and to investigate the role of the molybdo...

Miccolis, Angelica; Galluccio, Michele; Giancaspero, Teresa Anna; Indiveri, Cesare; Barile, Maria

2012-01-01

265

Comparison of ViraPap, Southern hybridization, and polymerase chain reaction methods for human papillomavirus identification in an epidemiological investigation of cervical cancer.  

Science.gov (United States)

In order to provide a reliable diagnosis for the presence and type of human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA in a case-control study of cervical cancer in Colombia and Spain, 926 cervical scrapes from female subjects were examined by ViraPap (VP) and Southern hybridization (SH), and 510 of these (263 cases and 247 controls) were also tested by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using the HPV L1 consensus primers. HPV DNA prevalence was much higher in cases than in controls by each of the three tests. There was complete agreement between the results of the three tests for 64.9% of the 510 specimens; 53.5% were negative and 11.4% were positive (regardless of type) by all tests. An additional 29.0% of the specimens were positive by PCR: 19.4% by PCR alone, 6.7% by PCR and VP, and 2.9% by PCR and SH. SH and/or VP gave positive results for 6.0% of the specimens for which the PCR finding was negative: 2.7% by SH alone, 2.5% by VP alone, and 0.8% by both VP and SH. When specimens which were positive by VP alone or only by SH at low-stringency conditions were excluded, PCR confirmed all but four specimens which were positive by other tests. The concordance between type-specific diagnosis by SH and PCR was 86% when HPVs were typed in both tests. HPV-16 accounted for over 80% of the typed HPVs in each test. The presence of blood in case specimens did not appear to inhibit HPV positivity by VP or by PCR at the dilution tested. Low amounts of cellular DNA of specimens resulted in some underestimation of HPV positivity by VP and SH but not by PCR. Compared with that of PCR, the sensitivities for case specimens were 38% by SH and 50% by VP; the sensitivity for control specimens, although it could not be measured precisely because there were few positive specimens, appeared to be lower than for case specimens. It was concluded that PCR-based tests are best suited for epidemiological investigation of HPVs. PMID:1333485

Guerrero, E; Daniel, R W; Bosch, F X; Castellsagué, X; Muñoz, N; Gili, M; Viladiu, P; Navarro, C; Zubiri, M L; Ascunce, N

1992-11-01

266

A heterodimer of human 3'-phospho-adenosine-5'-phosphosulphate (PAPS) synthases is a new sulphate activating complex  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

3'-Phospho-adenosine-5'-phosphosulphate (PAPS) synthases are fundamental to mammalian sulphate metabolism. These enzymes have recently been linked to a rising number of human diseases. Despite many studies, it is not yet understood how the mammalian PAPS synthases 1 and 2 interact with each other. We provide first evidence for heterodimerisation of these two enzymes by pull-down assays and Foerster resonance energy transfer (FRET) measurements. Kinetics of dimer dissociation/association indicates that these heterodimers form as soon as PAPSS1 and -S2 encounter each other in solution. Affinity of the homo- and heterodimers were found to be in the low nanomolar range using anisotropy measurements employing proteins labelled with the fluorescent dye IAEDANS that - in spite of its low quantum yield - is well suited for anisotropy due to its large Stokes shift. Within its kinase domain, the PAPS synthase heterodimer displays similar substrate inhibition by adenosine-5'-phosphosulphate (APS) as the homodimers. Due to divergent catalytic efficacies of PAPSS1 and -S2, the heterodimer might be a way of regulating PAPS synthase function within mammalian cells.

Grum, Daniel, E-mail: daniel.grum@uni-due.de [Structural and Medicinal Biochemistry, Centre for Medical Biotechnology - ZMB, Faculty of Biology and Geography, University of Duisburg-Essen, 45117 Essen (Germany); Boom, Johannes van den, E-mail: johannes.van-den-boom@stud.uni-due.de [Structural and Medicinal Biochemistry, Centre for Medical Biotechnology - ZMB, Faculty of Biology and Geography, University of Duisburg-Essen, 45117 Essen (Germany); Neumann, Daniel, E-mail: dneuman@gwdg.de [Structural and Medicinal Biochemistry, Centre for Medical Biotechnology - ZMB, Faculty of Biology and Geography, University of Duisburg-Essen, 45117 Essen (Germany); Matena, Anja, E-mail: anja.matena@uni-due.de [Structural and Medicinal Biochemistry, Centre for Medical Biotechnology - ZMB, Faculty of Biology and Geography, University of Duisburg-Essen, 45117 Essen (Germany); Link, Nina M., E-mail: nina.link@unibas.ch [Structural and Medicinal Biochemistry, Centre for Medical Biotechnology - ZMB, Faculty of Biology and Geography, University of Duisburg-Essen, 45117 Essen (Germany); Mueller, Jonathan W., E-mail: jonathanwmueller@web.de [Structural and Medicinal Biochemistry, Centre for Medical Biotechnology - ZMB, Faculty of Biology and Geography, University of Duisburg-Essen, 45117 Essen (Germany)

2010-05-07

267

Sensitivity and detection efficiency of the peroxidase antiperoxidase (PAP), avidin-biotin peroxidase complex (ABC), and peroxidase-labeled avidin-biotin (LAB) methods.  

Science.gov (United States)

The authors have examined the sensitivity and detection efficiency of the three peroxidase methods that currently have the widest application in diagnostic immunohistochemistry: the peroxidase-antiperoxidase (PAP), the avidin-biotin complex (ABC), and the labeled avidin-biotin (LAB) methods. Sensitivity was evaluated by determining the highest useful dilution of polyclonal antiglucagon antibodies applied to formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded human pancreas. Detection efficiency was evaluated by tabulation of the total number of positive (three or more positive cells) islets. On direct comparison, the LAB method exceeded the PAP and ABC methods in both sensitivity and detection efficiency, which were essentially equal. Titration of linking antiserum of the PAP method boosted its sensitivity and detection efficiency above that of ABC; the PAP had equal sensitivity to the LAB and exceeded it in detection efficiency. The authors conclude that comparisons of immunohistologic methods are meaningful only if both sensitivity and efficiency are considered along with the unique requirements of any single method. PMID:2546420

Elias, J M; Margiotta, M; Gaborc, D

1989-07-01

268

Resultados histológicos e detecção do HPV em mulheres com células escamosas atípicas de significado indeterminado e lesão escamosa intra-epitelial de baixo grau na colpocitologia oncológica Histological results and HPV detection in women with pap smear showing atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance and low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion  

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Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: avaliar o desempenho da colpocitologia oncológica (CO e da Captura de Híbridos II (CHII para o diagnóstico de lesão cervical histológica significativa (NIC2/3 em mulheres encaminhadas com CO contendo atipias celulares de significado indeterminado (ASCUS ou lesão escamosa intra-epitelial de baixo grau (LSIL. MÉTODOS: estudo de corte transversal no qual foram incluídas 161 mulheres encaminhadas, entre agosto de 2000 e setembro de 2002, devido a CO com resultado de ASCUS ou LSIL. As mulheres responderam a questionário específico sobre características sociodemográficas e reprodutivas e foram submetidas a exame ginecológico com coleta de CO e CHII, sendo realizada colposcopia com eventual biópsia de áreas suspeitas. Foi aplicado o teste do qui-quadrado para as associações da idade, uso de condom, uso de anticoncepcional oral e tabagismo com os resultados da CHII. Foram calculados a sensibilidade, especificidade, valor preditivo positivo e valor preditivo negativo da CO e da CHII para detectar NIC2/3. Todos os cálculos foram realizados com intervalos de confiança estatística de 95%. RESULTADOS: sessenta e sete porcento das mulheres com menos de 30 anos de idade tiveram testes positivos para o HPV. A CO e CHII tiveram sensibilidade de 82% em detectar NIC2/3 quando considerados como positivos ASCUS, LSIL ou HSIL. Quando se consideram como positivas apenas as CO com HSIL, este exame apresenta acentuado ganho de especificidade (de 29 para 95% e valor preditivo positivo (de 12 para 50%, superando a CHII, porém com redução igualmente significativa de sua sensibilidade (de 82 para 41%. CONCLUSÕES: nossos resultados indicaram grande potencial da CHII para detectar mulheres com NIC2/3 entre as pacientes com ASCUS/LSIL na CO de encaminhamento.OBJECTIVE: to assess the ability of Pap smear and hybrid capture II (HCII to detect clinically significant cervical lesions (CIN2/3 in women referred to hospital due to atypical squamous cells of unknown significance (ASCUS or low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL. METHODS: a cross-sectional study comprising 161 women referred to the Taubaté University Hospital due to ASCUS/LSIL, between August 2000 and September 2002. All women responded to a questionnaire regarding sociodemographic and reproductive characteristics and were subjected to gynecological examination with specimen collection for Pap test and HCII, along with colposcopy and eventual cervical biopsy. The relationship between HCII results and age, use of condom, oral hormonal contraception, and smoking were evaluated by the chi-square test. The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of both Pap test and HCII were calculated. All calculations were performed within 95% confidence intervals. RESULTS: sixty-seven percent of the women that tested positive for HPV were less than 30 years old. Pap smear and HCII showed the same 82% sensitivity in detecting CIN2/3 when the threshold for a positive Pap result was ASCUS, LSIL or HSIL. Pap smear specificity and positive predictive values were substantially increased when only HSIL results were considered as positive (from 29 to 95% and 12 to 50%, respectively. These figures were superior to those of HCII, but at the expense of an expressive loss of sensitivity (from 82% to 41%. CONCLUSIONS: our results substantiate the potential of HCII in detecting CIN2/3 among women referred due to ASCUS/LSIL.

André Luis Ferreira Santos

2004-07-01

269

PS1-25: Cervical Cancer Testing and Follow-up in Four Managed Care Plans, 1998-2007  

Science.gov (United States)

Background/Aims Cervical cancer screening is performed to detect pre-cancerous cervical intraepithelial neoplasia or invasive cancerous cervical lesions prior to the onset of symptoms so they can be removed before the cancer has developed or spread. With the addition of high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) testing to the long-established Papanicolaou (Pap) smear, national and health plan screening guidelines have been regularly updated in recent years. Guidelines on screening frequency and follow-up protocols have also changed over time and will likely continue to do so as HPV vaccination becomes more widespread. Here we describe patterns and results of cervical cancer testing and follow-up over a 10-year period within four geographically-dispersed U.S. managed care organizations. Methods Using data collected by the SEARCH: Screening Effectiveness And Research in Community-Based Healthcare project, we analyzed electronic medical record data on all women aged 20–65 during the period 1998–2007 across four HMORN sites. We created standardized files for Pap smear dates and results; cervical histology dates, types, and results; and HPV test dates and results. We also collected Virtual Data Warehouse data on HPV vaccinations, and selected diagnosis and procedure codes. We calculated rates of Pap testing, HPV testing, colposcopy, and cervical histology (biopsy and treatment). We also calculated rates for Pap testing we classified as “screening.” Among women who had Pap tests in 2002 and 2007 and no abnormal test directly preceding the index test, we examined patterns of screening frequency. We also examined frequencies and trends in the results of “screening” Pap testing and cervical histology. Results Overall, annual Pap testing rates decreased and HPV testing rates dramatically increased over the 10 years, while rates of colposcopy, cervical histology, and cervical treatment did not display obvious patterns. Trends varied by age group and health plan. Pap screening frequency differed by health plan; overall, in 2007 a higher proportion of subjects had longer screening intervals (2 years or greater) than in 2002. Information on patterns of Pap and histology results will be presented. Discussion Evaluating trends in cervical cancer testing and follow-up may highlight opportunities to optimize cervical cancer screening delivery in community-based settings.

Weinmann, Sheila; Masterson, Erin; Gold, Heather; Kamineni, Aruna; Williams, Andrew; Stout, Natasha; Stark, Azadeh; Field, Terry; Richert-Boe, Kathryn

2012-01-01

270

Liqui Prep™ a New Liquid Based Cervical Cytology Method in Comparison with Conventional Pap Smear in Developing Counteries  

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Full Text Available The aim of the study was to compare, the screening performance of a new liquid-based cytology method, Liquiprep™,with conventional Pap in a low risk population, using colposcopy followed histology as "gold standard". Methods: This prospective study was performed in a general gynecology clinic in ValiAsr University Hospital, Tehran, Iran from February 2004 to March 2005. The split-sample method was used for preparing conventional and liquid-based cytology. A new technique of liquid-based cytology; Liqui-prep™ was used in this study. All positive result of smears and 10% of negative results in each group were submitted to colposcopy and a biopsy taken when any atypical transformation zone was seen. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values and overall accuracy of both conventional and Liquiprep™ methods were computed in relation to histology. A total of 506 patients were analyzed by two cytology methods and in 65 (12.84% of cases histologic diagnosis was performed. There were more adequate samples with Liquiprep™ (94.7% than with conventional (92.1% smears. There was not any LSIL and HSIL report in two groups. ASCUS was diagnosed significantly more with conventional than with Liquiprep™ smear (1.56 vs. 0.79%. Pathologically 50% of ASCUS in Liquiprep™ and 12.5% in CP had squamous abnormality. Liquiprep™ had a significantly higher sensitivity (66 vs. 83% and specificity (86 vs. 98% than the conventional Pap smear to detect ASCUS+ at histology. This study confirms the superiority of the Liquiprep™ method to detect cervical lesions.

2008-01-01

271

Análise espectral do sinal eletromiográfico do músculo eretor da espinha obtido do teste de Sorensen / Spectral analysis of the electromyographic signal of the erector spinae muscle obtained from Sorensen test  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese INTRODUÇÃO: A fadigabilidade excessiva dos músculos lombares é um achado comum em pacientes portadores de dor lombar. Por isso, a avaliação da resistência isométrica desses músculos tem sido recomendada nessa população. OBJETIVO: O objetivo deste estudo foi identificar e analisar objetivamente o com [...] portamento da fadiga do músculo eretor da espinha em um teste de resistência isométrica realizado até a exaustão. METODOLOGIA: Nove sujeitos saudáveis realizaram o teste de Sorensen modificado com contrações em intensidades correspondentes a 5%, 10%, 15% e 20% da contração voluntária máxima. A fadiga muscular foi identificada pela análise do comportamento da frequência mediana (FM) em função do tempo. RESULTADOS: O tempo de resistência isométrica foi inversamente correlacionado com a intensidade da contração. Contudo, a intensidade da contração não demonstrou efeito sobre a taxa de declínio da FM. A fadiga muscular foi significante em todas as porções do músculo eretor da espinha. Comparações entre os músculos eretor da espinha direito e esquerdo não revelaram diferenças significantes, enquanto que comparações entre porções do músculo eretor da espinha localizadas em diferentes níveis lombares revelaram maiores níveis de fadiga em L4-L5 bilateralmente. CONCLUSÃO: A análise espectral do sinal eletromiográfico foi eficaz para idenficação da fadiga do músculo eretor da espinha. Também foi possível identificar diferenças funcionais entre as diferentes porções desse músculo. O conhecimento dessas particularidades permite intervir de forma mais específica na prevenção e reabilitação dos distúrbios da coluna lombar. Abstract in english INTRODUCTION: Excessive fatigability of the low back muscles is a common finding in low back pain patients. Therefore, the assessment of the isometric endurance of these muscles has been recommended in this population. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to identify and to analyze objectively t [...] he behavior of the erector spinae muscle fatigue in an isometric endurance test performed until exhaustion. METHOD: Nine healthy subjects performed a modified Sorensen test with contractions of 5%, 10%, 15%, and 20% of the maximal voluntary contraction. The muscle fatigue was identified for the analysis of the behavior of the median frequency (MF) over time. The endurance time was inversely correlated with the contraction intensity. However, the contraction intensity did not show effect on the rate of decline of the MF. The muscle fatigue was significant in all the portions of the erector spinae muscle. RESULTS: Comparisons between the erector spinae muscles from right and left side did not show significant differences, while that the comparisons between the portions of the erector spinae muscle localized at different vertebral levels showed higher fatigue levels at L4-L5 bilaterally. CONCLUSION: Thus, the spectral analysis of the electromyographic signal was effective for the identification of the erector spinae muscle fatigue. Also, it was possible to identify functional differences between the different portions of this muscle. The knowledge of these particularities allows managing in a more specific way the prevention e rehabilitation of the low back troubles.

Barbosa, Fernando Sérgio Silva; Almeida, Camila Cristina Rodeline; Gonçalves, Mauro.

272

Evaluation of adjunctive tests for cervical cancer screening in low resource settings  

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Full Text Available Background: Visual inspection of cervix after application of acetic acid (VIA is an effective screening tool for cervical cancer in low resource settings, but its low specificity leads to high referral rates. Adjunctive testing may overcome this drawback. Aims: This pilot study was aimed to assess test performances of VIA, human papillomavirus (HPV testing and Pap smear, individually and in simulated combinations, to determine the probable best screening option. Setting and Design: Gynecology outpatient department (OPD; cross-sectional study. Materials and Methods: One hundred women with complaints of irregular vaginal bleeding or discharge, post coital bleeding or unhealthy cervix on examination underwent Pap smear, HPV testing, VIA, colposcopy and biopsy, if indicated, in this screening order. Statistical Analysis: Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV and negative predictive value (NPV were calculated for each of the tests with a biopsy result of ?HSIL taken as the gold standard. Simulated parallel and sequential combinations for VIA/Pap, VIA/HPV and HPV/Pap were calculated and compared with individual test performance. Results: Prevalence of abnormal Pap smears was 5%, VIA positive 51% and HPV positive 16%. Sensitivity and specificity of VIA were 100% and 53.3% respectively. For HPV and Pap tests corresponding figures were 85.7%, 89.7% and 50%, 98.9% respectively. The best simulated combination with a balance of sensitivity and specificity was of VIA followed by HPV testing (sensitivity 85.7%, specificity 95.4%. Conclusion: Addition of HPV testing to VIA can increase the specificity of VIA, thereby reducing the referral rates without compromising the sensitivity of the test.

Bhatla Neerja

2007-01-01

273

Bacterial curli protein promotes the conversion of PAP248-286 into the amyloid SEVI: cross-seeding of dissimilar amyloid sequences  

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Full Text Available Fragments of prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP248-286 in human semen dramatically increase HIV infection efficiency by increasing virus adhesion to target cells. PAP248-286 only enhances HIV infection in the form of amyloid aggregates termed SEVI (Semen Enhancer of Viral Infection, however monomeric PAP248-286 aggregates very slowly in isolation. It has therefore been suggested that SEVI fiber formation in vivo may be promoted by exogenous factors. We show here that a bacterially-produced extracellular amyloid (curli or Csg acts as a catalytic agent for SEVI formation from PAP248-286 at low concentrations in vitro, producing fibers that retain the ability to enhance HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus infection. Kinetic analysis of the cross-seeding effect shows an unusual pattern. Cross-seeding PAP248-286 with curli only moderately affects the nucleation rate while significantly enhancing the growth of fibers from existing nuclei. This pattern is in contrast to most previous observations of cross-seeding, which show cross-seeding partially bypasses the nucleation step but has little effect on fiber elongation. Seeding other amyloidogenic proteins (IAPP (islet amyloid polypeptide and A?1?40 with curli showed varied results. Curli cross-seeding decreased the lag-time of IAPP amyloid formation but strongly inhibited IAPP elongation. Curli cross-seeding exerted a complicated concentration dependent effect on A?1?40 fibrillogenesis kinetics. Combined, these results suggest that the interaction of amyloidogenic proteins with preformed fibers of a different type can take a variety of forms and is not limited to epitaxial nucleation between proteins of similar sequence. The ability of curli fibers to interact with proteins of dissimilar sequences suggests cross-seeding may be a more general phenomenon than previously supposed.

Matthew R. Chapman

2013-02-01

274

Pattern of abnormal Pap smears in developing countries : A report from a large referral hospital in Saudi Arabia using the revised 2001 Bethesda System  

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Full Text Available Background: Reports describing the frequency and pattern of abnormal Pap smears in developing countries using the revised Bethesda system for Pap smear are few. We studied the pattern of cervical intraepithelial le--sions and carcinoma detected in Pap smears of Saudi females in the western region of Saudi Arabia using the revised system. Methods: All cervical Pap smears reported in the Department of Pathology of King Abdulaziz Medical City, Jeddah, from 1 January 1998 to 31 August 2005 were reclassified according to the revised system with age ranges identified. RESULTS: Of 5590 sufficient smears, 261 (5% were identified as abnormal and were further classified as atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US (103 cases, 40%, atypical squamous cells of high grade (6 cases, 2%, low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL (56 cases, 22%, high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL (31 cases, 12%, glandular cell abnormalities (30 cases, 11% and invasive squa--mous cell carcinoma (21 cases, 9%. The ASC-US/SIL ratio was 1.9%. Invasive adenocarcinoma accounted for 14 cases (4% with a similar age range as invasive squamous cell carcinoma. Conclusion: Although this study showed a lower incidence and a wider age range of cervical epithelial cell abnormalities than others published internationally, the results emphasize the need for a well-organized cervi--cal screening program supplemented by larger national studies on the pattern of cervical abnormalities in this country. The information provided in this study will encourage use of the Pap smear as a screening method for cervical cancer in developing countries.

Abdullah Layla

2007-01-01

275

Structural basis for the activation mechanism of the PlcR virulence regulator by the quorum-sensing signal peptide PapR.  

Science.gov (United States)

The quorum-sensing regulator PlcR is the master regulator of most known virulence factors in Bacillus cereus. It is a helix-turn-helix (HTH)-type transcription factor activated upon binding of its cognate signaling peptide PapR on a tetratricopeptide repeat-type regulatory domain. The structural and functional properties of PlcR have defined a new family of sensor regulators, called the RNPP family (for Rap, NprR, PrgX, and PlcR), in Gram-positive bacteria. To fully understand the activation mechanism of PlcR, we took a closer look at the conformation changes induced upon binding of PapR and of its target DNA, known as PlcR-box. For that purpose we have determined the structures of the apoform of PlcR (Apo PlcR) and of the ternary complex of PlcR with PapR and the PlcR-box from the plcA promoter. Comparison of the apoform of PlcR with the previously published structure of the PlcR-PapR binary complex shows how a small conformational change induced in the C-terminal region of the tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) domain upon peptide binding propagates via the linker helix to the N-terminal HTH DNA-binding domain. Further comparison with the PlcR-PapR-DNA ternary complex shows how the activation of the PlcR dimer allows the linker helix to undergo a drastic conformational change and subsequent proper positioning of the HTH domains in the major groove of the two half sites of the pseudopalindromic PlcR-box. Together with random mutagenesis experiments and interaction measurements using peptides from distinct pherogroups, this structural analysis allows us to propose a molecular mechanism for this functional switch. PMID:23277548

Grenha, Rosa; Slamti, Leyla; Nicaise, Magali; Refes, Yacine; Lereclus, Didier; Nessler, Sylvie

2013-01-15

276

A new optical method of continuously analysing the surface properties of a single pendant drop while obtaining quality bulk spectral and refractive index measurements of the liquid-under-test  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The classical stalagmometer has been replaced by the tensiometer to measure surface properties from drop volume. From the drop period T1, converted into volume, the surface properties of the liquid can be obtained. In the fibre drop analyser the use of the graphical signal (tensiotrace), significantly extends the measurement potential of the tensiometer by providing additional measurands. This instrument produces a series of peaks. The third-order reflection is known as 'the tensiopeak-period' t3, and accurately predicts the value of the drop period. The results of an experimental study confirm the relationship between T1 and t3 for a wide range of liquids and are supported by ray-tracing modeling. Very sensitive and high quality bulk UV-visible spectra and refractive index measurements can be obtained from the drop-under-test.

2009-07-01

277

A new optical method of continuously analysing the surface properties of a single pendant drop while obtaining quality bulk spectral and refractive index measurements of the liquid-under-test  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The classical stalagmometer has been replaced by the tensiometer to measure surface properties from drop volume. From the drop period T{sub 1}, converted into volume, the surface properties of the liquid can be obtained. In the fibre drop analyser the use of the graphical signal (tensiotrace), significantly extends the measurement potential of the tensiometer by providing additional measurands. This instrument produces a series of peaks. The third-order reflection is known as 'the tensiopeak-period' t{sub 3}, and accurately predicts the value of the drop period. The results of an experimental study confirm the relationship between T{sub 1} and t{sub 3} for a wide range of liquids and are supported by ray-tracing modeling. Very sensitive and high quality bulk UV-visible spectra and refractive index measurements can be obtained from the drop-under-test.

McMillan, N D; O' Rourke, B; Morrin, D; Pringuet, P; Carbery, D [Institute of Technology Carlow, Kilkenny Road, Carlow (Ireland); Smith, S R P [Physics Department, University of Essex, Wivenhoe Park, Colchester, Essex CO4 3SQ (United Kingdom); O' Neill, M; Riedel, S [Carl Stuart Ltd., Whitestown Business Park, Tallaght, Dublin 24 (Ireland); Hammond, J, E-mail: norman.mcmillan@itcarlow.i [Starna Scientific Ltd., 52-53 Fowler Road, Hainault, Essex IG6 3UT (United Kingdom)

2009-07-01

278

Cooler for obtaining crystals  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A modular air-cooled tube, with a series of movable Tamman test tubes or plugs (modular unilateral and bilateral ''crystallization comb''), installed in a laboratory tube furnace is presented. The setup allows easy regulation and simultaneous crystallization tests of a series of different crystallization parameters in crucible columns, enabling rapid acquisition of crystals. The relationship between the crystallization parameters has been given and numerically analyzed. This method can also be applied in crucible and chamber furnaces. (copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

Cabric, B.; Danilovic, N. [Faculty of Sciences, P.O. Box 60, 34000 Kragujevac (RS); Pavlovic, T. [Faculty of Sciences, P.O. Box 224, 18000 Nis (RS)

2011-03-15

279

Influence of noninvasive ventilation by BiPAP® on exercise tolerance and respiratory muscle strength in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients (COPD) / Influência da ventilação não invasiva por meio do BiPAP® sobre a tolerância ao exercício físico e força muscular respiratória em pacientes com doença pulmonar obstrutiva crônica (DPOC) / Influencia de la ventilación no evasiva mediante el BiPAP® sobre la tolerancia al ejercicio físico y fuerza muscular respiratoria en pacientes con enfermedad pulmonar obstrutiva crónica (EPOC)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o efeito do BiPAP®, através de máscara nasal, na tolerância ao exercício físico e no desempenho muscular respiratório em pacientes com diagnóstico clínico e espirométrico de DPOC, moderado/grave (VEF1 [...] de 59,4±8,9 anos, dez pacientes com doença pulmonar obstrutiva crônica (DPOC) foram tratados com 30 minutos de BiPAP® (IPAP=10-15 e EPAP=4 cmH2O), em três sessões semanais, durante dois meses. Antes e após o tratamento mediu-se a espirometria, a força muscular inspiratória (PImax) e expiratória (PEmax) e a distância percorrida em seis minutos (TC6). Foram constatados aumentos significativos (Wilcoxon, p Abstract in spanish El objetivo de esto estudio fue evaluar el efecto del BiPAP®, por medio de la máscara nasal, sobre la tolerancia al ejercicio físico y el desempeño muscular respiratorio en pacientes con diagnosis clínico y espirométrico de EPOC moderada/grave (VEF1 [...] sible y edad promedia de 59,4±8,9 años, diez pacientes fueron tratados con 30 minutos de BiPAP® (IPAP=10-15 e EPAP=4 cmH2O), en tres sesiones semanales, durante dos meses. Antes y después del tratamiento, fue medida la espirometría, la fuerza muscular inspiratoria (PImax) y expiratoria (PEmax) y la distancia cubierta en seis minutos (TC6). Fueron evidenciados aumentos significativos (Wilcoxon, p Abstract in english This study aimed to assess the effect of BiPAP®, by nasal mask, on exercise tolerance and respiratory muscle strength in patients with a clinical and spirometric diagnosis of moderate/severe COPD (FEV1 [...] re treated with 30 minutes of BiPAP® (IPAP:10 and 15 cmH2O; EPAP:4 cmH2O), three days per week, during two months. Before and after the treatment, spirometry, inspiratory (MIP) and expiratory (MEP) muscle strength and the distance walked in six minutes (6MWT) were measured. We observed a significant increase (Wilcoxon, p

Dirceu, Costa; Andreza, Toledo; Audrey Borghi e, Silva; Luciana Maria Malosá, Sampaio.

280

A Spontaneous Translational Fusion of Bacillus cereus PlcR and PapR Activates Transcription of PlcR-Dependent Genes in Bacillus anthracis via Binding with a Specific Palindromic Sequence  

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Transformation of Bacillus anthracis with plasmid pUTE29-plcR-papR carrying the native Bacillus cereus plcR-papR gene cluster did not activate expression of B. anthracis hemolysin genes, even though these are expected to be responsive to activation by the global regulator PlcR. To further characterize the action of PlcR, we examined approximately 3,000 B. anthracis transformants containing pUTE29-plcR-papR and found a single hemolytic colony. The hemolytic strain contained a plasmid having a ...

Pomerantsev, Andrei P.; Pomerantseva, Olga M.; Leppla, Stephen H.

2004-01-01

 
 
 
 
281

Prevalência de alterações no exame citológico do colo do útero em pacientes com lúpus eritematoso sistêmico Prevalence of abnormal pap smears in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus  

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Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: estudos sugerem que mulheres com lúpus eritematoso sistêmico (LES apresentam maior taxa de anormalidades no exame citológico do esfregaço cervical quando comparadas com a população geral. OBJETIVO: estudar a prevalência de anormalidades no exame citológico de Papanicolaou de pacientes com LES, procurando correlacionar o seu aparecimento com tempo de doença, uso de medicamentos imunossupressores e perfil de auto-anticorpos. MÉTODO: foram analisados 76 exames citológicos de pacientes do sexo feminino, portadoras de LES, e de 80 mulheres saudáveis. Nas pacientes com lúpus, foram verificados: tempo de doença, uso de anticoncepcionais, uso anterior de citostáticos (ciclofosfamida, azatioprina e metotrexato, antimaláricos e presença dos anticorpos anti-RO, anti-LA, anti-DNA. RESULTADO: a prevalência de alterações do Papanicolaou foi maior no grupo das pacientes com LES quando comparada com controles (9,4% versus 1,2%, p = 0,03. Não se encontrou associação entre o aparecimento de Papanicolaou alterado e o uso de ciclofosfamida (p = 1,0, metotrexato (p = 0,58, azatioprina (p = 1,0, antimaláricos (p = 0,051, tempo de doença (p = 0,85, exposição, nem com perfil de auto-anticorpos estudado. CONCLUSÃO: existe maior prevalência de alterações do exame citológico de esfregaço vaginal em pacientes com LES na população estudada, a qual não depende do tempo da doença, uso de agentes imunossupressores e presença de anti-RO, anti-LA ou anti-DNA.BACKGROUND: studies have suggested that patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE have increased risk of developing abnormal results in Pap smears, when compared to the general population. OBJECT: to check the prevalence of abnormal Pap smears in patients with SLE compared to the general population relating it with disease duration, use of immunosuppressive and antimalarial agents and autoantibody profile. METHOD: we studied Pap smears of 76 patients with SLE and 80 healthy controls. In patients with SLE we assessed disease duration, use of cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, azathioprine, antimalarials and the presence of anti-RO, anti-LA and anti-DNA. RESULT: the prevalence of abnormal Pap smears was higher in the SLE group than controls (9.4% versus 1.2%, p = 0.03. No relationship was found between abnormal Pap smears and cyclophosphamide (p = 1.0, methotrexate (p = 0.58, azathioprine (p = 1.0 or antimalarial use (p = 0.051, disease duration (p = 0.85, neither with any of the studied auto antibodies. CONCLUSION: there is a higher prevalence of abnormal Pap smears in the studied SLE population than in normal people that is independent of the duration of the disease, use of immunosupressive medication or presence of autoantibodies.

Bernardo Rodi Carvalho Barros

2007-10-01

282

[Obtaining corneas by donation].  

Science.gov (United States)

The cadaveric donation is not a programmed event. In the critical areas where exist a potential donating patient of organs and tissues initiate a cascade of actions in which medical, legal and social aspects are involved. The Program of Obtaining-Transplant organs and tissues began in 2004 with the creation of the Department of Coordination Donation for the training of personnel to lead this process. The diffusion of strategies used in these processes is the aim of this publication, as well as to describe the current difficulties to achieve an improvement in donation according to needs. PMID:21192893

Querevalú-Murillo, Walter Adolfo

2010-01-01

283

Sunscreens: obtaining adequate photoprotection.  

Science.gov (United States)

Adequate photoprotection plays a paramount role in reducing the burden of both photoaging and photocarcinogenesis. The scope of photoprotective strategies employed by the public, from most to least effective, includes: sun avoidance, seeking shade, the use of protective clothing, and the application of sunscreen. Among these options, sunscreen use remains the strategy most frequently employed by the public--a reversal of the preferred order of photoprotection. Given this trend, it is clear why sunscreens invariably take center stage in any discussion regarding obtaining adequate photoprotection. PMID:22913442

Burnett, Mark E; Hu, Judy Y; Wang, Steven Q

2012-01-01

284

Performance of Three Nucleic Acid Amplification Tests for Detection of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae by Use of Self-Collected Vaginal Swabs Obtained via an Internet-Based Screening Program ?  

Science.gov (United States)

Use of self-obtained vaginal specimens processed by nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) has significantly increased the utilization of nontraditional locations for Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae screening programs. One important emerging source of such venues includes home-based self-sampling kits available via the Internet. The objective of our study was to evaluate the performance of three commercially available NAATs (Becton-Dickinson ProbeTec SDA, Gen-Probe Aptima Combo2 TMA, and Roche Amplicor PCR) for detection of C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae in vaginal samples obtained via an Internet-based screening program. From July 2004 to August 2005, 500 self-collected vaginal swabs were tested for C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae by using all three NAATs. Another 500 samples were collected between August 2005 and November 2007 and tested by ProbeTec and Combo2; PCR testing was discontinued due to low specificity for N. gonorrhoeae. All tests were conducted according to the manufacturers' procedures; the “gold standard” for an infected C. trachomatis or N. gonorrhoeae patient was defined as ?2 positive NAAT results. Of the first 500 swabs submitted, 46 were C. trachomatis infected (9.2%) and 5 were N. gonorrhoeae infected (1.0%), and 3 of these were coinfected (0.6%). All C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae Combo2-positive/ProbeTec-negative samples were confirmed as true positives by an alternative NAAT. For C. trachomatis, ProbeTec, Combo2, and PCR had sensitivities of 82.6%, 100%, and 100%, with specificities of 100%, 100%, and 99.3%, respectively. For N. gonorrhoeae, ProbeTec, Combo2, and PCR had sensitivities of 80%, 100%, and 100%, with specificities of 100%, 100%, and 98.8%, respectively. Of the total 1,000 swabs submitted, 92 were C. trachomatis infected (9.2%) and 15 were N. gonorrhoeae infected (1.5%), and 7 of these were coinfected (0.7%). There were no ProbeTec-positive/Combo2-negative samples. For C. trachomatis, ProbeTec and Combo2 had sensitivities of 81.5% and 100%, with specificities of 100% and 100%, respectively. For N. gonorrhoeae, ProbeTec and Combo2 had sensitivities of 80% and 100%, with specificities of 100% and 100%, respectively. Overall, ProbeTec had 17 C. trachomatis false-negative results (1.7%) and 3 N. gonorrhoeae false-negative results (0.3%), while Combo2 had none. Our results were consistent with the sensitivities and specificities stated by the manufacturers. NAATs perform well for detection of chlamydia and gonorrhea with self-obtained vaginal swabs shipped in a dry state to a laboratory. For 1,000 self-collected vaginal swabs tested by NAATs, the sensitivities for C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae for Combo2 were 100% and 100%, while they were 81.5% and 80%, respectively, for ProbeTec. For 500 PCR samples, the C. trachomatis sensitivity was 100% and the N. gonorrhoeae sensitivity was 100%, with specificities of 99.3% and 98.8%, respectively.

Masek, Billie Jo; Arora, Nick; Quinn, Nicole; Aumakhan, Bulbul; Holden, Jeff; Hardick, Andrew; Agreda, Patricia; Barnes, Mathilda; Gaydos, Charlotte A.

2009-01-01

285

Performance of three nucleic acid amplification tests for detection of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae by use of self-collected vaginal swabs obtained via an Internet-based screening program.  

Science.gov (United States)

Use of self-obtained vaginal specimens processed by nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) has significantly increased the utilization of nontraditional locations for Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae screening programs. One important emerging source of such venues includes home-based self-sampling kits available via the Internet. The objective of our study was to evaluate the performance of three commercially available NAATs (Becton-Dickinson ProbeTec SDA, Gen-Probe Aptima Combo2 TMA, and Roche Amplicor PCR) for detection of C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae in vaginal samples obtained via an Internet-based screening program. From July 2004 to August 2005, 500 self-collected vaginal swabs were tested for C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae by using all three NAATs. Another 500 samples were collected between August 2005 and November 2007 and tested by ProbeTec and Combo2; PCR testing was discontinued due to low specificity for N. gonorrhoeae. All tests were conducted according to the manufacturers' procedures; the "gold standard" for an infected C. trachomatis or N. gonorrhoeae patient was defined as > or = 2 positive NAAT results. Of the first 500 swabs submitted, 46 were C. trachomatis infected (9.2%) and 5 were N. gonorrhoeae infected (1.0%), and 3 of these were coinfected (0.6%). All C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae Combo2-positive/ProbeTec-negative samples were confirmed as true positives by an alternative NAAT. For C. trachomatis, ProbeTec, Combo2, and PCR had sensitivities of 82.6%, 100%, and 100%, with specificities of 100%, 100%, and 99.3%, respectively. For N. gonorrhoeae, ProbeTec, Combo2, and PCR had sensitivities of 80%, 100%, and 100%, with specificities of 100%, 100%, and 98.8%, respectively. Of the total 1,000 swabs submitted, 92 were C. trachomatis infected (9.2%) and 15 were N. gonorrhoeae infected (1.5%), and 7 of these were coinfected (0.7%). There were no ProbeTec-positive/Combo2-negative samples. For C. trachomatis, ProbeTec and Combo2 had sensitivities of 81.5% and 100%, with specificities of 100% and 100%, respectively. For N. gonorrhoeae, ProbeTec and Combo2 had sensitivities of 80% and 100%, with specificities of 100% and 100%, respectively. Overall, ProbeTec had 17 C. trachomatis false-negative results (1.7%) and 3 N. gonorrhoeae false-negative results (0.3%), while Combo2 had none. Our results were consistent with the sensitivities and specificities stated by the manufacturers. NAATs perform well for detection of chlamydia and gonorrhea with self-obtained vaginal swabs shipped in a dry state to a laboratory. For 1,000 self-collected vaginal swabs tested by NAATs, the sensitivities for C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae for Combo2 were 100% and 100%, while they were 81.5% and 80%, respectively, for ProbeTec. For 500 PCR samples, the C. trachomatis sensitivity was 100% and the N. gonorrhoeae sensitivity was 100%, with specificities of 99.3% and 98.8%, respectively. PMID:19386838

Masek, Billie Jo; Arora, Nick; Quinn, Nicole; Aumakhan, Bulbul; Holden, Jeff; Hardick, Andrew; Agreda, Patricia; Barnes, Mathilda; Gaydos, Charlotte A

2009-06-01

286

Comportamiento de las citologías orgánicas alteradas en un área de salud / Behavior of organic altered Pap in one health area  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Introducción: el cáncer de útero es, después del cáncer de mama, el que más frecuentemente afecta a la mujer. La detección y tratamiento temprano de las lesiones premalignas garantizan la durabilidad de esta afección. Objetivo: conocer el comportamiento de las citologías orgánicas alteradas en un ár [...] ea de salud. Métodos: se realizó un estudio descriptivo, transversal y retrospectivo en el Policlínico Este del municipio Camagüey en el período de enero de 2005 a diciembre de 2010. El universo estuvo constituido por las 189 mujeres que presentaron citologías orgánicas anormales en el período antes señalado. Se recogieron variables como: grupo de edades, resultados de las citologías orgánicas según toma de muestra, edad de las primeras relaciones sexuales, número de partos, diagnóstico citológico de infección por virus del papiloma humano (VPH). Resultados: poco menos de la mitad de las mujeres inició las relaciones sexuales antes de los 18 años (46,56 %) y la mayoría tenía entre 1 y 3 partos (83,06 %). El 56,08 % de las pacientes presentaron infección por VPH. Conclusiones: predominaron las pacientes con neoplasia intraepitelial cervical II, el año 2006 fue el de mayor incidencia de lesiones de cuello uterino. Abstract in english Introduction: uterine cancer is the type of cancer which most frequently affects women after breast cancer. The early detection and treatment of pre-malignant damage guarantees the durability of this condition. Objective: to understand the behavior of organic altered Pap in one health area. Methods: [...] a descriptive, cross-sectional and retrospective study was conducted I, the eastern polyclinic in Camagüey municipality from January 2005 to December 2010. The sample consisted of 189 women who had abnormal Pap organic in the aforementioned period. Variables were collected such as: age group, organic cytology results according to sampling, age of first intercourse, parity, cytological diagnosis of infection with human papillomavirus (HPV). Results: slightly less than half of these women had their first sex intercourse before the age of 18 (46.56 %) and most had had 1-3 births (83.06 %). 56.08 % of these patients had HPV infection. Conclusions: cervical intraepithelial neoplasia II was predominant in these patients. The highest incidence of cervical lesions occurred in 2006.

María Eulalia, Prieto Herrera; Jorge Luis, Pérez Rivero; Maité, Camacho Vázquez; Martha, Ordán Áreas; Niurka, Rodríguez Sánchez.

287

Comportamiento de las citologías orgánicas alteradas en un área de salud Behavior of organic altered Pap in one health area  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introducción: el cáncer de útero es, después del cáncer de mama, el que más frecuentemente afecta a la mujer. La detección y tratamiento temprano de las lesiones premalignas garantizan la durabilidad de esta afección. Objetivo: conocer el comportamiento de las citologías orgánicas alteradas en un área de salud. Métodos: se realizó un estudio descriptivo, transversal y retrospectivo en el Policlínico Este del municipio Camagüey en el período de enero de 2005 a diciembre de 2010. El universo estuvo constituido por las 189 mujeres que presentaron citologías orgánicas anormales en el período antes señalado. Se recogieron variables como: grupo de edades, resultados de las citologías orgánicas según toma de muestra, edad de las primeras relaciones sexuales, número de partos, diagnóstico citológico de infección por virus del papiloma humano (VPH. Resultados: poco menos de la mitad de las mujeres inició las relaciones sexuales antes de los 18 años (46,56 % y la mayoría tenía entre 1 y 3 partos (83,06 %. El 56,08 % de las pacientes presentaron infección por VPH. Conclusiones: predominaron las pacientes con neoplasia intraepitelial cervical II, el año 2006 fue el de mayor incidencia de lesiones de cuello uterino.Introduction: uterine cancer is the type of cancer which most frequently affects women after breast cancer. The early detection and treatment of pre-malignant damage guarantees the durability of this condition. Objective: to understand the behavior of organic altered Pap in one health area. Methods: a descriptive, cross-sectional and retrospective study was conducted I, the eastern polyclinic in Camagüey municipality from January 2005 to December 2010. The sample consisted of 189 women who had abnormal Pap organic in the aforementioned period. Variables were collected such as: age group, organic cytology results according to sampling, age of first intercourse, parity, cytological diagnosis of infection with human papillomavirus (HPV. Results: slightly less than half of these women had their first sex intercourse before the age of 18 (46.56 % and most had had 1-3 births (83.06 %. 56.08 % of these patients had HPV infection. Conclusions: cervical intraepithelial neoplasia II was predominant in these patients. The highest incidence of cervical lesions occurred in 2006.

María Eulalia Prieto Herrera

2012-12-01

288

Challenging the present definition of "normal" vitamin D levels obtained by a single blood test. Can we develop a formula to predict vitamin D levels in the 4 seasons from a single season's measure?  

Science.gov (United States)

Publications on the health effects of vitamin D (25(OH) D) had almost triplicate in the last 10years, not only for its known "calcemic effects" (calcium, phosphor, PTH), but for the more recent findings on its "non-calcemic effects" (all-cause and cardiovascular mortality, and relation with certain types of cancer). Part of these publications deal with the definition of what is a "normal" circulating level of 25(OH) D that may distinguish between health and disease. The literature also deals with seasonal variations of vitamin D, showing levels that rise in summer and fall in winter and with DBP phenotypes and geographical location that affect seasonality of 25(OH) D measurements. Despite the knowledge of the existence of these phenomena many studies on vitamin D fail to acknowledge the time of the year the blood sample was extracted. Thus, when we compare results from different studies without defining the season that the samples were drawn, we compare incomparable figures. Furthermore, it is quite absurd to define "normal levels" as a static measure (over or under a certain value) using a single blood test when the value measured is known to change with seasons. Knowing that people have different vitamin D levels in different seasons of the year, we should ask ourselves which of these measurements should be used to define a "real" or "normal" level? Is it the lower one? Is there a "mean measure" that should be used for this matter? If yes, how do we obtain it? Do we have to make 4 seasonal measurements in each patient? Alternatively, might there be a possibility of developing a formula to help us obtain the mean from a single season's measure or one season's prediction from another season's measurement? And knowing that DBP phenotypes and geographical location affect seasonality of 25(OH) D measurements; shouldn't we include this in the equation? In this article I will discuss the hypothetical existence of an Individual Mean Annual vitamin D level that I will call the "IMAD level" and a recovery formula "RF" that may be used to calculate this mean having one single measure (in any of the 4 seasons) and to predict any season's value from another season's measurement. IMAD levels should be obtained in the two main DBP phenotypes, taking into account the geographical location of the test. PMID:24854576

Tandeter, Howard

2014-08-01

289

Noninvasive mechanical ventilation with BiPAP therapy for comatose exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease through an endotracheal tube: is it justified?  

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Antonio Esquinas,1 Ritesh Agarwal21Intensive Care Unit, Hospital Morales Meseguer, Murcia, Spain; 2Department of Pulmonary Medicine, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, IndiaWe read with interest the paper by Rawat et al1 related to the role of bilevel positive airway pressure (BiPAP) delivered via endotracheal tube in unconscious patients suffering from acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in a real-world situation. Although the autho...

2012-01-01

290

Identification of hemostatic genes expressed in human and rat leg muscles and a novel gene (LPP1/PAP2A suppressed during prolonged physical inactivity (sitting  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Partly because of functional genomics, there has been a major paradigm shift from solely thinking of skeletal muscle as contractile machinery to an understanding that it can have roles in paracrine and endocrine functions. Physical inactivity is an established risk factor for some blood clotting disorders. The effects of inactivity during sitting are most alarming when a person develops the enigmatic condition in the legs called deep venous thrombosis (DVT or “coach syndrome,” caused in part by muscular inactivity. The goal of this study was to determine if skeletal muscle expresses genes with roles in hemostasis and if their expression level was responsive to muscular inactivity such as occurs in prolonged sitting. Methods Microarray analyses were performed on skeletal muscle samples from rats and humans to identify genes associated with hemostatic function that were significantly expressed above background based on multiple probe sets with perfect and mismatch sequences. Furthermore, we determined if any of these genes were responsive to models of physical inactivity. Multiple criteria were used to determine differential expression including significant expression above background, fold change, and non-parametric statistical tests. Results These studies demonstrate skeletal muscle tissue expresses at least 17 genes involved in hemostasis. These include the fibrinolytic factors tetranectin, annexin A2, and tPA; the anti-coagulant factors TFPI, protein C receptor, PAF acetylhydrolase; coagulation factors, and genes necessary for the posttranslational modification of these coagulation factors such as vitamin K epoxide reductase. Of special interest, lipid phosphate phosphatase-1 (LPP1/PAP2A, a key gene for degrading prothrombotic and proinflammatory lysophospholipids, was suppressed locally in muscle tissue within hours after sitting in humans; this was also observed after acute and chronic physical inactivity conditions in rats, and exercise was relatively ineffective at counteracting this effect in both species. Conclusions These findings suggest that skeletal muscle may play an important role in hemostasis and that muscular inactivity may contribute to hemostatic disorders not only because of the slowing of blood flow per se, but also potentially because of the contribution from genes expressed locally in muscles, such as LPP1.

Zderic Theodore W

2012-10-01

291

Field project to obtain pressure core, wireline log, and production test data for evaluation of CO/sub 2/ flooding potential, Conoco MCA unit well No. 358, Maljamar Field, Lea County, New Mexico  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report describes part of the work done to fulfill a contract awarded to Gruy Federal, Inc., by the Department of Energy (DOE) on Feburary 12, 1979. The work includes pressure-coring and associated logging and testing programs to provide data on in-situ oil saturation, porosity and permeability distribution, and other data needed for resource characterization of fields and reservoirs in which CO/sub 2/ injection might have a high probability of success. This report details the second such project. Core porosities agreed well with computed log porosities. Core water saturation and computed log porosities agree fairly well from 3692 to 3712 feet, poorly from 3712 to 3820 feet and in a general way from 4035 to 4107 feet. Computer log analysis techniques incorporating the a, m, and n values obtained from Core Laboratories analysis did not improve the agreement of log versus core derived water saturations. However, both core and log analysis indicated the ninth zone had the highest residual hydrocarbon saturations and production data confirmed the validity of oil saturation determinations. Residual oil saturation, for the perforated and tested intervals were 259 STB/acre-ft for the interval from 4035 to 4055 feet, and 150 STB/acre-ft for the interval from 3692 to 3718 feet. Nine BOPD was produced from the interval 4035 to 4055 feet and no oil was produced from interval 3692 to 3718 feet, qualitatively confirming the relative oil saturations as calculated. The low oil production in the zone from 4022 to 4055 and the lack of production from 3692 to 3718 feet indicated the zone to be at or near residual waterflood conditions as determined by log analysis. This project demonstrates the usefulness of integrating pressure core, log, and production data to realistically evaluate a reservoir for carbon dioxide flood.

Swift, T.E.; Marlow, R.E.; Wilhelm, M.H.; Goodrich, J.H.; Kumar, R.M.

1981-11-01

292

Aero thermal test results obtained on the n. C 5 EL 4 Cluster in the atmospheric pressure cell; Resultats des essais aerothermiques effectues sur la grappe EL 4 n. C 5 dans la cellule a pression atmospherique  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the framework of thermal studies on the EL-4 cluster, the full-scale tests at atmospheric pressure are designed to permit measurement of local values of the wall temperature, of the velocity and of the temperature in the fluid. The experimental results, obtained with the help of an original measuring apparatus, make it possible to follow the changes in these values along the cluster and to predict in much detail the in-pile thermal behaviour. In particular it is shown that changes in the wall temperature along the cluster are greatly influenced by disruption of the flow caused by grids and supports. (author) [French] Dans le cadre des etudes thermiques de la grappe EL-4 les essais a grande echelle et a pression atmospherique sont destines a la mesure des valeurs locales de temperature de paroi, de vitesse et de temperature dans le fluide. Les resultats experimentaux, obtenus grace a un appareillage de mesure original, permettent de suivre l'evolution de ces valeurs le long de la grappe et de prevoir de facon detaillee le comportement thermique en pile. Il est montre en particulier que la variation des temperatures de paroi le long de la grappe est fortement influencee par les perturbations de l'ecoulement dues aux grilles et entretoise. (auteur)

Gasc, B. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

1964-07-01

293

Aplicação do método de ensaio das frequências naturais de vibração para obtenção do módulo de elasticidade de peças estruturais de madeira / Analysis of the natural vibration frequency test method to obtain the modulus of elasticity of wood structural components  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Existem diversas técnicas para caracterização do módulo de elasticidade de madeiras e, dentre as atualmente empregadas, destacam-se aquelas que utilizam as frequências naturais de vibração, por serem técnicas não destrutivas e, portanto, apresentarem resultados que podem ser repetidos e comparados a [...] o longo do tempo. Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a eficácia, dos métodos de ensaios baseados nas frequências naturais de vibração comparando-os aos resultados obtidos na flexão estática na obtenção das propriedades elásticas em peças estruturais de madeira de reflorestamento que são usualmente empregadas na construção civil. Foram avaliadas 24 vigas de Eucalyptus sp. com dimensões nominais (40 x 60 x 2.000 mm) e 14 vigas de Pinus oocarpa com dimensões nominais (45 x 90 x 2.300 mm), ambas sem tratamento; 30 pranchas com dimensões nominais (40 x 240 x 2.010 mm) e 30 pranchas com dimensões nominais (40 x 240 x 3.050 mm), ambas de Pinnus oocarpa e com tratamento preservativo à base de Arseniato de Cobre Cromatado - CCA. Os resultados obtidos apresentaram boa correlação quando comparados aos resultados obtidos pelo método mecânico de flexão estática, especialmente quando empregada a frequência natural de vibração longitudinal. O emprego da frequência longitudinal mostrou-se confiável e prático, portanto recomendada para a determinação do módulo de elasticidade de peças estruturais de madeira. Verificou-se ainda que, empregando a frequência longitudinal, não há necessidade de um suporte específico para os corpos de prova ou calibrações prévias, reduzindo assim o tempo de execução e favorecendo o ensaio de grande quantidade de amostras. Abstract in english There are several techniques to characterize the elastic modulus of wood and those currently using the natural frequencies of vibration stand out as they are non-destructive techniques, producing results that can be repeated and compared over time. This study reports on the effectiveness of the test [...] ing methods based on the natural frequencies of vibration versus static bending to obtain the elastic properties of reforested structural wood components usually employed in civil construction. The following components were evaluated: 24 beams of Eucalyptus sp. with nominal dimensions (40 x 60 x 2.000 mm) and 14 beams of Pinus oocarpa with nominal dimensions (45 x 90 x 2.300 mm) both without treatment; 30 boards with nominal dimensions (40 x 240 x 2.010 mm) and 30 boards with nominal dimensions (40 x 240 x 3.050 mm), both of Pinus oocarpa and with chromate copper arsenate (CCA) preservative treatment. The results obtained in thiswork show good correlation when compared to the results obtained by the static bending mechanical method, especially when applying the natural frequency of longitudinal vibration. The use of longitudinal frequency was reliable and practical, therefore recommended for determining the modulus of elasticity of wood structural elements. It was also found that no specific support is needed for the specimens using the longitudinal frequency, as well as no previous calibrations, reducing the execution time and enabling to test many samples.

Pedro Gutemberg de Alcântara, Segundinho; Leiliane Cristina, Cossolino; Antônio Henrique Alves, Pereira; Carlito, Calil Junior.

294

Obtaining zircaloy powder through hydriding  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Zirconium alloys are good options for the metal matrix in dispersion fuels for power reactors due to their low thermal neutron absorption cross-section, good corrosion resistance, good mechanical strength and high thermal conductivity. A necessary step for obtaining such fuels is producing Zr alloy powder for the metal matrix composite material. This article presents results from the Zircaloy-4 hydrogenation tests with the purpose to embrittle the alloy as a first step for comminuting. Several hydrogenation tests were performed and studied through thermogravimetric analysis. They included H2 pressures of 25 and 50 kPa and temperatures ranging between from 20 to 670 deg C. X-ray diffraction analysis showed in the hydrogenated samples the predominant presence of ZrH2 and some ZrO2. Some kinetics parameters for the Zircaloy-4 hydrogenation reaction were obtained: the time required to reach the equilibrium state at the dwell temperature was about 100 minutes; the hydrogenation rate during the heating process from 20 to 670 deg C was about 21 mg/h, and at constant temperature of 670 deg C, the hydride rate was about 1.15 mg/h. The hydrogenation rate is largest during the heating process and most of it occurs during this period. After hydrogenated, the samples could easily be comminuted indicating that this is a possible technology to obtain Zircaloy powder. The results show that only few minutes of hydrogenation are necessary to reach the hydride levels required for comminuting the Zircaloy. The final hydride stoichiometry was between 2.7 and 2.8 H for each Zr atom in the sample (author)

2009-10-02

295

Fallopian Tube High-grade Serous Carcinoma With Intramucosal Spread and Presenting as a Malignancy on Pap Smear.  

Science.gov (United States)

For the first time, we report a case of a primary high-grade serous carcinoma of the fallopian tube in a 69-yr-old woman with intraepithelial involvement of endocervical glands. The patient had a remote history of tubal ligation and no known personal or family history of breast or gynecologic cancer. She initially presented with an abnormal Pap smear, and, on a subsequent endometrial curettage, detached fragments of high-grade adenocarcinoma were identified. Upon hysterectomy and bilateral salpingoophorectomy, invasive high-grade serous carcinoma was found in the proximal stump of a ligated fallopian tube. Morphologically identical tumor extensively involved the endocervical glands. A single focus of malignant cells was also found at the surface of the lower uterine segment endometrium. By immunohistochemistry, the tumors in the fallopian tube and in the cervix showed the same immunopheonotype. This included diffuse staining for WT-1, PAX-8, p16, and p53, and focal staining for the monoclonal carcinoembryonic antigen. The estrogen receptor was negative. Human papillomavirus-in situ hybridization was also negative. The focus of intramucosal tumor within the endometrium was similarly positive for WT-1 and p53 and negative for the estrogen receptor. The patient was subsequently treated with 6 cycles of carboplatinum and taxol. She remains well with no evidence of recurrent disease. The phenomenon of intramucosal tumor spread to the cervix mimicking primary invasive or in situ cervical adenocarcinoma may present a diagnostic challenge for the pathologist, requiring consideration of an appropriately wide differential diagnosis when interpreting cervical cytology and endocervical and endometrial biopsies. PMID:24901407

Kos, Zuzana; Broaddus, Russell R; Djordjevic, Bojana

2014-07-01

296

Molecular cloning of a novel human PAPS synthetase which is differentially expressed in metastatic and non-metastatic colon carcinoma cells.  

Science.gov (United States)

Subtractive hybridisation was used to select for genes which are differentially expressed between a highly metastatic human colon carcinoma cell line, KM12SM, and the isogenetic non-metastatic cell line, KM12C. This led to the isolation of cDNA clones for a novel human adenosine 5'-phosphosulphate kinase/ATP sulphurylase (PAPS synthetase). Northern hybridisation revealed a single 4.2 kb mRNA species which showed an approximately 20-fold higher level of expression in the non-metastatic cell line than in the metastatic cell line. The overlapping cDNA clones together covered 3,774 bp including the entire coding region of 1,842 bp encoding a protein of 614 amino acids (calculated molecular mass of 69,496 Da). The protein contains consensus sequences for APS kinase and ATP sulphurylase, in its amino- and carboxy-terminal regions, respectively, as well as other sequences that are highly conserved amongst ATP sulphurylases and APS kinases. Interestingly, consensus sequences for GTPase activity were also identified, indicating that enzyme activity may be regulated by an intrinsic GTPase mechanism. Overall the new protein is 78% homologous with a previously described human PAPS synthetase (PAPSS1) indicating that we have identified the second member of a gene family which we have provisionally named PAPSS2. The gene locus for PAPSS2 was identified on chromosome 10 at 10q23.1-q23.2. This locus has synteny with the mouse brachymorphic gene recently identified as a PAPS synthetase (SK2). PAPSS2 appears to be the human homologue of this gene and thus PAPSS2 is likely to be important in human skeletogenesis. PMID:10399321

Franzon, V L; Gibson, M A; Hatzinikolas, G; Woollatt, E; Sutherland, G R; Cleary, E G

1999-05-01

297

Structural basis for the activation mechanism of the PlcR virulence regulator by the quorum-sensing signal peptide PapR  

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The quorum-sensing regulator PlcR is the master regulator of most known virulence factors in Bacillus cereus. It is a helix-turn-helix (HTH)-type transcription factor activated upon binding of its cognate signaling peptide PapR on a tetratricopeptide repeat-type regulatory domain. The structural and functional properties of PlcR have defined a new family of sensor regulators, called the RNPP family (for Rap, NprR, PrgX, and PlcR), in Gram-positive bacteria. To fully understand the activation ...

Grenha, Rosa; Slamti, Leyla; Nicaise, Magali; Refes, Yacine; Lereclus, Didier; Nessler, Sylvie

2013-01-01

298

Relação da taxa de gestação com sêmen bovino congelado e testes de avaliação espermática in vitro Relationship between conception rates obtained by using bovine frozen semen and in vitro spermatic evaluation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Avaliou-se a relação entre os testes complementares (teste hiposmótico, teste de termorresistência lento e teste de reação acrossômica e os testes de avaliações convencionais (aspectos físicos e morfológicos de sêmen bovino congelado/descongelado e os índices de prenhez. Os valores médios da motilidade espermática progressiva retilínea avaliados pelo teste de termorresistência foram de 53,48 (pós-descongelamento, 43,69 (60 minutos, 35,88 (120 minutos e 33,04% (180 minutos e a porcentagem de células reativas ao teste hiposmótico foi de 37,89%. Correlação positiva e de média intensidade foi encontrada para a motilidade espermática progressiva retilínea pós-descongelamento e o teste hiposmótico (0,21. Entretanto, a correlação da motilidade aos 180 minutos com o teste hiposmótico foi alta (0,64. A porcentagem de células que tiveram acrossoma reagido pós-descongelamento foi de 9,85%, apresentando correlações negativas de média e alta intensidade (-0,25 e -0,46, respectivamente com a motilidade espermática progressiva retilínea pós-descongelamento e após 3 horas de incubação. Não houve correlação dos testes complementares e da motilidade pós-descongelamento com a taxa de gestação. Nenhum parâmetro considerado isoladamente serviu para avaliar a capacidade fertilizante do sêmen congelado/descongelado.The objective of this study was to evaluate the relationship between complementary (hiposmotic, thermo-resistance and acrosome reaction tests and conventional evaluations (physical and morphologic aspects of bovine frozen/thawed semen and conception rates. Average values for spermatic motility evaluated by thermo-resistance test were of 53.48% (post-thawed, 43.69% (60 minutes, 35.88% (120 minutes and 33.04% (180 minutes. The percentage of reactive cells observed for the hiposmotic test was 37.89%. Average intensity was observed for post-thawing spermatic motility, positively correlated to hiposmotic test (0.21. However, correlation between motility in the 180 minutes and hiposmotic test was high (0.64. The percentage of cells presenting post-thawing acrosome reaction was 9.85%, which was negative correlated to post-thawing (-0.25 and after three hours of incubation (-0.46 spermatic motility. No correlation was observed for complementary tests and post-thawed motility and the conception rate. No one of the parameters evaluated in this study was individually able to indicate the fertilizing capacity of the frozen/thawed semen.

Jeanne Broch Siqueira

2007-04-01

299

Comparison of Pap Smear Quality With Anatomical Spatula Method and the Common Method (Spatula? Cytobrush: A Single Blind Clinical Trial  

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Full Text Available Background: Cervical cancer is the third most common cancer in women in the world. Papanicolaou smear is known as a standard test for cervical cancer screening; however, the most important challenge is high rates of false negative results. The aim of this study was to compare the quality of smears obtained by anatomical spatula and spatula-cytobrush. The most important factor in false negative result is inappropriate tool of sampling. Methods: One hundred married women participated in this single blind clinical trial. All participants were interviewed; two samples were obtained from every participant: one with spatula-cytobrush and another one with anatomical spatula. All slides were encoded and were assessed by two pathologists. Then, data were analyzed by means of kappa coefficient. Results: Cell adequacy was 96.1 % in anatomical spatula method and 91.2 % in spatula-cytobrush method (p= 0.016. The rates for endocervical cells and metaplasia cells in anatomical spatula method were 70.6% and 24.5% respectively and these amounts were 69.6% and 24.5% respectively in the spatula-cytobrush method (p 0.05. Regarding infection and inflammatory reactions there was no statistically significant difference between two methods (p>0.05. Conclusion: Based on our findings in this study, results of sampling with anatomical spatula method were more acceptable and better than those with spatulacytobrush sampling.

Soleimani M

2012-02-01

300

Comparison of Pap Smear Quality With Anatomical Spatula Method and the Common Method (Spatula? Cytobrush: A Single Blind Clinical Trial  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Cervical cancer is the third most common cancer in women in theworld. Papanicolaou smear is known as a standard test for cervical cancerscreening; however, the most important challenge is high rates of false negativeresults. The aim of this study was to compare the quality of smears obtained byanatomical spatula and spatula-cytobrush. The most important factor in falsenegative result is inappropriate tool of sampling.Methods: One hundred married women participated in this single blind clinicaltrial. All participants were interviewed; two samples were obtained from everyparticipant: one with spatula-cytobrush and another one with anatomical spatula.All slides were encoded and were assessed by two pathologists. Then, data wereanalyzed by means of kappa coefficient.Results: Cell adequacy was 96.1 % in anatomical spatula method and 91.2 % inspatula-cytobrush method (p= 0.016. The rates for endocervical cells andmetaplasia cells in anatomical spatula method were 70.6% and 24.5%respectively and these amounts were 69.6% and 24.5% respectively in thespatula-cytobrush method (p 0.05. Regarding infection andinflammatory reactions there was no statistically significant difference between twomethods (p>0.05.Conclusion: Based on our findings in this study, results of sampling with anatomicalspatula method were more acceptable and better than those with spatulacytobrushsampling.

Komar PV

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

Equilibration of [3H]glucosamine and [35S]sulfate with intracellular pools of UDP-N-acetylhexosamine and 3'-phosphoadenosine-5'-phosphosulfate (PAPS) in cultured fibroblasts  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Nucleotides and sugar nucleotides were extracted from cultures of human fibroblasts with perchloric acid, separated by isotachophoresis, and quantified by uv absorption analysis at 254 nm. ATP (936 pmol/micrograms DNA) was, as expected, the dominating nucleotide pool. The energy charge was estimated to 0.9. The UDP-N-acetylhexosamine pool was also a very prominent compound (596 pmol/micrograms DNA). After incubation of fibroblasts with [3H]glucosamine, more than 95% of the acid-soluble radioactivity was found in the UDP-N-acetylhexosamine pool. Incubation with [35S]sulfate resulted in the incorporation of [35S]sulfate into 3'-phosphoadenosine-5'-phosphosulfate (PAPS). The latter could, however, only be measured as radioactivity, as the amount was too small to be quantified as total mass. Pulse-labeling of fibroblasts with [35S]sulfate and [3H]glucosamine from 5 min to 16 h showed that [35S]PAPS was equilibrated in less than 10 min, while [3H]glucosamine required a longer time, 2-4 h, to attain a steady state with UDP-N-acetylhexosamine. [14C]Glucose required approximately the same time as [3H]glucosamine to reach steady state with UDP-acetylhexosamine, which suggests that the reason for the long equilibration time is the slow turnover of this pool

1984-01-01

302

Expression of the envelope antigen F1 of Yersinia pestis is mediated by the product of caf1M gene having homology with the chaperone protein PapD of Escherichia coli.  

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The effective synthesis of the envelope antigen F1 of Y. pestis in E. coli HB101 is mediated by the expression of the cuf1M gene. This gene was sequenced, and the protein encoded was found to have a significant homology with the chaperone protein PapD of uropathogenic E. coli. The data presented allow one to suppose Caf1M and PapD proteins perform similar functions in the biogenesis of the Y. pestis capsule and E. coli P-pili, respectively. When you are citing the document, use the followi...

???????, ???? ?????????????; ???????, ???? ???????????; Smirnov, Oleg Yuvenalyevich; ??????, ?????? ????????????; ?????, ?????? ??????????; Galyov, Edouard Eugenyevich; ????????, ??????? ?????????????; ????????, ??????? ????????????; Karlyshev, Andrii Volodymyrovych; ??????????, ?????? ????????????; ??????????, ??????? ????????????; Chernovska, Tatiana Veniaminivna; ??????, ?????? ?????????????; ??????, ???????? ?????????????; Dolhykh, Dmytro Oleksandrovych

1991-01-01

303

Static Longitudinal and Lateral Stability and Control Data Obtained from Tests of a 1/15-Scale Model of the Goodyear XZP5K Airship, TED No. NACA DE 211  

Science.gov (United States)

Static longitudinal and lateral stability and control data are presented of an investigation on a l/15-scale model of the Goodyear XZP5K airship over a pitch and yaw range of +/-20 deg and 0 deg to 30 deg, respectively, for various rudder and elevator deflections. Two tail configurations of different plan forms were tested and wake and boundary-layer surveys were conducted. Testing was conducted in the Langley full-scale tunnel at a Reynolds number of approximately 16.5 x 10(exp 6) based on hull length, and corresponds to a Mach number of about 0.12.

Cannon, Michael D.

1956-01-01

304

Cervical Cancer Screening for the Reluctant - HPV Testing of Air-Dried Vaginal Discharge  

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Despite the availability of the PAP test, cervical cancer continues to cause considerable morbidity and mortality. Many women default cervical cytology for a variety of reasons. This demands the development of alternative screening strategies, such as HPV testing on self-procured cervical-vaginal specimens in order to capture this group of women. We investigated the self-procured air-dried vaginal discharge for HPV testing. We recruited 82 patients with HPV-associated cervical lesions and 36 ...

Tong, Tommy R.; Yau, Rae Wai-nang; Chan, Olivia Wai-hing; Yu, Vivian; Lo, Joyce Wing-sze; Chow, Tat-chong; Chan, Billy Wai-hon; Lee, Kam-cheong

2006-01-01

305

Blind pre-analysis of the main building complex WWER-440/213 Paks for comparison of analytical and experimental results obtained by explosive testing (task 7a of workplan 95/96)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Within the research programme on Benchmark studies of seismic analysis of WWER type reactors the blind pre-analysis must be prepared for the main building complex of Paks NPP, based on given excitations derived from explosion tests. The aim of the investigation was to validate different idealization concepts (mathematical models for the idealization of the structures and the soil) as well as investigation procedures (time domain and frequency domain analysis) and finally the software tools by comparing dynamic properties (eigenfrequencies, eigenmodes, modal values) and structural response results (time histories and response spectra). This report contains results of the blind pre-analysis performed by using three dimensional idealization of the main building complex (reactor building, turbine house, galleries) by means of time and frequency domian calculation procedures

1999-01-01

306

Sequence analysis of a "true" chalcone synthase (chs_H1) oligofamily from hop (Humulus lupulus L.) and PAP1 activation of chs_H1 in heterologous systems.  

Science.gov (United States)

Screening of a cDNA library of the hop cv. Osvald's 72 and genomic cloning were used to isolate members of an oligofamily of chs_H1 genes that codetermine the biosynthesis of prenylated chalcones known to be valuable medicinal compounds present in hop (Humulus lupulus L.). chs_H1 oligofamily members showed more than 99% and 98% identity on nucleotide and amino acid levels, respectively, and retained all conserved amino acids that form the catalytic center characteristic for "true" chalcone synthases. The chs_H1 promoter exhibited low sequence variability in addition to conservation of all predicted cis-regulatory elements. Possible transactivation of the chs_H1 gene with the transcription factor PAP1 from Arabidopsis thaliana was assayed using Agrobacterium tumefaciens infiltrations of Nicotiana benthamiana and Petunia hybrida plants. Infiltration of N. benthamiana leaves with chs_H1 promoter/GUS chimeras led to a 24.8-fold increase of the GUS activity when coinfiltrated with the pap1 gene. Coinfiltration of the "native" chs_H1 gene with pap1 led to an increased accumulation of chs_H1 mRNA as observed by semiquantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Transgenic lines of P. hybrida expressing the pap1 gene showed unusual patterns of UV-A-inducible pigmentation and anthocyanin accumulation in parenchymatic and medulla cells. Infiltration of transgenic leaves of P. hybrida with chs_H1 and pap1 genes arranged as a tandem led to quick pigmentation within 12 h after UV-A irradiation. It is indicated that the chs_H1 promoter contains functional element(s) mediating an efficient response to PAP1 expression and UV-A irradiation. UV-A also induced chs_H1 mRNA and accumulation of flavonol glycosides in hop leaves. It can be expected that the PAP1 factor could significantly influence the expression of the chs_H1 oligofamily in transgenic hop and modify the hop metabolome. PMID:17002429

Matousek, Jaroslav; Vrba, Lukás; Skopek, Josef; Orctova, Lidmila; Pesina, Karel; Heyerick, Arne; Baulcombe, David; De Keukeleire, Denis

2006-10-01

307

Bacterial Over-Expression and Purification of the 3'phosphoadenosine 5'phosphosulfate (PAPS Reductase Domain of Human FAD Synthase: Functional Characterization and Homology Modeling  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available FAD synthase (FADS, EC 2.7.7.2 is a key enzyme in the metabolic pathway that converts riboflavin into the redox cofactor, FAD. Human FADS is organized in two domains: -the 3'phosphoadenosine 5'phosphosulfate (PAPS reductase domain, similar to yeast Fad1p, at the C-terminus, and -the resembling molybdopterin-binding domain at the N-terminus. To understand whether the PAPS reductase domain of hFADS is sufficient to catalyze FAD synthesis, per se, and to investigate the role of the molybdopterin-binding domain, a soluble “truncated” form of hFADS lacking the N-terminal domain (?1-328-hFADS has been over-produced and purified to homogeneity as a recombinant His-tagged protein. The recombinant ?1-328-hFADS binds one mole of FAD product very tightly as the wild-type enzyme. Under turnover conditions, it catalyzes FAD assembly from ATP and FMN and, at a much lower rate, FAD pyrophosphorolytic hydrolysis. The ?1-328-hFADS enzyme shows a slight, but not significant, change of Km values (0.24 and 6.23 µM for FMN and ATP, respectively and of kcat (4.2 × 10?2 s?1 compared to wild-type protein in the forward direction. These results demonstrate that the molybdopterin-binding domain is not strictly required for catalysis. Its regulatory role is discussed in light of changes in divalent cations sensitivity of the ?1-328-hFADS versus wild-type protein.

Maria Barile

2012-12-01

308

Bacterial Over-Expression and Purification of the 3'phosphoadenosine 5'phosphosulfate (PAPS) Reductase Domain of Human FAD Synthase: Functional Characterization and Homology Modeling.  

Science.gov (United States)

FAD synthase (FADS, EC 2.7.7.2) is a key enzyme in the metabolic pathway that converts riboflavin into the redox cofactor, FAD. Human FADS is organized in two domains: -the 3'phosphoadenosine 5'phosphosulfate (PAPS) reductase domain, similar to yeast Fad1p, at the C-terminus, and -the resembling molybdopterin-binding domain at the N-terminus. To understand whether the PAPS reductase domain of hFADS is sufficient to catalyze FAD synthesis, per se, and to investigate the role of the molybdopterin-binding domain, a soluble "truncated" form of hFADS lacking the N-terminal domain (?(1-328)-hFADS) has been over-produced and purified to homogeneity as a recombinant His-tagged protein. The recombinant ?(1-328)-hFADS binds one mole of FAD product very tightly as the wild-type enzyme. Under turnover conditions, it catalyzes FAD assembly from ATP and FMN and, at a much lower rate, FAD pyrophosphorolytic hydrolysis. The ?(1-328)-hFADS enzyme shows a slight, but not significant, change of K(m) values (0.24 and 6.23 µM for FMN and ATP, respectively) and of k(cat) (4.2 × 10-2 s-1) compared to wild-type protein in the forward direction. These results demonstrate that the molybdopterin-binding domain is not strictly required for catalysis. Its regulatory role is discussed in light of changes in divalent cations sensitivity of the ?(1-328)-hFADS versus wild-type protein. PMID:23443125

Miccolis, Angelica; Galluccio, Michele; Giancaspero, Teresa Anna; Indiveri, Cesare; Barile, Maria

2012-01-01

309

The Pap smear screening as an occasion for smoking cessation and physical activity counselling: baseline characteristics of women involved in the SPRINT randomized controlled trial  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Gender-specific smoking cessation strategies have rarely been developed. Evidence of effectiveness of physical activity (PA promotion and intervention in adjunct to smoking cessation programs is not strong. SPRINT study is a randomized controlled trial (RCT designed to evaluate a counselling intervention on smoking cessation and PA delivered to women attending the Italian National Health System Cervical Cancer Screening Program. This paper presents study design and baseline characteristics of the study population. Methods/Design Among women undergoing the Pap examination in three study centres (Florence, Turin, Mantua, participants were randomized to the smoking cessation counselling [S], the smoking cessation + PA counselling [S + PA], or the control [C] groups. The program under evaluation is a standard brief counselling on smoking cessation combined with a brief counselling on increasing PA, and was delivered in 2010. A questionnaire, administered before, after 6 months and 1 year from the intervention, was used to track behavioural changes in tobacco use and PA, and to record cessation rates in participants. Discussion Out of the 5,657 women undergoing the Pap examination, 1,100 participants (55% of smokers were randomized in 1 of the 3 study groups (363 in the S, 366 in the S + PA and 371 in the C groups. The three arms did not differ on any demographic, PA, or tobacco-use characteristics. Recruited smokers were older, less educated than non-participant women, more motivated to quit (33% vs.9% in the Preparation stage, p p p Trial registration number ISRCTN: ISRCTN52660565

Chellini Elisabetta

2011-12-01

310

Electrochemical Genotoxicity Assay Based on a SOS/umu Test Using Hydrodynamic Voltammetry in a Droplet  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The SOS/umu genotoxicity assay evaluates the primary DNA damage caused by chemicals from the ?-galactosidase activity of S. typhimurium. One of the weaknesses of the common umu test system based on spectrophotometric detection is that it is unable to measure samples containing a high concentration of colored dissolved organic matters, sediment, and suspended solids. However, umu tests with electrochemical detection techniques prove to be a better strategy because it causes less interference, enables the analysis of turbid samples and allows detection even in small volumes without loss of sensitivity. Based on this understanding, we aim to develop a new umu test system with hydrodynamic chronoamperometry using a rotating disk electrode (RDE in a microliter droplet. PAPG when used as a substrate is not electroactive at the potential at which PAP is oxidized to p-quinone imine (PQI, so the current response of chronoamperometry resulting from the oxidation of PAP to PQI is directly proportional to the enzymatic activity of S. typhimurium. This was achieved by performing genotoxicity tests for 2-(2-furyl-3-(5-nitro-2-furyl-acrylamide (AF-2 and 2-aminoanthracene (2-AA as model genotoxic compounds. The results obtained in this study indicated that the signal detection in the genotoxicity assay based on hydrodynamic voltammetry was less influenced by the presence of colored components and sediment particles in the samples when compared to the usual colorimetric signal detection. The influence caused by the presence of humic acids (HAs and artificial sediment on the genotoxic property of selected model compounds such as 4-nitroquinoline-N-oxide (4-NQO, 3-chloro-4-(dichloromethyl-5-hydroxy-2(5H-furanone (MX, 1,8-dinitropyrene (1,8-DNP and 1-nitropyrene (1-NP were also investigated. The results showed that the genotoxicity of 1-NP and MX changed in the presence of 10 mg?L–1 HAs. The genotoxicity of tested chemicals with a high hydrophobicity such as 1,8-DNP and 1-NP were decreased substantially with the presence of 1 g?L–1 sediment. This was not observed in the case of genotoxins with a low log Kow value.

Kazuharu Sugawara

2012-12-01

311

Electrochemical genotoxicity assay based on a SOS/umu test using hydrodynamic voltammetry in a droplet.  

Science.gov (United States)

The SOS/umu genotoxicity assay evaluates the primary DNA damage caused by chemicals from the ?-galactosidase activity of S. typhimurium. One of the weaknesses of the common umu test system based on spectrophotometric detection is that it is unable to measure samples containing a high concentration of colored dissolved organic matters, sediment, and suspended solids. However, umu tests with electrochemical detection techniques prove to be a better strategy because it causes less interference, enables the analysis of turbid samples and allows detection even in small volumes without loss of sensitivity. Based on this understanding, we aim to develop a new umu test system with hydrodynamic chronoamperometry using a rotating disk electrode (RDE) in a microliter droplet. PAPG when used as a substrate is not electroactive at the potential at which PAP is oxidized to p-quinone imine (PQI), so the current response of chronoamperometry resulting from the oxidation of PAP to PQI is directly proportional to the enzymatic activity of S. typhimurium. This was achieved by performing genotoxicity tests for 2-(2-furyl)-3-(5-nitro-2-furyl)-acrylamide (AF-2) and 2-aminoanthracene (2-AA) as model genotoxic compounds. The results obtained in this study indicated that the signal detection in the genotoxicity assay based on hydrodynamic voltammetry was less influenced by the presence of colored components and sediment particles in the samples when compared to the usual colorimetric signal detection. The influence caused by the presence of humic acids (HAs) and artificial sediment on the genotoxic property of selected model compounds such as 4-nitroquinoline-N-oxide (4-NQO), 3-chloro-4-(dichloromethyl)-5-hydroxy-2(5H)-furanone (MX), 1,8-dinitropyrene (1,8-DNP) and 1-nitropyrene (1-NP) were also investigated. The results showed that the genotoxicity of 1-NP and MX changed in the presence of 10 mg?L-1 HAs. The genotoxicity of tested chemicals with a high hydrophobicity such as 1,8-DNP and 1-NP were decreased substantially with the presence of 1 g?L-1 sediment. This was not observed in the case of genotoxins with a low log K(ow) value. PMID:23242275

Kuramitz, Hideki; Sazawa, Kazuto; Nanayama, Yasuaki; Hata, Noriko; Taguchi, Shigeru; Sugawara, Kazuharu; Fukushima, Masami

2012-01-01

312

Drugs obtained by biotechnology processing  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In recent years, the number of drugs of biotechnological origin available for many different diseases has increased exponentially, including different types of cancer, diabetes mellitus, infectious diseases (e.g. AIDS Virus / HIV) as well as cardiovascular, neurological, respiratory, and autoimmune diseases, among others. The pharmaceutical industry has used different technologies to obtain new and promising active ingredients, as exemplified by the fermentation technique, recombinant DNA tec...

Hugo Almeida; Maria Helena Amaral; Paulo Lobão

2011-01-01

313

Employment Obtaining and Business Starting  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The implementation of business starting education in higher vocational colleges is of important and realistic meanings for cultivating advanced technology application-type talents and for releasing the employment obtaining pressure of higher vocational students. Based on the analysis on the employment situation of higher vocational graduates, this paper explores the thoughts and methods for higher vocational colleges to implement business starting education.

Jian Lan

2009-02-01

314

Obtainment of nuclear grade zirconium  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Three processes developed on laboratory and semi-pilot scale for the separation of zirconium hafnium, with the purpose of obtaining intermediate compounds adequate to the production of nuclear grade zirconium metal, are presented. The operation conditions determined for all the steps of the three developed processing lines, proved their chemical and operational feasibility, allowing the realization of preliminary engineering designs, cost analysis and economical feasibility for industrial plants. (author)

1992-07-05

315

Characterization of insulation corkboard obtained from demolitions  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This work shows details from the demolition of the cold chambers of DOCAPESCA (one of the biggest European companies working in the fishing industry) near Lisbon, in Portugal, namely related with the insulation corkboard (ICB). ICB is a product made of granules of cork which are expanded (steam-backed) in autoclaves and agglomerated together by pressure and temperature (>300ºC) without any exogenous glue. Samples were collected and tests were carried out with ICB obtained from this demolitio...

Gil, Lui?s; Cortic?o, Paulo

2011-01-01

316

Moessbauer Characterization of Rust Obtained in an Accelerated Corrosion Test  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We have performed drying-humectation cyclical processes (CEBELCOR) on eight A36 low carbon steel coupons in NaCl solutions containing 1x10{sup -2} M and 1x10{sup -1} M concentrations. The main purpose of these experiments is to contribute to the understanding of the conditions for akaganeite formation. Additionally, and with the idea to perform a complete characterization of the rust, this work also considers the formation of other iron oxide phases. The corrosion products were characterized by Moessbauer spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction techniques. Gravimetric analysis demonstrates that the coupons presented high corrosion rates. Magnetite/maghemite was common in the rust stuck to the steel surface, whereas akaganeite was present only in traces. In the rust collected from the solutions, i.e., the rust that goes away from the metal surface easily, a magnetite/maghemite was not present and akaganeite showed up in larger quantities. These results support the idea that high concentrations of Cl{sup -} ions are required for the akaganeite formation. We concluded that akaganeite is not easily bonded to the rust layer; this may lead to the formation of a less protective rust layer and to higher corrosion rates.

Garcia, K. E.; Morales, A. L.; Arroyave, C. E.; Barrero, C. A. [Universidad de Antioquia, Grupo de Corrosion y Proteccion, Departamento de Ingenieria de Materiales (Colombia); Cook, D. C. [Old Dominion University, Department of Physics (United States)

2003-06-15

317

Moessbauer Characterization of Rust Obtained in an Accelerated Corrosion Test  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We have performed drying-humectation cyclical processes (CEBELCOR) on eight A36 low carbon steel coupons in NaCl solutions containing 1x10-2 M and 1x10-1 M concentrations. The main purpose of these experiments is to contribute to the understanding of the conditions for akaganeite formation. Additionally, and with the idea to perform a complete characterization of the rust, this work also considers the formation of other iron oxide phases. The corrosion products were characterized by Moessbauer spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction techniques. Gravimetric analysis demonstrates that the coupons presented high corrosion rates. Magnetite/maghemite was common in the rust stuck to the steel surface, whereas akaganeite was present only in traces. In the rust collected from the solutions, i.e., the rust that goes away from the metal surface easily, a magnetite/maghemite was not present and akaganeite showed up in larger quantities. These results support the idea that high concentrations of Cl- ions are required for the akaganeite formation. We concluded that akaganeite is not easily bonded to the rust layer; this may lead to the formation of a less protective rust layer and to higher corrosion rates.

2003-06-01

318

Mössbauer Characterization of Rust Obtained in an Accelerated Corrosion Test  

Science.gov (United States)

We have performed drying-humectation cyclical processes (CEBELCOR) on eight A36 low carbon steel coupons in NaCl solutions containing 1×10-2 M and 1×10-1 M concentrations. The main purpose of these experiments is to contribute to the understanding of the conditions for akaganeite formation. Additionally, and with the idea to perform a complete characterization of the rust, this work also considers the formation of other iron oxide phases. The corrosion products were characterized by Mössbauer spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction techniques. Gravimetric analysis demonstrates that the coupons presented high corrosion rates. Magnetite/maghemite was common in the rust stuck to the steel surface, whereas akaganeite was present only in traces. In the rust collected from the solutions, i.e., the rust that goes away from the metal surface easily, a magnetite/maghemite was not present and akaganeite showed up in larger quantities. These results support the idea that high concentrations of Cl- ions are required for the akaganeite formation. We concluded that akaganeite is not easily bonded to the rust layer; this may lead to the formation of a less protective rust layer and to higher corrosion rates.

García, K. E.; Morales, A. L.; Arroyave, C. E.; Barrero, C. A.; Cook, D. C.

2003-06-01

319

Anticorpos anti-HBs obtidos em coelhos e sua utilização como reagentes para testes sorológicos no diagnóstico da hepatite B / Anti-HBs antibodies obtained in rabbits and its use as reagents for serological tests in the diagnosis of hepatitis B  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Pela técnica de cromatografia de afinidade, utilizando-se a resina de Sepharose 4B ligada ao anti-HBs, obteve-se na passagem de plasma de portador assintomático de antígeno HBs, um antígeno parcialmente purificado. Este antígeno foi utilizado para a inoculação em coelhos, num esquema de cinco doses, [...] sendo a primeira dose de 1mg e as quatro subseqüentes de 0,5 mg, com intervalos aproximadamente de quinze dias. Observando-se que os títulos não mais variaram após a quinta inoculação, os animais foram sangrados no 62° dia e os anticorpos anti-HBs obtidos foram padronizados através dos seguintes métodos para detecção de antígeno HBs: a) Hemaglutinação passiva reversa (HAPR) – utilizando-se a gamaglobulina específica obtida de soro imune dos coelhos através de cromatografia de afinidade, alcançando uma concentração ótima de apenas 10µg/ml para a sensibilização de hemácias de carneiro a 5%, fixadas com glutaraldeído. B) Contraimunoeletroforese (CIEF) – utilizando-se o soro imune diluído até 1/20 como reagente para a detecção do antígeno HBs. O soro imune anti-HBs foi também utilizado para a conjugação com uma nova resina de Sepharose 4b tendo uma captação aproximada de 0,5 a 1,0mg antígeno HBs por ml de resina após completa saturação. Abstract in english By the method of affinity chromatography a partially purified antigen was obtained after passing the plasma of an asymptomatic carrier of HBs Ag through a column of Sepharose 4 B linked to angi-HBs. This antigen was inoculated in rabbits using a schedule of 1.0 mg in the first dose and 4 other doses [...] of 0,5 mg with intervals of approximately 15 days. Observing that blood samples colletcted after the 5th inoculation showed no change in antibody levels, the animals were bled on the 62 th day and these immune ser were standardized with the following tests for the detection of HBsAg: a) reverse passive hemagglutination (R-PHA) – using specific gamma globulin that was obtained from rabbit sera by affinity chromatography and reaching an optimal concentration of 10µg/ml to sensitise SRBC at 5% fixed in glutaraldehyde. b) Counter immuno electrophoresis (CIEP) – using the rabbit immune sera diluted to 1/20 as a reagent for the detection of HBsAg. The immune sera was also used to conjugate new Sepharose 4B for affinity chromatography and was found having a linking capacity of approximately 0,5 to 1,0mg of HbsAg per ml of Sepharose after complete saturation.

C. F. T., Yoshida; L. A. C., Mercadante; A. M. C., Gaspar; M. M. S., Maia; O. J., Berro; E. C. C. de, Almeida; H. G., Schatzmayr.

320

Anticorpos anti-HBs obtidos em coelhos e sua utilização como reagentes para testes sorológicos no diagnóstico da hepatite B Anti-HBs antibodies obtained in rabbits and its use as reagents for serological tests in the diagnosis of hepatitis B  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Pela técnica de cromatografia de afinidade, utilizando-se a resina de Sepharose 4B ligada ao anti-HBs, obteve-se na passagem de plasma de portador assintomático de antígeno HBs, um antígeno parcialmente purificado. Este antígeno foi utilizado para a inoculação em coelhos, num esquema de cinco doses, sendo a primeira dose de 1mg e as quatro subseqüentes de 0,5 mg, com intervalos aproximadamente de quinze dias. Observando-se que os títulos não mais variaram após a quinta inoculação, os animais foram sangrados no 62° dia e os anticorpos anti-HBs obtidos foram padronizados através dos seguintes métodos para detecção de antígeno HBs: a Hemaglutinação passiva reversa (HAPR – utilizando-se a gamaglobulina específica obtida de soro imune dos coelhos através de cromatografia de afinidade, alcançando uma concentração ótima de apenas 10µg/ml para a sensibilização de hemácias de carneiro a 5%, fixadas com glutaraldeído. B Contraimunoeletroforese (CIEF – utilizando-se o soro imune diluído até 1/20 como reagente para a detecção do antígeno HBs. O soro imune anti-HBs foi também utilizado para a conjugação com uma nova resina de Sepharose 4b tendo uma captação aproximada de 0,5 a 1,0mg antígeno HBs por ml de resina após completa saturação.By the method of affinity chromatography a partially purified antigen was obtained after passing the plasma of an asymptomatic carrier of HBs Ag through a column of Sepharose 4 B linked to angi-HBs. This antigen was inoculated in rabbits using a schedule of 1.0 mg in the first dose and 4 other doses of 0,5 mg with intervals of approximately 15 days. Observing that blood samples colletcted after the 5th inoculation showed no change in antibody levels, the animals were bled on the 62 th day and these immune ser were standardized with the following tests for the detection of HBsAg: a reverse passive hemagglutination (R-PHA – using specific gamma globulin that was obtained from rabbit sera by affinity chromatography and reaching an optimal concentration of 10µg/ml to sensitise SRBC at 5% fixed in glutaraldehyde. b Counter immuno electrophoresis (CIEP – using the rabbit immune sera diluted to 1/20 as a reagent for the detection of HBsAg. The immune sera was also used to conjugate new Sepharose 4B for affinity chromatography and was found having a linking capacity of approximately 0,5 to 1,0mg of HbsAg per ml of Sepharose after complete saturation.

C. F. T. Yoshida

1984-09-01

 
 
 
 
321

Seguimiento de mujeres con anormalidad citológica de cuello uterino, en Colombia Following-up females having an abnormal Pap smear in Colombia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objetivo Evaluar el acceso y la oportunidad al diagnóstico y al tratamiento que tienen las pacientes con lesiones cervicales de alto grado o cáncer de acuerdo con el reporte citológico, en Colombia entre junio 2005 a junio del 2006. Metodología Estudio retrospectivo mediante encuestas a una muestra de mujeres con anormalidad citológica residentes de cuatro departamentos de Colombia seleccionados por conveniencia en relación con diferentes tasas de mortalidad. Se realizó análisis descriptivo y se compararon las diferencias entre los departamentos. Resultados El 27 % de las mujeres con lesiones de alto grado o invasoras no tuvieron acceso a alguno de los servicios diagnósticos o terapéuticos por razones de tipo administrativo de los servicios de salud, razones clínicas y culturales de las mujeres. Discusión Un elemento crítico que explica el bajo impacto en la mortalidad por cáncer de cuello uterino en la mayoría de los países de Latino América es la disociación entre actividades de tamización y las de tratamiento.Objective Evaluating the opportunity and access to diagnosis and treatment for females having had an abnormal Pap smear (high-grade epithelial lesion and cervical cancer in Colombia from June 2005 to June 2006. Materials and Methods This was a retrospective appraisal using a semi-closed survey of females having had an abnormal Pap smear with high squamous intraepithelial lesions or cervical cancer living in four Colombian departments. These areas were conveniently selected according to their different mortality rates. A descriptive analysis was made and the departments’ differences compared. Results It was found that 27 % of females having high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion or cervical cancer had no access to any of the diagnostic or therapeutic services. Health service administration problems and clinical and cultural ones affecting the females in the study could explain such results. Discussion Follow-up care after abnormal cytology was very poor and could explain the lack of cervical cancer screening’s impact in Colombia and in most Latin-American countries.

Carolina Wiesner

2010-02-01

322

Seguimiento de mujeres con anormalidad citológica de cuello uterino, en Colombia / Following-up females having an abnormal Pap smear in Colombia  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Objetivo Evaluar el acceso y la oportunidad al diagnóstico y al tratamiento que tienen las pacientes con lesiones cervicales de alto grado o cáncer de acuerdo con el reporte citológico, en Colombia entre junio 2005 a junio del 2006. Metodología Estudio retrospectivo mediante encuestas a una muestra [...] de mujeres con anormalidad citológica residentes de cuatro departamentos de Colombia seleccionados por conveniencia en relación con diferentes tasas de mortalidad. Se realizó análisis descriptivo y se compararon las diferencias entre los departamentos. Resultados El 27 % de las mujeres con lesiones de alto grado o invasoras no tuvieron acceso a alguno de los servicios diagnósticos o terapéuticos por razones de tipo administrativo de los servicios de salud, razones clínicas y culturales de las mujeres. Discusión Un elemento crítico que explica el bajo impacto en la mortalidad por cáncer de cuello uterino en la mayoría de los países de Latino América es la disociación entre actividades de tamización y las de tratamiento. Abstract in english Objective Evaluating the opportunity and access to diagnosis and treatment for females having had an abnormal Pap smear (high-grade epithelial lesion and cervical cancer) in Colombia from June 2005 to June 2006. Materials and Methods This was a retrospective appraisal using a semi-closed survey of f [...] emales having had an abnormal Pap smear with high squamous intraepithelial lesions or cervical cancer living in four Colombian departments. These areas were conveniently selected according to their different mortality rates. A descriptive analysis was made and the departments’ differences compared. Results It was found that 27 % of females having high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion or cervical cancer had no access to any of the diagnostic or therapeutic services. Health service administration problems and clinical and cultural ones affecting the females in the study could explain such results. Discussion Follow-up care after abnormal cytology was very poor and could explain the lack of cervical cancer screening’s impact in Colombia and in most Latin-American countries.

Carolina, Wiesner; Ricardo, Cendales; Raúl, Murillo; Marion, Piñeros; Sandra, Tovar.

323

Seguimiento de mujeres con anormalidad citológica de cuello uterino, en Colombia / Following-up females having an abnormal Pap smear in Colombia  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Objetivo Evaluar el acceso y la oportunidad al diagnóstico y al tratamiento que tienen las pacientes con lesiones cervicales de alto grado o cáncer de acuerdo con el reporte citológico, en Colombia entre junio 2005 a junio del 2006. Metodología Estudio retrospectivo mediante encuestas a una muestra [...] de mujeres con anormalidad citológica residentes de cuatro departamentos de Colombia seleccionados por conveniencia en relación con diferentes tasas de mortalidad. Se realizó análisis descriptivo y se compararon las diferencias entre los departamentos. Resultados El 27 % de las mujeres con lesiones de alto grado o invasoras no tuvieron acceso a alguno de los servicios diagnósticos o terapéuticos por razones de tipo administrativo de los servicios de salud, razones clínicas y culturales de las mujeres. Discusión Un elemento crítico que explica el bajo impacto en la mortalidad por cáncer de cuello uterino en la mayoría de los países de Latino América es la disociación entre actividades de tamización y las de tratamiento. Abstract in english Objective Evaluating the opportunity and access to diagnosis and treatment for females having had an abnormal Pap smear (high-grade epithelial lesion and cervical cancer) in Colombia from June 2005 to June 2006. Materials and Methods This was a retrospective appraisal using a semi-closed survey of f [...] emales having had an abnormal Pap smear with high squamous intraepithelial lesions or cervical cancer living in four Colombian departments. These areas were conveniently selected according to their different mortality rates. A descriptive analysis was made and the departments differences compared. Results It was found that 27 % of females having high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion or cervical cancer had no access to any of the diagnostic or therapeutic services. Health service administration problems and clinical and cultural ones affecting the females in the study could explain such results. Discussion Follow-up care after abnormal cytology was very poor and could explain the lack of cervical cancer screening impact in Colombia and in most Latin-American countries.

Carolina, Wiesner; Ricardo, Cendales; Raúl, Murillo; Marion, Piñeros; Sandra, Tovar.

324

Cada cuánto me tengo que hacer la prueba de Papanicoláu (How Often to Get a Pap Test)  

Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

El cáncer de cuello uterino ha disminuido en los Estados Unidos, pero cada año se le diagnostica a más de 12,000 mujeres y 4,000 mueren. Este podcast habla sobre la importancia de las pruebas de Papanicoláu.  Created: 1/10/2013 by MMWR.   Date Released: 11/4/2013.

2013-01-10

325

Associations between oral HPV16 infection and cytopathology: evaluation of an oropharyngeal “Pap-test equivalent” in high-risk populations  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Human papillomavirus (HPV) is responsible for the rising incidence of oropharyngeal squamous cell cancers (OSCC) in the United States (U.S.), and yet, no screening strategies have been evaluated. Secondary prevention by means of HPV detection and cervical cytology has led to a decline in cervical cancer incidence in the U.S. Here, we explored an analogous strategy by evaluating associations between HPV16 infection, cytopathology and histopathology in two populations at elevated risk for OSCC....

2011-01-01

326

Web Service Testing Tools: A Comparative Study  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Quality of Service (QoS) has gained more importance with the increase in usage and adoption of web services. In recent years, various tools and techniques developed for measurement and evaluation of QoS of web services. There are commercial as well as open-source tools available today which are being used for monitoring and testing QoS for web services. These tools facilitate in QoS measurement and analysis and are helpful in evaluation of service performance in real-time network. In this pap...

2013-01-01

327

What State Tests Test.  

Science.gov (United States)

What the Illinois Goal Assessment Program (IGAP) test actually tests and the consequences of these tests for funding decisions were studied with a random sample of 100 school districts in the Cook County suburbs of Chicago. Eighth-grade IGAP scores for reading were obtained from the state report card, a document prepared by each school district…

McGee, Glenn W.

328

Electrochemistry, Chemical Reactivity, and Time-Resolved Infrared Spectroscopy of Donor-Acceptor Systems [(Qx)Pt(papy)] (Q = Substituted o-Quinone or o-Iminoquinone; pap = Phenylazopyridine)  

Science.gov (United States)

The donor–acceptor complex [(O,NQ2–)Pt(pap0)] (1; pap = phenylazopyridine, O,NQ0 = 4,6-di-tert-butyl-N-phenyl-o-iminobenzoquinone), which displays strong ?-bonding interactions and shows strong absorption in the near-IR region, has been investigated with respect to its redox-induced reactivity and electrochemical and excited-state properties. The one-electron-oxidized product [(O,NQ•–)Pt(pap0)](BF4) ([1]BF4) was chemically isolated. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction studies establish the iminosemiquinone form of O,NQ in [1]+. Simulation of the cyclic voltammograms of 1 recorded in the presence of PPh3 elucidates the mechanism and delivers relevant thermodynamic and kinetic parameters for the redox-induced reaction with PPh3. The thermodynamically stable product of this reaction, complex [(O,NQ•–) Pt(PPh3)2](PF6) ([2]PF6), was isolated and characterized by X-ray crystallography, electrochemistry, and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy. Picosecond time-resolved infrared spectroscopic studies on complex 1b (one of the positional isomers of 1) and its analogue [(O,OQ2–)Pt(pap0)] (3; O,OQ = 3,5-di-tert-butyl-o-benzoquinone) provided insight into the excited-state dynamics and revealed that the nature of the lowest excited state in the amidophenolate complex 1b is primarily diimine-ligand-based, while it is predominantly an interligand charge-transfer state in the case of 3. Density functional theory calculations on [1]n+ provided further insight into the nature of the frontier orbitals of various redox forms and vibrational mode assignments. We discuss the mechanistic details of the newly established redox-induced reactivity of 1 with electron donors and propose a mechanism for this process.

2014-01-01

329

Characteristics and prevalence within serogroup O4 of a J96-like clonal group of uropathogenic Escherichia coli O4:H5 containing the class I and class III alleles of papG.  

Science.gov (United States)

The recent discovery of a geographically dispersed clonal group of Escherichia coli O4:H5 that includes prototypic uropathogenic strain J96 prompted us to determine the prevalence of J96-like strains within serogroup O4 and to further assess the characteristics of such strains. We used O:K:H;F serotyping, PCR-based genomic fingerprinting, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), multilocus enzyme electrophoresis (MLEE), and PCR detection of the three papG alleles and of the cytotoxic necrotizing factor 1 (cnf1) and aerobactin (aer) gene sequences to characterize the 15 O4 strains among 336 E. coli isolates from three clinical collections (187 from mixed-source bacteremia, 75 from urosepsis, and 74 from acute cystitis). J96-like strains constituted approximately half of the O4 strains, or 2% of the total population. In contrast to other O4 strains, the J96-like strains characteristically exhibited specific group III capsular antigens, the H5 flagellar and F13 fimbrial antigens, a distinctive PCR genomic fingerprint, the class III papG allele (plus, in 50% of strains, the enigmatic class I papG allele), and cnf1 but lacked aer. A subset of these strains was remarkably homogeneous with respect to all these characteristics and exhibited a distinctive PFGE fingerprint and MLEE pattern. These findings clarify the epidemiological relevance of J96 as a model extraintestinal pathogen, provide further evidence of the class I papG allele outside of strain J96, and offer insights into the evolution of E. coli serogroup O4.

Johnson, J R; Stapleton, A E; Russo, T A; Scheutz, F; Brown, J J; Maslow, J N

1997-01-01

330

Drugs obtained by biotechnology processing  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Nos últimos anos, tem aumentado exponencialmente o número de fármacos de origem biotecnológica ao dispor das mais diversas patologias, entre elas destacam-se, os diferentes tipos de cancêr, as doenças infecciosas (ex. vírus AIDS/HIV), as doenças autoimunes, as doenças cardiovasculares, a Diabetes Me [...] llitus, as doenças neurológicas, as doenças respiratórias, entre outras. A indústria farmacêutica tem recorrido a diferentes tecnologias para a obtenção de novos e promissores princípios ativos, como são exemplo a fermentação, a técnica de DNA Recombinante, a técnica de hidridoma, entre outras. A queda das patentes dos primeiros fármacos de origem biotecnológica e o consequente aparecimento dos produtos biossimilares têm colocado diferentes questões às autoridades de saúde mundiais, sobre a definição, enquadramento e exigências para a autorização de entrada no mercado deste tipo de produtos. Abstract in english In recent years, the number of drugs of biotechnological origin available for many different diseases has increased exponentially, including different types of cancer, diabetes mellitus, infectious diseases (e.g. AIDS Virus / HIV) as well as cardiovascular, neurological, respiratory, and autoimmune [...] diseases, among others. The pharmaceutical industry has used different technologies to obtain new and promising active ingredients, as exemplified by the fermentation technique, recombinant DNA technique and the hybridoma technique. The expiry of the patents of the first drugs of biotechnological origin and the consequent emergence of biosimilar products, have posed various questions to health authorities worldwide regarding the definition, framework, and requirements for authorization to market such products.

Hugo, Almeida; Maria Helena, Amaral; Paulo, Lobão.

331

Drugs obtained by biotechnology processing  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In recent years, the number of drugs of biotechnological origin available for many different diseases has increased exponentially, including different types of cancer, diabetes mellitus, infectious diseases (e.g. AIDS Virus / HIV as well as cardiovascular, neurological, respiratory, and autoimmune diseases, among others. The pharmaceutical industry has used different technologies to obtain new and promising active ingredients, as exemplified by the fermentation technique, recombinant DNA technique and the hybridoma technique. The expiry of the patents of the first drugs of biotechnological origin and the consequent emergence of biosimilar products, have posed various questions to health authorities worldwide regarding the definition, framework, and requirements for authorization to market such products.Nos últimos anos, tem aumentado exponencialmente o número de fármacos de origem biotecnológica ao dispor das mais diversas patologias, entre elas destacam-se, os diferentes tipos de cancêr, as doenças infecciosas (ex. vírus AIDS/HIV, as doenças autoimunes, as doenças cardiovasculares, a Diabetes Mellitus, as doenças neurológicas, as doenças respiratórias, entre outras. A indústria farmacêutica tem recorrido a diferentes tecnologias para a obtenção de novos e promissores princípios ativos, como são exemplo a fermentação, a técnica de DNA Recombinante, a técnica de hidridoma, entre outras. A queda das patentes dos primeiros fármacos de origem biotecnológica e o consequente aparecimento dos produtos biossimilares têm colocado diferentes questões às autoridades de saúde mundiais, sobre a definição, enquadramento e exigências para a autorização de entrada no mercado deste tipo de produtos.

Hugo Almeida

2011-06-01

332

Patterns of epithelial cell abnormalities in Pap smears and its clinicopathological and demographic association: a descriptive study from Visakhapatnam city, Andhra Pradesh, India  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Results: Among the 194 women, in 8 subjects, the smears collected were unsatisfactory for evaluation. Analysis was done in the remaining 186 subjects. Among the latter, in 83.9%, the smears were negative for intraepithelial lesions (NIEL and 16.1% revealed epithelial cell abnormalities (ECA. Among those with ECA, Atypical cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS was identified in 66.67%, Low grade squamous intraepithelial lesions(LSIL in 16.67%, Atypical squamous cells-cannot exclude HSIL (ASC-H and Atypical glandular cells-not otherwise specified (AGC-NOS in 6.67% each and High grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL in 3.33%. Epithelial cell abnormalities were more common in women in the age group of 30-60 years (80%, they were more common in those with age at marriage between 13-18 years (63.3% and in those with age at first child birth between 15-19 years (56.7%. Conclusions: Therefore there is a need for Pap screening at regular intervals through camp based approach in these populations to motivate the women, increase their awareness, ensure follow up and referral and timely intervention in appropriate cases. [Int J Res Med Sci 2014; 2(1.000: 300-305

A. Bhagya Lakshmi

2014-02-01

333

Ongoing Horizontal and Vertical Transmission of Virulence Genes and papA Alleles among Escherichia coli Blood Isolates from Patients with Diverse-Source Bacteremia  

Science.gov (United States)

The phylogenetic distributions of multiple putative virulence factors (VFs) and papA (P fimbrial structural subunit) alleles among 182 Escherichia coli blood isolates from patients with diverse-source bacteremia were defined. Phylogenetic correspondence among these strains, the E. coli Reference (ECOR) collection, and other collections of extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC) was assessed. Although among the 182 bacteremia isolates phylogenetic group B2 predominated, exhibited the greatest concentration of individual VFs, and contained the largest number of familiar virulent clones, other phylogenetic groups exhibited greater concentrations of certain VFs than did group B2 and included several additional virulent clones. Certain of the newly detected VF genes, e.g., fyuA (yersiniabactin; 76%) and focG (F1C fimbriae; 25%), were as prevalent or more prevalent than their more familiar traditional counterparts, e.g., iut (aerobactin; 57%) and sfaS (S fimbriae; 14%), thus possibly offering additional useful targets for preventive interventions. Considerable diversity of VF profiles was observed at every level within the phylogenetic tree, including even within individual lineages. This suggested that many different pathways can lead to extraintestinal virulence in E. coli and that the evolution of ExPEC, which involves extensive horizontal transmission of VFs and continuous remodeling of pathogenicity-associated islands, is a highly active, ongoing process.

Johnson, James R.; O'Bryan, Timothy T.; Kuskowski, Michael; Maslow, Joel N.

2001-01-01

334

Plasticity characteristic obtained by indentation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A dimensionless parameter ?H = ?p/?t (where ?p and ?t are the average values of plastic and total deformation of material on the contact area indenter-specimen) may be used as the plasticity characteristic of materials, which made it possible to characterize the plasticity of materials that are brittle in standard mechanical tests. ?H may be calculated from the values of microhardness HM, Young's modulus E and Poisson's ratio ?. In instrumented indentation the plasticity characteristic ?A = Ap/At (Ap and At are the work of plastic and total deformation during indentation) may be calculated. ?A ? ?H for materials with ?H > 0.5, i.e. for all metals and the majority of ceramic materials. In this case, the theoretical equation ?A ? ?H = 1-10.2 · (1 - ? - 2?2)(HM/E) is satisfied in experiments with the Berkovich indenter. The influence of the temperature and structural parameters (dislocation density and grain size including nanostructured materials) on ?H is discussed

2008-04-07

335

Performance of Various Testing Methodologies for Detection of Heteroresistant Vancomycin-Intermediate Staphylococcus aureus in Bloodstream Isolates?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The best screening method for detecting heteroresistant vancomycin-intermediate Staphylococcus aureus (hVISA) remains unclear. Using population analysis profiling utilizing the area under the concentration-time curve (PAP-AUC) as the gold standard, we screened 458 consecutive methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) bloodstream isolates to determine the most accurate and cost-effective testing strategy to detect the presence of heteroresistance. All isolates were also tested using the macrometh...

Hal, Sebastian J.; Wehrhahn, Michael C.; Barbagiannakos, Thelma; Mercer, Joanne; Chen, Dehua; Paterson, David L.; Gosbell, Iain B.

2011-01-01

336

Electrolytic Hydrogen obtaining by a photovoltaic source  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

At present, the developed countries allocate large funds for the financing of some global programs for fundamental and applicative research for development of hydrogen non-conventional production technologies. One of these technologies is the photo-assisted electrolysis. This technology is adopted in the research, which results are presented in this paper. The experimental model includes as basic equipment 100 W photovoltaic source, electrolysis battery press filter type, control unit of the electric energy discharged, accumulator, hydrogen storage unit. Five types of material have been tested for the electrolysis cell diaphragm: asbestos; Netrom- unwoven material from fibers of polypropylene; ion changing composite membrane - polysulfone support with an active layer of sulfonated poly-sulfone (PSS/PSJ) and poly-sulfone support with an active layer of sulfonated poly-eter cetone (SPEEK/PSf); ion-exchange membrane made from sulfonated poly-eter cetone (SPEEK). The graphics and results from the test system are presented. The analysis of the experimental results lead to the establishment of the optimal configuration of battery and of the operational conditions of the assembly. The experimental results give the opportunity to obtain electrolytic hydrogen with a photovoltaic source, in an efficient system, and promote the Romanian research at a level of a demonstrative installation

2005-06-08

337

High-grade cervical abnormalities and cervical cancer in women following a negative Pap smear with and without an endocervical component: A cohort study with 10 years of follow-up.  

Science.gov (United States)

The proportion of Pap smears containing an endocervical component (ECC) has been declining in Australia. Given that ECC negative (ECC-) smears may be associated with reduced sensitivity, we undertook a retrospective cohort study to estimate rates of histologically confirmed high-grade cervical abnormality (HGA) and cancer in women with negative Pap smears with and without an ECC. Women 18-69 years with at least two Pap smears between 1 January 2001 and 31 December 2010 with the first smear in that period (index smear) showing no abnormality were eligible. Follow-up ended at date of the first abnormal smear, date of histological diagnosis, date of hysterectomy, date of death, or 31 December 2010, whichever came first. ECC status was treated as a time varying exposure. Follow-up was split at each smear after the index smear. Poisson regression was used to estimate adjusted incidence rates and incidence rate ratios (IRR) by ECC status. The incidence rate of histologically confirmed HGA was significantly lower following ECC- smears than after ECC+ smears (adjusted IRR: 0.69, 95%Confidence Interval (CI) 0.62-0.77), particularly at older ages (interaction between ECC status and age, p?=?0.001). In contrast, the overall rate of invasive cancer was not significantly different after ECC- than after ECC+ smears (IRR: 1.27, 95%CI 0.90-1.77). In conclusion, women had a lower rate of confirmed HGA and no significant increase in the rate of invasive cervical cancer following ECC- smears. This study does not support differential (accelerated) follow-up in women with a negative smear without an endocervical component. PMID:24488882

Sultana, Farhana; English, Dallas R; Simpson, Julie A; Canfell, Karen; Gertig, Dorota M; Saville, Marion

2014-09-01

338

Validez del curetaje endocervical en la detección de lesiones no sospechadas durante el estudio colposcópico de pacientes con citología anormal escamosa Efficacy of endocervical curettage in colposcopic assessment of patients having abnormal squamous pap smear  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objetivo: el uso del curetaje endocervical (CEC durante la colposcopia está actualmente en medio de una importante controversia: se duda de su utilidad diagnóstica en las pacientes con sospecha de anormalidad escamosa en la citología cervicovaginal y el enfoque clásico del problema, compara el resultado del mismo contra el estudio histológico del cuello, utilizado por diversos autores, no ha ayudado a resolver el dilema. La presente investigación da un nuevo enfoque al incluir en el análisis la biopsia dirigida y orientado a la búsqueda de lesiones no sospechadas por el examinador, a fin de mejorar la seguridad del diagnóstico colposcópico. Metodología: se tomaron los datos de 306 mujeres con citología anormal escamosa y CEC durante el estudio colposcópico, el cual se comparó con el resultado histopatológico de la totalidad del cuello uterino en la búsqueda de lesiones no sospechadas en la biopsia dirigida y analizadas respecto a la satisfacción o no de la colposcopia y el resultado de la citología. Resultados: en general se encontraron valores de sensibilidad bajos, mientras que el valor predictivo negativo y la especificidad fueron altos. Conclusión: el CEC realizado bajo indicaciones precisas, de acuerdo al tipo de colposcopia y anormalidad citológica, es de utilidad y mejora la seguridad del diagnóstico coloscópico.Objective: using endocervical curettage during colposcopy is currently being questioned; its usefulness as a diagnostic tool in patients having suspected squamous changes in pap smear is controversial. The classical approach to this problem adopted by many authors has yielded little help; it consists of matching histological results from the cervix with the problem itself. The current research provides a new approach by including biopsy orientated towards searching for lesions which were not suspected during examination; this was aimed at trying to improve the safety of colposcopy when used as a diagnostic tool. Methodology: results from 306 women having abnormal pap smear and endocervical curettage during colposcopic evaluation were thus compared to histopathological results from cervical specimens in the search for non-suspicious lesions during guided biopsy and analysed according to colposcopy and pap smear results. Results: overall, sensitivity was low while specificity and negative predictive values were high. Conclusion: the outcomes led to the conclusion that endocervical curettage performed in line with strict indications, according to the type of colposcopy and pap smear abnormality, is of great help and improves the safety of colposcopic diagnosis.

Antonio González-Mazuelo

2006-09-01

339

Hydrological processes obtained on the plot scale under four simulated rainfall tests during the cycle of different crop systems / Processos hidrológicos obtidos em escala de parcela sob quatro testes de chuva simulada, durante o ciclo de diferentes sistemas de cultivo do solo  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O sistema de cultivo influencia a interceptação de água pelas plantas, a armazenagem de água nas depressões do terreno, a infiltração de água no solo e o escoamento superficial. Este trabalho objetivou quantificar alguns processos hidrológicos em sistemas de cultivo do solo realizados em contorno no [...] declive, em 2009 e 2010, em um Cambissolo Húmico alumínico, cuja área foi mantida sem preparo prévio do solo, nos seguintes tratamentos: solteiros - milho, soja e feijão; e consorciados - milho e feijão. Os tratamentos foram submetidos a quatro testes de chuva simulada, em épocas distintas, com intensidade planejada de 64 mm h-1 e duração de 90 min. O primeiro teste foi aplicado 18 dias após a semeadura e, os demais, aos 39, 75 e 120 dias, após o primeiro. Os diferentes momentos de aplicação das chuvas e os diferentes estádios do ciclo das culturas influenciaram o teor de água no solo antecedente às chuvas, o tempo de início e o de pico da enxurrada e, com isso, os processos hidrológicos de superfície. A lâmina de enxurrada e a de água interceptada pela vegetação + infiltrada no solo + armazenada superficialmente no solo sofreram a influência dos sistemas de cultivo e das chuvas aplicadas nas diferentes épocas. O cultivo de milho foi o tratamento mais eficaz no controle do escoamento superficial, com uma razão de perda de água de 0,38, equivalente a 75 % da razão de perda de água apresentada pelo feijão (0,51), que foi o tratamento menos eficaz em relação aos demais sistemas de cultivo. A perda total de água na forma de enxurrada decresceu linearmente com o aumento do tempo de início da enxurrada, independentemente do tratamento, enquanto o teor de água no solo em base gravimétrica aumentou linearmente do início ao final da chuva. Abstract in english The cropping system influences the interception of water by plants, water storage in depressions on the soil surface, water infiltration into the soil and runoff. The aim of this study was to quantify some hydrological processes under no tillage cropping systems at the edge of a slope, in 2009 and 2 [...] 010, in a Humic Dystrudept soil, with the following treatments: corn, soybeans, and common beans alone; and intercropped corn and common bean. Treatments consisted of four simulated rainfall tests at different times, with a planned intensity of 64 mm h-1 and 90 min duration. The first test was applied 18 days after sowing, and the others at 39, 75 and 120 days after the first test. Different times of the simulated rainfall and stages of the crop cycle affected soil water content prior to the rain, and the time runoff began and its peak flow and, thus, the surface hydrological processes. The depth of the runoff and the depth of the water intercepted by the crop + soil infiltration + soil surface storage were affected by the crop systems and the rainfall applied at different times. The corn crop was the most effective treatment for controlling runoff, with a water loss ratio of 0.38, equivalent to 75 % of the water loss ratio exhibited by common bean (0.51), the least effective treatment in relation to the others. Total water loss by runoff decreased linearly with an increase in the time that runoff began, regardless of the treatment; however, soil water content on the gravimetric basis increased linearly from the beginning to the end of the rainfall.

Ildegardis, Bertol; Roger Robert, Ramos; Fabrício Tondello, Barbosa; Julio César, Ramos; Douglas Henrique, Bandeira; Mitsui Shinosaka, Tanaka.

340

Rationalisation of iron ore mixtures for obtaining optimum quality sinters  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Various iron ores, fluxes and coke, were used to prepare four ore mixtures with different proportions of these minerals. With each mixtures a series of sinters were produced in the pilot plant. Each one of the sinters was characterised by: chemical and granulometric analysis; degradation test on the sinter during reduction in the blast furnace, (RDI test); cold resistance test, (Tumbler Test); reducibility test; determining of softening and melting temperatures; and the determination of the structure of the sinter by electron microscopy. T he conditions of the mixtures and the operational parameters for obtaining the optimum quality of the sinters were established. (Author) 52 refs

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
341

Equilibration of (3H)glucosamine and (35S)sulfate with intracellular pools of UDP-N-acetylhexosamine and 3'-phosphoadenosine-5'-phosphosulfate (PAPS) in cultured fibroblasts  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Nucleotides and sugar nucleotides were extracted from cultures of human fibroblasts with perchloric acid, separated by isotachophoresis, and quantified by uv absorption analysis at 254 nm. ATP (936 pmol/micrograms DNA) was, as expected, the dominating nucleotide pool. The energy charge was estimated to 0.9. The UDP-N-acetylhexosamine pool was also a very prominent compound (596 pmol/micrograms DNA). After incubation of fibroblasts with (3H)glucosamine, more than 95% of the acid-soluble radioactivity was found in the UDP-N-acetylhexosamine pool. Incubation with (35S)sulfate resulted in the incorporation of (35S)sulfate into 3'-phosphoadenosine-5'-phosphosulfate (PAPS). The latter could, however, only be measured as radioactivity, as the amount was too small to be quantified as total mass. Pulse-labeling of fibroblasts with (35S)sulfate and (3H)glucosamine from 5 min to 16 h showed that (35S)PAPS was equilibrated in less than 10 min, while (3H)glucosamine required a longer time, 2-4 h, to attain a steady state with UDP-N-acetylhexosamine. (14C)Glucose required approximately the same time as (3H)glucosamine to reach steady state with UDP-acetylhexosamine, which suggests that the reason for the long equilibration time is the slow turnover of this pool.

Eriksson, G.; Saernstrand, B.; Malmstroem, A.

1984-12-01

342

Bainite obtaining in cast iron with carbides castings  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In these paper the possibility of upper and lower bainite obtaining in cast iron with carbides castings are presented. Conditions, when in cast iron with carbides castings during continuous free air cooling austenite transformation to upper bainite or its mixture with lower bainte proceeds, have been given. A mechanism of this transformation has been given, Si, Ni, Mn and Mo distribution in the eutectic cell has been tested and hardness of tested castings has been determined.

S. Pietrowski

2010-01-01

343

DEVELOPMENT OF TECHNOLOGY FOR OBTAINING MODIFIED LECITHIN ?????????? ?????????? ????????? ???????????????? ?????????  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The necessity of developing the technology for production of modified lecithin has been presented in this article. Paramethes of obtaining lecithin with a high content of functional groups of the phospholipids has been shown. The basic directions of use of the obtained modified lecithin has been discussed

Belina N. N.

2013-09-01

344

Method of Obtaining Thermally Stable Materials.  

Science.gov (United States)

The object of the invention is a method of obtaining heat-resistant materials on the basis of a union of polymers with metallic fillers. For the purpose of obtaining materials with improved heat resistance and mechanical strength, different dispersion met...

L. V. Pevzner M. S. Akutin

1965-01-01

345

Bismuth titanate ceramics obtained by hot forging  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this work, bismuth titanate samples were obtained from powder calcined at 800 deg C for 24 h through conventional sintering (OF) and hot-forging (HF) methods. The plate-like morphology grains were observed in ceramics obtained in both process. Samples produced by HF showed higher grain orientation, ? 90%. (author)

1997-06-03

346

Ready Reference. How To Obtain an ISBN; How To Obtain an ISSN; How To Obtain an SAN.  

Science.gov (United States)

These three articles describe ISBNs (International Standard Book Numbers); ISSNs (International Standard Serial Numbers); and SANs (Standard Address Numbers), for organizations served by the book industry; and explains how to apply to obtain the appropriate numbers. (LRW)

Koltay, Emery

2003-01-01

347

Identification of pathogens and virulence profile of Rhodococcus equi and Escherichia coli strains obtained from sand of parks.  

Science.gov (United States)

The identification of pathogens of viral (Rotavirus, Coronavirus), parasitic (Toxocara spp.) and bacterial (Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp., Rhodococcus equi) origin shed in feces, and the virulence profile of R. equi and E. coli isolates were investigated in 200 samples of sand obtained from 40 parks, located in central region of state of Sao Paulo, Brazil, using different diagnostic methods. From 200 samples analyzed, 23 (11.5%) strains of R. equi were isolated. None of the R. equi isolates showed a virulent (vapA gene) or intermediately virulent (vapB gene) profiles. Sixty-three (31.5%) strains of E. coli were identified. The following genes encoding virulence factors were identified in E. coli: eae, bfp, saa, iucD, papGI, sfa and hly. Phylogenetic classification showed that 63 E. coli isolates belonged to groups B1 (52.4%), A (25.4%) and B2 (22.2%). No E. coli serotype O157:H7 was identified. Eggs of Toxocara sp. were found in three parks and genetic material of bovine Coronavirus was identified in one sample of one park. No Salmonella spp. and Rotavirus isolates were identified in the samples of sand. The presence of R. equi, Toxocara sp, bovine Coronavirus and virulent E. coli isolates in the environment of parks indicates that the sanitary conditions of the sand should be improved in order to reduce the risks of fecal transmission of pathogens of zoonotic potential to humans in these places. PMID:24294244

Fernandes, M C; Takai, S; Leite, D S; Pinto, J P A N; Brandão, P E; Santarém, V A; Listoni, F J P; Da Silva, A V; Ribeiro, M G

2013-01-01

348

Obtaining parental consent--opting in or opting out?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In a population based project aimed at identifying children with specified disabilities within a health region, there was, rightly, concern about the transfer of data on named children across health district boundaries. Two methods of obtaining parental consent for this process were tested. High recruitment rates were achieved using an 'opting out' approach.

Mutch, L.; King, R.

1985-01-01

349

Treatment of biomass to obtain ethanol  

Science.gov (United States)

Ethanol was produced using biocatalysts that are able to ferment sugars derived from treated biomass. Sugars were obtained by pretreating biomass under conditions of high solids and low ammonia concentration, followed by saccharification.

Dunson, Jr., James B. (Newark, DE); Elander, Richard T. (Evergreen, CO); Tucker, III, Melvin P. (Lakewood, CO); Hennessey, Susan Marie (Avondale, PA)

2011-08-16

350

Method of Obtaining Antifrothing Aqueous Polyorganosiloxane Emulsions.  

Science.gov (United States)

A method is described of obtaining antifrothing, aqueous polyorganosiloxane emulsions by means of mixing polyorgraosiloxane with 'Aerosil' under heating, followed by cooling and the addition of an aqueous solution of an emulsifier under mixing. In order t...

L. A. Maii L. Y. Pevzner M. Z. Kristapsons R. A. Ziemele Y. Y. Laukevitis

1971-01-01

351

Obtainment and characterization of lanthanides at IPEN  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

At IPEN-CNEN/SP, fractionation of rare earths aiming to obtain high purity lanthanides is carried out. The initial raw material is a rare earth concentrate in the form of chloride mixture, obtained from industrialization of monazites or from some fractions previously enriched in determined lanthanides provided by Nuclemon - S.P. The previous enrichment by conventional methods, such as oxidative separation of cerium and fractionation of some groups by basicity difference using alkaline agents as sodium and ammonium hydroxides, as well as the technique of homogeneous precipitation with urea and, also the initial fractionation by solvent extraction, is done. Obtained the first concentrate fractions in some rare earths, the technique of ion exchange with strong cation resin for obtaining high purity lanthanides, is applied. The analytical processes using several techniques are established. (M.C.K.)

1988-01-01

352

Earth Models Obtained by Monte Carlo Inversion.  

Science.gov (United States)

The problem of uniqueness of earth structures obtained by the inversion of geophysical data is still unsolved. Monte Carlo methods offer the advantage of exploring the range of possible solutions and indicate the degree of uniqueness achievable with curre...

F. Press

1968-01-01

353

Gravity Data Obtained During Chain Cruise 73.  

Science.gov (United States)

Profiles, tabulations, and charts are presented of principal gravity facts, free-air gravity anomalies, and simple Bouguer gravity anomalies obtained in the western North Atlantic Ocean during R/V CHAIN Cruise 73. (Author)

C. Bowin T. C. Aldrich

1969-01-01

354

Superconductive Ceramics Obtained with Sol Gel Method.  

Science.gov (United States)

Several sol gel routes have been considered, studied and developed to produce large quantities of granulates which can be processed to obtain ceramics having good superconducting characteristics. In the considered process a mixture of commercial nitrates ...

A. Arcangeli A. Mosci A. Nardi R. Vatteroni C. Zondini

1988-01-01

355

Obtaining of polycrystalline silicon for semiconductor industry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of the project is to create pilot equipment and optimize the process of obtaining polycrystalline silicon on semi-industrial level. In the past several decades, the historical experience in the developing countries has shown that one of the most promising ways to improve the economy,of a country is to establish semiconductor industry. First of all, the results can help increase defense, national security and create industrial production. The silane method, which has been traditionally' used for obtaining technical and polycrystalline silicon, is to obtain and then to pyrolyzed mono-and poly silanes. Although the traditional methods of obtaining silicon hydrides have specific advantages, such as utilizing by-products, they also have clear shortcomings, i.e. either low output of the ultimate product ( through hydrolysis of Mg2Si) or high contents of by-products in it or high contents of dissolving vapors (through decomposing Mg2Si in non-water solutions)

1996-10-22

356

Obtaining useful information from expert based sources.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Clinicians rely heavily on expert based systems-consultation with colleagues, journal reviews and textbooks, and continuing education activities-to obtain new information. The usefulness of sources such as these depends on the relevance and validity of the information and the work it takes to obtain it. Useful information can be distinguished from the useless by asking three questions: Does the information focus on an outcome that my patients care about? Is the issue common to my practice, an...

Slawson, D. C.; Shaughnessy, A. F.

1997-01-01

357

Point-of-care testing at the millennium.  

Science.gov (United States)

Point-of-care testing (POCT) is a major force in the future evolution of hospital care, with prospects for even greater expansion of accessibility, speed, and also, hopefully, accuracy of results. New developments in POCT technology will predictably occur in three areas: connectivity, test menu expansion, and noninvasiveness. Connectivity for POCT devices has evolved from point-of-service workstations to standardized POCT data transmission protocols to remote roaming wireless connectivity with automatic data capture. POCT test menus will continue to expand, with more coagulation testing, chemistries, and infectious screening, but also on-site drug screening, intraoperative hormone levels, and microchip DNA diagnostics. Noninvasive POCT will expand beyond the GlucoWatch glucose monitor and the Bilichek noninvasive bilirubin monitor to noninvasive CBCs and Pap smears. PMID:11868693

Bissell, M

2001-05-01

358

Carga viral do papilomavirus humano na predição da gravidade de lesões cervicais em mulheres com atipias celulares na colpocitologia oncológica / Viral load of human papillomavirus as a predictor of the severity of cervical lesions in women with atypical cells at pap smear  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: avaliar o desempenho da carga viral do HPV por captura de híbridos II (CHII) na predição da gravidade das lesões cervicais. MÉTODOS: foram incluídas 309 mulheres admitidas por resultado anormal da colpocitologia oncológica (CO) entre agosto de 200 e novembro de 2002. Todas foram submetidas [...] a avaliação histológica, sendo que a presença de neoplasia intra-epitelial cervical (NIC) grau 2 ou mais (NIC 3, carcinoma invasor) foi consid